Communication Mobile Communication Studies
by
Yi-Fan Chen
  • LAST REVIEWED: 11 September 2019
  • LAST MODIFIED: 23 May 2012
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199756841-0091

Introduction

Mobile media are recognized as the fastest-growing media category. Although mobile media users were already enjoying mobile devices in their everyday lives, prior to the millennium there was a lack of research in the area of mobile communication studies. Communication research swelled during the first two decades of the 21st century, reflecting the increase in mobile media use. Most researchers focus on three perspectives: human interaction through mobile media, mobile culture, and mobile media as a means to a better life. They have studied how mobile phones, short message services, and mobile music devices have changed the way people do everyday things. An increasing number of mobile communication studies focus on how mobile social media, such as Twitter, help to foster civic engagement. This article mainly takes a sociological perspective to document mobile communication studies in the field. It includes research into how people adopt mobile media, how mobile media are used, and how mobile culture meanings and norms are created in everyday life. The bibliographies here include and analyze case studies from around the world, many of which focus on the social consequences of ever-present mobile media use. Many of the mobile communication studies mentioned here investigate how youths use mobile media to create their personal identities, group identities, and social networks. Some of the works cited here reflect researchers’ attempts to understand if mobile media separate their users—or bring them together. Some of the studies focus on mobile media “haves” and “have-nots,” while others pay more attention to how mobile media can be used for positive socioeconomic development. Additionally, these sources explore some possible quandaries resulting from mobile media use.

General Overviews

The works that will be described in this section provide background and history, or offer the findings from early mobile communication studies. Researchers within the mobile communication field should find that these books offer a historical foundation for understanding mobile media. For example, Kopomaa 2000 is one of the earliest books to document how people use mobile media to communicate with one another. Researchers have found the works of Green and Haddon 2009, Katz 1999, and Katz and Aakhus 2002 particularly insightful by demonstrating that people around the world incorporate mobile media in different ways within their daily lives. Springer has published a series on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, including some early mobile media and human-interaction studies (e.g., Brown, et al. 2002; Hamill and Lasen 2005). Scholars and researchers may find many potential mobile communication research ideas within this series. In addition, Agar 2003 and Ling and Donner 2009 also provide overviews of mobile media history.

  • Agar, Jon. 2003. Constant touch: A global history of the mobile phone. Cambridge, UK: Icon Books.

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    Agar’s book discusses the inception of mobile phones and the social consequences of mobile phone use worldwide. Documents how political relations affect mobile phone use and culture in different countries. Includes discussions about mobile cultures in the United States, Nordic countries, European countries, and Asian countries. Provides several possible directions for future research.

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    • Brown, Barry, Nicola Green, and Richard Harper, eds. 2002. Wireless world: Social and interactional aspects of the mobile age. Computer Supported Cooperative Work. New York: Springer.

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      Explains the social factors that affect design, usability, and evaluation of mobile media. Provides an overview of how people interact, use, and share mobile devices in human relationships or within workplaces.

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      • Green, Nicola, and Leslie Haddon. 2009. Mobile communications: An introduction to new media. New York: Berg.

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        The authors use mobile communication case studies, such as mRelationship, mSpace, and mTime, from around the world to assist readers in understanding important mobile media issues better. Many chapters in the book focus on mobile media use in human interactions as well as in human relationships. Discusses mobile media use between children and parents, as well as between children and their peers.

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        • Hamill, Lynne, and Amparo Lasen, eds. 2005. Mobile world: Past, present and future. Computer Supported Cooperative Work. New York: Springer.

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          Discusses how people in the developed world have used their mobile media in several goal-directed ways, including communicating, texting, gaming, and messaging. Some chapters address mobile media adoption, mobile media usage, and mobile media identities.

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          • Katz, James Everett. 1999. Connections: Social and cultural studies of the telephone in American life. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.

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            Katz argues that there is a lack of study relating to the social consequences of mobile media use despite the fact that Americans are highly mobile. From a social scientific perspective, Katz identifies both positive and negative consequences of the use of the mobile phone and other wireless devices. Katz uses his own research findings to support the arguments that he makes in the book.

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            • Katz, James Everett, and Mark Aakhus, eds. 2002. Perpetual contact: Mobile communication, private talk, public performance. New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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              From a social scientific perspective, the book discusses mobile media use and mobile media culture, as well as how mobile media can serve to vastly impact societies throughout the world. Some key concepts within the mobile communication field, such as Rich Ling and Brigitte Yttri’s microcoordination and hypercoordination, and Kenneth Gergen’s notion of the absence presence, are also discussed.

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              • Kopomaa, Timo. 2000. The city in your pocket: Birth of the mobile information society. Helsinki: Gaudeamus.

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                This pocket book is about how the Finnish use mobile media. Author posits that people can, and do, communicate in any place and at any time using mobile media. Text-messaging practices among youngsters are also explored. Another theme that is touched upon is that of “third place” and how this can be created through mobile media use and the implications of this creation. The reader is provided with several directions for future research.

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                • Ling, Richard Seyler, and Jonathan Donner. 2009. Digital Media and Society. Mobile communication. Malden, MA: Polity Press.

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                  Draws upon mobile media data around the world. The book provides a basic understanding of international mobile media adoption and diffusion, as well as their social and cultural impacts, such as perpetual mobile media use, mSpace, and mCoordination.

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                  Textbooks

                  Unlike other well-developed academic disciplines, the number of textbooks focused specifically on mobile communication studies is limited. This could be due in part to the fact that it is still an emerging area of study. Oftentimes, instructors must rely on books that present original research to serve as textbooks in the classroom. Among those written as mobile communication texts, Ling 2004 is widely used for undergraduate studies and is very easy to follow—as is Castells, et al. 2006; both address many of the important issues related to mobile media use in interpersonal communication and group communication, as well as mobile media’s impact on culture and society.

                  • Castells, Manuel, Mireia Fernandez-Ardevol, Jack Linchuan Qiu, and Araba Sey. 2006. Mobile communication and society: A global perspective. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

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                    This book begins by discussing mobile media data derived from around the world, seemingly to inform the reader about how important mobile media are to individuals and societies. The authors focus on youth users of mobile media and participatory cultures, as well as how mobile media can be used for development countries. They discuss that mobile media users often incorporate the use of text messages, camera-phone images, and voice calls in an attempt to become civically engaged.

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                    • Ling, Richard Seyler. 2004. The mobile connection: The cell phone’s impact on society. San Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann.

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                      Focuses on the social impact of mobile media use in everyday life. It begins with a discussion of how users adopt mobile media devices and how these devices are perpetuated through diffusion. It also addresses how mobile media provide users with a sense of safety and security, as well as how people use mobile media to coordinate their activities. Additionally, Ling discusses how teens use mobile media to build individual identity, group identity, and social networks.

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                      Organizations

                      Several mobile media research institutions and organizations from around the world help connect mobile media scholars and scientists, organize conferences and activities, promote the distribution and sharing of data and ideas among researchers, and publish research reports. Several institutions and organizations that study social consequences of mobile media include Center for Mobile Communication Studies, International Telecommunication Union, and MobileActive.org. These organizations provide the most up-to-date mobile media adoption and usage data, gather the most current mobile communication research and resources, and frequently arrange events and conferences, both online and offline, so mobile communication researchers can share their ideas and network with one another.

                      • Center for Mobile Communication Studies.

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                        The Center for Mobile Communication Studies is the world’s first academic unit to focus solely on the social aspects of mobile communication. Established in June 2004 at Rutgers University’s School of Communication and Information in the United States, the center has become an international focal point for research, teaching, and service on the social, psychological, and organizational consequences of the burgeoning mobile communication revolution.

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                        • International Telecommunication Union.

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                          One of the United Nations specialized agencies for communication and information technologies issues. International Telecommunication is based in Geneva, Switzerland, and publishes mobile data worldwide, especially mobile data for the developing world.

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                          • MobileActive.org.

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                            MobileActive.org has organized conferences, shared research reports, and connected researchers involved in mobile communication studies. It has mobile media adoption and usage data and it gathers mobile research with the intention that this information may foster social change around the world. Mobile communication researchers and scholars can contribute their research findings on the site. MobileActive.org uses Facebook and Twitter pages to provide mobile media for social change news to its friends and followers.

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                            • Society for the Social Study of Mobile Communication.

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                              The Society for the Social Study of Mobile Communication is a scholarly organization that facilitates international cross-disciplinary mobile communication studies.

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                              Journals

                              Research on mobile communication studies appears in many academic communication journals, such as Human Communication Research, Journal of Communication, Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, and New Media and Society, as well as academic computer journals, such as Information Society: An Information Journal and International Journal of Human-Computer Studies. In addition, International Journal of Communication and M/C Journal are two of the online open-source, peer-reviewed academic communication journals that have published mobile communication research.

                              Special Issues

                              Other international academic media and communication journals, such as Australian Journal of Communication, Continuum: Journal of Media and Cultural Studies, Future Internet, and Knowledge, Technology and Policy, have published special issues on mobile communication studies. These journals share knowledge and research findings of mobile communication studies from around the world.

                              Adoption, Diffusion, and Usage

                              Several books and articles focus on adoption, diffusion, and the general usage practices of mobile media consumers. The Pew Research Center’s Internet and American Life Project (e.g., Horrigan 2008, Smith 2010) and Brown, et al. 2011 provide researchers with the most current mobile adoption and usage data in the United States. Rice and Katz 2003 conducted a national phone survey to understand how Americans adopt mobile media. The Katz 2006; Ling and Pedersen 2005; and Palen, et al. 2000 studies focus on mobile media adoption, diffusion, and usage from sociological, psychological, and linguistic perspectives.

                              • Brown, K., Scott W. Campbell, and Rich Ling. 2011. Mobile phones bridging the digital divide for teens in the US? In Special issue: Social transformations from the mobile Internet. Edited by Jason Farman. Future Internet 3.2: 144–158.

                                DOI: 10.3390/fi3020144Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                Finds low-income teens in the United States might not be able to afford computers with Internet access, however, they find ways to go online using mobile media. The researchers argue that Internet accessed through mobile media might bridge the digital divide in the United States.

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                                • Horrigan, John. 2008. Mobile access to data and information. Washington, DC: Pew Internet and American Life Project.

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                                  This Pew report finds that African Americans and English-speaking Latinos are more likely than white Americans to use data placed on their mobile device. The report also documents that Americans have connected to the Internet using mobile media when away from their home and work.

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                                  • Katz, James Everett. 2006. Magic in the air: Mobile communication and the transformation of social life. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.

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                                    Katz’s book includes his previously published research findings and adds some new and insightful chapters. Discusses both mobile media use and misuse. Brings attention to mobile media misuse in classroom settings, such as students and teachers taking calls during class times. Touches upon mobile media use for religious purposes. As a whole, these new chapters provide a fresh way of looking at mobile media use.

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                                    • Ling, Richard Seyler, and Per E. Pedersen, eds. 2005. Mobile communications: Re-negotiation of the social sphere. Computer Supported Cooperative Work. London: Springer.

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                                      Focuses on mobile media use in public and private spaces, as well as psychological aspects of mobile media use. Useful for scholars and researchers who are interested in future studies relating to mobile media from the sociological, psychological, and linguistic approaches.

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                                      • Palen, Leysia, Marilyn Salzman, and Ed Youngs. 2000. Going wireless: Behavior and practice of new mobile phone users. In CSCW 2000 Computer Supported Cooperative Work: ACM 2000 Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, December 2–6, 2000, Philadelphia, PA, USA. 201–210. New York: Association for Computing Machinery.

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                                        This research studies nineteen new mobile phone users. Participants had no mobile phone service prior to the study. Both in-depth interview data and voice-mail diary data were collected. The results provide insight into the cultural and social effects of mobile phone use. Available for purchase online.

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                                        • Rice, R. E., and J. E. Katz. 2003. Comparing Internet and mobile phone usage: Digital divides of usage, adoption, and dropouts. Telecommunication Policy 27.8–9: 597–623.

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                                          Based on national telephone survey data in 2000, Rice and Katz are able to make several conclusions about mobile phone adoptions and usage in the United States. For example, they found that the factors that serve to predict mobile phone adoption include income, work status, and marital status. Mobile phone usage patterns are also discussed in depth. This research is one of the canonical mobile media research studies in the United States.

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                                          • Smith, Aaron. 2010. Mobile access 2010. Washington, DC: Pew Internet and American Life Project.

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                                            This study analyzes the usage patterns of minority mobile media owners (i.e., African Americans and Latinos). The findings indicate that minority users in America are more likely to take advantage of their mobile media features than are white mobile media users. Also, mobile media users between the ages of thirty to forty-nine are more likely to use their mobile media for texting, accessing data, taking photos, sending e-mail, and playing music than are users of other ages.

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                                            mAsian

                                            The term “mAsian” refers to the use of mobile media in Asia. This group of mobile communication researchers and scholars focuses their research on Asian mobile media culture and use. The following research relates to mobile media use in Japan and Israel, as well as mobile media use among youth in these cultures. Additionally, this research examines usage patterns across the genders. Ito, et al. 2005 is the first book-length English-language resource on Japanese Keitai use and culture, whereas Cohen, et al. 2008 documents how mobile media build people’s identities in Israel. Boase and Kobayashi 2008 focuses on mobile media use in keeping and building young people’s social capital. Donald, et al. 2010 covers mobile media use among special age groups in Asia, and Hjorth 2009 covers use across gender groups.

                                            • Boase, Jeffry, and Tetsuro Kobayashi. 2008. Kei-tying teens: Using mobile phone email to bond, bridge, and break with social ties—A study of Japanese adolescents. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies 66.12: 930–943.

                                              DOI: 10.1016/j.ijhcs.2008.07.004Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                              In Japan, mobile e-mail is more popular than text messages. Boase and Kobayashi study high school students in Tokyo and find that Japanese high school students use their mobile e-mail to build and maintain their social capital but not break their social relationships. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                              • Cohen, Akiba A., Dafna Lemish, and Amit Schejter. 2008. The wonder phone in the land of miracles: Mobile telephony in Israel. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton.

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                                                The book argues that mobile media have created a sense of national and family identity in Israel. Mobile media serve to provide a sense of “togetherness,” as well as security and safety among family and in-group members, especially in terms of terror and war. The book includes a discussion of mobile media history, adoption, policy, regulations, and case examples of mobile media subculture, such as that of soldiers, Yeshiva students, and migrant workers.

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                                                • Donald, Stephanie, Theresa Dirndorfer Anderson, and Damien Spry, eds. 2010. Youth, society and mobile media in Asia. Abingdon, UK, and New York: Routledge.

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                                                  This book examines young people’s use of mobile media in east and north Asia, Southeast Asia, and Australia. Topics include issues relating to young Asian mobile media users’ literacy, and the regulations and policies of mobile media. Scholars and researchers who are interested in the mobile media youth culture might find this book interesting.

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                                                  • Hjorth, Larissa. 2009. Mobile media in the Asia Pacific: Gender and the art of being mobile. Abingdon, UK: Routledge.

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                                                    Based on six years of ethnographic research, these mobile media case studies come from Japan, South Korea, Australia, and other Asia Pacific countries. Will interest gender-communication scholars and researchers who wish to learn more about mobile media culture in the Asia Pacific.

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                                                    • Ito, Mizuko, Daisuke Okabe, and Misa Matsuda, eds. 2005. Personal, portable, pedestrian: Mobile phones in Japanese life. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

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                                                      The Japanese term for mobile media is “Keitai.” This book explains Keitai culture and Keitai usages in Japan. Editor Ito states that the book is an attempt to document how Japanese people use their Keitai and how they create culture around Keitai. It does not offer a comparative analysis with other countries.

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                                                      mCulture

                                                      The term “mCulture” refers to the use of mobile media to create culture among groups. People use their mobile media devices to fulfill their everyday communication needs. Different countries, different regions, different generations, and different genders can create their own mobile culture. Books in this section include mobile media culture case studies from around the world. These case studies mainly focus on everyday mobile media use and the ways that people interact with mobile media to create cultural meanings, such as identities and relationships, using mobile media. Caron and Caronia 2007 and Kavoori and Arceneaux 2006 look at identities and relationships through mobile media in everyday life. Kraut, et al. 2006 includes research relating to how people use their mobile media to create and participate in their culture. Hanson 2007 studies mobile culture specifically in the United States, whereas all other scholars in this list focus on mobile culture research around the world. Glotz, et al. 2005 tries to both define how people use mobile media and to understand their emotions toward the devices. Goggin 2006 focuses on mobile media convergence, whereas Goggin 2008 studies mobile culture from different research methods.

                                                      • Caron, André H., and Letizia Caronia. 2007. Moving cultures: Mobile communication in everyday life. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s Univ. Press.

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                                                        This book focuses on how teens creatively adopt and consume their mobile media. The researchers found that teens use mobile media to talk, flirt, and gossip. The book utilizes a sociocultural perspective as an approach to understanding teens’ mobile media culture.

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                                                        • Glotz, Peter, Stefan Bertschi, and Chris Locke, eds. 2005. Thumb culture: The meaning of mobile phones for society. Bielefeld, Germany: Transcript.

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                                                          The editors organize and discuss the social implications of mobile media use in three sections. “Cultural Identities” addresses the effect of mobile media from a sociological perspective. “Mobile Personalities” explores the emotional attachment that users may develop toward their device. “Industry Perspective” discusses current needs of mobile media customers, as well as some future mobile media design and service suggestions.

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                                                          • Goggin, Gerard. 2006. Cell phone culture: Mobile technology in everyday life. New York and London: Routledge.

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                                                            Gerard Goggin adopts a cultural-studies approach in his examination of mobile media history, production, design, consumption, and representation among young people. Also examines the effect of mobile media convergence.

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                                                            • Goggin, Gerard. 2008. Mobile phone culture. London: Routledge.

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                                                              Mobile media cultural studies scholars and researchers are the target audience of this edited book. Discusses the social and cultural implications of mobile media. Qualitative, quantitative, and ethnographic research methods are used to examine the relationship between mobile media use and interpersonal relationships.

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                                                              • Haddon, Leslie. 2004. Information and communication technologies in everyday life: A concise introduction and research guide. New York: Berg.

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                                                                This book includes the impacts of Internet and mobile media on family relationships and peer relationships. In this book, Leslie Haddon points out that he, Eric Hirsch, and Roger Silverstone explain what they have coined as the “domestication” of technologies approach, which discusses how new media technology users incorporate technology into their lives.

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                                                                • Hanson, Jarice. 2007. 24/7: How cell phones and the Internet change the way we live, work, and play. Westport, CT: Praeger.

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                                                                  Mainly discusses Internet and mobile media use within the United States. Employs a cultural perspective when examining mobile media adoption, democratic processes, history, privacy, and other related issues.

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                                                                  • Kavoori, Anandam, and Noah Arceneaux, eds. 2006. The cell phone reader: Essays in social transformation. New York: Peter Lang.

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                                                                    This book utilizes a compilation of international mobile communication research. The topics include mobile communication theories, identity through mobile media, mobile public and private spaces, religious mobile media use, as well as several other interesting topics. Contains case studies from both developed and developing countries.

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                                                                    • Kraut, Robert E., Malcolm Brynin, and Sara Kiesler, eds. 2006. Computers, phones, and the Internet: Domesticating information technology. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

                                                                      DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195312805.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                      This book discusses the social consequences of both mobile media and Internet use. Contributors Rich Ling and Brigitte Yttri talk about how teens use mobile media to communicate with the outside world and to be independent from their families; whereas Mizuko Ito and Daisuke Okabe document Japanese teens’ use of mobile messaging for intimate connections with their friends.

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                                                                      mDemocracy

                                                                      Mobile media use to engage civil participation is first documented during the impeachment trial of Filipino president Joseph Estrada in January 2001. The term “mDemocracy” here refers to the use of mobile media to engage civil participation. Since 2001, research shows that people use mobile media to organize or participate in everyday events as diverse as the Twitter revolution in Iran and texting votes for American Idol winners. Rheingold 2002 and Hermanns 2008 use several mDemocracy cases from around the world in their analysis, whereas Rafael 2003 and Suárez 2006 are each focused on a case study from a single country (the Philippines and Spain, respectively).

                                                                      • Hermanns, Heike. 2008. Mobile democracy: Mobile phones as democratic tools. Politics 28.2: 74–82.

                                                                        DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9256.2008.00314.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                        Argues that mobile media could be used as a voting device, to share information, to create networks, and to notify users about political events. This paper suggests several directions for future researchers, including the use of mobile devices as tools for democracy. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                        • Rafael, Vincente. L. 2003. The cell phone and the crowd: Messianic politics in the contemporary Philippines. Public Culture 15.3: 399–425.

                                                                          DOI: 10.1215/08992363-15-3-399Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                          The use of text messages in the 2001 movement to overthrow Philippine president, Joseph Estrada, is one of the earliest documented case studies of how mobile media can be used for political change. Many researchers (e.g., Manuel Castells and Howard Rheingold) have studied short message service (SMS) users in the Philippines as research examples in their mDemocracy work. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                          • Rheingold, Howard. 2002. Smart mobs: The next social revolution. Cambridge, MA: Perseus.

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                                                                            Documents how people use mobile media to become civically active. The overthrow of Philippine president Joseph Estrada in 2001 and the World Trade Organization gathering in Seattle in 1999 were all orchestrated through text messaging. This book thus serves as one of the most vital explorations of civic engagement through mobile devices.

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                                                                            • Suárez, Sandra L. 2006. Mobile democracy: Text messages, voter turnout and the 2004 Spanish general election. Representation 42.2: 117–128.

                                                                              DOI: 10.1080/00344890600736358Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                              This research serves as one of the earliest studies on how mobile devices can be used for democratic efforts. The case study focuses on the Spanish general election of 2004. The SMS encouraged nonvoters, new voters, and young voters to go to the polls on election day. This is one of a few mDemocracy peer-reviewed journal articles. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                              mDevelopment

                                                                              The study of mobile media use for technological and economic development is a new research direction in the mobile communication studies field. mDevelopment refers to the use of mobile media to help low-income communities bridge the digital divide and to encourage social change. How mobile media use serves to change communities in Africa, South Asia, and South America is the focus of this research. Donner 2008a is an important reference for mobile media researchers and scholars, as well as for mobile media company decision makers and mobile media policymakers to understand the most current mobile media use in developing world. Whereas Donner 2008b mainly focuses on explaining the culture of the “missing calls” in a country, de Bruijn, et al. 2009; Horst and Miller 2006; and Sullivan 2007 document the processes of mobile media helping the poor. Ekine 2010 focuses on how mobile devices can be used for activism.

                                                                              • de Bruijn, Mirjam, Francis B. Nyamnjoh, and Inge Brinkman, eds. 2009. Mobile phones: The new talking drums of everyday Africa. Bamenda, Cameroon: Langaa.

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                                                                                This book will interest researchers and scholars whose area of focus is development. Policymakers might also find this work to be insightful. Derived from research in six African countries (Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Ghana, Mali, Sudan, and Tanzania), this book provides both theoretical and empirical data that helps its target audience make policy decisions relating to mobile adoption in developing countries. Copublished with the African Studies Centre.

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                                                                                • Donner, Jonathan. 2008a. Research approaches to mobile use in the developing world: A review of the literature. The Information Society: An International Journal 24.3: 140–159.

                                                                                  DOI: 10.1080/01972240802019970Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                  Donner’s article reviews several important research themes, such as mobile media adoption, the social impact of mobile media use, and the relationships between mobile media and users in the mDevelopment area. His research has been widely cited by other scholars within the mobile development field. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                  • Donner, J. 2008b. The rules of beeping: Exchanging messages via intentional “missed calls” on mobile phones. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 13.1: 1–22.

                                                                                    DOI: 10.1111/j.1083-6101.2007.00383.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                    This article discusses how college students and small business owners in Rwanda use mobile “missed calls” to communicate and to save money. Donner found that there are three main uses of mobile beeps: callback, prenegotiated instrumental, and relational. He also discusses how norms are developed for missed calls and “callbacks.”

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                                                                                    • Ekine, Sokari, ed. 2010. SMS uprising: Mobile phone activism in Africa. Cape Town, South Africa: Pambazuka Press.

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                                                                                      This book discusses how short message service (SMS) has been used in Africa for social change. In Zimbabwe, SMS users share news about government propaganda. There are other cases that discuss how SMS can be used for political participation. Mobile media developers, activists, and scholars will find this research useful.

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                                                                                      • Horst, Heather, and Daniel Miller. 2006. The cell phone: An anthropology of communication. Oxford and New York: Berg.

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                                                                                        Heather Horst and Daniel Miller utilize an ethnographic study to examine mobile media use in low-income communities in Jamaica. The book begins by posing a theoretical framework and then examines the historical, political, and economic impact that mobile media adoption and use has. One of the earliest works on mobile media development.

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                                                                                        • Sullivan, Nicholas P. 2007. You can hear me now: How microloans and cell phones are connecting the world’s poor to the global economy. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

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                                                                                          This book focuses on mobile media use in developing countries. GrameenPhone, a partnership between Norway’s Telenor and Grameen Bank, helps small businesses in Bangladesh. People buy phones, receive information, and then conduct business. Discusses several other successful mobile business case examples taken from low-income communities within Africa and Southeast Asia. Sheds light on new mobile media uses for development.

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                                                                                          mFamily

                                                                                          Negotiation of media use in the family setting is often an issue in family communication and relationships. Rakow and Navarro 1993 reports that mothers depend on mobile media to manage their family while away from home. Chen and Katz 2009 finds that American college students show more desire, than do their parents, for keeping in touch through mobile media. “mFamily” here refers to mobile media use in the family setting.

                                                                                          • Chen, Yi-Fan, and James E. Katz. 2009. Extending family to school life: College students’ use of the mobile phone. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies 67.2: 179–191.

                                                                                            DOI: 10.1016/j.ijhcs.2008.09.002Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                            Seeks to understand how mobile phone use fits into the student–parent relationship and especially whether mobile phone use might increase college students’ dependency on (or other forms of involvement with) their parents. The results of this study show that the mobile phone increases the involvement and socialization of students with their families. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                            • Rakow, Lana F., and Vija Navarro. 1993. Remote mothering and the parallel shift: Women meet the cellular telephone. Critical Studies in Mass Communication 10.2: 144–157.

                                                                                              DOI: 10.1080/15295039309366856Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                              One of the earliest mobile-phone use studies from a gender studies perspective. The authors focus on how mobile phones could help mothers to creatively maintain and monitor their children and their homes when they have to work away from home. Interestingly, this research found that these women’s husbands advocate that their wives carry a mobile phone for safety reasons. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                              mFashion

                                                                                              Fortunati, et al. 2003 and Katz 2003 discuss the relationship between mobile media and the human body. They argue that mobile phones can become part of one’s self-image and can help to place one in a particular social group. They report that young people use their mobile media to make fashion statements and to indicate their social status. Different groups create different fashion meanings relating to their mobile media. “mFashion” here refers to the relationship between mobile media and the human body.

                                                                                              • Fortunati, Leopoldina, James Everett Katz, and Raimonda Riccini, eds. 2003. Mediating the human body: Technology, communication and fashion. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

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                                                                                                Explores the interaction between mobile media and the human body. Introduces theories that address that interaction. Several chapters also discuss how the mobile phone allows young users to share information and to foster a sense of identity.

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                                                                                                • Katz, James Everett, ed. 2003. Machines that become us: The social context of personal communication technology. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.

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                                                                                                  This book includes theoretical framework; case studies from around the world; and discussions of fashion, culture, and technology. A highlight is Haddon’s “domestication approach,” which discusses the ways users integrate technologies into their lives. Subsequent chapters focus on the relationship between the user and his or her device.

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                                                                                                  mHealth

                                                                                                  “mHealth” here refers to mobile media use for seeking or receiving health information. Mobile media use for health purposes has become a vital part of mobile communication research. Fox 2010 uses Pew research to study mobile health-information-seeking behavior in the United States. She also reports that health mobile device applications (“apps”) are important mobile apps among young people. Moreover, Obermayer, et al. 2003 finds that texting could aid smokers in cessation. People prefer to receive individual customized health messages through their mobile device. Mobile health-information seeking is an emerging and certainly, ever-growing realm of research.

                                                                                                  • Fox, Susannah. 2010. Mobile health 2010. Washington, DC: Pew Internet and American Life Project.

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                                                                                                    The Pew mHealth report found that younger American mobile media owners between the ages of eighteen and twenty-nine are more likely to use mobile media to search for medical information than are their older counterparts. Fifteen percent of younger mobile media owners have medical apps on their mobile devices, whereas 9 percent of all mobile media owners have medical apps.

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                                                                                                    • Obermayer, Jami L., William T. Riley, Ofer Asif, and Jean-Mary Jersino. 2003. College smoking-cessation using cell phone text messaging. Journal of American College Health 53.2: 71–78.

                                                                                                      DOI: 10.3200/JACH.53.2.71-78Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                      Text messages allow for the exchange of personal messages between users. Researchers around the world found that text messages could be used to encourage students to quit smoking by sending those smokers personal text messages. Subsequent research also finds that short message service could send health messages to the users. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                      mMultimedia

                                                                                                      Mobile media now include more functions than ever before. Camera phones and smart phones have changed the way that people communicate and share information. Goggin and Hjorth 2008 and Hartmann, et al. 2008 cover several different patterns of mobile media use, whereas Koskinen 2007 focuses on how people share mobile images in everyday life. “mMultimedia” here refers to mobile mass communication and mobile image use.

                                                                                                      • Goggin, Gerard, and Larissa Hjorth, eds. 2008. Mobile technologies: From telecommunications to media. New York: Routledge.

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                                                                                                        This book will interest researchers and scholars who study mobile media from international mass communication and human communication perspectives. Contains discussions on mobile media use in family settings and explores themes relating to gender, identity, and other human communication issues through mobile media. Includes research on mobile TV and mobile newspapers. The case studies come from Japan, Korea, Italy, and other countries.

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                                                                                                        • Hartmann, Maren, Patrick Rössler, and Joachim R. Höflich, eds. 2008. After the mobile phone? Social changes and the development of mobile communication. Berlin: Frank and Timme.

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                                                                                                          This book targets researchers and scholars whose realm of research includes mobile mass media and mobile human communication. Some chapters, such as those relating to mobile media use in World Cup 2006, mobile video, and mobile messaging in participation TV, serve as references for mobile mass media scholars. Also includes chapters that study mobile human communication issues, such as networking and the mobile digital divide.

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                                                                                                          • Koskinen, Ilpo Kalevi. 2007. Mobile multimedia in action. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.

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                                                                                                            Provides a sociological approach in the study of how people take, store, and share mobile media images by themselves or with their peers. This is the first English-language book on human communication through mobile media images. Researchers and scholars who study mobile images should find it interesting.

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                                                                                                            mReligion

                                                                                                            mReligion is a small but important area of mobile media research. “mReligion” here refers to mobile media use in religious and spiritual activities. Studies show that people will text their prayers to their respective God, and that they also exchange spiritual support messages with one another using voice or text messages. Campbell 2007 has researched how mobile media is being used in spiritual and religious activities, and along with Bell 2006, provides a new research direction that seeks to understand how mobile media use can be incorporated into religious life. This is a still-emerging field of research.

                                                                                                            • Bell, Genevieve. 2006. No more SMS from Jesus: Ubicomp, religion and techno-spiritual practices. In UbiComp 2006: Ubiquitous computing; Proceedings from the 8th International Conference, UbiComp 2006, Orange County, CA, USA, September 17–21, 2006. Edited by Paul Dourish and Adrian Friday, 141–158. Berlin and New York: Springer.

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                                                                                                              This article provides many ways, such as rendering the Bible into short message service, that mobile media could support religious and spiritual activities. Suggests several possible research directions for scholars who are interested in studying mobile media use in religious and spiritual activities.

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                                                                                                              • Campbell, Heidi. 2007. “What hath god wrought?” Considering how religious communities culture (or kosher) the cell phone. Continuum: Journal of Media and Cultural Studies 21.2: 191–203.

                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1080/10304310701269040Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                Campbell’s case study is about kosher mobile phone use in Amish religious groups. In her study she explains the cultural and social construction of mobile media use in religious activities. This research is interesting because it uses cultural studies to examine the relationship between mobile media and religion.

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                                                                                                                mSpace and mTime

                                                                                                                “mSpace” here refers to mobile media use in changing the traditional concept of space, whereas “mTime” refers to mobile media use in changing the traditional concept of time. mSpace and mTime research use the social interaction perspective to explain how people use mobile media to control their physical and emotional availability to others. Mobile media provide constant communication, regardless of time or space. Understandably, this creates a need for users to manage their availability using mobile media. Mobile media devices allow users to communicate for personal purposes, or for work purposes. Thus people can continue to communicate with the outside world when they are at home (and vice versa), blurring the line between family and work. Public and private spaces have also become blurred in that users can carry on very private conversations in very public areas. Research in Bull 2000, Bull 2005, Bull 2007, and Williams 2007 shows that people use mobile music devices to block unwanted social interaction in the city. Ling and Campbell 2009 and Kleinman 2007 focus more on mobile phone calls and texting. Humphreys 2005 explores how human interactions are altered when one or more of the participants are engaged in media use. Green 2002 provides more of a theoretical approach in explaining how time and space concepts might change because of mobile media uses.

                                                                                                                • Bull, Michael. 2000. Sounding out the city: Personal stereos and the management of everyday life. Oxford and New York: Berg.

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                                                                                                                  This is an ethnographic analysis of personal mobile stereo use in cities. Bull argues that young people use their personal mobile stereos, such as a Walkman or an MP3 player, to block unwanted city sounds and manage personal moods, spaces, and times in buses, trains, and streets.

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                                                                                                                  • Bull, Michael. 2005. No dead air! The iPod and the culture of mobile listening. Leisure Studies 24.4: 343–355.

                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1080/0261436052000330447Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                    Bull’s research argues that iPod users commute with their mobile music devices through the spaces of the city. They use the iPod to create “sound bubbles” to block unwanted city noises. This research is important because it shows that mobile music media could change public spaces into private use in nonverbal ways. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                    • Bull, Michael. 2007. Sound moves: iPod culture and urban experience. New York: Routledge.

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                                                                                                                      Michael Bull, aka “Professor iPod,” focuses on how people consume the iPod in cities. Argues that people use the iPod to navigate through their moods, work, and everyday life. Discusses how people use their iPods to change public space into private use, and to interact with people in different ways, because users have more control of their iPod than of their mobile phones.

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                                                                                                                      • Green, N. 2002. On the move: Technology, mobility, and the mediation of social time and space. The Information Society: An International Journal 18.4: 281–292.

                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1080/01972240290075129Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                        Green posits that mobile media have the potential to change time and space in everyday life. The author argues that several dimensions of time and space are reconstructed because of mobile phone use. Uses ethnographic interview data to demonstrate how mobile phone use could change dimensions of time and space.

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                                                                                                                        • Humphreys, Lee. 2005. Cellphones in public: Social interactions in a wireless era. New Media and Society 7.6: 810–833.

                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1177/1461444805058164Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                          Humphreys’s research explains how mobile phone users interact with other people and with their mobile phones in public spaces. Based on observations and in-depth interview data, she explains how mobile phone users negotiate their human interactions and social relationships in public spaces. This study mainly focuses on nonverbal interactions between mobile phone users and people proximate to the users.

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                                                                                                                          • Kleinman, Sharon, ed. 2007. Displacing place: Mobile communication in the twenty-first century. New York: Peter Lang.

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                                                                                                                            Discusses how mobile media has served to change the concept of space. Includes several different locations, such as the newsroom, classrooms, and hospitals. The research in this edited book shows that mobile media blurs the traditional space boundaries of how people interact, play, and work. Each case study demonstrates how mobile media changes space.

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                                                                                                                            • Ling, Richard Seyler, and Scott W. Campbell, eds. 2009. The reconstruction of space and time: Mobile communication practices. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.

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                                                                                                                              This edited book gathers research on how mobile media have affected people’s everyday lives in relation to concepts of time and space. Using various research methods, the book provides several key concepts (e.g., hyperconnectivity, mobile intimacy, and geographical extension) to explain how mobile media affect individuals and society.

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                                                                                                                              • Williams, Andrew. 2007. Portable music and its functions. New York: Peter Lang.

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                                                                                                                                Similar to Bull’s books on portable music devices, Williams makes the argument that mobile music devices are used to control personal moods and interpersonal relationships in cities.

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                                                                                                                                mYouth

                                                                                                                                The term “mYouth” refers to mobile media use among young people. Young people use mobile media to build their individual identity, group identity, and social network. Ling 2001 finds that young people and mobile media grow together. Young people are learning how to be independent from their family by building their social network outside their family network. The young develop special ways to communicate with their peers through mobile media. They make decisions about who their friends are and who should—and should not—belong to their group. They share texting, phone numbers, music, and videos among their in-group friends. Lenhart, et al. 2010 provides some major mobile media use patterns among American youth.

                                                                                                                                • Lenhart, Amanda, Rich Ling, Scott Campbell, and Kristen Purcell. 2010. Teens and mobile phones. Washington, DC: Pew Internet and American Life Project.

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                                                                                                                                  This Pew report studies how American parents and teens use mobile media. The project collaborates with the University of Michigan. It includes five sectional topics: (1) general mobile media use, (2) texting versus calling, (3) parent and teen interactions through mobile media, (4) rules and regulations of teens’ mobile media use, and (5) the dark side of mobile media use.

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                                                                                                                                  • Ling, R. 2001. “We release them little by little”: Maturation and gender identity as seen in the use of mobile telephony. Personal and Ubiquitous Computing 5.2: 123–136.

                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1007/s007790170015Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                    This study includes two telephone surveys and twelve in-depth interviews conducted in Norway. Ling finds that teens in Norway are gaining their sense of identity through the adoption process of mobile media. This interesting study discusses how mobile media could help teens to become independent and could foster their maturation and gender-identity development. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                    Social Capital

                                                                                                                                    The effect of mobile media on human relationships is an important issue in mobile communication studies. Mobile media enhances social capital within groups (Campbell and Kwak 2010b), with strangers in public settings (Campbell and Kwak 2011), and in civil and political engagements (Campbell and Kwak 2010a). The Humphreys 2007 study examines how a mobile application can enhance social capital, whereas Ling 2008 talks about social capital theory and research using mobile media. Ling and Campbell 2011 provides a broad view of the relationships between mobile media use and social capital.

                                                                                                                                    • Campbell, Scott W., and Nojin Kwak. 2010a. Mobile communication and civic life: Linking patterns of use to civic and political engagement. Journal of Communication 60.3: 536–555.

                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-2466.2010.01496.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                      Campbell and Kwak report on the data derived from a national mail survey in the United States immediately following the 2006 midterm congressional elections. They found that users who are comfortable with their devices and use their devices for information-exchange processes are more likely to be civically engaged. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                      • Campbell, Scott W., and Nojin Kwak. 2010b. Mobile communication and social capital: An analysis of geographically differentiated usage patterns. New Media and Society 12.3: 435–451.

                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1177/1461444809343307Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                        Campbell and Kwak’s study examines mobile media use in creating social capital. The results show that short message service is used to enhance strong ties among peers, whereas voice calls are associated with active membership in organizations. This quantitative study provides a different way of examining the relationship between mobile media use and social capital. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                        • Campbell, Scott W., and Nojin Kwak. 2011. Mobile communication and civil society: Linking patterns and places of use to engagement with others in public. Human Communication Research 37.2: 207–222.

                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-2958.2010.01399.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                          Campbell and Kwak try to understand how mobile communication happens with strangers in public settings. The survey study found that those who use mobile media for coordination and news, increase communication with strangers in public settings. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                          • Humphreys, Lee. 2007. Mobile social networks and social practice: A case study of DodgeBall. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 13.1: 341–360.

                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1111/j.1083-6101.2007.00399.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                            This research is one of the earlier studies that examine how mobile social networks operate (i.e., DodgeBall). The results show that DodgeBall could create “third spaces” for users to interact among loosely tied groups of friends, and could also be used to maintain and reinforce social bonds among users.

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                                                                                                                                            • Ling, Richard Seyler. 2008. New tech, new ties: How mobile communication is reshaping social cohesion. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

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                                                                                                                                              Richard Ling’s book focuses on human relationships through mobile media. He uses the work of sociological theorists such as Emile Durkheim, Erving Goffman, and Randall Collins to explain mobile communication issues. He argues that mobile media enhance ties between family and friends. This book will interest scholars and researchers in human communication through new media.

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                                                                                                                                              • Ling, Richard Seyler, and Scott W. Campbell, eds. 2011. Mobile communication: Bringing us together and tearing us apart. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.

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                                                                                                                                                This book explores mobile communication and social capital. It collects international research from various aspects of mobile use in dis/connect social relationships. The research methods in the book include both qualitative and quantitative analyses of mobile media uses. Balances both positive and negative impacts of mobile media uses.

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                                                                                                                                                Texting

                                                                                                                                                Texting is found to be the most colorful communication method of mobile media use. When mobile media was first developed, texting was not the primary promotion point. Because it is inexpensive and convenient, mobile media users, especially the young, adopt it as a primary mobile media device use. Texting creates an array of conveniences, as well as many concerns. Baron 2008 argues that texting might change people’s writing habits and styles, whereas others (Crystal 2008; Harper, et al. 2005; Taylor and Harper 2003) look at the language change through texting as a cultural phenomenon. Among these, Kasesniemi 2003 is the first book to discuss how people text, as well as the cultural meanings associated with, and derived from, the texting process. Grinter and Eldridge 2002 find some preliminary results for future text-messaging studies. Further, the Grinter and Eldridge 2003 study compares text-messaging communication with other types of mediated communication.

                                                                                                                                                • Baron, Naomi S. 2008. Always on: Language in an online and mobile world. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                  Discusses mobile media literacy, users’ attitudes toward mobile media privacy and ownership, and linguistic norms through mobile media. Also explores young people’s practices when using informal texting, such as the use of abbreviations and contractions. The author also discusses her concerns about the negative consequences of multitasking among young people.

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                                                                                                                                                  • Crystal, David. 2008. Txtng: The Gr8 Db8. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                    A linguist, David Crystal provides examples of different texting abbreviations for his readers. From a historical perspective, he argues that many languages are filled with abbreviations and people have the need to use abbreviations because of the communication limitations imposed by text messaging. This is a great small book for readers who are seeking to explore the positive implications of text-message use.

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                                                                                                                                                    • Grinter, Rebecca E., and Margery A. Eldridge. 2002. y do tngrs luv 2 txt msg? In ECSCW 2001: Proceedings of the Seventh European Conference on Computer-Supported Work, 16–20 September 2001, Bonn, Germany. Edited by W. Prinz, M. Jarke, Y. Rogers, K. Schmidt, and V. Wulf, 219–238. The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic.

                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1007/0-306-48019-0_12Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                      This study finds that UK teens use text messages to arrange times to communicate, to coordinate with family members and friends, and for chatting and gossiping with others. Quick, cheap, and easy are the reasons UK teens send and receive text messages. This research provides some key findings that could aid future research relating to text messaging. This chapter is available for purchase online.

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                                                                                                                                                      • Grinter, Rebecca E., and Margery A. Eldridge. 2003. Wan2tlk? Everyday text messaging. In CHI 2003 New Horizons: Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Fort Lauderdale, FL, April 5–10: Conference Proceedings. Edited by Victoria Bellotti, 441–448. New York: Association for Computing Machinery.

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                                                                                                                                                        This study examines how UK teens incorporate short message service into their daily lives. The data is drawn from interviews and surveys as well as through an analysis of text messages. Pays particular attention to language use and how teens take turns to respond/send text messages. The results show that teens do not exchange text messages with many friends and they end text-message conversations and then use other types of media to carry on the conversations.

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                                                                                                                                                        • Harper, Richard, Leysia Ann Palen, and Alex Taylor, eds. 2005. The inside text: Social, cultural and design perspectives on SMS. Computer Supported Cooperative Work. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.

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                                                                                                                                                          Focuses on text-messaging cultures and practices in different countries. The contributors compare the choice between voice calls and text messages. In the chapter “Gift of the Gab” the author argues that young people use text messages as “gifts” to communicate with their peers.

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                                                                                                                                                          • Kasesniemi, Eija-Liisa. 2003. Mobile message: Young people and a new communication culture. Tampere, Finland: Tampere Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                            This is one of earliest books on teens’ text-messaging culture. Teens in Finland creatively use their text messages to fulfill their communication needs. The teenage text-messaging culture has led Finnish telecommunication companies to develop new products and to provide better services for text messages.

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                                                                                                                                                            • Taylor, A. S., and R. Harper. 2003. The gift of the gab? A design oriented sociology of young people’s use of mobiles. Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) 12.3: 267–296.

                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1023/A:1025091532662Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                              The researchers study how teens use text-messaging services to mediate their social relationships. They make the argument that teens send and receive text messages as “gifts” with their peers. They find that sending a text message to peers may offer friendship and allegiance, as well as intimacy and emotional support. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                              Possible Problems of Mobile Media Use

                                                                                                                                                              While mobile media can bring mobility and connectivity to its users, a group of researchers has concerns about various possible problems connected with its use. Bianchi and Phillips 2005 finds relationships between mobile media usage and low self-esteem, age, and extraversion. Reid and Reid 2007 studies social anxiety and loneliness leading from different mobile media use. Campbell 2006 finds college students use their mobile media to cheat on their exams. Turkel 2011 argues that mobile media have negative impacts on human relationships. Gergen 2002 argues that mobile media users isolate themselves from others who co-present at the same location. Strayer and Johnston 2001 studies the consequences of engaging in mobile phone conversations while driving. Nemme and White 2010 and Walsh, et al. 2008 find the factors of why people engage in mobile media use while they are driving.

                                                                                                                                                              • Bianchi, Adriana, and James G. Phillips. 2005. Psychological predictors of problem mobile phone use. CyberPsychology and Behavior 8.1: 39–51.

                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1089/cpb.2005.8.39Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                Bianchi and Phillips study some possible factors of mobile phone abuse. They find that there are relationships between mobile phone usage and age, extraversion, and self-esteem. Users who have lower self-esteem, are younger, and are more extraverted are more likely to use mobile media. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                                • Campbell, Scott W. 2006. Perceptions of mobile phones in college classrooms: Ringing, cheating, and classroom policies. Communication Education 55.3: 280–294.

                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1080/03634520600748573Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                  Campbell finds negative consequences of mobile media use in college classroom settings. He surveyed a group of college students and faculty members and found that ringing and cheating using mobile media are serious problems in colleges. The participants in the study support mobile media regulations in the classroom. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                                  • Gergen, Kenneth J. 2002. The challenge of absent presence. In Perpetual contact: Mobile communication, private talk, public performance. Edited by James Everett Katz and Mark A. Aakhus, 227–241. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                    Gergen argues that people using mobile media become unavailable for those co-present. He advocates a concept of “absent presence,” in which people are physically present in a place—yet psychologically absent. Gergen comments that mobile media might isolate participants from face-to-face groups.

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                                                                                                                                                                    • Nemme, Heide E., and Katherine M. White. 2010. Texting while driving: Psychosocial influences on young people’s texting intentions and behavior. Accident Analysis and Prevention 42.4: 1257–1265.

                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2010.01.019Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                      Nemme and White study Australian teens’ texting practices while driving. Research finds that attitudes about texting while driving serve as a strong predictor of whether or not a teen will actually text while driving. Group identity is also another factor why those teens engage in texting while driving. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                                      • Reid, Donna J., and Fraser J. M. Reid. 2007. Text or talk? Social anxiety, loneliness, and divergent preferences for cell phone use. CyberPsychology and Behavior 10.3: 424–435.

                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1089/cpb.2006.9936Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                        Authors examine whether social anxiety and loneliness can be related to mobile media use. An online survey finds that lonely people prefer making calls as opposed to texts, whereas people who experience social anxiety prefer texting.

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                                                                                                                                                                        • Strayer, David L., and William A. Johnston. 2001. Driven to distraction: Dual-task studies of simulated driving and conversing on a cellular telephone. Psychological Science 12.6: 462–466.

                                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1111/1467-9280.00386Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                          Strayer and Johnston conduct experiments to examine how engaging in mobile phone conversations may impair driving. They juxtapose these findings to those derived from analyzing how listening to the radio or a book on tape might impair driving. Main finding is that drivers who engaged in mobile phone conversations missed more than when they were not engaged in mobile phone conversations.

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                                                                                                                                                                          • Turkel, Sherry. 2011. Alone together: Why we expect more from technology and less from each other. New York: Basic Books.

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                                                                                                                                                                            Turkel addresses concerns that technology blurs people’s online and offline relationships. Argues that technology leads people to lose their ability to interact with other human beings offline. Author uses the term robotic moment to describe how people rely on technology to shape their regret, gratitude, forgiveness, and love.

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                                                                                                                                                                            • Walsh, Shari P., Katherine M. White, Melissa K. Hyde, and Barry Watson. 2008. Dialling and driving: Factors influencing intentions to use a mobile phone while driving. Accident Analysis and Prevention 40.6: 1893–1900.

                                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2008.07.005Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                              Studies possible factors as to why people use their mobile media while driving and concludes that mobile media increases the risk of being involved in an accident. Study participants report that they have more intentions to make calls while driving than they do to send text messages. Those participants are also more likely to make a mobile phone call while they are at traffic lights. Younger participants also are found to be more likely to use mobile media while driving.

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                                                                                                                                                                              Future Research

                                                                                                                                                                              Mobile media have changed how people communicate and coordinate in their everyday lives. More research is needed to better understand why and how people use mobile media. In research methodology, Höflich and Hartmann 2006 uses an ethnographic method to understand mobile media use and culture. Katz 2008 addresses many important mobile communication research issues and provides important research direction. Katz 2011 points to a new research trend in mobile media policy.

                                                                                                                                                                              • Höflich, Joachim R., and Maren Hartmann, eds. 2006. Mobile communication in everyday life: Ethnographic views, observations and reflections. Berlin: Frank and Timme.

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                                                                                                                                                                                Uses an ethnographic approach to examine how mobile media can influence development and change. Gathers research from different countries and includes various topics such as mobile image uses, public versus private spaces, and relationships.

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                                                                                                                                                                                • Katz, James Everett, ed. 2008. Handbook of mobile communication studies. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  Discusses the social consequences of mobile communication on social networks, other communication strategies, traditional forms of social organization, and political activities. Includes thirty-two international case studies from Ghana, Indonesia, South Korea, and other countries.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  • Katz, James Everett, ed. 2011. Mobile communication: Dimensions of social policy. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    Includes the role of mobile media use in policy formation. Evaluates several issues, including the mobile–digital divide and use of mobile media in political campaigns. Offers a worldwide scope, probing all levels of social policy—from immigration policy to personal privacy within organizations. Mobile researchers, scholars, and policymakers will be interested in this book.

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