Education Native American Studies
by
Tiffany Lee, Lloyd Lee, Myla Vicenti Carpio
  • LAST MODIFIED: 27 May 2020
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199756810-0251

Introduction

While Indigenous knowledge systems, theories, and research have been in existence for time immemorial, the academic field of Native American Studies (NAS) grew out of the civil rights era in the late 1960s. During the late 1960s and throughout the 1970s, Native people in the United States organized resistance efforts, such as the reclaiming of Alcatraz Island in 1969, the 1972 Trail of Broken Treaties march to Washington, DC, and the seventy-two-day protest and prayer at Wounded Knee in 1973. These activities are a few of the most well known, yet Native peoples have been resisting occupation of their lands, assimilationist forces, and settler colonialism and reclaiming land for decades. Activist groups such as the American Indian Movement organized many of these efforts, and with the increase of Native American students entering college during this time period, the level of activism and public awareness aligned with students’ demands for Native knowledge, perspectives, and experiences to be included in college courses. They also challenged universities to hire more Native American faculty. NAS in universities came out of these efforts, and academic programs were created from the West Coast to the East Coast in several universities. NAS draws on interdisciplinary perspectives from areas such as history, political science, anthropology, sociology, and education to examine the historical and modern issues faced by Native American and other Indigenous people and communities globally. This interdisciplinary approach allows scholars of NAS to examine the complexities and breadth of interests and problems in Native American communities. Of particular significance is the understanding and exercise of political sovereignty among Native Nations, which sets NAS apart from other ethnic-studies areas. Sovereignty is the right of a people to self-governance and self-determination. This includes rights to self-education and linguistic and cultural expression. Native Nations’ inherent sovereignty was recognized during treaty negotiations and agreements, and it has provided the basis for policies affecting Native communities today. This article recognizes the diverse areas of study that encompass NAS, including important areas connected to Native Nations’ application of their sovereign rights. The article identifies twelve subject areas that have prominence in scholarship that informs NAS. It also prioritizes scholarship by Indigenous authors, who provide the perspectives and lived experiences relevant to NAS.

History / General Overview

While America Indian history can parallel the chronology of American history, the history and experiences of over five hundred nations means that American Indian history has its own perspectives, framework, and chronology. In this section, two extensive surveys provide a chronological overview of American Indian history, and the remainder narrows to specific tribal or policy histories. Calloway 2016 provides a survey of American Indian history and policy periods into chronological structure from pre-European invasion into the 21th century, with relevant documents. Dunbar-Ortiz 2014 contextualizes US history from an Indigenous perspective, giving a more critical understanding of American Indian history. Together, Colin Calloway and Roxanne Dunbar-Ortiz present the broader understanding of the policies, legislation, and perspectives of American Indian history. Bringing together Native historians writing from a more nation/community-centered perspective, Miller and Riding In 2011 illustrates the importance that Native perspectives and strategic conceptional frameworks bring to American Indian history as a field. The remainder of the books presents more-specific histories on tribal nations. American Indian nations and thus their histories have shared encounters and confrontation with colonialism and settler colonialism, initially with European and then later with American policies, people, and ideologies, yet the experiences, resistance, and circumstances of each nation may differ widely. Therefore, the tribal histories demonstrate the diversity of the experiences and outcomes each nation had, as well as share a use of Native voices and perspectives. Bates 2016 focuses on a much-ignored region, the Southeast, allowing each of the contributors to tell their story. Bauer 2016, Denetdale 2007, and Shepherd 2010 focus on the Southwest and California, not only covering more-complete tribal histories but addressing various issues such as policies, leadership, cultural revitalization, and economic development.

  • Bates, Denise E., ed. 2016. We will always be here: Native peoples on living and thriving in the South. Gainesville: Univ. Press of Florida.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    American Indians in the Southeast generally remain an invisible population, with most regional scholarship on African America and Anglo populations. In this collection, Bates brings together a collection of voices, modern leaders, educators, and activists who speak to their experiences being native in the Southeast. The contributors address larger experiences and struggles such as sovereignty, cultural restoration, education, economic development, and identity politics.

    Find this resource:

  • Bauer, William J., Jr. 2016. California through native eyes: Reclaiming history. Seattle: Univ. of Washington Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Utilizing oral histories of the Concow, Pomo, and Paiute workers as a part of the New Deal federal works projects, this book provides a challenging, layered history of California through the perspectives and experiences of the Native peoples.

    Find this resource:

  • Calloway, Colin G. 2016. First peoples: A documentary survey of American Indian history. 5th ed. Boston: Bedford / St. Martin’s.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This book is an overview of American Indian history and policy periods, using documents. Chapters provide a general essay and documents that could be used for discussion.

    Find this resource:

  • Denetdale, Jennifer Nez. 2007. Reclaiming Diné history: The legacies of Navajo chief Manuelito and Juanita. Tucson: Univ. of Arizona Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This book revisits the history of Chief Manuelito at different points to reexamine Diné history and provide a critical analysis of existing literature on Diné history. Denetdale includes Juanita, Manuelito’s wife, bringing a broader understanding of gender, leadership, culture, and family life.

    Find this resource:

  • Dunbar-Ortiz, Roxanne. 2014. An Indigenous peoples’ history of the United States. Boston: Beacon.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This book is a “history of the United States told from the perspective of Indigenous peoples.” Its thematic structure challenges the founding myth of the United States by highlighting the complexity of Indigenous societies, shows how colonists’ policy was designed to seize the Indigenous territories and displace or eliminate Indigenous peoples, and entwines Indigenous resistance to the expansion of the US empire.

    Find this resource:

  • Miller, Susan A., and James Riding In. 2011. Native historians write back: Decolonizing American Indian history. Lubbock: Texas Tech Univ. Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    An anthology of historical articles by Indigenous scholars, whose articles are challenging colonial thought, affirming Indigenous historical narrative, and asserting the history of dispossession. Each author writes on his or her own tribal histories, presenting unique perspectives and unifying concepts that demonstrate a decolonizing American Indian history.

    Find this resource:

  • Shepherd, Jeffrey P. 2010. We are an Indian nation: A history of the Hualapai people. First Peoples: New Directions in Indigenous Studies. Tucson: Univ. of Arizona Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Shepherd provides a history of the Hualapai Nation in Arizona, covering the 19th and 20th centuries. The book extends into nation-building, economic development, land protections, and cultural identity and protections, which have mostly involved challenges at national, state, and local levels. Shepherd draws from archival research and interviews of Hualapai community members to also provide a Hualapai understanding of their history and nationhood.

    Find this resource:

The Study of Native American Studies

NAS has been growing as a discipline for decades. Deloria 1988 is by Vine Deloria Jr., cited as one of the first Indigenous scholars to publish extensively on the topic of NAS, and his book is referenced as a foundational book in this respect. Cook-Lynn 1997 provides an important critique that reinforces the significance of NAS as an academic discipline unto its own. Since the late 20th century, Indigenous scholars have published numerous articles and books theorizing NAS. Simpson and Smith 2014 asserts the critical importance of theoretical development and acknowledgment of Indigenous knowledge systems as theory relevant to Native peoples. Grande 2015 also calls for the advancement of critical educational theory in terms of its relevancy to Indigenous communities and people. Additionally, NAS scholars have addressed specific ideas and methods important in the growth of NAS as a discipline. Nakata, et al. 2012 and Kidwell 2009 provide important analyses of the pedagogy in NAS as it is situated within Western academies. Finally, Dunbar-Ortiz and Gilio-Whitaker 2016 examines the origins of myths and falsities about Native Americans and deconstructs them as examples of efforts at erasing Native people’s existence and ties to the land.

  • Cook-Lynn, Elizabeth. 1997. Who stole Native American studies? Wicazo Sa Review 12.1: 9–28.

    DOI: 10.2307/1409161Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    In this essay, Cook-Lynn critiques the academy for the discrediting of Native American scholars and NAS as an academic discipline and for its co-optation into other academic areas of less relevance. She argues that NAS needs autonomy, internal organization, development of its own methodologies, and consensual communication across NAS programs nationally so that a unified, essential core curriculum is its focus.

    Find this resource:

  • Deloria, Vine, Jr. 1988. Custer died for your sins: An Indian manifesto. Norman: Univ. of Oklahoma Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    In an iconic book for the field of NAS, Deloria writes with wit and sarcasm to challenge mainstream perspectives of Native American people. The first edition was written in 1969, and a later printing with a new preface was published in 1988. Deloria confronts topics related to research and social science, religion, federal bureaucracies, and race relations. It is one of the foundational books from which NAS as an academic discipline derived.

    Find this resource:

  • Dunbar-Ortiz, Roxanne, and Dina Gilio-Whitaker. 2016. “All the real Indians died off” and 20 other myths about Native Americans. Boston: Beacon.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This book provides short, jargon-free chapters that confront, disrupt, and challenge twenty myths and stereotypes about Native American people, history, and cultures. The authors dismantle the myths by tracking how they evolved in history. They write from their underlying argument that these myths are founded on racism, fear, and prejudice from the settler state and setter colonialists who desired Native land and Native erasure.

    Find this resource:

  • Grande, Sandy. 2015. Red pedagogy: Native American social and political thought. 10th-anniversary ed. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Grande provides an intellectually invigorating discussion and analysis of critical educational theory and the intersecting influences of the social, historical, and political context of Native American education and communities. Originally published in 2004, this second edition includes reflections from Indigenous scholars after each section. Grande asserts the need for critical education theory to develop its relevancy for Indigenous peoples.

    Find this resource:

  • Kidwell, Clara Sue. 2009. American Indian studies: Intellectual navel gazing or academic discipline? American Indian Quarterly 33.1: 1–17.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    In this article, Kidwell provides an important historical context for the development of NAS as an academic discipline. She describes academic traditions and posits the growth of NAS out of political activism and a growing body of native scholars working to define and deliver the discipline. She examines key intellectual premises that are the subject for scholarly debate, while also arguing that this work serves the interests of Native communities.

    Find this resource:

  • Meyers, Richard. 2016. Who stole Native American studies II: The need for an AIS redux in an age of redskin debate and debacle. Wicazo Sa Review 31.1: 132–144.

    DOI: 10.5749/wicazosareview.31.1.0132Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Meyers revisits Cook-Lynn 1997 by examining impediments that have prohibited significant growth of NAS nationally. Meyers explores the influence of Cook-Lynn’s essay with a review of current research that builds from her seminal essay and that addresses modern problems and issues in NAS. He concludes with his review of the progress that South Dakota State University has made in their development of NAS as an academic discipline.

    Find this resource:

  • Nakata, Martin, Victoria Nakata, Sarah Keech, and Reuben Bolt. 2012. Decolonial goals and pedagogies for Indigenous studies. Decolonization: Indigeneity, Education & Society 1.1: 120–140.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Nakata and colleagues provide an internal reflection and critique of Indigenous studies, its priorities in decolonization, its pedagogical approach, and the challenges of meeting its educational goals for its students. They argue for stimulating students’ open-mindedness to learn beyond simplistic notions of decolonization of Western knowledge. Open-minded thinking can influence more-productive ways of addressing the complex issues faced by Indigenous peoples.

    Find this resource:

  • Simpson, Audra, and Andrea Smith, eds. 2014. Theorizing Native Studies. Durham, NC: Duke Univ. Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The authors in this edited book argue for the critical value of theoretical development in NAS. They also acknowledge the theoretical work already present among Native communities, activists, and other areas outside the academy. The chapters position the importance of theory as a way to dismantle and decolonize the settler state and its oppression of Native peoples.

    Find this resource:

Sovereignty/Self-Determination

Native Nations in North America and the Western hemisphere are exercising sovereignty and self-determination. The analysis of both concepts is core to NAS and all Native peoples because of the effort and work to maintain and sustain a distinctive identity and way of life. Wilkins and Lomawaima 2001 and Deloria and Lytle 1998 examine US federal concepts such as the doctrine of discovery, plenary power, tribal-state relations, and the meaning of American Indian self-determination. Wilkins 2009 features a variety of primary-source documents on how Native peoples exercise self-determination. Morris, et al. 2011 shows how American Indian initiatives are following a path of self-determination in the political, economic, educational, social, cultural, and psychological arenas. In Barker 2005, the chapters focus on the significance of sovereignty for various Native American communities at the end of the 20th and early 21st centuries. Each Native Nation and community is pursuing sovereignty through self-determination path. In Lerma 2014, the author analyzes how the conception of sovereignty from a traditional and Native-centered philosophy is challenging what sovereignty and economic development means for Native Nations in the 21st century. Each specific Native Nation is dealing with issues affecting how their sovereignty is exercised and the meaning of self-determination. In Estes 2019, the author discusses the Standing Rock Sioux’s resistance to the Dakota Access Pipeline, and how Indigenous peoples are exercising sovereignty and self-determination. The resistance is an example of protecting sovereignty and self-determination.

  • Barker, Joanne, ed. 2005. Sovereignty matters: Locations of contestation and possibility in Indigenous struggles for self-determination. Lincoln: Univ. of Nebraska Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    An anthology of Indigenous scholars on the concept of sovereignty. The focus is on the significance of sovereignty for Indigenous peoples in the Americas.

    Find this resource:

  • Deloria, Vine, Jr., and Clifford M. Lytle. 1998. The nations within: The past and future of American Indian sovereignty. Austin: Univ. of Texas Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This book focuses on American Indian self-rule. It also examines the relationship history of American Indians, federal, and state governments.

    Find this resource:

  • Estes, Nick. 2019. Our history is the future: Standing Rock versus the Dakota Access Pipeline, and the long tradition of Indigenous resistance. Brooklyn, NY: Verso Books.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This book is a history of resistance. The Oceti Sakowin fight to protect their land, identity, and way of life against the Dakota Access Pipeline (DAPL) at Standing Rock. Their story is a continued fight against land dispossession and colonization. Numerous Indigenous peoples from across all of the Western Hemisphere came to Standing Rock to stand with the people to protect the land. The people’s resistance is an example of past, present, and future ways to maintain, sustain, and protect sovereignty and self-determination.

    Find this resource:

  • Lerma, Michael. 2014. Indigenous sovereignty in the 21st century: Knowledge for the Indigenous spring. Gainesville: Florida Academic Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This book provides a historical overview of how US federal Indian law and policies, including Supreme Court cases, have affected Indigenous sovereignty. The author describes how the US federal government’s approach to Indigenous sovereignty upholds the national government’s supremacy. At the same time, Indigenous peoples continue to dialogue and exercise traditional governance practices and work to apply them in the present.

    Find this resource:

  • Morris, Barbara, Stephen M. Sachs, and LaDonna Harris. 2011. Re-creating the circle: The renewal of American Indian self-determination. Albuquerque: Univ. of New Mexico Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This book interweaves complex historical, political, and cultural information with real-life examples to create an understanding of how Native Nations and Indigenous peoples can exercise self-determination. It addresses ways that Native Nations and Indigenous peoples can return to traditional principles to continue positive development. The book shows that Native elements such as consensus decision-making, individual autonomy, and respect are crucial to regaining successful self-determination in the 21st century.

    Find this resource:

  • Wilkins, David E. 2009. Documents of Native American political development: 1500s to 1933. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This book features a variety of primary source documents—traditional accounts, tribal constitutions, legal codes, business council rules and regulations, Bureau of Indian Affairs agents’ reports, congressional discourse, and intertribal compacts—written both by Natives and nonNatives, reflecting how Indigenous peoples continue to exercise self-determination.

    Find this resource:

  • Wilkins, David E., and K. Tsianina Lomawaima. 2001. Uneven ground: American Indian sovereignty and federal law. Norman: Univ. of Oklahoma Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Native American perspectives on tribal debates with the US government, discussing the doctrine of discovery, plenary power, tribal-state relations, and other related topics.

    Find this resource:

Methodologies

The selected books address two important areas of methodological considerations in NAS. First, the authors articulate definitions, perspectives, and philosophies behind what are Indigenous methodologies. Second, the authors assert decolonized and Indigenous culturally appropriate and values-based approaches to apply within various academic fields. Integrated into each of these texts are important critiques of Western and positivist approaches in research with or on Indigenous peoples. Kovach 2009, Wilson 2008, and Windchief and San Pedro 2019 position Indigenous research methodologies as relational and connected to storytelling and storying. They assert the significance of recognizing Indigenous methodologies as context centered within particular Indigenous communities’ values, practices, and cultural worldviews. Smith 2012 is considered one of the foundational works for understanding how to decolonize research with Indigenous peoples. This seminal piece offers a history of imperialistic research practices used on Indigenous peoples and ends with community-based practices that dismantle such previous practices while respecting and holding up Indigenous knowledge and research methods. Strega and Brown 2015 provides a comprehensive overview of anti-oppressive methodologies, which resonates with other selected texts’ discussion of decolonizing research. The authors address a variety of research methods from a critical, resistance-based lens. The final selections apply an Indigenous-centered focus in research to a diversity of academic fields. Lambert 2014 and Mertens, et al. 2013 examine research in behavioral and social sciences. They offer storytelling as an effective approach for understanding the lived experiences of researchers and participants in research. Walter and Andersen 2013 provides an insightful analysis of quantitative research methods that position Indigenous peoples in deficit-oriented ways. The authors provide guidance for deconstructing such research. Finally, Kimmerer 2014 skillfully shares Indigenous ancestral knowledge of land, plants, and ecosystems and their interrelationships to all of life to inform and contest Western knowledge of the natural world.

  • Kimmerer, Robin. 2014. Braiding sweetgrass: Indigenous wisdom, scientific knowledge, and the teaching of plants. Minneapolis: Milkweed Editions.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Kimmerer writes in a narrative, personal style to address both the connections and clashes between Western scientific theories and practices and Indigenous ecological knowledge. She uses a storytelling approach to help readers connect to, value, and understand human beings’ interrelationship with the plant, animal, and natural world. Her work is a significant contribution to environmental humanities as well.

    Find this resource:

  • Kovach, Margaret. 2009. Indigenous methodologies: Characteristics, conversations, and contexts. Toronto: Univ. of Toronto Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    In an effort to characterize and define Indigenous methodologies, Kovach crucially situates the understanding and practice of such methodologies in specific Indigenous epistemologies and cultural contexts. She asserts that Indigenous methodologies are distinct because they come from Indigenous knowledge systems. She shares examples from several Indigenous researchers and from her own experience.

    Find this resource:

  • Lambert, Lori. 2014. Research for Indigenous survival: Indigenous research methodologies in the behavioral sciences. Pablo, MT: Salish Kootenai College Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Lambert asserts that stories and storytelling make up Indigenous research methodologies in that stories are rooted in observation and understanding Indigenous peoples’ experiences and analyses over time immemorial. She examines the challenges of using Western-based methodologies in the social and behavioral sciences with Indigenous people. In contrast, she offers perspectives of native peoples from four different communities to provide a conceptual framework for social, behavioral, and environmental researchers working with Indigenous peoples.

    Find this resource:

  • Mertens, Donna M., Fiona Cram, and Bagele Chilisa, eds. 2013. Indigenous pathways into social research: Voices of a new generation. New York: Routledge.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The editors of this volume share the life stories of Indigenous researchers involved in social research. Their perspectives and experiences provide insight into the complex issues that Indigenous researchers face in academia and in their own communities. Their stories provide valuable strategies and convey the critical importance of learning from their lived experiences for all researchers.

    Find this resource:

  • Smith, Linda. 2012. Decolonizing methodologies: Research and Indigenous peoples. 2d ed. New York: Zed Books.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    In this second edition of Smith’s book (first edition published in 1999), she spends Part 1 of the book tracing the complex connections among imperialism, writing, history, and theory to demonstrate how native peoples have been affected and oppressed by these systems of power. In Part 2, she articulates a decolonizing methodology that is rooted in one’s approach and processes that are in line with community and cultural protocols.

    Find this resource:

  • Strega, Susan, and Leslie Brown, eds. 2015. Research as resistance: Revisiting critical, Indigenous, and anti-oppressive approaches. 2d ed. Toronto: Canadian Scholars Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    In this second edition (first edition was published in 2005), the contributors extend their discussion of resistance-based methodologies through Indigenous, feminist, queer, insurgent, storytelling, anti-oppressive, and critical race scholarship. Authors explore a variety of methodologies rooted in their research, with an emphasis on social justice and liberation. Chapters provide both theoretical and practical applications and community-centered implementation.

    Find this resource:

  • Walter, Maggie, and Chris Andersen. 2013. Indigenous statistics: A quantitative research methodology. New York: Routledge.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Walter and Andersen offer an important critique of positivistic research methods, primarily using quantitative methods, with Indigenous peoples. They provide an important perspective of the deficit lens that persists in this type of research. They also provide a new paradigm and approach for applying quantitative methods for research on or with Indigenous peoples in ways that are responsible, ethical, accurate, and transparent.

    Find this resource:

  • Wilson, Shawn. 2008. Research is ceremony: Indigenous research methods. Winnipeg, MB: Fernwood.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Wilson demonstrates the importance of relationality for Indigenous research methods. Indigenous people and all of life are connected through relationships and create reality. He asserts that the development of research ideas, from methods to conclusions, is influenced and shaped by our relationships and are important for accountability in research. By acknowledging relationality in research, Wilson provides an important challenge to Western-based approaches.

    Find this resource:

  • Windchief, Sweeney, and Timothy San Pedro, eds. 2019. Applying Indigenous research methods: Storying with peoples and communities. New York: Routledge.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This book offers chapters by scholars in conversation with one another to discuss their definitions, approaches, and specific examples for conducting Indigenous-based research methodologies. Chapter authors represent various disciplines (e.g., Indigenous studies, education, social work), with a focus on how to conduct decolonizing, relevant, and beneficial research with Native peoples.

    Find this resource:

Language

Language change across Native American communities has been wide and deep over the last six hundred years. The selected works address this history of language shift and change, but they primarily focus on revitalization, since this is an important effort among many Native communities. House 2002 analyzes language shift among Navajo people. The author’s examination provides important insight into what many Native communities have experienced as a consequence of colonization and oppressive language policies. Cantoni 2007, a collection of papers, offers similar insights into the state of Indigenous languages, along with efforts at language maintenance and revitalization. Hinton, et al. 2018 and Coronel-Molina and McCarty 2016 provide a vast overview of language revitalization efforts across the Americas. Hermes, et al. 2012 and Meek 2010 demonstrate up-close looks at language revitalization, using technology and occurring within one Alaska Native community, respectively. Language change has included interesting developments in Indigenous youths’ communicative skills (Wyman, et al. 2013) and in the development of Native American English, a type of English largely influenced by Native languages in particular contexts. William Leap (Leap 1993) has been a leading author studying this type of Native American English. His book provides a linguistic analysis of English as influenced by over fifteen Native American languages. Meek 2006 provides significant scrutiny at how Native American English has been stereotyped and racialized in derogatory ways by the American mainstream popular culture.

  • Cantoni, Gina, ed. 2007. Stabilizing Indigenous languages. Flagstaff: Center for Excellence in Education, Northern Arizona Univ.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This volume is a compilation of chapters from the papers and presentations at the 1994 and 1995 symposia on stabilizing Indigenous languages. This manuscript includes topics related to the historical, early-21st-century, and projected status of Indigenous languages in the United States. It also includes chapters on the roles of families, communities, and schools in promoting Native language use, maintenance, and revitalization.

    Find this resource:

  • Coronel-Molina, Serafín M., and Teresa L. McCarty, eds. 2016. Indigenous language revitalization in the Americas. New York: Routledge.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This book examines the state of Indigenous language revitalization across North America. Chapters are organized in complementary style for the United States and Canada, and then for Latin America and the Caribbean. Authors include Indigenous and nonIndigenous scholars, whose writing is organized around seven themes: “Policy and Politics,” “Processes of Language Shift and Revitalization,” “The Home-School-Community Interface,” “Local and Global Perspectives,” “Linguistic Human Rights,” “Revitalization Programs and Impacts,” “and New Domains for Indigenous Languages.”

    Find this resource:

  • Hermes, Mary, Megan Bang, and Ananda Marin. 2012. Designing Indigenous language revitalization. Harvard Educational Review 82.3: 381–402.

    DOI: 10.17763/haer.82.3.q8117w861241871jSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The authors of this article consider the role of education in Indigenous language revitalization. Rooted in community-based research and collaboration, they analyze an interactive multimedia-materials project. They describe research for language revitalization that is designed to fit the needs of the Indigenous community.

    Find this resource:

  • Hinton, Leanne, Leena Huss, and Gerald Roche, eds. 2018. The Routledge handbook of language revitalization. New York: Routledge.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This handbook provides a global overview of language revitalization, of which Indigenous languages are prominently featured. Divided into two parts, the book covers theories and practices of language revitalization and then perspectives from diverse contexts, in an effort to unite and decolonize the approaches and viewpoints related to language rights, policy, education, methodologies, and documentation. Authors of the various chapters represent learners, linguists, curriculum writers, language center directors, and educators.

    Find this resource:

  • House, Deborah. 2002. Language shift among the Navajos: Identity politics and cultural continuity. Tucson: Univ. of Arizona Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    House provides a sociolinguistic analysis of the current state of Navajo language, on the basis of ten years of fieldwork and research. Language shift, where the first language of children shifts from Navajo to English, is predominant among Navajo families in the early 21st century due to generations. House critiques the influence of the dominant American society in instigating language change, and calls on Navajo communities to integrate their own philosophies and traditions to revitalize Navajo language.

    Find this resource:

  • Leap, William. 1993. American Indian English. Salt Lake City: Univ. of Utah Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This book shares research on community-based, spoken English shaped by American Indian culture, languages, and people. Leap calls this type of English “Indian English.” His research conveys the diversity of English codes among over fifteen Native American communities explored in this volume. The analysis includes description and commentary taken directly from experiences of speakers of “Indian English.” It provides an examination of this sociolinguistic environment that is not well researched in the field.

    Find this resource:

  • Meek, Barbara A. 2006. And the Injun goes “How!”: Representations of American Indian English in (white) public space. Language in Society 35.1: 93–128.

    DOI: 10.1017/S0047404506060040Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Meek provides an analysis of stereotypical, fictional Native American speech, often referred to as “Hollywood Injun English,” which is found in film, television, and literature. She argues that the nonstandard speech evokes connotations of “the White Man’s Indian,” replete with dysfluent speech forms that correspond to derogatory features of fictional representations of Native American people. Meek contends that this speech and its use in media perpetuate Native peoples’ otherness in popular American culture.

    Find this resource:

  • Meek, Barbara A. 2010. We are our language: An ethnography of language revitalization in a northern Athabaskan community. Tucson: Univ. of Arizona Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The author provides an up-close look at the sociolinguistic situation of the Athabascan language, Kaska. Using personal reflections and insights, she argues that language revitalization requires social and communal transformation to move forward from the impacts of colonization on this linguistic community. She addresses challenges faced by the community as a result of colonial oppression.

    Find this resource:

  • Wyman, Leisy, Teresa L. McCarty, and Sheilah Nicholas, eds. 2013. Indigenous youth and multilingualism: Language, identity, ideology, and practice in dynamic cultural worlds. New York: Routledge.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This book integrates youth studies and Indigenous language research across a wide diversity of sociocultural and linguistic settings. Chapters in the volume address issues related to Indigenous youth interactions, relations and negotiations with language identity and ideology, cultural conflict, and linguistic human rights. Notably, the book examines the considerable diversity of Indigenous youth communicative repertoires and bi/multilingualism and evokes important implications for addressing language decline.

    Find this resource:

Cultural Expressions

The selected texts are a microcosm of Native cultural expressions and ways of life. Several of the texts are films showing the visual, musical, and tangible means of Native cultural expressions in the late 20th and early 21st centuries. The director of Carr 2000 documents her niece going through her Navajo puberty ceremony, and what it means to her niece’s identity, way of life, and community. Stanton 2010 is also a film, where Inuit peoples in Alaska maintain and sustain their identity, way of life, and community through traditional games. Boccella Hartle 2006 explores how young Native people are expressing themselves and their strong Native ways in the 21st century. Garrod, et al. 2017 is an anthology in which several Native American students and graduates of Dartmouth College discuss their life stories and challenges to maintain their identity and cultural expressions. In Martinez 2010, the author shares what younger Native American students are dealing with in public education, including the challenges they face and how all the students are able to demonstrate their cultural expression and sustain their Native identity. Hirschfelder 1995 draws on written as well as oral histories, autobiographies, newspapers, government transcripts, journals, and other sources from over 120 narratives. Yazzie 2000 analyzes how culture and language play a role in education, and the challenges of incorporating cultural expressions into the person’s education.

  • Boccella Hartle, Mia, dir. 2006. When your hands are tied. Pittsburgh, PA: Boccella Productions.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    An educational film that explores the unique ways that young Native Americans are finding to express themselves in a modern world while maintaining strong traditional values.

    Find this resource:

  • Carr, Lena, dir. 2000. Kinaaldá: A Navajo rite of passage. Albuquerque, NM: KnM Graphix.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This film documents Navajo filmmaker Carr’s niece’s rite of passage. The rite of passage connects her niece to her Navajo community and culture.

    Find this resource:

  • Garrod, Andrew, Robert Kilkenny, and Melanie Benson Taylor, eds. 2017. Where I come from: Native American college students and graduates tell their life stories. Ithaca, NY: Cornell Univ. Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This anthology is an update to First Person, First Peoples. Native American college students and graduates from Dartmouth College share their life stories and experiences.

    Find this resource:

  • Hirschfelder, Arlene, ed. 1995. Native heritage: Personal accounts by American Indians, 1790 to the present. New York: Macmillan.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Over one hundred narratives from community and political leaders, storytellers, and well-known writers from various Native Nations. It draws from written and oral histories, autobiographies, newspapers, government transcripts, out-of-print journals, and many other sources.

    Find this resource:

  • Martinez, Glenabah. 2010. Native pride: The politics of curriculum and instruction in an urban public school. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This book examines the daily experiences of Native American youth in an urban, public high school in New Mexico.

    Find this resource:

  • Stanton, Jonathan, dir. 2010. Games of the North: Playing for survival. Lincoln, NE: Visionmaker.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This film focuses on Inuit games. For thousands of years, traditional Inuit sports have been vital for survival within the unforgiving Arctic. Acrobatic and explosive, these ancestral games evolved to strengthen mind, body, and spirit within the community. Following four modern Inuit athletes, they reveal their unique relationship to the games as they compete. As unprecedented change sweeps across their traditional lands, their stories illuminate the importance of the games in the early 21st century.

    Find this resource:

  • Yazzie, Tarajean. 2000. Holding a mirror to “Eyes Wide Shut”: The role of Native cultures and languages in the education of American Indian students. Washington, DC: US Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement, Educational Resources Information Center.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This article discusses the role that culture and language can play in American Indian education, as well as some challenges of incorporating American Indian culture in education.

    Find this resource:

Politics of Identity

The sources in this section examine specific Native Nation identity and enrollment, disenrollment, cultural appropriation, complexities in Native identity, and how Native people are sustaining a transnational existence. We start with an overview of Native American identity in Garroutte 2003. The author’s analysis of four primary Native American identity markers is a doorway. The complexities in Native American identity are discussed in Lyons 2010. An analysis of Native identity complexities is done in specific Native Nations and communities. Three distinctive texts focus on specific Native peoples and the elements and impacts on their identities: Lowery 2010, Kauanui 2008, and Reyna 1992. Lowery 2010 describes the hard-fought battles for Lumbee to be recognized by the US federal government and other institutions as a legitimate Native Nation. Kauanui 2008 addresses the issue of who counts as Native in Hawaii. Reyna 1992 is a film where the history of Pueblo peoples and their fight to maintain their identity is told. Examining specific Native Nations and communities reflects the challenges that Native peoples face, such as in Wilkins and Wilkins 2017, in which the authors analyze disenrollment. This issue is very divisive in many if not all Native American communities. Every Native Nation has origin stories setting the foundation of their identity. However, a few Western scientific theories espouse a very different perspective on the origins of Native peoples in the Americas. Deloria 1995 critiques and exposes the fundamental weaknesses of the Bering Strait land bridge theory. All these texts offer a lens into Native American identity. Native identity is not stagnant or stationary, and Ramirez 2007 discusses how Native peoples in an urban area of California sustain their identities, enrollment, and citizenship.

  • Deloria, Vine, Jr. 1995. Red earth, white lies: Native Americans and myth of scientific fact. New York: Scribner.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This book critiques the Western models of Indigenous peoples’ migration to the Americas, particularly the Bering Strait land bridge theory. The author exposes the fundamental weaknesses of the scientific concept. The book pushes back against stereotypical representations of Native peoples.

    Find this resource:

  • Garroutte, Eva Marie. 2003. Real Indians: Identity and the survival of Native America. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Garroutte examines four American Indian identity markers in law, biology, culture, and self-identification.

    Find this resource:

  • Kauanui, J. Kéhaulani. 2008. Hawaiian blood: Colonialism and the politics of sovereignty and Indigeneity. Durham, NC: Duke Univ. Press.

    DOI: 10.1215/9780822391494Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This book addresses the question of who is Hawaiian. Kauanui examines the 1921 Hawaiian Homes Commission Act and how blood quantum was imposed on the Kanaka Maoli. She points out that blood quantum constructs Hawaiian identity as measurable and dilutable. The book brings to the forefront discussions on Indigenous genealogy and sovereignty.

    Find this resource:

  • Lowery, Malinda Maynor. 2010. Lumbee Indians in the Jim Crow South: Race, identity, and the making of a nation. Chapel Hill: Univ. of North Carolina Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Using photographs, letters, genealogy, federal and state records, and first-person family history, Lowery narrates this compelling conversation between insiders and outsiders, demonstrating how the Lumbee challenged the boundaries of Indian, southern, and American identities.

    Find this resource:

  • Lyons, Scott Richard. 2010. X-marks: Native signatures of assent. Minneapolis: Univ. of Minnesota Press.

    DOI: 10.5749/minnesota/9780816666768.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The author examines the complexity of modern Indian identity and current debates about traditionalism, nationalism, and tribalism. He uses “x-mark” as a metaphor for what he calls the “Indian assent to the new” and offers a valuable alternative to imperialist concepts of assimilation and nativist notions of resistance.

    Find this resource:

  • Ramirez, Renya K. 2007. Native hubs: Culture, community, and belonging in Silicon Valley and beyond. Durham, NC: Duke Univ. Press.

    DOI: 10.1215/9780822389897Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Ramirez investigates how urban Native Americans negotiate a transnational existence. Through an ethnographic account of the Native American community in California’s Silicon Valley and beyond, Ramirez explores the ways that urban Indians have pressed their tribes, local institutions, and the federal government to expand conventional notions of citizenship.

    Find this resource:

  • Reyna, Diane, dir. 1992. Surviving Columbus: The story of the Pueblo people. Boston: PBS Video.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This film uses stories from Pueblo elders, interviews with Pueblo scholars and leaders, archival photographs, and historical accounts to review the Pueblo Indians’ 500-year struggle to maintain their culture, land, and religion.

    Find this resource:

  • Wilkins, David E., and Shelly Hulse Wilkins. 2017. Dismembered: Native disenrollment and the battle for human rights. Seattle: Univ. of Washington Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This book examines tribal disenrollment. The authors investigate hundreds of tribal constitutions and interviews disenrolled members and tribal officials. They also address ways to deal with the problem.

    Find this resource:

Nation-Building

Native Nations continue to build their nations and communities. The building of Native Nations is similar in certain aspects; however, each Native Nation is distinctive in the areas of environment, history, way of life, and other elements specific to a group of people. The building of Native Nations is comprehensive and not exclusive to government officials. Lee 2009 discusses how Native American college students are learning perspectives on Indigenous issues and using this knowledge to motivate their goals to help fight for their Native communities. Alfred 2005 explores how to transcend colonialism and decolonize the building of a Native Nation. While decolonization is a part of the examination taking place in the academy, specific Native Nations are thinking, planning, implementing, and reflecting on their efforts to build their communities, such as in Hosmer and Nesper 2013, Zaferatos 2015, and Jorgensen 2007. Specific efforts and implementations are analyzed in the Oneida Nation in Nesper 2018. Building a nation is difficult, challenging, and generational, and Native Nations are dealing with ongoing colonialism. The effort to do so encompasses many elements, such as government, economics, judicial systems, health, education, jurisdiction, and other areas. The Harvard Project on American Indian Economic Development (2008) provides an overview of the efforts, challenges, and accomplishments shaping Native Nations in the United States under US federal policies, and how Native Nations respond through self-determination. While each Native Nation is building, they are not perfect and can make mistakes hurtful to their people. Barker 2011 examines the assumptions of cultural authenticity that reproduce social inequalities, racism, ethnocentrism, sexism, homophobia, and fundamentalism in Native Nation–building.

  • Alfred, Taiaiake. 2005. Wasáse: Indigenous pathways of action and freedom. Peterborough, ON: Broadview.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This book examines the journeys of Indigenous peoples to transcend identities and live as Onkwehonwe, original people.

    Find this resource:

  • Barker, Joanne. 2011. Native acts: Law, recognition, and cultural authenticity. Durham, NC: Duke Univ. Press.

    DOI: 10.1215/9780822393382Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Barker examines the concepts and assumptions of cultural authenticity within Native communities that reproduce social inequalities, racism, ethnocentrism, sexism, homophobia, and fundamentalism.

    Find this resource:

  • Hosmer, Brian, and Larry Nesper, eds. 2013. Tribal worlds: Critical studies in American Indian nation building. Albany: State Univ. of New York Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This anthology explores how Indigenous nationhood has emerged and been maintained in the face of aggressive efforts to assimilate Native peoples.

    Find this resource:

  • Jorgensen, Miriam, ed. 2007. Rebuilding Native Nations: Strategies for governance and development. Foreword by Oren Lyons. Tucson: Univ. of Arizona Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The book provides guidelines for creating new governance structures, rewriting constitutions, building justice systems, launching nation-owned enterprises, encouraging citizen entrepreneurs, developing relations with nonNative governments, and confronting colonialism.

    Find this resource:

  • Lee, Tiffany S. 2009. Building Native Nations through Native students’ commitment to their communities. Journal of American Indian Education 48.1: 19–36.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This article discusses the NAS department at the University of New Mexico and its impact on Native American students’ life goals. Students learned perspectives on Indigenous issues and motivated their life goals to their Native communities.

    Find this resource:

  • Miller, Robert J. 2013. Reservation “capitalism”: Economic development in Indian country. Foreword by Tom Daschle. Lincoln: Univ. of Nebraska Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    In this book, Miller lays out the economic history of Indigenous peoples and the problems and solutions facing Indian country. The book demonstrates how Native cultures historically were entrepreneurial. Miller also shows how current economic development is challenging, yet history demonstrates a path for Native peoples to follow to build their communities and Native Nations.

    Find this resource:

  • Nesper, Larry. 2018. Native nation building: The long emergence of the Oneida Nation judiciary. American Indian Quarterly 42.1: 87–116.

    DOI: 10.5250/amerindiquar.42.1.0087Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This article documents the Oneida Nation of Wisconsin’s journey of its judiciary over thirty years. The difficult and challenging road of establishing an institution relevant to the community is examined.

    Find this resource:

  • Zaferatos, Nicholas Christos. 2015. Planning the American Indian reservation: From theory to empowerment. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse Univ. Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This book examines the historical, political, legal, and theoretical dimensions of tribal planning. The author presents several case studies demonstrating how effective tribal planning can alter the nature of the political landscape and help rebalance the uneven relationships that have been formed between tribal governments and their nontribal political counterparts.

    Find this resource:

Activism

Activism has been a part of American Indian life at least since 1492. Throughout America Indian history, activism has meant fighting to remain on traditional territories, protect and maintain cultural and religious lives and sites, and asserting civil rights and self-determination. The need for activism has not changed, though the tactics and strategies have shifted into different arenas and with the development of technology. In the 20th century, activism has moved into areas of legislation, courts, and organized movements. These readings focus mostly on the 20th and 21st centuries but in some cases will discuss activism in earlier times. In the 20th century, activism was defined by the American Indian Movement (AIM) and the Red Power movement of the 1960s and 1970s and was sometimes defined by violent protests, takeovers, and arrests. There is no way to cover the myriad actions of Native activism and sites of struggle. Some of these books explore the history and various facets of the Red Power movement. Johnson, et al. 1997 and Shreve 2012 are strong histories of more-known aspects of Red Power. They provide an analysis and context of Native struggles and youth organizations that fought for Native rights and self-determination. Davis 2013 provides a history of AIM’s role in developing the survival schools in the Twin Cities. This book illustrates the early work of AIM and highlights the community and women’s leadership in developing the survival schools. Cryne 2009 is a discussion about the important legislation on the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA) and how legislation is important to Native rights but has some limitations. LaDuke 2016 brings together stories from different Indigenous communities and focuses on the work for environmental justice. Jacob 2013 and Waziyatawin 2006 are wonderful examples of activism from a community standpoint and work within their own nations. Waziyatawin focuses on the commemorative marches that retrace the forced march of Dakota women and children to Ft. Snelling. Jacob 2013 views activism in the work of cultural revitalization and healing. Michelle Jacob examines revitalization efforts in the Yakama Nation, utilizing interviews and decolonization frameworks. Estes and Dhillon 2019 and Fox, et al. 2017 bring the works into the 21st century to examine the 2016 #NODAPL–Water Is Life! movement and action. Nick Estes and Jaskiran Dhillon bring together various voices from the Mni Wiconi to analyze and discuss the movement. Fox, et al. 2017, with directors Josh Fox, James Spione, and Myron Dewey, is a compelling documentary on #NODAPL but also shows how new technology is useful for activism in the 21st century.

  • Cryne, Julia A. 2009. NAGPRA revisited: A twenty-year review of repatriation efforts. American Indian Law Review 34.1: 99–122.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This article is a good overview of the purpose of NAGPRA, its actions, and its limitations. Available by subscription online.

    Find this resource:

  • Davis, Julie L. 2013. Survival schools: The American Indian movement and community education in the Twin Cities. Minneapolis: Univ. of Minnesota Press.

    DOI: 10.5749/minnesota/9780816674282.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This book is a history of the survival schools in the Twin Cities from 1972 to 2008. The founding of the two alternative schools by people from AIM, parents, and community activists illustrates the early work of AIM; the fight for Indigenous education, culture, and self-determination; and the importance of Native women in this struggle. This book broadens the history of American Indian education, bringing it into the post–World War II era.

    Find this resource:

  • Estes, Nick, and Jaskiran Dhillon, eds. 2019. Standing with Standing Rock: Voices from the # NoDAPL movement. Minneapolis: Univ. of Minnesota Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Representing over three hundred Native Nations and nonIndigenous allies, “Water Protectors,” activists, elders, and youth camped at Standing Rock to protest and stop the Dakota Access Pipeline (#NoDAPL). Through poetry, photographs, essays, and interviews, contributors to this anthology convey their historical and political understandings and experiences about the movement, Mni Wiconi–Water Is Life! at Standing Rock.

    Find this resource:

  • Fox, Josh, James Spione, and Myron Dewey, dirs. 2017. Awake: A dream from Standing Rock. DVD. Oley, PA: Bullfrog Films.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This documentary shows the Native-led peaceful resistance of the #NODAPL protests on Standing Rock Sioux Reservation in North Dakota. The “Water Protectors” activists protested the Dakota Access Pipeline and the transport of oil underneath the Missouri River, the only source of water for the reservation and others downstream. It also shows the clashes between paramilitary and law enforcement against a peaceful, nonviolent protest, as well as the importance of drone technology in capturing and witnessing #NODAPL.

    Find this resource:

  • Jacob, Michelle M. 2013. Yakama rising: Indigenous cultural revitalization, activism, and healing. First Peoples: New Directions in Indigenous Studies. Tucson: Univ. of Arizona Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Using ethnography, this book examines Indigenous revitalization through Yakama dance, language, and food. Jacob addresses the struggles among social change, tradition, and cultural revitalization while articulating a Yakama decolonizing praxis that advances the premise that grassroots activism and cultural revitalization are powerful examples of decolonization.

    Find this resource:

  • Johnson, Troy, Joane Nagel, and Duane Champagne, eds. 1997. American Indian activism: Alcatraz to the Longest Walk. Urbana: Univ. of Illinois Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This book provides an understanding of American Indian activism in the 1960s and 1970s. The occupation of Alcatraz Island was an important catalyst for other activist movements. A good book to focus on some important actions that later developed and trained activist groups.

    Find this resource:

  • LaDuke, Winona. 2016. The Winona LaDuke chronicles: Stories from the front lines in the battle for environmental justice. Edited by Sean Aaron Cruz. Ponsford, MN?: Spotted Horse.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The book is LaDuke’s collection of stories of Indigenous communities from the Canadian subarctic to the Navajo Nation. LaDuke is an Indigenous environmental activist and one-time US vice-presidential candidate. The book addresses moving away from fossil fuels and how various nations are making that transition, as well as her own journey, activism, and work.

    Find this resource:

  • Shreve, Bradley G. 2012. Red Power rising: The National Indian Youth Council and the origins of Native activism. Norman: Univ. of Oklahoma Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Shreve provides a history of the National Indian Youth Council (NIYC) and shows how Native activism is much broader than other histories focused on the Red Power movement and AIM. This book shows how NIYC utilized grassroots activism and national activism through intertribal organizing within and in relation to national and for a short time, international activism. It is a good illustration of mid-20th-century Indigenous youth organizing.

    Find this resource:

  • Waziyatawin. 2006. In the footsteps of our ancestors: The Dakota commemorative marches of the 21st century. St. Paul, MN: Living Justice.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This book first tells the history of the Dakota people, mostly women and children, who were force-marched 150 miles to Fort Snelling at the end of the US-Dakota war in 1862. The chapters are written by some of the Dakota, Indigenous, and nonIndigenous participants of the 2002 and 2004 Dakota commemorative marches.

    Find this resource:

Health

Colonization has had a negative impact on American Indian health and wellness. Diseases brought by Europeans resulted in a decline in the Native population. The loss of lands and traditional foods adversely affected Native health through starvation, reduced access to adequate food sources, and changes to Native diets with assimilation policies. Topics of health and wellness have been on the rise, addressing cultural revitalization and issues of food sovereignty. The shift in the views of medicine, wellness programs, and tribal community health efforts has created different paradigms in understanding and treating Native health concerns. DeJong 2010 provides a context on early American Indian health issues and the circumstances behind their existence and examines the role of the federal government and the federal trust relationship in the development of the Indian Medical Service to the Public Health service, and the role and relationship the federal government plays in Indian health. Warne and Frizzell 2014 contains a short but packed understanding of Indian health policy, while bringing the issues into an up-to-date discussion. Crawford O’Brien 2013 presents a similar historical examination of Indian health to DeJong 2010 but focuses on the Pacific Northwest communities and their definitions of health and wellness. Million 2013 provides broader interrogation of the systems created by Western definitions of trauma, and how that relates to healing and wellness programs. Dian Million includes important suggestions for Indigenous communities’ programs. Coté 2016 discusses the importance of reclaiming Indigenous food practices and sovereignty for health and wellness. The remainder of the readings explores more-specific ways in which Native people and communities are dealing with health and social issues. Alvord 1999 is one of the first books discussing the journey of a Native woman in becoming a surgeon. While the author is not the first Native doctor, she is the first woman to become a surgeon in the Navajo Nation. The importance of her journey is that her attempts blend or bring together Western medicine with traditional healing without sacrificing Indigenous healing ways. Joe and Gachupin 2012, Lara-Cooper and Lara 2019, Chandler and Lalonde 2008, and Crawford O’Brien 2013 address the ways in which culture and Indigenous knowledge play a key role in recovering Indigenous health and wellness, with emphasis on Native women, culture, traditional foods, and shared community effort with testimonials (Lara-Cooper and Lara 2019).

  • Alvord, Lori Arviso. 1999. The scalpel and the silver bear. Edited by Elizabeth Cohen. New York: Bantam Books.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The story of the first Navajo woman surgeon, Lori Arviso Alvord. The book follows her journey from the Navajo reservation to Stanford University and back to the reservation. Her story focuses on her attempt to bring together Western medicine and traditional healing without losing the values of her people.

    Find this resource:

  • Chandler, Michael J., and Christopher E. Lalonde. 2008. Cultural continuity as a moderator of suicide risk among Canada’s First Nations. In Healing traditions: The mental health of aboriginal peoples in Canada. Edited by Laurence J. Kirmayer and Gail Guthrie Valaskakis, 221–248. Vancouver: Univ. of British Columbia Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This article (re)examines the complexity of research, data collection, and implications concerning the reporting of suicide in Indigenous communities. By reaggregating statistics on suicide and by reshaping the research questions, this article achieves a deeper understanding about suicide rates and shows that cultural continuity among Indigenous peoples in Canada and the United States plays an integral role.

    Find this resource:

  • Coté, Charlotte. 2016. “Indigenizing” food sovereignty: Revitalizing Indigenous food practices and ecological knowledges in Canada and the United States. Humanities 5.3: 57.

    DOI: 10.3390/h5030057Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This article provides an overview explaining the importance of understanding Indigenizing food sovereignty beyond the larger global food sovereignty movement. Coté discusses Indigenizing food sovereignty, by covering colonialism and trauma, Indigenous resistance and resurgence, and globalization and neoliberal food production, and, importantly, through her own community, the Nuu-chah-nulth people on the west coast of Vancouver Island in British Columbia, Canada.

    Find this resource:

  • Crawford O’Brien, Suzanne. 2013. Coming full circle: Spirituality and wellness among Native communities in the Pacific Northwest. Lincoln: Univ. of Nebraska Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This book explores how several Coast Salish and Chinook communities define what it means to be healthy, and examines tribal community–based health programs to understand their definition of health. The historical framework looks at the ways that modern tribal health engages with traditional healing, covering the time period between 1805 and 2005.

    Find this resource:

  • DeJong, David H. 2010. “If you knew the conditions”: A chronicle of the Indian Medical Service and American Indian health care, 1908–1955. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    DeJong looks at the health of American Indians prior to and after the Indian Medical Service was established in 1908 to provide health services to American Indians. Examining the health service through assimilation and the “Vanishing Indian,” DeJong discusses the role that the US Congress played in the minimal services provided to American Indians. This is the first part to his next book, Plagues, Politics, and Policy.

    Find this resource:

  • Joe, Jennie Rose, and Francine C. Gachupin, eds. 2012. Health and social issues of Native American women. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This book explores Native women’s issues surrounding health and social issues. Utilizing scholarship mostly by Native women, the book contextualizes historical and cultural aspects concerning Native women’s health and examines various facets of health, such as health-care delivery, domestic violence, diabetes, aging, health disparities, and substance abuse.

    Find this resource:

  • Lara-Cooper, Kishan, and Walter J. Lara Sr. 2019. Ka’m-t’em: A journey toward healing. Temecula, CA: Great Oak.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This anthology presents multiple narratives of various events, history, cultural protections, and renewal. These Indigenous testimonials (multiple generations) are intended to expose the reader to understandings of resistance, renewal, advocacy, resilience, wellness, and awakening through the sharing and protecting of Indigenous knowledge for the healing of younger generations. The book is intended to be used in classrooms, in training, or as an example reflecting healing and positive outcomes.

    Find this resource:

  • Million, Dian. 2013. Therapeutic nations: Healing in an age of Indigenous human rights. Tucson: Univ. of Arizona Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Million’s genealogy of trauma and reframing trauma, “damage,” and, importantly, “healing” as grounded in hegemony provides a way to examine how these concepts are used, especially how the rise of neoliberalism corresponds to the use of trauma theory regarding human rights and the “therapeutic narrative by Western governments negotiating with Indigenous nations as they seek self-determination.” Importantly, Million’s theoretical framing provides for important suggestions to Indigenous community-healing programs.

    Find this resource:

  • Warne, Donald, and Linda Bane Frizzell. 2014. American Indian health policy: Historical trends and contemporary issues. American Journal of Public Health 104.S3: S263–S267.

    DOI: 10.2105/AJPH.2013.301682Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A good article that discusses a brief history of American Indian health, and issues related to funding and legislation. This short article also looks at different trends as of the date of publication, though they are still relevant.

    Find this resource:

Land and Environment

American Indians have deep, long-standing cultural, religious, and subsistence connections and ties to the land and environment. While in the 1970s a TV commercial generalized this connection, with an actor playing an American Indian man shedding a tear because of the litter on the land and the water, Indigenous reciprocal relationships with land and environment are much more complex. Land and environment are intricately intertwined with American Indian culture, knowledge, subsistence, economy, and religion and spirituality. The dispossession of land and the removal from the land and place meant immense fractures in Indigenous lives. These readings address the meanings, activism, and relationships in the context of land and environment. Cajete 1999 brings together various authors to discuss and explore sustainable living. The contributors all examine how environmental connections and land are integral to a sustainable life. Carroll 2015 shows how connections to land are developed and redeveloped in the face of removal. The author shows that these systems can be brought into different spaces yet provide lessons for early-21st-century governance and management. Hoover 2017, Kana‘iaupuna and Malone 2006, LaDuke 2015, and Watt-Cloutier 2015 give readers a solid understanding of the importance of lands to Indigenous peoples’ lives and culture, but also their obligation to protect lands, nonhumans, and the environment as a part of their cultural responsibility. All these readings illustrate the challenges faced by Indigenous communities by capitalism, dispossession, pollution, and climate change. Whyte 2016 and Wildcat, et al. 2014 discuss ways that activism and decolonization can work toward an intellectual reconnection and structural protection of Indigenous lands and environment. These make for an interesting analysis when paired with Cajete 1999. Cordalis and Suagee 2008 and Adamson 2006 shift from a cultural perspective to more of a governance and capitalist focus. Cordalis and Suagee 2008 and to some extent Carroll 2015 bring into view how tribal nations must deal with land and management through governance. Adamson 2006 illustrates the Western view of land value and standing. While it is a part of modern concerns, it is important to read this alongside the other readings to see the juxtaposition of land as capital, and land as relationship.

  • Adamson, Rebecca. 2006. Land rich, dirt poor: Challenges to asset building in Native America. In The color of wealth: The story behind the U.S. racial wealth divide. By Meizhu Lui, Bárbara J. Robles, Betsy Leondar-Wright, Rose M. Brewer, and Rebecca Adamson, 29–72. New York: New Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This chapter draws from issues of capital to understand the challenges to asset building and economic development in reservation land. It discusses the concept of land as an asset for building wealth, and why, when Native people have sometimes large land holdings, they are poor.

    Find this resource:

  • Cajete, Gregory, ed. 1999. A people’s ecology: Explorations in sustainable living. Santa Fe, NM: Clear Light.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This book focuses on cultural identity, health, relationship to the environment, foods, and environmental restoration. Each contributor links views of health, Indigenous knowledge, and the environment to connect their discussion to support or maintain sustainable living.

    Find this resource:

  • Carroll, Clint. 2015. Roots of our renewal: Ethnobotany and Cherokee environmental governance. Minneapolis: Univ. of Minnesota Press.

    DOI: 10.5749/minnesota/9780816690893.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Carroll explores how Cherokees developed deep ties with their original lands and created equally strong connection despite colonization and their forced relocation in the 1830s. This book intertwines the Cherokee relationship with environment, resources management, and Cherokee governance. An important connection to the strength of this “Indigenous environmental governance” and self-determination is the inclusion of the elders’ advisory group.

    Find this resource:

  • Cordalis, Daniel, and Dean B. Suagee. 2008. The effects of climate change on American Indian and Alaska Native tribes. Natural Resources & Environment 22.3: 45–49.

    DOI: 10.2307/40924927Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This article looks at the impacts of climate change on tribes as sovereign nations. As sovereign nations, they are in a position to address climate change on their lands yet must also deal with changes to environmental law and energy law.

    Find this resource:

  • Hoover, Elizabeth. 2017. The river is in us?: Fighting toxics in a Mohawk community. Minneapolis: Univ. of Minnesota Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Hoover provides a clear understanding of Mohawk relationship with the land, the river, and their culture and the impact when the water and soil are contaminated. In their fight against the companies releasing the toxins, the Mohawk community takes control of their own research, partnering with scientists to develop a grassroots program to fight for their health and culture and protect their lands.

    Find this resource:

  • Kana‘iaupuni, Shawn Malia, and Nolan Malone. 2006. This land is my land: The role of place in Native Hawaiian identity. Hūlili: Multidisciplinary Research on Hawaiian Well-Being 3.1: 281–307.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This article illustrates the importance of place to Kanaka Maoli identity. The authors’ discussion of place, history and identity provides important links to Indigenous relationships to land and water. This article can be used as a comparative discussion on issues of land, identity, history, and colonialism.

    Find this resource:

  • LaDuke, Winona. 2015. All our relations: Native struggles for land and life. Chicago: Haymarket Books.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This book focuses on the intimate connections that Indigenous peoples have with the land and environment. Through the book, voices from different communities discuss how their cultural relationships with the lands are adversely affected by the consequences of toxins, destruction of lands and water systems, and mining, among other issues. Each chapter discusses different environments and what work communities are to do to protect these areas.

    Find this resource:

  • Watt-Cloutier, Sheila. 2015. The right to be cold: One woman’s story of protecting her culture, the Arctic and the whole planet. Toronto: Penguin Canada.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This book is the story of an Inuk woman’s journey to becoming an influential environmental, cultural, and human rights advocate and leader. She illustrates the relationship between culture and the land and environment and shows that protecting the Arctic is about protecting the Inuit culture. Importantly, in her struggle, she shows that climate change is a human rights issue, and how “all of us on the planet are inextricably linked.”

    Find this resource:

  • Whyte, Kyle Powys. 2016. Indigenous environmental movements and the function of governance institutions. In The Oxford handbook of environmental political theory. Edited by Teena Gabrielson, Cheryl Hall, John M. Meyer, and David Schlosberg, 563–580. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

    DOI: 10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199685271.013.31Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This article looks at the functions of environmental governance and how they can create discussion on addressing land and water management issues in different Native Nations.

    Find this resource:

  • Wildcat, Matthew, Mandee McDonald, Stephanie Irlbacher-Fox, and Glen Coulthard. 2014. Learning from the land: Indigenous land-based pedagogy and decolonization. In Special issue: Indigenous land-based pedagogy and decolonization. Edited by Matthew Wildcat, Mandee McDonald, Stephanie Irlbacher-Fox, and Glen Coulthard. Decolonization: Indigeneity, Education & Society 3.3: I–XV.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This is the introduction to the special issue on land-based education. On the premise that colonization disposes Indigenous peoples from the land, decolonization must utilize education that reconnects peoples to the lands. This is a good start in understanding the complexity of decolonization and relationships with the land.

    Find this resource:

Settler Colonialism

While colonialism and its impacts on Indigenous people have been a central topic since the evolution of Indigenous and Native American studies, it has been since 2010 that the concept of settler colonialism has been prominently taken up by scholars of Indigenous studies. The authors in this section represent a diverse range of that scholarship, from theory to application. Subsequently, the importance of critical deconstruction of the term and addressing concerns of essentializing Indigenous peoples’ experiences is also included in this section. Wolfe 2006 initiated an analysis of settler colonialism as a structure in relationship to its uneven manifestations across Indigenous contexts and in relationship to genocide. Arvin, et al. 2013 and Greensmith and Giwa 2013 provide focused analyses of the workings of settler colonialism in gendered contexts. The authors demonstrate the complex processes and infiltration of settler colonialism in Native feminist and queer politics. Waziyatawin and Yellow Bird 2012 counters impacts of settler colonialism, with a focus on decolonization theories and praxis in this edited book. Contributors offer concrete ideas for applying decolonized thinking to community-based action. Kauanui 2018 offers the transcriptions from interviews with numerous Indigenous people, highlighting their activism and ideas for Indigenous resistance to settler colonialism and their reclamation of Indigenous knowledge, land, language, and culture. Goodyear-Kaʻōpua 2013 addresses how settler colonialism has produced tensions and barriers for Indigenous cultural-education efforts, specifically in Hawaii. Simpson 2017 shifts its analysis to utilize Indigenous knowledge to develop a framework for Indigenous theory and resurgence to reclaim an Indigenous self from the settler-colonial state.

  • Arvin, Maile, Eve Tuck, and Angie Morrill. 2013. Decolonizing feminism: Challenging connections between settler colonialism and heteropatriarchy. Feminist Formations 25.1: 8–34.

    DOI: 10.1353/ff.2013.0006Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    In this article, the authors offer critical suggestions on how Native feminisms can engage heteropatriarchy and settler colonialism with intellectually and politically informed insights. They contend that the United States is a settler colonial nation-state and that settler colonialism has been and continues to be a gendered process. They use Native feminisms to demonstrate the deep underpinnings of settler colonialism and heteropatriarchy.

    Find this resource:

  • Goodyear-Kaʻōpua, Noelani. 2013. The seeds we planted: Portraits of a Native Hawaiian charter school. Minneapolis: Univ. of Minnesota Press.

    DOI: 10.5749/minnesota/9780816680474.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Goodyear-Kaʻōpua weaves the story of Hālau Kū Māna, a secondary school that remains one of the only Hawaiian culture-based charter schools in urban Honolulu, within the context of Hawaiian struggle for self-determination and the charter school movement. This book provides a great analysis of Indigenous education goals at a community level, the tensions created through settler colonialism, and the ways that Indigenous education can “foster collective renewal and continuity.”

    Find this resource:

  • Greensmith, Cameron, and Sulaimon Giwa. 2013. Challenging settler colonialism in contemporary queer politics: Settler homonationalism, Pride Toronto, and two-spirit subjectivities. American Indian Culture and Research Journal 37.2: 129–148.

    DOI: 10.17953/aicr.37.2.p4q2r84l12735117Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The authors analyze queer politics through the movement Pride Toronto, to show how settler colonialism has infiltrated and negated Indigenous two-spirit experiences and perspectives. They contend that queer politics rely on the concurrent involvement and eradication of Indigenous presence in a form of settler homonationalism. The authors assert the necessity for understanding and challenging the complex mechanisms of settler colonialism.

    Find this resource:

  • Kauanui, J. Kéhaulani, ed. 2018. Speaking of Indigenous politics: Conversations with activists, scholars, and tribal leaders. Minneapolis: Univ. of Minnesota Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The editor of this book draws on interviews from his radio show and interviews with dozens of Indigenous scholars, activists, and practitioners who discuss their work and perspectives in relation to the underlying impacts of settler colonialism and resistance by Indigenous peoples. Themes in the book relate to land reclamation, treaty and human rights, and linguistic and cultural revitalization.

    Find this resource:

  • Simpson, Leanne Betasamosake. 2017. As we have always done: Indigenous freedom through radical resistance. Minneapolis: Univ. of Minnesota Press.

    DOI: 10.5749/j.ctt1pwt77cSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Simpson focuses on a Radical Resurgence Project that utilizes a framework of Indigenous and Nishnaabeg theory and critique to develop a system (or systems) to understand and create processes and solutions for Indigenous alternatives of resurgence. With this framework, Simpson interrogates colonialism and settler-colonials, their role in Indigenous lives, and a call to reject settler colonialism and colonialism to reclaim Indigenous lives and freedom.

    Find this resource:

  • Snelgrove, Corey, Rita Kaur Dhamoon, and Jeff Corntassel. 2014. Unsettling settler colonialism: The discourse and politics of settlers, and solidarity with Indigenous nations. Decolonization: Indigeneity, Education & Society 3.2: 1–32.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    In this article, the authors advocate for centering Indigenous peoples’ perspectives and thoughts on the basis of relationality when it comes to examining and analyzing settler colonialism. They want relationality to be a base for decolonization on the local and global levels. The authors contend that oppression and domination can appear if relationality and Native perspectives are not part of the settler-colonialism analysis.

    Find this resource:

  • Waziyatawin, and Michael Yellow Bird, eds. 2012. For Indigenous minds only: A decolonization handbook. Santa Fe, NM: School for Advanced Research Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Building on their 2005 book For Indigenous Eyes Only, the contributing authors focus on the significance of decolonized thinking for providing a preface to decolonized actions. A variety of topics are addressed, such as land-based existence and education, demilitarization, strategies for Indigenous prisoners, and youth in custody. Authors recommend community discussions and plans for creating community action models. Each chapter provides specific actions for addressing the impacts of settler colonialism.

    Find this resource:

  • Wolfe, Patrick. 2006. Settler colonialism and the elimination of the Native. Journal of Genocide Research 8.4: 387–409.

    DOI: 10.1080/14623520601056240Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    In this article, Wolfe provides an analysis of settler colonialism in relationship to its uneven manifestations across Indigenous contexts and in relationship to genocide. He argues that the systems of settler colonialism are not based on events but are structural and provide organizational principles for a settler-colonial society. The eradication of Indigenous people is inherent for settler colonialism, which he discusses as a logic of elimination and has exhibited as being genocidal.

    Find this resource:

back to top

Article

Up

Down