Music Brazil
by
Suzel Ana Reily
  • LAST REVIEWED: 05 May 2017
  • LAST MODIFIED: 29 June 2011
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199757824-0007

Introduction

Brazil is commonly represented as a land of music. Indeed, the soundscapes of this vast country are rich and enticing, highlighting, among other things, the diversity in the nation’s physical geographies, in the distinct historical trajectories of each region, in its complex ethnic makeup, and in the contrasts in the distribution of wealth and resources across the population. While academic debate surrounding Brazilian music is certainly lively, the spectrum commonly covered within this monumental musical universe hardly does justice to its research potential. The city of Rio de Janeiro and northeastern Brazil have attracted far greater academic attention than other parts of the country, and this has led to the establishment of a distinction between “Brazilian” music, on the one hand, and “regional” genres and styles, on the other. Studies of music among native Brazilians, however, have tended to follow a distinct research trajectory based fundamentally within an anthropological tradition. Much Brazilian music research has been conducted by Brazilians, whose main output is in Portuguese. The inward-looking orientation of Brazilian scholarship is linked to a sincere commitment to the nation: in a context marked by severe social and economic problems, research has come to be conceived as a search for ways of contributing to the solution of the nation’s predicament. This has led to a research style that shows a greater preoccupation with ethnographic detail than with contemporary theoretical debate. In contrast, the work conducted by foreign scholars, primarily North Americans and Europeans, whose training has typically emphasized generalizing theory as the aim of research, has tended to approach Brazilian music as a source for “case studies.” Nonetheless, a number of common themes emerge from the literature, including: issues linked to the constitution of “authentic” Brazilian music and nation-building; the role of music in the demarcation of class and racial boundaries as well as in the mediation of class and race relations; the centrality of music in religious domains; the role of music and dance in carnival and other forms of collective sociability; the impact of globalization on Brazilian musics, among others.

General Overviews

Few works other than encyclopedia articles (see Reference Works) attempt to treat the full spectrum of Brazilian music in a single text. Most authors focus either on Brazilian art music, popular music, or folk and vernacular traditions. Comprehensive historical overviews can be found in Appleby 1983 and Mariz 2005, while in Béhague 1979 Brazil is encompassed within Latin America (see also Art Music). For overviews of popular music, see McGowan and Pessanha 1998 and Schreiner 2001; Tinhorão 2004 provides a social history (see also Popular Music). The folk domain is covered by Andrade 2006 (see also Folk and Regional Traditions). Reily 2001 provides an overview of Brazilian music viewed from the perspective of the trajectory of the guitar in Brazilian music.

  • Andrade, Mário de. 2006. Ensaio sobre a música brasileira. 4th ed. Belo Horizonte, Brazil: Itatiaia.

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    First published in 1928, the work calls upon Brazilian composers to engage with the national repertoire in their work, defining the trajectory of music production and research in Brazil for the 20th century. The characterization of Brazilian music proposed is based on material derived from the folk domain.

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  • Appleby, David P. 1983. The music of Brazil. Austin: Univ. of Texas Press.

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    To date the only book-length historical overview of Brazilian art music in the English language. It encompasses the colonial period, but the level of detail is greater from the 19th century onward.

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  • Béhague, Gerard. 1979. Music in Latin America: An introduction. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

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    Historical view of art music in Latin America, providing readers with a unique perspective on the distinct ways in which European trends influenced Brazil in relation to their impact on the rest of Latin America.

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  • Mariz, Vasco. 2005. História da música no Brasil. 6th ed. Rio de Janeiro: Nova Fronteira.

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    Originally published in 1981, Vasco Mariz has continuously updated each new edition to embrace further developments in Brazilian art music. The text focuses on the lives and works of named composers in a somewhat encyclopedic fashion. Breadth and detail increases from the Imperial era onward.

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  • McGowan, Chris, and Ricardo Pessanha. 1998. The Brazilian sound: Samba, bossa nova, and the popular music of Brazil. 2d ed. Philadelphia: Temple Univ. Press.

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    Anyone wishing to acquire a general overview of the developments in Brazilian popular music during the 20th century will find this book useful and accessible. It introduces an English-speaking readership to the major popular music composers and performers and to the main songs and recordings in their repertoires.

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  • Reily, Suzel Ana. 2001. Hybridity and segregation in the guitar cultures of Brazil. In Guitar cultures. Edited by Kevin Dawe, 157–177. Oxford, UK: Berg.

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    The guitar is represented as an instrument that mediated class and ethnic tensions in Brazil, such that its trajectory from colonial times to the present provides a unique way of approaching the historical development of Brazilian music and the tensions arising from shifting musical and instrumental hierarchies.

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  • Schreiner, Claus. 2001. Música brasileira: A history of popular music and the people of Brazil. 2d ed. Translated by Mark Weinstein. New York: Marion Boyars.

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    Originally published in German in 1978, this volume still remains the most thorough survey of Brazilian popular music in the English language. Coverage begins in the colonial period progressing to the 1990s, encompassing mainstream genres as well as regional styles.

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  • Tinhorão, José Ramos. 2004. História social da música popular brasileira. 3d ed. São Paulo: Editora 34.

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    Written by the most meticulous and knowledgeable scholar of Brazilian popular music to date, the volume covers material published in other books, but here it is located in relation to wider social forces that promoted or hindered the formation of “authentic” Brazilian popular music. Originally published in 1990.

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Reference Works

Encyclopedia articles providing surveys of Brazilian music include Béhague in Grove Music Online and Olsen and Sheehy 1998, while a range of topics can be accessed in the Marcondes 1998 and the Dicionário Cravo Albin da Música Popular Brasileira. For composers and musicians, see Mariz 1991. Older sources that continue to be useful in Brazilian music research include Andrade 1989, Cascudo 2001, and Vieira 1899.

  • Andrade, Mário de. 1989. Dicionário musical brasileiro. Coordinated by Oneyda Alvarenga and Flávia Camargo Toni. São Paulo: Editora da Univ. de São Paulo.

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    Compiled by Alvarenga and Toni from notes written by Mário de Andrade (b. 1893–d. 1945) over his lifetime. The work provides insight into de Andrade’s research procedures, commentary on his contemporaries, and useful comparative material on a range of topics associated with Brazilian music.

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  • Béhague, Gerard. Brazil. In Grove Music Online.

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    Something of an update of the entry for Brazil in a previous edition of Grove, the current edition provides a general overview of Brazilian music, with the sections “Art Music,” “Traditional Music,” and “Popular Music.” Available online by subscription.

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  • Cascudo, Luís da Câmara. 2001. Dicionário do folclore brasileiro. 10th ed. São Paulo: Global.

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    First published in 1954, the entries encompass what was then considered folklore: legends and other forms of oral narrative, “superstitions” and magic, song genres, dances, and musical instruments. Many entries include bibliographies, which can be very useful in historical investigations of Brazilian music.

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  • Dicionário cravo albin da música popular Brasileira.

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    Following its publication in 2006, the Dicionário Houaiss Ilustrado Música Popular Brasileira (Rio de Janeiro: Paracatu) was made available online as Dicionário Cravo Albin da Música Popular Brasileira. Continuously updated, the site now contains nearly 5,500 entries covering composers, musicians, and musical genres associated with Brazilian popular music.

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  • Marcondes, Marcos Antônio, ed. 1998. Enciclopédia da música brasileira—erudita, folcórica, popular. 2d ed. São Paulo: Art Editora.

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    First published in 1977, this encyclopedia of Brazilian music was updated and expanded for its second edition. It now contains over 3,500 entries. It is the most comprehensive set of reference volumes on Brazilian music, covering composers, musicians, and musical terms.

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  • Mariz, Vasco. 1991. Dicionário biográfico musical: compositores, intérpretes e musicólogos. 3d ed. Belo Horizonte, Brazil: Villa Rica.

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    First published in 1985, this dictionary of the biographies of composers, musicians, and music scholars provides a comprehensive coverage of figures associated with the Brazilian art music world, particularly those active from the early 19th century onward.

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  • Olsen, Dale A., and Daniel E. Sheehy, eds. 1998. The Garland encyclopedia of world music. Vol. 2, South America, Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean. New York and London: Garland.

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    Brazilian music is represented in various entries, including an overview of popular music, regional surveys, and studies of selected Amerindian ethnic groups. Alongside ethnographic information, the authors introduce readers to a range of academic issues and debates associated with their theme.

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  • Vieira, Ernesto. 1899. Diccionario musical. Lisbon: Typ. Lallemant.

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    A useful reference for historical research, particularly regarding musical procedures in the Lusophone world during the 19th century. It explains technical terms and describes the instruments of the period as well as earlier models and identifies the Portuguese equivalents to musical procedures in vogue in other European countries at the time.

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Textbooks

Brazilian music in much of the English-speaking world is taught with the whole of Latin America, requiring music instructors to draw on existing surveys and histories of Brazilian music in their teaching. Now, as the uniqueness of the Brazilian context is being increasingly recognized, two very useful textbooks have appeared in English (Crook 2009 and Murphy 2006) and one in Portuguese (Araújo, et al. 2008).

  • Araújo, Samuel, Gaspar Paz, and Vincenzo Cambria, eds. 2008. Música em debate: Perspectivas interdisciplinares. Rio de Janeiro: Mauad X.

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    Written primarily for Brazilian students, the book also offers a unique glimpse into the issues and theoretical orientations Brazilian scholars consider important in the study of Brazilian musics.

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  • Crook, Larry. 2009. Focus: Music of northeast Brazil. 2d ed. New York: Routledge.

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    A revised version of a previous volume, this textbook (and CD), part of the Focus on Music series, centers on northeastern Brazil. In a fluent and informed manner, it introduces students to the role of music in nation-building, hybridity, race relations, religiosity, subalternity, and local and global flows among other topics.

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  • Murphy, John. 2006. Music in Brazil. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

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    Written in an accessible style directed at undergraduate students, this volume, as part of the Global Music series, addresses the musical construction of Brazil and then regional styles are presented in relation to selected academic issues. The book is accompanied by a CD and complemented by a website.

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Bibliographies

Some published bibliographies will be useful for historical research on Brazilian music as well as in the investigation of Brazilian music historiography, such as Azevedo 1952 (a good source for works in Portuguese), Béhague 1982 (which identifies the most influential sources), and Stevenson 1968 (which includes historical sources). Bibliographies on specific topics of Brazilian music also exist, such as the bibliography on tropicália found on the website Tropicália. For an overview of the latest publications on Brazilian music, see the bibliographies compiled by the Society for Ethnomusicology.

Journals

In the English-speaking world there are no academic journals dedicated to Brazilian music, but articles on Brazilian music feature regularly in journals associated with Latin American culture, most notably Latin American Music Review. With the expansion of the university sector in Brazil, music departments have grown, and many of them founded their own online journal, such as Claves, Per Musi Online, or REM: Revista eletrônica de musicologia, which regularly publish articles on a wide range of issues linked to Brazilian music. The Brazilian National Postgraduate and Research Association (ANPPOM) as well as the Brazilian Ethnomusicological Association (ABET) maintain online journals featuring contributions on Brazilian music (Opus and Musica e Cultura).

Archives and Catalogues

Music research in Brazil today has been greatly facilitated by the work undertaken in archiving and cataloguing the holdings of a range of institutions. The archives and catalogues cited here simply exemplify this work. For colonial and imperial music, for instance, see the Musical Archives of the Diocese of Rio de Janeiro, the Curt Lange Manuscript Collection Catalogue (Duprat 1991–2002), the catalogue of colonial sacred music sponsored by Funarte (Neves 1997), and the catalogue of the holdings of the Carlos Gomes Museum (Nogueira 1997). For popular music, see Archives of the Museu Imagem e Som and Moreira Sales Archives.

Research Methods

Brazilian researchers, particularly those involved in participatory vernacular traditions and the musics of native Brazilians, have become increasingly concerned with devising collaborative research strategies aimed at making research projects relevant to the researched, while also promoting inclusive educational objectives. This section provides two recent sources (Araújo 2006 and Lühning 2006) to exemplify the methodologies and ideologies of this trend.

Art Music

Brazilian Art music historians generally subdivide the field into the following phases: the colonial period up to the arrival of the Portuguese court in Rio in 1808, the imperial era and rise of music nationalism, the modernist movement, Música Viva and its aftermath, and contemporary trends.

Music Histories

The earliest histories of Brazilian music appeared in the early 20th century, such as Mello 1947 and Almeida 1942, a consequence of the rise in nationalist sentiments increased in the country, an orientation that has remained central to much historiography of Brazilian music throughout the 20th century. For the most part, however, existing histories skim over the colonial period, becoming increasingly detailed from the early to mid-19th century onward, notable, for instance, in Azevedo 1956. See also General Overviews.

  • Almeida, Renato. 1942. História da música brasileira. 2d ed. Rio de Janeiro: F. Briguiet & Comp.

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    Originally published in 1926, the volume has been influential in the development of Brazilian music historiography. It contains two clear halves: the first identifies the sources of Brazilian music in folklore and native societies; the second portrays the progressive Brazilianization in the outputs of Brazilian composers.

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  • Azevedo, Luiz Heitor Correa de. 1956. 150 anos de Música no Brasil (1800–1950). Rio de Janeiro: José Olimpio

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    Whilst sustaining a nationalist orientation, Azevedo’s narrative constitutes an update on Almeida’s formative text.

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  • Mello, Guilherme Teodoro Pereira de. 1947. A música no Brasil: Desde os tempos coloniais até o primeiro decênio da República. 2d ed. Rio de Janeiro: Imprensa Nacional.

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    Originally published in 1908, the volume draws on available archival sources to identify Brazilian musical practices, encompassing folk, popular, and parlor traditions.

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The Colonial Period

Brazilian colonial music research was pioneered in the 1940s by the German-Uruguayan musicologist Francisco Curt Lange, whose treks through the former mining towns in Minas Gerais generated a monumental manuscript collection of 18th century locally composed liturgical music and numerous studies of colonial music (Lange 1990). Remarkably, Brazilian researchers were slow to turn their attention to this musical universe, but today several competent historical musicologists as well as historians are reversing this trend. For a study of Jesuit musical activity, see Castagna 2006. The focus of Duprat 1985 is the Vale do Paraíba region of southeastern Brazil. Nery 2001covers a range of musical genres and regions, while the late José Maria Neves wrote mainly on the liturgical musics of Minas Gerais. Among the works from historians, Furtado 2008 portrays the general sound world of colonial Minas, and Leoni 2007 discusses the social world of the colonial professional musicians.

  • Castagna, Paulo. 2006. The use of music by the Jesuits in the conversion of the indigenous peoples of Brazil. In The Jesuits II: Culture, sciences, and the arts, 1540–1773. Edited by John W. O’Malley, 641–658. Toronto: Univ. of Toronto Press.

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    In an example of meticulous historiographic scholarship, Castagna has documented the use of music by the Jesuits over nearly two centuries. He shows how strategies shifted both geographically and temporally during the colonial period, fluctuating with political agendas.

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  • Duprat, Régis. 1985. Garimpo musical. São Paulo: Nova Meta.

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    A set of unassuming articles, yet it is here that Duprat introduces his finding of the nation’s oldest music manuscripts, the now-renowned Mogi das Cruzes manuscripts (c. 1730–1735). Other chapters characterize the musical styles employed in the Vale do Paraíba region of São Paulo during the 18th century.

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  • Furtado, Júnia Ferreira. 2008. Os sons e os silêncios nas minas de ouro. In Sons, formas, cores e movimentos na modernidade atlântica: Europa, Américas e África. Edited by Júnia Ferreira Furtado, 19–56. São Paulo: Belo Horizonte, Brazil: FAPEMIG, PPGH-UFMG.

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    Best qualified as a historical acoustimology of the mining regions. Shows how alterations in sounds, musical styles, and performance practices identified places, daily and calendrical cycles, power relations, alliances, and the life cycle.

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  • Lange, Francisco Curt. 1990. A música em Minas Gerais—um informe preliminar. In O alemão que descobriu a América. Edited by Rui Mourão and translated by Jaime Prado Govea, 99–179. Belo Horizonte, Brazil: Itatiaia.

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    Originally published in Spanish in 1946, this “preliminary” report already contained Lange’s main findings on the music of colonial Minas Gerais: a post-baroque/pre-classical musical style; the overwhelming presence of mulattos among the professional musicians; a system of music instruction and the consolidation of groups of musicians, among others.

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  • Leoni, Aldo Luiz. 2007. Os que vivem da arte da música, Vila Rica, século XVIII. MA thesis, Universidade de Campinas.

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    An innovative study by a young historian that carefully describes the tactics used by professional musicians in the 18th century mining regions to secure contracts, highlighting the links between military and ecclesiastical performance spaces.

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  • Nery, Ruy Viera, ed. 2001. A música no Brasil colonial. Lisbon: Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian.

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    Based on proceedings of the International Colloquium on Brazilian colonial music held in Lisbon in 2000, the volume provides a useful overview of the themes engaging researchers of this topic, including sources, sacred music, modinhas and operas, instruments, and performance practices.

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The 19th Century

Studies of Brazilian art music in the 19th century are generally directed at a particular musician, such as Carlos Gomes (Salles, et al. 1987), or at the sociocultural environment surrounding the music (Magaldi 2004 and Nogueira 2001). See also Music Histories.

  • Salles, Vicente, et al. 1987. Carlos Gomes: Uma obra em foco. Rio de Janeiro: FUNARTE.

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    A collection of essays on various aspects of the life and work of Carlos Gomes. A good place to begin research, particularly in relation to his operas.

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  • Magaldi, Cristina. 2004. Music in imperial Rio de Janeiro: European culture in a tropical milieu. Oxford: Scarecrow.

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    A discussion of the efforts of Cariocas to sustain a European (or civilized) musical culture in (tropical) Rio during the 19th century. The author also shows how art music fashions changed over the century, shifting from Italian opera to German orchestral music to an increasingly Brazilianized and popular aesthetic.

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  • Nogueira, Lenita W. M. 2001. Música em Campinas nos últimos anos do império. Campinas: Editora da Unicamp.

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    A meticulous, quasi-encyclopedic investigation of the musical life of Campinas in the second half of the 19th century, encompassing orchestras, choral groups, music instruction, civic wind bands, as well as the settings of musical performance and their repertoires.

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Villa-Lobos and the Modernists

As Brazil’s most renowned composer, it is not surprising that a large body of literature has been produced regarding Villa-Lobos, his music, and his musical achievements, a bibliography represented here by Keifer 1986, Peppercorn 1996, and Tarasti 1994. As the modernist movement in Brazil was strongly nationalist in orientation, Villa Lobos has been commonly viewed, rightly or wrongly, within this trend, despite its internal contradictions, noted by some authors, such as Wisnik 1983. One of the key architects of Brazilian modernism was Mário de Andrade, whose approach has been studied, among others, by Travassos 1997. See also Music Histories.

  • Keifer, Bruno. 1986. Villa-Lobos e o modernismo na música brasileira. 2d ed. Brasília: Fundação Nacional Pró-Memória.

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    An attempt to identify the links in Villa-Lobos’s music and the aims of the modernist movement, particularly as explicated in the “Week of Modern Art” held in São Paulo in 1922.

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  • Peppercorn, Lisa M. 1996. The world of Villa-Lobos in pictures and documents. Aldershot, UK: Scolar Press.

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    A comprehensive and accessible book based on the author’s close acquaintance with the composer, written in a journalistic but personal style. She has also been accredited with setting the record straight on a number of details pertaining to Villa-Lobos’s biography.

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  • Tarasti, Eero. 1994. Heitor Villa-Lobos: The life and works, 1887–1959. Jefferson, NC: McFarland.

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    An accessible book-length English-language source on this major Brazilian composer.

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  • Travassos, Elizabeth. 1997. Os mandarins milagrosos: Arte e etnografia em Mário de Andrade e Béla Bartók. Rio de Janeiro: Funarte, Jorge Zahar.

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    A comparative study of the ways in which Mário de Andrade and Béla Bartók embarked upon their projects of constructing a national art tradition in their respective countries. While holding distinct views and operating in unique ways, their engagement with modernity involved locating the new in the past.

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  • Wisnik, José Miguel. 1983. O Coro dos contrários: A música em torno da semana de 22. 2d ed. São Paulo: Duas Cidades, Séc. da Cultura, Ciência e Tecnologia.

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    Against the typical celebratory tone commonly found in writings related to the “Week of Modern Art,” Wisnik focused on the internal contradictions it embodied: the combination of modernism with nationalism; lower-class regionalisms in elite pastiches. The first major critique of the nationalist orientation in Brazilian music and music research.

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Música Viva and Its Aftermath

In the late 1930s the Música Viva movement, centered on dodecaphonic composition, emerged, challenging the nationalist orientations prevailing in the Brazilian musical universe. Kater 2001 contends that Música Viva had an impact well beyond the circle of musicians directly involved in the movement. For Neves 2008, 20th-century Brazilian music existed in a tense fluctuation between the national and the international. See also Music Histories.

Popular Music

Popular music is understood here as recorded and presentational styles of music acquired through informal and/or semiformal means. As the former capital of Brazil, Rio de Janeiro was also the cultural capital of the nation, such that the canonical narrative of Brazilian popular music became synonymous with musical development in Rio. In the 1970s, however, a number of “regional” styles were able to challenge Rio’s hegemonic position, gaining national and international recognition. Recordings of a range of genres of Brazilian popular music can be heard online at Rádio Uol. There are countless overviews and surveys of Brazilian popular music, some extensive, some less so. The texts included here were chosen for various reasons: their historical significance to the study of Brazilian popular music (Tinhorão 1981; Souza, et al. 1988), their presentational style (Laranjeiras, et al. 2005; Severiano and Homem de Mello 2002), their conceptualization of Brazilian popular music (Moraes 1997, Ulhôa 1997), their academic argument (Stroud 2008, Tatit 1996). See also General Overviews.

  • Laranjeira, Emília Beatriz, Isaac Nunes Freitas, and Tatyane Castro Costa, eds. 2005. Brazilian popular music: Texts from Brasil. Revista Textos do Brasil 11.

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    A series of short, accessible texts on Brazilian popular music written by renowned scholars of Brazilian music. Very useful in undergraduate teaching. The paper version includes a CD. Also available in Portuguese and Spanish.

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  • Moraes, José Geraldo Vinci de. 1997. Sonoridades paulistanas: Final do século XIX ao início do século XX. Rio de Janeiro: Funarte.

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    A portrayal of musical life in São Paulo around the turn of the 20th century, highlighting the diversity of popular musical spheres that coexisted and overlapped in the city, a soundscape that articulated with the complexities of a growing urban environment.

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  • Severiano, Jairo, and Zuza Homem de Mello. 2002. A canção no tempo–85 anos de músicas brasileiras. 5th ed. 2 vols. São Paulo: Editora 34.

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    In a journalistic style, the volumes introduce readers to the hit songs of 20th-century Brazil. The songs are viewed primarily in relation to the social world surrounding popular music, highlighting the link between compositions and the social life of the musicians.

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  • Souza, Tárik de. 1988. Brasil musical: Viagem pelos sons e ritmos populares. Rio de Janeiro: Art Bureau Representações e Edições de Arte.

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    In a quasi-encyclopedic style, the volume contains a collection of articles by eminent Brazilian scholars on the main genres of Brazilian popular music from the colonial period to the late 20th century.

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  • Stroud, Sean. 2008. The defence of tradition in Brazilian popular music: Politics, culture and the creation of Música Popular Brasileira. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate.

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    For Stroud the nationalist sentiments linked to Brazilian music since the early 20th century developed out of a need to “defend” national culture from foreign forces. Ironically, though, it was television that mobilized masses during the competitive song festivals of the 1960s, fueling musical nationalism.

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  • Tatit, Luiz. 1996. O cancionista: Composição de canções no Brasil. São Paulo: Editora da Universidade de São Paulo.

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    Drawing on well-known songs, Tatit demonstrates his unique method of semantic musical analysis, a system that assumes the ability of the composer/performer to set text to melody in such a way as to extend speech into melody to produce an expressive tension that touches listeners.

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  • Tinhorão, José Ramos. 1981. Música populardo—gramofone ao rádio e tv. São Paulo: Ática.

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    A pioneering discussion of the impact of the mass media on the musical expressions of Brazil. Tinhorão highlights the continuous struggle between hegemonic forces and common citizens over the control of broadcasting.

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  • Ulhôa, Martha Tupinambá de. 1997. Nova história, velhos sons: Notas para ouvir e pensar a música brasileira popular. Debates 1.1: 80–101.

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    Drawing on a range of genres, but especially bossa nova, Ulhôa conceptualizes popular music for a Brazilian context.

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Formative Genres

Up until recently research on 19th-century popular music tended to focus on the modinha and the lundu, as these genres were seen as the first “authentic” Brazilian musical styles. Andrade 1980 and Lima 2001 link stylistic analysis to musical scores; Araújo 1963focuses on the historical development of the genre; and Veiga 1998provides an assessment of the vast literature on modinhas. A broader orientation to pre-20th-century Brazilian popular music practice can be found in Budasz 2007 and Chasteen 1996.

  • Andrade, Mário de. 1980. Modinhas imperiais. 3d ed. Belo Horizonte, Brazil: Itatiaia.

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    A collection of Brazilian modinhas and lundus, originally published in 1930. Includes a discussion of the genre in terms of their national content.

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  • Araújo, Mozart de. 1963. A modinha e o lundu no século XVIII. São Paulo: Ricordi.

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    A seminal work based on a rare collection of 18th-century documents. In the book Araújo portrays the emergence and development of Brazilian popular music styles in the colonial period.

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  • Budasz, Rogério. 2007. Black guitar-players and early African-Iberian music in Portugal and Brazil. Early Music 35.1: 3–21.

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    A study of popular genres of colonial Brazil and the wider Lusophone world, drawing primarily on existing works by Gregório de Mattos (b. 1636–d. 1696). The article reassesses conceptions regarding the hybridity of Brazilian music in light of the racial make up of 18th-century popular musicians and their performance opportunities.

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  • Chasteen, John Charles. 1996. The prehistory of samba: Carnival dancing in Rio de Janeiro, 1840–1917. Journal of Latin American Studies 28.1: 29–47.

    DOI: 10.1017/S0022216X00012621Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A discussion of the hybridized 19th-century communal dances that preceded 20th-century samba. While samba schools may only have been recognized in the 1920s, blacks and mulattos were dancing in public spaces long before that, providing the matrix for carnival parades.

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  • Lima, Edilson Vicente de. 2001. As modinhas do Brasil. São Paulo: EdUSP.

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    A publication of the renowned Brazilian modinhas found in the Ajuda Library in Lisbon, including a stylistic analysis of the collection, photos of the original manuscripts, transcriptions and a CD they can all be heard on. An important contribution to modinha scholarship.

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  • Veiga, Manuel. 1998. O estudo da modinha brasileira. Latin American Music Review 19.1: 47–91.

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    A systematic and critical survey of publications on the modinha from the 19th to the close of the 20th centuries. A useful starting point for research of 19th-century Brazilian popular music.

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Choro

Despite its popularity and revivial in the 1970s, the choro has received far less academic attention than one might have expected. In the last few decades, however, some popular music scholars have turned their attention to the genre in Brazil (Cabral 1997, Cazes 1998) as well as abroad (Livingston-Isenhour and Garcia 2005).

  • Cabral, Sérgio. 1997. Pixinguinha: Vida e obra. 2d ed. Rio de Janeiro: Lumiar Editora.

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    In a journalistic style, the book introduces readers to one of the most virtuosic choro composers and performers of all time.

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  • Cazes, Henrique. 1998. Choro: Do quintal ao Municipal. São Paulo: Editora 34.

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    Written by a performer, the volume serves as an enjoyable introduction to the choro. Particularly useful account of the revival of the choro in the 1970s.

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  • Livingston-Isenhour, Tamara Elena, and Thomas George Caracas Garcia. 2005. Choro: A social history of a Brazilian popular music. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Press.

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    Along with an informed historical narrative of the development of the choro as a musical genre, the authors portray the enjoyment choro offers performers in the informal settings in which it is played. The book comes with a CD containing both studio and field recordings.

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Samba

Samba is unquestionably the most celebrated symbol of Brazil and literature on the topic abounds. The sources identified here aim to cover the main styles of samba and some of the ways in which the topic has been approached by academia: a media focus (McCann 2004), a socio-musicological focus (Sandroni 2001), a social history (Shaw 1999), and a nation-building perspective (Vianna 1999). See also Popular Music.

  • McCann, Bryan. 2004. Hello, hello Brazil: Popular music in the making of modern Brazil. Durham, NC: Duke Univ. Press.

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    A meticulous archival study of live radio broadcasting during the Estado Novo, showing how samba and other genres of popular music coexisted. The role of the audience is highlighted, showing how fan clubs contributed to the strengthening of national sentiments across the country.

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  • Sandroni, Carlos. 2001. Feitiço decente: Transformações do samba no Rio de Janeiro (1917–1933). Rio de Janeiro: Jorge Zahar/Editora UFRJ.

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    A systematic analysis of the transformation of samba around 1930. Starting with the syncopations of early recordings, Sandroni shows how musical elements, from the lundu to the global products of the culture industry, became absorbed into samba, facilitating the normalization of hybrid musical sensibilities in the country.

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  • Shaw, Lisa. 1999. The social history of the Brazilian samba. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate.

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    A clear and useful discussion of the emergence and consolidation of the distinction between participatory carnival samba and the recorded form, or samba-canção. The range of orientations to samba-canção are portrayed through biographic and stylistic studies of three composer-performers: Ataulfo Alves, Noel Rosa, and Ari Barroso.

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  • Vianna, Hermano. 1999. The mystery of samba: Popular music and national identity in Brazil. Translated by J. C. Chasteen. Chapel Hill: Univ. of North Carolina Press.

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    A study of intellectual climate in early-20th-century Rio surrounding the emergence of samba. The “mystery” pertains to how samba suddenly became a national symbol, being previously disparaged. Yet music is shown to have mediated inter-class/race interaction long before hybridity was viewed as a desirable national trait.

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Bossa Nova

No survey of Brazilian music omits the bossa nova (see Popular Music), since it has been typically presented as the dividing line in Brazilian popular music, after which everything changed. Books that have been dedicated to the style include Campos 2005, a seminal collection of essays and Castro 2000, recently translated into English.

  • Campos, Augusto de, ed. 2005. Balanço da bossa e outras bossas. 5th ed. São Paulo: Editora Perspectiva.

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    This seminal collection of essays initially published in 1968 identifies the musical features and message of bossa nova and its aftermath, while its manifesto-like character may have influenced perceptions of bossa nova and the future directions of Brazilian popular music.

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  • Castro, Ruy. 2000. Bossa nova: The story of the Brazilian music that seduced the world. Translated by Lysa Salsbury. Chicago: A Capella.

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    In an engaging journalistic text, readers are introduced to the people who created and sustained bossa nova. Based on interviews and extensive archival research, the composers, performers, critics, producers, and fans are depicted in a storylike, yet informative, fashion.

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MPB (Under Dictatorship)

Bossa nova> gave way to an increasingly politicized music, that came to be referred to as “MPB,” or “Música Popular Brasileira.” Most overviews and surveys include chapters on the protest movement (see Popular Music), while the two articles listed here (Stroud 2000 and Treece 1997) are good starting points to the debates that gave rise to MPB and to the ways in which popular music came to be conceptualized in Brazil during the dictatorship.

  • Stroud, Sean. 2000. “Música é para o povo cantar”: Culture, politics and the Brazilian song festivals, 1965–1972. Latin American Music Review 21.2: 87–117.

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    A discussion of the role of the 1960s song festivals in debates related to musical authenticity and Brazilian national identity within the context of the dictatorship and state censorship.

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  • Treece, David. 1997. Guns and roses: Bossa nova and Brazil’s music of popular protest, 1958–68. Popular Music 16.1: 1–29.

    DOI: 10.1017/S0261143000000672Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    An account of the emergence and impact of protest songs and their dialogue with the middle-class aesthetics of bossa nova, contradictions that become further marked with the emergence of the song festivals and the adoption of MPB protest anthems within popular movements.

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Tropicália

Tropicália brought some of samba’s tropical exuberance back into Brazilian popular music, an aesthetic that informs the design of the website coordinated by Ana de Oliveira. Campos 2005 also highlights the links of the movement to the modernist movement and to concrete poetry, which has also fascinated many literary critics. Both Christopher Dunn and Lorraine Leu, who have published on the subject in English (Dunn 2001, Leu 2006), have backgrounds in Portuguese studies. See also Popular Music.

  • Campos, Augusto de, ed. 2005. Balanço da bossa e outras bossas. 5th ed. São Paulo: Editora Perspectiva.

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    The exponents of tropicália feature prominently in the essays of this volume, where they are presented as capable of placing Brazilian music back on its evolutional track.

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  • Dunn, Christopher. 2001. Brutality garden: Tropicália and the emergence of a Brazilian counterculture. Chapel Hill: Univ. of North Carolina Press.

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    A study of the tropicália movement that identifies links between the music and other artistic media of the era. Though highly controversial at the time, Dunn shows how tropicália influenced the “evolutionary line” of Brazilian popular music thereafter.

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  • Leu, Lorraine. 2006. Brazilian popular music: Caetano Veloso and the regeneration of tradition. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate.

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    In a meticulous study spanning four decades of Caetano Veloso’s professional career, Leu shows how Veloso combined musical, textual, and performative elements to create his songs, altering the ingredients with each new LP.

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  • Tropicália.

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    A wide-ranging bilingual (Portuguese/English) website that provides a comprehensive coverage of the tropicália movement for both an academic and nonacademic readership. The site includes informative texts, photos, and access to recordings as well as an “academics” page. An ideal place to begin research on the topic.

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Regional Styles

During the 1970s it becomes increasing difficult to identify a mainstream genre of Brazilian popular music, as a range of distinct popular music styles with regional flavors emerged around the country and found niches in local as well as national and international markets. The references in this section refer to a selection of the most prominent regional styles in Brazil, drawing attention to their development alongside the Rio-based canon. Often histories and surveys of Brazilian popular music dedicate a chapter to these regional styles (see Popular Music).

The Northeast

The northeastern traditions have received by far the greatest academic attention. Some of the earliest studies were directed at the forró, a style made popular by Luiz Gonzaga, addressing different periods and different aspects of music production. Vieira 2000 looks at the first phase of national popularity of the tradition, Ferretti 2007 assesses its revival, and Ramalho 2000 analyzes the repertoire. The manguebeat that developed in Recife in the 1990s attracted considerable academic attention, becoming the focus of several studies, including Galinsky 2001 and Vargas 2008, whose approaches to hybridity vary.

  • Ferretti, Mundicarmo. 2007. Baião dos dois: Luiz Gonzaga e Zedantas. 2d ed. Recife: CEPE.

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    An investigation of the production and social use of the northeastern baiões composed by Luiz Gonzaga and Zedantas, which first appeared in Rio in the 1940s, but gained prominence in the 1970s. Ferretti looks at the strategies employed by the musicians in breaking into the southern market. Originally published in 1988.

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  • Galinsky, Philip. 2001. “Maracatu atômico”: Music, tradition, modernity and postmodernity in the Mangue Movement and the the “new music scene” of Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. New York: Routledge.

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    The first major study of manguebeat in the English language. To show how subaltern musicians engage with modernity and global forces, the author investigates the formation of this new hybrid genre that mixes international styles (rock, funk, rap, etc.) with local rhythms, especially the maracatu and coco.

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  • Ramalho, Elba Braga. 2000. Luiz Gonzaga: A síntese poética e musical do sertão. São Paulo: Terceira Margem.

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    An excellent starting point to investigate the work of Luiz Gonzaga and the sources of his popularity. The book includes: an informative biography, a detailed musicological analysis of Gonzaga’s compositional style copiously illustrated with transcriptions, the words to his most important songs, and a full guide to his recordings.

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  • Vargas, Herom. 2008. Hibridismos musicais de Chico Science e Nação Zumbi. Cotia, Brazil: Ateliê Editorial.

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    Rather than viewing manguebeat as an outcome of globalization, Vargas contends that hybridity is embedded in Brazilian cultural sensibilities. Major figures of the movement claimed they followed the “cannibalism” of the modernists, while actively distinguishing their music from the blocos afro sounds of Bahia.

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  • Vieira, Sulamita. 2000. O sertão em movimento: A dinâmica da produção cultural. São Paulo: Annablume.

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    Focusing on the 1940s and 1950s, this is a study of the nationalization of a regional tradition: the northeastern in the work of Luiz Gonzaga during the 1940s and 1950s.

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Minas Gerais

Although the movement known as Clube da Esquina (“Corner Club”) emerged in the 1960s, it is only recently that it has become the focus of serious research. Most studies of the Clube da Esquina remain unpublished, with the exception of Martins 2009.

  • Martins, Bruno Viveiros. 2009. Som imaginário: A reinvenção da cidade nas canções do Clube da Esquina. Belo Horizonte, Brazil: Editora UFMG.

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    An assessment of the way in which the members of the Clube da Esquina used music to mediate their experiences of the military dictatorship. Through their music, the author argues, the participants in the movement imagined an alternative reality based on dialogue and the free expression of ideas.

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Música Sertaneja

Because música sertaneja, or Brazilian “country music,” was intensely disparaged by the middle classes, it was more or less ignored by the academic community, even though its record sales exceeded those of MPB even in the 1960s. By the 1980s, however, it had attained such a level of visibility that it could no longer be overlooked, and a few researchers turned their attention to it, Dent 2009 and Nepomuceno 1999 among them.

  • Dent, Alexander Sebastian. 2009. River of tears: Country music, memory, and modernity in Brazil. Durham, NC: Duke Univ. Press.

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    An outstanding ethnography of a neglected but extremely popular style of Brazilian music: música sertaneja. Even though it is disparaged by the Brazilian elites, Dent contends that it provides rural migrants and their descendants with a means of coping with the rapid pace of change associated with urban living.

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  • Nepomuceno, Rosa. 1999. Música caipira: Da roça ao rodeio. São Paulo: Editora 34.

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    A comprehensive and well-researched narrative of the emergence and development of música sertanja, which, following the norms of Editora 34, is in an approachable journalistic style.

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The South

The musics of southern Brazil are among the least studied, though pioneer research by Lucas 2000 may be shifting this trend.

MPB (Post-Dictatorship)

Alongside regional developments, something of a mainstream, commonly identified as MPB, has persisted in the economic centers of southern Brazil, particularly in the work of those musicians, investigated by Moehn 2008, who see their work as a continuation of samba. Rio has also been the central focus of the instrumental music often referred to as “Brazilian jazz,” which has been investigated by Lima Neto 2000. The segmentation of the music industry during the 1980s and 1990s also created space for a range of styles developing among the lower classes, whose record buying power now allowed them to define trends: they often bought into genres disparaged by the middle and upper classes, such as pagode, a discussion confronted by Galinsky 1996 and Leme 2003.

  • Galinsky, Philip. 1996. Co-option, cultural resistance, and Afro-Brazilian identity: A history of the “Pagode” samba movement in Rio de Janeiro. Latin American Music Review 17.2: 120–149.

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    By looking at the diverse manifestations of musical genres called pagode in Rio de Janeiro, this study offers a way of thinking about the continuous interaction between samba among low-income black communities and the mass media.

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  • Leme, Mônica Neves. 2003. Que tchan é esse: Indústria e produção musical no Brasil dos anos 90. São Paulo: Annablume.

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    An investigation of the Bahian pagode band É o Tchan, disparaged by many for its sexual innuendos. Leme shows how the group’s performances are linked to a long musical tradition (lundu, maxixi, samba, etc.) that the music industry makes use of to present its products as both Brazilian and modern.

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  • Lima Neto, Luiz Costa. 2000. The experimental music of Hermeto Paschoal e grupo (1981–93): A musical system in the making. British Journal of Ethnomusicology 9.1: 119–142.

    DOI: 10.1080/09681220008567294Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A discussion of Hermeto Pascoal’s music during the 1980s, which encompassed rhythms, melodic materials, and the soundscapes of his childhood as well as the outcomes of his experiments with the natural properties of sound. These procedures generated a unique musical discourse, which lays claim to being both regional and universal/deterritorialized.

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  • Moehn, Frederick. 2008. Music, mixing and modernity in Rio de Janeiro. Ethnomusicology Forum 17.2: 165–202.

    DOI: 10.1080/17411910802283983Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    An investigation of the discourses used by Fernanda Abreu, who sees her work as a continuity of the “cannibalist” project of the modernists. Like her predecessors, her music “mixes” samba with the global styles heard in Rio, such as rock, funk, rap, and others to produce “authentic” Brazilian music.

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Global Trends in Local Scenes

In the 1980s and 1990s global styles of music, particularly funk, became extremely visible, initially in Rio and then farther afield. This attracted academic attention, and several researchers embarked on studies of these new musical scenes, many of whom contributed to the volume edited by Perrone and Dunn 2001. Sneed 2007 highlights the links between global musics and organized crime in Rio. Another dimension of the global dynamic in the music industry pertains to the growing popularity of gospel and recorded religious music, a topic approached by Burdick 2009. See Regional Styles and MPB (Post-Dictatorship) for examples of Brazilian hybrid musical genres that have drawn on popular global styles.

  • Burdick, John. 2009. The singing voice and racial politics on the Brazilian evangelical music scene. Latin American Music Review 30.1: 25–55.

    DOI: 10.1353/lat.0.0032Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A discussion of Brazilian gospel, based on a range of North American black musics including gospel, soul, blues, R&B, funk, etc. The author assesses the extent to which the use of black sounds is contributing to the formation of a black identity among evangelicals in Brazil.

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  • Perrone, Charles A., and Christopher Dunn, eds. 2001. Brazilian popular music and globalization. Gainesville: Univ. Press of Florida.

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    A collection of articles on a range of genres of Brazilian music that have been impacted by globalization as well as global styles that have been localized in Brazil. Begins with a useful introduction to globalization in Brazil, followed by chapters on tropicália, heavy metal, funk, reggae, and various hybridized styles.

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  • Sneed, Paul. 2007. Bandidos de Cristo: Representations of the power of criminal factions in Rio’s proibidão funk. Latin American Music Review 28.2: 220–241.

    DOI: 10.1353/lat.2007.0035Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    An investigation of the ways gangs and drug traffickers in the slums of Rio organize large dance events to consolidate their control of the favelas. Portraying the traffickers as defenders of the locality, the music is recorded live at the dances for distribution in the area.

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Folk and Participatory Traditions

Initially the Brazilian folk music traditions were collected and studied by scholars and composers, as this material was seen to embody the national soul. Once collected, serious musicians could draw on the material in their compositions, generating a national music repertoire. As anthropological and ethnomusicological perspectives gained ground, research turned increasingly to in-depth ethnographic research in order to analyze musical and ritual structures in relation to the wider social context, identify the meaning of musical activities for their participants, investigate the experiences promoted by communal musicking, and assess the links between musical activity and the formation of identities, among other themes. Classic collections such as Andrade 2002, Araújo 2004, and the sound recording made during the “Folklore Mission” (see Mission for Folklore Research, Sound, and Iconography) were undertaken primary to provide material for the nation’s art music composers. While the Guerra-Peixe 2007 initial collections may have been conducted with compositional objectives, they transcended them in their representation of the musical sensibilities of the folk musicians they depicted. Mendonça 1981 identifies the overlapping spheres of local musicking, which blur the boundaries between art, popular, and folk musics in traditional communities. Projects such as Sons da rua, on the other hand, aim to celebrate cultural diversity and give popular artists a platform to publicize their work. Lucas and Luz 2006 takes a collaborative orientation, aimed at highlighting the preservation of community memory and the promotion of cultural understanding.

  • Andrade, Mário de. 2002. Danças dramáticas do Brasil. 2d ed. 3 vols. Compiled by Oneyda Alvarenga. Belo Horizonte and Brasília: Itatiaia, Instituto Nacional do Livro, Fundação Nacional Pró-Memória.

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    Compiled by Alvarenga after de Andrade’s death, the volumes made available de Andrade’s extensive collection of Brazilian folk dance-dramas, including his commentaries and transcriptions. Northeastern dance-dramas predominate, but variations from other parts of the country are also included. See also Mission for Folklore Research.

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  • Araújo, Alceu Maynard. 2004. Folclore nacional. 3 vols. São Paulo: Martins Fontes.

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    A classic collection of Brazilian folklore originally published in 1964. The volumes cover festivals, dances, myths, and legends (Volume 1); recreational dances and music (Volume 2); and rites, folk knowledge, and popular arts (Volume 3).

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  • Guerra-Peixe, César. 2007. Estudos de folclore e música popular urbana. Organized and introduced by Samuel Araújo. Belo Horizonte, Brazil: Editora UFMG.

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    A collection of short essays by Guerra-Peixe (b. 1914–d. 1993), pertaining primarily, though not exclusively, to his observations of folk musical traditions in Recife. Araújo’s introduction to the collection highlights Guerra-Peixe’s musical sensitivity; he identified a distinct musicality in the traditions he documented, and he strived to transpose it to his transcriptions.

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  • Lucas, Glaura, and José Bonifácio da Luz. 2006. Cantando e reinando com os Arturos. Belo Horizonte, Brazil: Editora Rona.

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    A beautifully produced collaborative project between researchers and the congado community of the Arturos. Contains a description of the rituals associated with the devotion to Our Lady of the Rosary, song texts, photos, two CDs.

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  • Mendonça, Belkiss S. Carneiro. 1981. A música em Goiás. 2d ed. Goiânia, Brazil: Ed. Universidade Federal de Goiás.

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    An overview of the musical life of Goiás Velho and Pirenópolis, encompassing the full spectrum of local musicking. Identifies local ensembles and their respective repertoires, describes the main religious rituals and their repertoires, and provides a collection of locally composed modinhas and serestas.

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  • Mission for Folklore Research, Sound, and Iconography.

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    The collection contains the historic recordings obtained during the “Folklore Mission” coordinated by Mário de Andrade in the late 1930s and 1940s. The current project coordinators have produced six CDs from the recordings, some of which can be heard online.

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  • Sons da rua: músicos de rua do Brasil e do mundo. Coordinated by Roberto Berliner.

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    A site for disseminating the sounds of the streets of Brazil and other parts of the world, though northeastern Brazil receives the most attention. It contains sound and video clips, as well as short texts for each example. An excellent resource for introducing students to lesser-known genres of Brazilian music.

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The North and Northeast

Musical ethnographies of northeastern musical styles have become increasingly more common since the 1980s, covering a range of genres, including the bandas de pifes (Allgayer-Kaufmann 1996), the cavalo marinho (Murphy 2008), and cantoria (Travassos 2000); Dantas’s pioneer research on taieiras (Dantas 1972) was conducted earlier.

  • Allgayer-Kaufmann, Regine. 1996. Der Kampf des Hundes mit dem Jaguar: Bandas de pífanos in Nordostbrasilien; ein Beitrag zur Musikästhetik. Beiträge zur Ethnomusikologie, Bd. 32. Eisenach, Germany: K. D. Wagner.

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    The only comprehensive study to date of the bandas de pífanos of northeastern Brazil. Extensive and careful transcriptions and musical analysis. Includes a useful CD.

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  • Dantas, Beatriz Góis. 1972. A taieira de Sergipe: Pesquisa exaustiva sobre uma daça tradicional do nordeste. Petrópolis, Brazil: Editora Vozes.

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    A pioneering study of the taieras of Laranjeiras, Sergipe. Through a systemaic comparison of the festival in the past and at the time of her fieldwork, Dantas assess the changes in the tradition that led to its folklorization.

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  • Murphy, John Patrick. 2008. Cavalo-marinho pernambucano. Translated by André Curiati de Paulo Bueno. Belo Horizonte, Brazil: Editora UFMG.

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    An engaging performance ethnography of a northeastern folk dance-drama that shows how the tradition embodies the subaltern morality of a recently proletariatized social class. Through musical performance and dramatic action, the cavalo-marinho communicates its moral message in religious as well as comic expressions.

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  • Travassos, Elizabeth. 2000. Ethics in the sung duels of north-eastern Brazil: Collective memory and contemporary practice. British Journal of Ethnomusicology 9.1: 61–94.

    DOI: 10.1080/09681220008567292Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A carefully written ethnography of the skills of northeastern cantadores in the art of improvised song dueling. Travassos describes the ritual aspect of live performances, showing how music and poetry demarcate a place in which the everyday hierarchical structures can be suspended in favor of an ethics of equality.

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Central, Southeastern, and Southern Brazil

In southeastern Brazil, numerous musical ethnographies of folk and participatory traditions have centered on popular Catholic forms of devotion. All the examples provided here encompass this realm. Brandão 1981 and Reily 2002 address the role of music in popular Catholic practice. Setti 1985 addresses change within the church as part of the author’s discussion of the impact of modernity on traditional society. Neves 1987 notes the significance of religion in sustaining local musical life in Minas.

  • Brandão, Carlos Rodrigues. 1981. Sacerdotes da viola. Petrópolis, Brazil: Editora Vozes.

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    A collection of anthropological essays on popular Catholic rituals especially sensitive to the centrality of music in ritual performance. Provides an excellent introduction to the range of Brazilian popular Catholic practices and the themes motivating research in this performative sphere.

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  • Neves, José Maria. 1987. A Orquestra Ribeiro Bastos e a vida musical em São João del-Rei. Rio de Janeiro: Univ. of Rio de Janeiro.

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    The first extended study of one of the surviving orchestras whose legacy resides in the 18th-century liturgical traditions of Minas Gerais. Written from the perspective of an intellectually engaged musicologist.

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  • Reily, Suzel. 2002. Voices of the Magi. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.

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    An in-depth ethnography of the folias de reis of southeastern Brazil. Reily shows how migrants in Greater São Paulo construct systems of mutual support around the performance of this popular Catholic tradition, predicated on a moral code that is “enchanted” into existence during musicking.

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  • Setti, Kilza. 1985. Ubatuba nos cantos das praias (estudo do caiçara paulista e de sua produção musical). São Paulo: Ática.

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    A classic study of the impact of modernity on a traditional music culture. Setti documents the musical traditions of Ubatuba, São Paulo, addressing the spheres of musical production, the value system operating in the musical domain, women’s musical activities, stylistic analyses, the folk violin, and other topics.

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Carnival

Brazil is commonly referred to as the “land of carnival,” and for this reason it is a central topic in Brazilian music research. Indeed, the studies provided here simply complement discussions prevalent in numerous studies scattered throughout this bibliography. For a theoretical discussion of Brazilian carnival, see Da Matta 1991. Musical ethnographies of Brazilian carnival are often divided into studies based in Rio de Janeiro and those in other parts of the country, particularly the northeast. With respect to Rio, Augras 1998 traces the development of the carnival theme tunes of the samba schools while Raphal1990 addresses the institutionalization of carnival. Regarding the northeast, Crook 1993 discusses the blocos afro; and Pinto investigates the social organization of carnivals across Pernabuco. See also General Overvews, Textbooks, Popular Music, Samba.

Indigenous Peoples

Indigenous musics in Brazil have generally been studied by anthropologists. The examples provided here represent a range of approaches taken in Amerindian music research: Seeger 2004’s classic “musical anthropology” analyzes ritual performance; Menezes Bastos 1999 focuses on Amerindian conceptualizations of music; Gattino 2008 and Tugny 2010 represent new ways of disseminating Amerindian musical cultures to a wider audience. An overview of Amerindian research music research can be found in Menezes Bastos 2007.

  • Gattino, Gustavo. 2008. The use of music in Guarani shamanistic rituals: Deise Lucy Oliveira Montardo, interviewed by Gustavo Gattino. Voices Journal 8.1.

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    A user-friendly and accessible introduction to the music and ritual life of the Guarani Indians of Brazil. Excellent resource for students.

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  • Menezes Bastos, Rafael José de. 1999. A musicológica kamayurá: para uma antropologia da comunicação no Alto-Xingu. 2d ed. Florianópolis, Brazil: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina.

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    Originally published in 1978, this remains a challenging but worthwhile read. One of the first in-depth ethnographies of Brazilian Amerindian musical life, the book could be described as an ethno-methodological study of the musical terminology of the Kamayurá.

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  • Menezes Bastos, Rafael José de. 2007. Música nas sociedades indígenas das Terras Baixas da América do Sul: Estado da Arte. MANA 13.2: 293–316.

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    A dense but informative discussion of the state of music research among Brazilian Amerindian societies. The discussion encompasses both published and unpublished work as well as documentation undertaken in nonconventional modes, such as videography and sound recordings. An ideal place to begin a project on this topic. Available online.

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  • Seeger, Anthony. 2004. Why Suyá sing: A musical anthropology of an Amazonian people. 2d ed. Urbana: Univ. of Illinois Press.

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    A classic study within ethnomusicology, Why Suyá Sing is not only an informed ethnography of an Amazonian Jê society, it also still serves as a model for performance-centered ethnographic writing.

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  • Tugny, Rosângela Pereira de, ed. 2010. Cantos e histórias do morcego-espírito e do hemex/Cantos e história do gavião-espírito. 2 vols. Rio de Janeiro: Azougue Editorial.

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    A collaborative project involving an ethnomusicologist, the Maxakali community, and music students from the Federal University of Minas Gerais. The two volumes contain transcriptions and translations of songs associated with the bat-spirit and hawk-spirit, drawings made by the Indians, and DVDs with recordings selected by Maxakali ritual leaders.

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The African Legacy

The continuous arrival of thousands of slaves to various parts of Brazil has made the African legacy very strong in a range of genres of Brazilian music, particularly in the popular and vernacular realms. This legacy has been a major focus of research in Brazilian music scholarship, encompassing participatory forms of communal dance, traditions requiring the acquisition of special skills, such as capoeira, and musics for religious domains. Two of the most comprehensive studies of the African legacy in Brazilian music and dance are Freyer 2000 and Mukuna 2000.

  • Freyer, Peter. 2000. Rhythms of resistance: African musical heritage in Brazil. Hanover, NH: Wesleyan Univ. Press.

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    Drawing on a range of historical sources, the volume shows how samba developed out of the continuous interactions across the Atlantic, encompassing Africa, the Iberian Peninsula, and the Americas.

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  • Mukuna, Kazadi. 2000. Contribuição bantu na música popular brasileira: Perspectivas etnomusicológica. 2d ed. São Paulo: Terceira Margem.

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    Published originally in 1978, this classic text identifies the impact of Bantu musical principles upon Brazilian vernacular music. Alongside the music itself, the author contends that musical survival was dependent upon the transposition of the social settings linked to musical performance.

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Black Atlantic Dances

Colonial documents abound with descriptions of slave dances in towns and on plantations. Communal participatory dance traditions that descend from these slave dances are still being performed and recreated. There is a large body of literature on these dances, only a small portion of which is represented here. The articles collected in Lara 2007 focus on the southeastern jongo; the northeastern maracatu is discussed in Metz 2008; the samba-reggae of Bahia, in Guerreiro 1999; and the capoeira in Downey 2005, Lewis 1992, and Zétola and Seixas 2008.

  • Downey, Greg. 2005. Learning capoeira. Oxford and New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

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    This inspiring phenomenological study of capoeira discusses the processes of embodiment the author went through in learning the skills required to join a roda, which encompassed bodily movements as well as musical sensibility.

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  • Guerreiro, Goli. 1999. As trilhas do samba-reggae: A invenção de um ritmo. Latin American Music Review 20.1: 105–140.

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    Provides a good introduction to the emergence and development of samba-reggae, identifying the key figures and ensembles, and the construction of the signature rhythms of the groups.

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  • Lara, Silvia Hunold, and Gustavo Pacheco, eds. 2007. Memória do jongo: As gravações históricas de Stanley J. Stein, Vassouras, 1949. Rio de Janeiro: Folha Seca.

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    A collection of articles written to commemorate the work of Stanley Stein, particularly his historic recordings of the jongo made in the 1940s. The contributions of interest to music researchers address the jongo as music and dance and as a secret linguistic code used by slaves to conceal information from their masters.

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  • Lewis, J. Lowell. 1992. Ring of liberation: Deceptive discourse in Brazilian capoeira. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.

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    One of the first ethnographies of capoeira, Lewis’s account continues to be a useful introduction to the various dimensions of the practice: its discourses, rituals, movements, and musical styles.

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  • Metz, Jerry D. 2008. Cultural geographies of Afro-Brazilian symbolic practice: Tradition and change in Maracatu de Nação (Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil). Latin American Music Review 29.1: 64–95.

    DOI: 10.1353/lat.0.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A meticulous ethnography of the maracatu-de-nação in Recife, focusing on the symbolic power of objects used in performance to promote debate. Within the maracatu-de-nação, the bell and the calunga doll are fueling discussions regarding the place that Africa should occupy in local identity.

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  • Zétola, Bruno Miranda, and Andréa Milhomem Seixas. 2008. Capoeira. Revista Textos do Brasil 14.

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    A collection of short essays on a range of dimension of capoeira written by major scholars and practitioners. An excellent site for students.

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Religiosity

African-Brazilian religions have fascinated Europeans since colonial times, and they have been equally intriguing to academics. Many African-Brazilian rituals are music driven, engaging music researchers in efforts to grasp the musical structures used and their meanings to ritual participants. The sources indicated here cover a range of religious communities, including possession-based religions as well as forms of Afro-Brazilian Christianity. One of the most widely studied religions is candomblé: Behague 1984 focuses on musical practices; Brazeal 2003 looks at musical change; the ritual structure is described by Pinto 1991 for Bahian candomblé as well as umbanda, while Braga 1998 focuses on African-Brazilian religiosity in the south; Daniel 2005 compares candomblé practice to other west African religions in the Caribbean. The xangô religion of Pernambuco is addressed by Carvalho and Segato 1992. The Christian sphere of the congado is investigated by Lucas 2002 in the Greater Belo Horizonte region and Reily 2001 in southern Minas Gerais.

  • Behague, Gerard. 1984. Patterns of candomblé music performance: An Afro-Brazilian religious setting. In Performance practice: Ethnomusicological perspectives. Edited by Gerard Béhague, 222–254. Westport, CT: Greenwood.

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    A straightforward and useful introduction to candomblé and the role of music in ritual performance. A fundamentally descriptive orientation to performance practice.

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  • Brazeal, Brian. 2003. The music of the Bahian caboclos. Anthropological Quarterly 76.4: 639–669.

    DOI: 10.1353/anq.2003.0053Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    An analysis of the candomblé songs to the caboclos, showing how knowledge about them is transmitted through the fundamentally pragmatic medium of song. Lacking, therefore, a heavy mythological baggage like that of the orixás, caboclos create spaces of religious creativity and innovation within changing social environments.

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  • Braga, Reginalso Gil. 1998. Batuque jêje-ijexá em Porto Alegre: A música no culto aos orixás. Porto Alegre, Brazil: FUMPROARTE and Secretaria Municipal da Cultura de Porto Alegre.

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    While candomblé is most commonly associated with Bahia, this study shows that candomblé communities are also deeply rooted in the south of the country as well. The orientation of the text, however, is fundamentally descriptive.

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  • Carvalho, José Jorge, and Rita Segato. 1992. Shango cult in Recife, Brazil. Caracas, Venezuela: FUNDEF, CIDEF, OEA.

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    An excellent introduction to the xangô tradition in Recife. Describes the main rituals and portrays the main orixás, showing how they are ritually performed through particular rhythmic patterns, song lyrics, dance movements, dress codes, and ritual objects. In taking on the attributes of the divinity, the identification necessary to embodiment is generated.

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  • Daniel, Yvonne. 2005. Dancing wisdom: Embodied knowledge in Haitian vodou, Cuban yoruba and Bahian candomblé. Urbana: Univ. of Illinois Press.

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    Brazilian candomblé is viewed in relation to other West African religions in the New World. The comparative study demonstrates that in all these instantiations, African knowledge was able to survive the Atlantic crossing and slavery as its codes were embodied by successive generations.

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  • Lucas, Glaura. 2002. Os sons do Rosário: O congado mineiro dos Arturos e Jatobá. Belo Horizonte, Brazil: Editora UFMG.

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    Alongside a general discussion of the congado tradition in Greater Belo Horizonte, the book contains a meticulous analysis of the subtle changes in the drummers’ rhythmic patterns that embody complex codes known only to insiders. This secret “drum language” is still considered vital to safeguarding the legacy of the ancestors.

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  • Pinto, Tiago de Oliveira. 1991. “Making ritual drama”: Dance, music and representation in Brazilian candomblé and umbanda. World of Music 33.1: 70–88.

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    A lucid discussion of candomblé de caboclo and umbanda rituals, showing how rhythmic patterns, dance movements, and other codes articulate distinct semantic fields in the two ritual contexts, though both gain their persuasive power from the dramatic relationship they set up between performers and spectators.

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  • Reily, Suzel Ana. 2001. To remember captivity: The congados of southern Minas Gerais. Latin American Music Review 22.1: 4–30.

    DOI: 10.1353/lat.2001.0009Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A performance ethnography of the congados of southern Minas Gerais, focusing on the ways that the social memory of the African experience is encoded in narrative, music, and dance, while gaining experiential power through contrasting performance genres.

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Immigrant Communities

The view that “authentic” Brazilian music emerged from the encounter between Europeans, Africans, and Native Brazilians, producing mestiço hybrid forms, has been so strong in Brazil that it hindered research on the musics of other ethnic groups in the country. Now, however, a few projects directed at the musical activities of immigrant groups are being undertaken, though to date the most prominent publications deal with the Japanese community, exemplified here by Hosokawa 2000. Other projects are being undertaken in sociolinguistics, such as Damke 2005, a study of German immigrants.

  • Damke, Ciro. 2005. O Brasildeutsch em músicas populares alemãs. São Paulo: PUCSP.

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    A sociolinguistic investigation of the Portuguese-German dialect spoken by descendants of the German immigrants to southern Brazil, as it emerges in the musical repertoires of these communities.

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  • Hosokawa, Shuhei. 2000. Singing contests in the ethnic enclosure of the post-war Japanese-Brazilian community. British Journal of Ethnomusicology 9.1: 95–118.

    DOI: 10.1080/09681220008567293Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    An examination of the amateur song contests within the Japanese-Brazilian community in São Paulo in the late 1940s and 1950s aimed at strengthening the Japanese community and preserving Japanese values, such as language and musical repertoires, through highly affective communal experiences.

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Globalized Brazilian Music

The popularity of Brazilian music outside Brazil has been noted since the early 19th century, though only recently, with the growing interest in globalization and world music, have a few researchers approached the theme, in works such as Eisentraut 2001 and Stephens and Delamont 2006. Interestingly, both studies involve participatory styles.

  • Eisentraut, Jochen. 2001. Samba in Wales: Making sense of adopted music. British Journal of Ethnomusicology 10.1: 85–105.

    DOI: 10.1080/09681220108567311Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A comparative study of community musicking in a samba band in Wales and a bloco afro in Bahia. The author identifies commonalities between them that derive from common human experiences of musicking and of social exclusion; contrasts are noted that derive from cultural differences.

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  • Stephens, Neil, and Sara Delamont. 2006. Balancing the berimbau: Embodied ethnographic understanding. Qualitative Inquiry 12:316–339.

    DOI: 10.1177/1077800405284370Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A collaborative study between two sociologists: one a practitioner of capoeira, the other not. Based on these opposing perspectives, the scholars aim to understand what attracts non-Brazilian to the art and how it is taught and understood outside Brazil. Conclusions surround theoretical reflections on fieldwork associated with embodied skills.

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