Music Jean Sibelius
by
Daniel M. Grimley
  • LAST REVIEWED: 05 May 2017
  • LAST MODIFIED: 26 February 2013
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199757824-0040

Introduction

Jean Sibelius (1865–1957) was a Finnish composer, noted especially for his orchestral works, songs, and theater music, and for his innovative approach to musical texture and form. Initially associated with the struggle for Finnish political and cultural independence (Finland was a grand duchy of the Russian empire until 1917), he later sought to distance himself from such explicit nationalism and develop a more universal musical style, culminating in the elliptical single-movement works of the mid-1920s (notably the Seventh Symphony and tone poem Tapiola). For the last thirty years of his life, Sibelius effectively remained silent: the manuscript of an Eighth Symphony was apparently completed but burned in the late 1930s. Sibelius’s critical reception has followed a cyclic trajectory. Celebrated in Finland as a national hero, his symphonies were later acclaimed, especially in Great Britain and the United States. Sibelius’s perceived association with extreme right-wing politics accounted for the relative decline in his standing after World War II, principally at the hands of writers such as Theodor W. Adorno and René Leibowitz. Recent years, however, have seen renewed interest in Sibelius, both in Finland and beyond. Sibelius is now widely acknowledged as one of the most influential figures in early-20th-century music and enjoys a leading place in the contemporary concert repertoire. Language is a central question in Sibelius studies. Finland is officially a bilingual country, with a significant Swedish-speaking minority. Though he learned Finnish at school and as a young man, Sibelius’s first language was Swedish. Writing on Sibelius has followed a similarly multilingual pattern: the most important Sibelius literature has been published in Swedish, Finnish, German, English, and French. The earliest biographies date from 1916, with a substantial flowering of writing on Sibelius in the 1930s. For modern scholarship, however, the most significant landmark was the completion of Erik Tawaststjerna’s rich narrative biography, written in Swedish but published first in Finnish. Tawaststjerna’s study remains a primary resource for all serious Sibelius scholars. The publication of a comprehensive list of Sibelius manuscripts in the National Library of Finland and work toward a systematic thematic catalog formed the foundations for a critical edition of Sibelius’s music, an ongoing project based at the National Library. Important collections of correspondence, Sibelius’s diaries, and other major critical materials have significantly enhanced scholarship in recent years, and Sibelius studies remain in a dynamic state.

General Overviews

The earliest general overviews of Sibelius’s music date from the first flowering of his international reputation in the 1930s (de Törne 1937) and 1950s (Levas 1972, Ringbom 1954). Though the historical accuracy of these accounts is sometimes problematic, they nevertheless provide an important flavor of Sibelius’s reception in the early 20th century. Among more recent general accounts, Huttunen 1999 is a very useful summary of the composer’s life and career in his Finnish context, while Salmenhaara 1984 and Sirén 2000 provide insightful biographical surveys. Layton 1993 (first published in 1965) has been a standard reference source in English, but has now been updated by Rickards 1997 and Barnett 2007.

  • Barnett, Andrew. Sibelius. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2007.

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    Barnett has for many years written helpful liner notes for the Swedish record label BIS, and he is closely involved with BIS’s project to record Sibelius’s complete works. His Yale volume offers a year-by-year account of Sibelius’s career, with particularly helpful detail regarding early works and preliminary versions of pieces such as The Oceanides and the Fifth Symphony.

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    • Huttunen, Matti. Jean Sibelius: Pienois-elämäkerta. English text by Michael Wynn-Ellis. Porvoo, Finland: Werner Söderström Osakeyhtiö, 1999.

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      A critical introduction to Sibelius’s life and significance in Finland, designed for the general reader but immensely perceptive and informative for scholarly readers too. Particular attention is paid to Finland’s musical history, Finnish nationalism, and Sibelius’s critical reception. An attractively produced volume with helpful English summaries.

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      • Layton, Robert. The Master Musicians: Sibelius. New York: Schirmer Books, 1993.

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        A highly influential account of Sibelius’s life and works, Layton was one of the first writers to attempt to cover Sibelius’s music in its entirety. Includes evocative descriptions of the works themselves, together with an account of Sibelius’s musical style. Though now rather dated, Layton nevertheless offers immense knowledge of Finnish culture and sympathy for Sibelius’s work.

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        • Levas, Santeri. Sibelius: A Personal Portrait. Translated by Percy M. Young. London: Dent, 1972.

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          An abridged translation of Levas’s two-volume memoir, Jean Sibelius: Muistelma suuresta ihmisestä [Jean Sibelius: Memories of a Great Man (1957, 1960)]. Levas was Sibelius’s secretary, and his memoir concentrates on the domestic details of the last twenty years of Sibelius’s life rather than offering a sustained account of his musical output. Has been widely quoted, although it is anecdotal in tone.

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          • Rickards, Guy. Jean Sibelius. London: Phaidon, 1997.

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            A general introduction for the nonspecialist reader. Includes a useful biography and account of the rise of Finnish nationalism with commentaries on major works, especially the symphonies, songs, and tone poems.

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            • Ringbom, Nils-Eric. Jean Sibelius: A Master and His Work. Translated by G. I. C. de Courcy. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1954.

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              A rather eulogistic treatment of the composer that builds on the work of earlier biographers such as Erik Furuhjelm and Karl Ekman. Ringbom met Sibelius on several occasions, and reports of their conversations are some of the most interesting (though largely uncorroborated) passages of the book.

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              • Salmenhaara, Erkki. Jean Sibelius. Helsinki: Tammi, 1984.

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                A detailed and sustained treatment of the composer that covers much biographical ground as well as offering more analytical insights into key works, such as the Fourth Symphony and Tapiola. Although published only in Finnish, it can usefully be read in parallel with Tawaststjerna’s more panoramic survey, and many of Salmenhaara’s musical observations remain relevant to current thinking on the composer.

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                • Sirén, Vesa. Aina poltti sikaria. Keuruu: Otava, 2000.

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                  A colorful account of Sibelius’s life and times, drawn from interviews with surviving members of Sibelius’s family and other friends and associates, as well as a rich collection of primary documents (including photographs). Demonstrates vividly how Sibelius’s profile changed during his lifetime, and how (for better and for worse) he became a national symbol.

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                  • de Törne, Bengt. Sibelius: A Close-Up. London: Faber & Faber, 1937.

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                    A eulogistic account by a pupil of Sibelius that is rich in anecdotal narrative and the composer’s reported views on contemporary music and composition. Much of this material is uncorroborated, but de Törne’s book has nevertheless been widely translated and disseminated. It was the uncritically laudatory tone that first provoked Adorno’s vituperative “Glosse über Sibelius” of 1938.

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                    Biographies

                    There are numerous biographical treatments of Sibelius’s music, beginning with Furuhjelm’s 1917 Swedish-language monograph, through a series of eulogistic studies and memoirs from North America, Britain, and Scandinavia in the 1930s (Ekman 1935), to more recent accounts critical centered around Tawaststjerna’s 1976–1997 landmark study. Tawaststjerna remains a vital source and a standard account for all serious Sibelius scholars, but Goss 2009, a historical analysis of Sibelius’s life and works is particularly fine and is also recommended as an excellent introduction for both scholars and nonspecialist readers alike. For biographical accounts beyond Anglo-American and Finnish criticism, Tammaro 1984 and Vignal 2004 are important sources.

                    • Ekman, Karl, Jr. Jean Sibelius: The Life and Personality of an Artist. Translated by Edward Birse. Helsinki: Schildts Förlag, 1935.

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                      A widely read but controversial biographical account, ostensibly “authorized” by the composer himself, although Sibelius later sought to distance himself from some of the comments attributed to him. Ekman was the son of the singer Ida Ekman, one of the earliest and most important interpreters of Sibelius’s work.

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                      • Furuhjelm, Erik. Jean Sibelius: Hans tondiktning och drag ur hans liv. Stockholm: Albert Bonniers, 1917.

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                        The first full-length biography of Sibelius. Significantly, Furuhjelm’s study was published in Swedish, Sibelius’s first language. The volume was first intended to be published in conjunction with Sibelius’s fiftieth birthday celebrations, although its appearance was delayed by twelve months. The volume includes a biography, with detailed discussion of Sibelius’s youth and works up to the Fifth Symphony.

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                        • Goss, Glenda Dawn. Sibelius: A Composer’s Life and the Awakening of Finland. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2009.

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                          The most extensive treatment of Sibelius and his cultural context after Tawaststjerna 1976–1997. An illuminating discussion, especially of Sibelius’s shifting relationship with Finnish nationalism and politics. Goss makes a number of important claims for Sibelius’s work, such as the importance of Lutheran church music and his role as a “national monument”—one reason for his creative silence in the 1930s.

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                          • Tammaro, Ferruccio. Jean Sibelius. Turin, Italy: ERI, 1984.

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                            The first full-length Italian biography of Sibelius, and an important source that supplements Tawaststjerna’s account. Insightful both for its sense of Sibelius’s Finnish contexts, and also his wider relationship with European music (especially Strauss, Debussy, and Respighi).

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                            • Tawaststjerna, Erik. Jean Sibelius. 3 vols. Translated by Robert Layton. London: Faber & Faber, 1976–1997.

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                              Essential reading. Tawaststjerna’s book is a cultural biography of Sibelius, and a keen analysis of his musical language. Most of the manuscript was written in Swedish, but first published in Finnish (1965–1988). Robert Layton’s abridged English translation was prepared before the Swedish original appeared in print (1992–1997). The Swedish volumes include definitive references for many of the primary sources.

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                              • Vignal, Marc. Jean Sibelius. Paris: Fayard, 2004.

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                                A richly panoramic account that supersedes Vignal’s earlier monograph on the composer (1965), the first significant study of Sibelius in France. Vignal’s volume is a significant contribution to Sibelius studies, with new primary documents and stylish analyses of individual works.

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                                Reference Works

                                The vast majority of Sibelius’s preserved musical manuscripts are held in the Sibelius collection at the National Library of Finland, Helsinki (formerly known as Helsinki University Library), which also contains a sizable collection of letters and other documents. Further correspondence is held in the Sibelius Family Collection at the National Archives of Finland. Smaller collections, including newspaper clippings and other primary sources, are held by the Sibelius Academy in Helsinki, the Sibelius Museum in Turku (Åbo), and at Sibelius’s villa, Ainola, in Järvenpää, north of Helsinki. These collections form the basis for the standard reference resources on Sibelius, most notably the ongoing critical edition of his works (Jean Sibelius Works), and Dahlström 2003, an invaluable thematic index.

                                • Dahlström, Fabian. Jean Sibelius: Thematisch-bibliographisches Verzeichnis seiner Werk. Wiesbaden, Germany: Breitkopf & Härtel, 2003.

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                                  Prepared in conjunction with Jean Sibelius Works, Dahlström’s catalog provides a definitive listing for all of Sibelius’s music, building upon earlier catalogs or lists of sources (such as Kilpeläinen 1991a). It is organized by opus number, with thematic incipits and additional works listed by “JS number,” together with descriptions of sketches and preliminary drafts. Dates of first performances are given, together with dates of composition (where known).

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                                  • Goss, Glenda Dawn. Jean Sibelius: A Guide to Research. New York: Garland, 1998.

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                                    The first bibliographic resource of its kind published in English. Goss’s Guide to Research gathers together her own intensive study and reading of Sibelius materials. Though many developments have taken place in Sibelius scholarship since Goss’s guide first appeared, it remains a vital resource for scholars at all stages of research. It is particularly valuable for its coverage of historical materials and non-English sources, especially those in Finnish.

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                                    • Hepokoski, James, and Fabian Dahlström. “Sibelius, Jean.” In Grove Music Online.

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                                      A critical survey of Sibelius’s life and career and a masterly account of his musical language, including his debt to Finnish folk music and the development of “rotational form” in his later symphonies. The entry includes a work list (consult Dahlström 2003 for a comprehensive listing). Originally published as Hepokoski, James. “Sibelius.” The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 2d ed. Edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell, Vol. 22, 319–347 (London and New York: Macmillan, 2001).

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                                      • Jean Sibelius Works (Critical Edition).

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                                        Jean Sibelius Works is a major scholarly project based at the National Library of Finland and published (in Germany) by Breitkopf & Härtel. Volumes follow a standard format, consisting of a critical edition of a work (or works), with accompanying commentary detailing significant variants or earlier versions of particular pieces. A summary of the compositional genesis and early reception of the work(s) is also provided. Established in 1996; sixteen volumes published to date with eleven in progress.

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                                        • Kilpeläinen, Kari. The Jean Sibelius Musical Manuscripts at Helsinki University Library: A Complete Catalogue. Wiesbaden, Germany: Breitkopf & Härtel, 1991a.

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                                          The first sustained attempt to list the major manuscript sources for Sibelius’s works systematically in an accessible form. Though the complete list has now been updated and superseded by Dahlström 2003, Kilpeläinen’s volume was a vital step toward the foundation of Jean Sibelius Works, and remains a vital source of information about the genesis and compositional development of Sibelius’s music.

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                                          • Kilpeläinen, Kari. “Sibeliuksen sävellysten luettelointi ja teoksen ongelma.” Musiikitiede 3 (1991b): 75–92.

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                                            An important reflective discussion (in Finnish) of the critical and methodological issues raised by Kilpeläinen’s work for his 1991 catalog of the Sibelius manuscripts at Helsinki University Library.

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                                            • Kilpeläinen, Kari. “Tutkielmia Jean Sibeliuksen käsikirjoituksista.” PhD diss., Studia Musicologica Universitatis Helsingiensis III, Helsinki, 1992.

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                                              A doctoral dissertation (in Finnish) detailing the work undertaken in the preparation of Kilpeläinen’s 1991 catalog (Kilpeläinen 1991a). Divided into three sections: chronology and dating of Sibelius’s works, a revised opus list, and a more detailed survey of the compositional genesis of the Seventh Symphony as revealed through a study of the manuscript sources.

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                                              • Virtanen, Timo. “Jean Sibelius Edition.” In Proceedings: Nordic Music Editions: Symposium, 1–2 September 2005. Edited by Niels Krabbe, 96–100. Copenhagen: The Royal Library, 2006.

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                                                A report on the Sibelius Critical Edition read at a meeting of Nordic Music Editions hosted by the Music Department and the Carl Nielsen Edition at the Royal Library, Copenhagen. Includes comparative discussion of editorial practice, major discoveries, and schedule.

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                                                Writings and Correspondence

                                                For many years, access to Sibelius’s diaries and correspondence, principally held in libraries in Helsinki, was carefully restricted by order of the Sibelius family estate. Among early sources, Rosa Newmarch’s account is particularly revealing for its extensive quotation from her correspondence with the composer, although, as Bullock explains in his new edition (Bullock 2011), Sibelius’s contribution seems to have been characteristically on the elliptical side. After Tawaststjerna 1976–1997 (cited under Biographies) reached completion, scholars began serious work on other primary source material, resulting in the preparation of the work catalogue and later Dahlström’s 2005 scholarly edition of Sibelius’s diary. Goss’s 1997 edition of selections from Sibelius’s early letters is also a landmark publication, notable for its insights into the young composer’s influences and developing musical imagination. Sibelius’s bilingual (Swedish/Finnish) correspondence with his wife, Aino, has now also been published as Sibelius, et al. 2001 (in Finnish only).

                                                • Bullock, Philip Ross, ed. The Correspondence of Rosa Newmarch and Jean Sibelius, 1906–1939. Woodbridge, UK: Boydell, 2011.

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                                                  A rich and lively exchange, published in English but originally conducted in French and German, covering over thirty years between Sibelius and one of his most important supporters and admirers in the United Kingdom. Newmarch’s letters are more frequent and extensive than Sibelius’s replies. The edition includes an extensive commentary and an introduction by a scholar who has a fine feeling for Sibelius’s Russian contexts.

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                                                  • Dahlström, Fabian, ed. Jean Sibelius: Dagbok, 1909–1944. Helsinki: Svenska litteratursällskapet i Finland, 2005.

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                                                    A comprehensively annotated critical edition of Sibelius’s diaries, which covers the period 1909 (roughly contemporary with the composition of his String Quartet Voces Intimae and the Fourth Symphony) up to 1944, in the very final phases of World War II. Dahlström publishes the material in its original Swedish, though with a Finnish index and helpful summary in English.

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                                                    • Dahlström, Fabian, ed. Högtarade Maestro! Högtarade Herr Baron! [Sibelius’s Correspondence with Axel Carpelan, 1900–1919]. Helsinki: Svenska litteratursällskapet i Finland, 2010.

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                                                      Axel Carpelan occupied a unique position in Sibelius’s life. A member of the Swedish-Finnish aristocracy with no formal musical training, he was both a friend and an artistic mentor to Sibelius in the most important phase of his compositional career. The correspondence is extensive and revealing and Dahlström’s edition is carefully annotated and beautifully produced.

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                                                      • Goss, Glenda Dawn, ed. Jean Sibelius: The Hämeenlinna Letters; Scenes from a Musical Life, 1874–1895; Jean Sibelius: Ungdomsbrev. Translated by Margareta Örtenblad Thompson. Esbo, Finland: Schildts, 1997.

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                                                        An invaluable and illuminating collection of letters from Sibelius’s youth and during his student years, including his formative study trips in Berlin and Vienna. Topics include music and nature, his aspirations as a violinist, teachers and contemporaries, and his daily music making at home and at the Helsinki Music Institute.

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                                                        • Sibelius, Aino, Jean Sibelius, and SuviSirkku Talas. Sydämen aamu: Aino Järnefeltin ja Jean Sibeliuksen kihlausajan kirkertä. Translated into Finnish by Oili Suominen. Helsinki: SKS, 2001.

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                                                          The first volume of correspondence between Sibelius and his fiancée, Aino Järnefelt. Two further volumes have been published in 2003 and 2007. Although Sibelius wrote much of his correspondence in Swedish (his first language), the Järnefelt family was at the forefront of campaigns to promote the Finnish language, and Aino wrote largely in Finnish. The correspondence begins during Sibelius’s earliest years as a composer.

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                                                          Conference Proceedings and Essay Collections

                                                          A growing number of symposia and scholarly conferences have been held to celebrate and discuss Sibelius’s work, preeminently the International Sibelius Conference meetings held at approximately five-yearly intervals (Huttunen, et al. 2003), leading to a diverse range of publications and proceedings. The quality of contributions in such volumes is inevitably variable, but they give a good impression of the range of work undertaken by Sibelius scholars and address a diverse range of topics and critical themes. Earlier edited collections include Abraham 1947, an influential symposium, as well as Goss’s impressively rich Companion (Goss 1996) and Grimley’s two edited volumes (Grimley 2004, Grimley 2011).

                                                          • Abraham, Gerald, ed. Sibelius: A Symposium. London: Oxford University Press, 1947.

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                                                            Abraham’s collection was a significant contribution to English-language writing on Sibelius, not least its attempt to cover the broad range of Sibelius’s works, including the piano music (Eric Blom), the songs (Astra Desmond), and chamber music (Scott Goddard). The anthology also includes David Cherniavsky’s problematic discussion of thematic process, and Ralph Hill’s music-psychological portrait “Sibelius the man.”

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                                                            • Goss, Glenda Dawn, ed. The Sibelius Companion. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1996.

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                                                              A substantial collection of essays with a number of highly significant contributions to Sibelius scholarship. Landmark articles include Peter Revers’s discussion of Sibelius and Vienna, James Hepokoski’s analysis of the tone poem Luonnotar, and Kari Kilpeläinen’s discussion of the compositional genesis of the Seventh Symphony. The book is expertly curated by Glenda Dawn Goss.

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                                                              • Grimley, Daniel M., ed. The Cambridge Companion to Sibelius. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2004.

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                                                                The collection includes essays on reception and performance practice (Matti Huttunen’s important discussion of the early Finnish reception of Sibelius), works (Jeffrey Kallberg on the songs and Arnold Whittall on the late symphonies), and influence (Julian Anderson on Sibelius and spectralism). The collection concludes with short interviews with two prominent Sibelius conductors—Colin Davis and Osmo Vänskä.

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                                                                • Grimley, Daniel M., ed. Jean Sibelius and His World. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2011.

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                                                                  Published in conjunction with the Bard Music Festival, the book opens with an extended account by Philip Ross Bullock of Sibelius’s Russian connections. Later contributions include Max Paddison on Adorno’s Sibelius critique, Byron Adams on Sibelius’s 20th-century Anglophone reception, and an extended essay by Leon Botstein on Sibelius, Strauss, and the aesthetics of lateness. The book also includes Sibelius’s 1896 lecture on folk music, and Adorno’s “Glosse.”

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                                                                  • Huttunen, Matti, Kari Kilpeläinen, and Veijo Murtomäki, eds. Sibelius Forum II: Proceedings from the Third International Jean Sibelius Conference, Helsinki, December 7–10, 2000. Helsinki: Sibelius Academy, 2003.

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                                                                    The three volumes of proceedings from the quintennial Jean Sibelius Conference present papers read at the leading international meeting on Sibelius’s music. The first two volumes were published in 1995 and 1999, but the third is the most representative. The contributions are variable—slighter commentaries are printed alongside more substantial essays by established scholars. The strength of the volumes, however, is their strongly international coverage.

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                                                                    • Jackson, Timothy L., Veijo Murtomäki, Colin Davis, and Timo Virtanen, eds. Sibelius in the Old and New World: Aspects of His Music, Its Interpretation, and Reception. Papers presented at the Fourth International Jean Sibelius Conference, held at the University of North Texas, January 2005. Frankfurt: Peter Lang, 2010.

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                                                                      This volume of proceedings from the fourth International Jean Sibelius Conference follows a broadly similar format to the earlier volumes, although it appears with a different editorial team and under a German press. The book contains twenty-two essays, divided into four sections: Historical and Cultural Studies, Analytical Studies, Source Studies, and Reception and Interpretation.

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                                                                      Historical Reception

                                                                      Sibelius’s critical reception traces a remarkable arc: from adulation early in his career as the supposed pioneer of an idiosyncratically Finnish musical identity, to the polemics of the 1930s, when he was portrayed as the natural inheritor to the Beethovenian symphonic tradition by some critics in North America and the United Kingdom, and attacked by writers such as Theodor Adorno elsewhere. Sibelius studies have since adopted a largely more balanced perspective, but critical accounts of his reception reveal much about ideological shifts in 20th-century musical politics, and offer vital insights into issues of nationalism and musical representation. Especially useful secondary sources include Gleissner’s groundbreaking account of Sibelius’s reception in Germany in the 1930s (Gleissner 2001 cited under Germany and Austria), and Gray’s fine study of Sibelius’s British reception (Gray 1997 cited under United Kingdom).

                                                                      Finland

                                                                      Sibelius’s reception at home in Finland provides a compelling case study in the formation of national musical style and the role that his music played in the wider formation of Finnish cultural identity. Tomi Mäkelä’s groundbreaking study is a comprehensive discussion of the tensions underpinning Sibelius’s Finnish reception, and should be read alongside Tawaststjerna 1976–1997 and Goss 2009 (cited under Biographies above). Discussions of Sibelius’s significance for more recent Finnish music are available in de Gorog and de Gorog 1989 and (especially) Howell 2006.

                                                                      • de Gorog, Lisa, and Ralph de Gorog. From Sibelius to Sallinen: Finnish Nationalism and the Music of Finland. New York: Greenwood, 1989.

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                                                                        A broad survey of 20th-century Finnish music that takes Sibelius as its central pivotal point. De Gorog argues that Sibelius initially inspired a relatively conservative nationalist trend, but that he later moved away from such explicit programmaticism in his work. The final two chapters concern his influence on later Finnish composers, a topic addressed more extensively by Timothy Howell.

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                                                                        • Howell, Timothy. After Sibelius: Studies in Finnish Music. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 2006.

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                                                                          An important study that examines Sibelius’s complex and often contested influence on later Finnish music. Howell begins by discussing the work of Sibelius’s younger contemporaries, especially Aarre Merikanto, and then moves through the work of established figures from the middle of the century (Joonas Kokkonen, Erik Bergman, Aulis Sallinen, and Einojuhani Rautavaara) before considering trends in recent Finnish music.

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                                                                          • Mäkelä, Tomi. Jean Sibelius. Translated by Steven Lindberg. Woodbridge, UK: Boydell, 2011.

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                                                                            The most important study of Sibelius to have been published after Tawaststjerna 1976–1997 (cited under Biographies). Mäkelä draws on extensive archival research in Helsinki and Berlin and focuses on the shifting patterns of Sibelius’s reception in relation to wider European cultural politics. Mäkelä further interrogates familiar categories such as “nature,” “landscape,” and “modernism,” demonstrating how the documentary historical evidence complicates such easy or straightforward definitions.

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                                                                            Germany and Austria

                                                                            Sibelius placed greater value on his critical reception in Germany and Austria than anywhere else outside Scandinavia. Yet his music experienced a troubled profile in these countries, a trend that was intensified by attempts to align his music with extreme right-wing political aesthetics in the 1930s. Significant early sources in this pivotal debate include Niemann 1917 and Tanzberger 1962, versus Adorno 1982 and Leibowitz 1955. This remains a controversial topic, as assessed by Gleissner’s important study (Gleissner 2001; see also Mäkelä 2011, cited under Finland). Krones 2003 offers a somewhat more distanced survey of Sibelius’s relationship with Vienna.

                                                                            • Adorno, Theodor Wiesengrund. “Glosse über Sibelius.” In Gesammelte Schriften. Vol. 17. Edited by Rolf Tiedemann, 247–252. Musikalische Schriften IV. Frankfurt: Suhrkamp, 1982.

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                                                                              First published in 1938, Adorno’s short critique has had a considerable impact on Sibelius reception. The basis of Adorno’s critique is Sibelius’s supposed technical inadequacy, subsumed beneath problematic ideological assertions regarding the “naturalness” of music. Such claims, Adorno concludes, point to the dangerously collusive nature of Sibelius’s music. Useful discussions of Adorno’s critique can be found in Mäkelä 2011 (cited under Finland) and Grimley 2011 (cited under Conference Proceedings and Essay Collections).

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                                                                              • Gleissner, Ruth-Maria. Der unpolitische Komponist als Politikum: Die Rezeption von Jean Sibelius im NS-Staat. Frankfurt: Peter Lang, 2001.

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                                                                                A critical account of the complex reception history of Sibelius’s music in Germany, with particular reference to attempts during the 1930s to appropriate his music for extreme right-wing political purposes. Gleissner shows how strenuous attempts were made by various parties to engage Sibelius’s music politically, and how the composer’s attempts to remain aloof from explicit politicization was a pragmatic strategy.

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                                                                                • Krones, Hartmut, ed. Jean Sibelius und Wien. Vienna: Böhlau, 2003.

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                                                                                  The proceedings of a conference on Sibelius and Vienna held in 2002. The contributions go beyond simple historical accounts of Sibelius’s formative year in the city in 1891–1892 and include assessments of his relationship with fin-de-siècle Viennese modernism, his studies with Robert Fuchs and Karl Goldmark, the importance of Bruckner for his musical development, and the parallels between his career and that of Gustav Mahler.

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                                                                                  • Leibowitz, René. Sibelius, le plus mauvais compositeur du monde. Liège, Belgium: Aux Editions Dynamo, 1955.

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                                                                                    A brief but highly influential pamphlet, published in French but drawing heavily on Adorno’s critique. Leibowitz’s diatribe is best read in its historical context as a response to the Sibelius craze that swept much of the United States and United Kingdom in the 1930s.

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                                                                                    • Niemann, Walter. Jean Sibelius. Leipzig: Breitkopf & Härtel, 1917.

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                                                                                      German musicologist Walter Niemann published widely on Scandinavian music, laying considerable weight on the relationship between music, landscape, environment, and local custom. A proponent of so-called Heimatkunst, Niemann insisted on the strongly regional flavor of Sibelius’s music, praising what he perceived as its rugged nationalist qualities, qualities that were later to appeal to German commentators during the Third Reich.

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                                                                                      • Tanzberger, Ernst. Jean Sibelius: Eine Monographie: Mit einem Werkverzeichnis. Wiesbaden, West Germany: Breitkopf & Härtel, 1962.

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                                                                                        Published just five years after the composer’s death, Tanzberger’s work is shaped by his training in German musicology in the 1930s, which placed heavy emphasis on issues of nature and national identity. Tanzberger’s work might also be read in counterpoint with Adorno’s 1938 attack on Sibelius (Adorno 1982). His analysis follows a thematic model, borrowing terms familiar from the Formenlehre tradition.

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                                                                                        United Kingdom

                                                                                        Sibelius’s reception in the United Kingdom was pivotal to his wider international reputation, and the United Kingdom consistently provided a warm home for his work from the late 1920s onwards. As Newmarch 1906, Gray 1931, Lambert 1934, and Newmarch 1939 reveal, Sibelius was lionized as the ideal paradigm for modern symphonic composition. His influence on contemporary British music in the 1930s is assessed in Gray 1997 and Harper-Scott 2008.

                                                                                        • Gray, Cecil. Sibelius. London: Oxford University Press, 1931.

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                                                                                          Gray’s monograph was significant in establishing Sibelius as one of the most important figures in early-20th-century English musical life and as the model for a generation of composers from Arnold Bax to Vaughan Williams and William Walton. Gray’s argument is contentious, promoting the austerity and purity of Sibelius’s work as an alternative to contemporary European modernism, and needs to be read in its full historical context.

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                                                                                          • Gray, Laura. “‘The Symphonic Problem’: Sibelius Reception in England Prior to 1950.” PhD diss., Yale University, 1997.

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                                                                                            A fascinating and scrupulously researched examination of Sibelius’s remarkable reception in England, beginning with the earliest performances of his music in the 1900s and the pioneering support of Rosa Newmarch, Henry Wood, and Granville Bantock, and assessing the cultural and political contexts for the “Sibelius craze” of the 1930s. See also Peter Franklin’s essay in Grimley 2004 (cited under Conference Proceedings and Essay Collections).

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                                                                                            • Harper-Scott, J. P. E. “‘Our True North’: Sibelius, Walton, and the Nationalisation of Modernism in England.” Music & Letters 89.4 (November 2008): 562–589.

                                                                                              DOI: 10.1093/ml/gcn083Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                              A vibrant account of how aspects of Sibelius’s formal thinking, as well as trends in his British reception, influenced the shape and development of Walton’s music in the 1930s, focusing on his First Symphony of 1934–1935.

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                                                                                              • Lambert, Constant. Music, Ho! A Study of Music in Decline. London and New York: Oxford University Press, 1934.

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                                                                                                A colorful and highly opiniated series of essays on issues in contemporary music, published at a critical point in British music (the year that Delius, Elgar, and Holst died), and culminating in a famous chapter that promotes Sibelius as the ideal model for a modern post-Beethovenian symphonism. Stresses the supposed universality of Sibelius’s musical language over and above issues of Finnish national identity and local context.

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                                                                                                • Newmarch, Rosa. Jean Sibelius: A Finnish Composer. Leipzig: Breitkopf & Härtel, 1906.

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                                                                                                  Rosa Newmarch was one of the most remarkable figures in early-20th-century British music. Her study of Sibelius, based on a talk given at the Concert Goer’s club in London, is one of the earliest studies of its kind, and had a formative influence on the reception of Sibelius’s work in the English-speaking world.

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                                                                                                  • Newmarch, Rosa. Jean Sibelius: A Short Story of Long Friendship. Boston: C. C. Birchard, 1939.

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                                                                                                    A greatly expanded account, building on Newmarch 1906 but including discussion of all of Sibelius’s major works as well as his five trips to the United Kingdom. Includes descriptions of Sibelius’s character and musical inspiration, reports of his thoughts on works such as Nightride and Sunrise and the Fourth Symphony, and selections from their correspondence.

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                                                                                                    United States

                                                                                                    The United States was no less significant than the United Kingdom as a venue for promoting Sibelius’s work overseas. Sibelius’s only visit to North America, described in Andersson 1955, to attend the 1914 Norfolk Festival in Connecticut, was a pivotal moment in his musical career. Johnson 1959 is an important early source for Sibelius’s reception in the United States. Goss 1995 is a fascinating account of his relationship with the music critic Olin Downes in the 1930s, and Pollack 2000 analyzes Sibelius’s influence on contemporary American music in the period, notably the work of Samuel Barber.

                                                                                                    • Andersson, Otto. Jean Sibelius I Amerika. Åbo: Förlaget Bro, 1955.

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                                                                                                      A detailed account of Sibelius’s visit to the Norfolk Festival in Connecticut in 1914, where The Oceanides received its first performance, and discussion of Sibelius’s subsequent reception in the United States. Andersson was the founding director of the Sibelius museum in Åbo (Turku), as well as a significant early writer on Sibelius.

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                                                                                                      • Goss, Glenda Dawn. Jean Sibelius and Olin Downes: Music, Friendship, Criticism. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1995.

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                                                                                                        Olin Downes was one of the most enthusiastic campaigners on behalf of Sibelius’s music in the United States before World War II. Goss provides a vivid account of Downes’s correspondence with Sibelius and analyzes his popularity in the context of the complex musical politics in early-20th-century American music criticism.

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                                                                                                        • Johnson, Harold E. Jean Sibelius. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1959.

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                                                                                                          One of the most important earlier English-language accounts of Sibelius’s life and career by a respected musical critic and writer. Johnson’s volume includes perceptive accounts of key works, focusing on the symphonies, as well as descriptions of more neglected works. The book was a significant contribution to Sibelius studies at a time when the critical status of his music was in decline.

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                                                                                                          • Pollack, Howard. “Samuel Barber, Jean Sibelius, and the Making of an American Romantic.” Musical Quarterly 84.2 (Summer 2000): 175–205.

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                                                                                                            An essay that examines Sibelius’s influence on one of the most important symphonic composers in 20th-century American music. Pollack examines how Sibelius’s work influenced Barber’s First Symphony in particular—a piece that adopts a distinctively idealized “Nordic” tone.

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                                                                                                            Analytical Studies

                                                                                                            Early analytical accounts and studies of musical genres, most prominently Krohn 1942 and Krohn 1945–1946 (both cited under Symphonies), frequently stressed the essentially thematic design of Sibelius’s work (see Parmet 1959 cited under Symphonies) and also David Cherniavsky’s problematic essay in Abraham 1947 (cited under Conference Proceedings and Essay Collections). More recent analyses have pursued other aspects of his work, including Howell’s Schenkerian study (Howell 1989), Murtomäki’s comprehensive discussion of formal structure in the symphonies and tone poems (Murtomäki 1993, cited under Symphonies), and the variety of voice-leading and formal approaches in Jackson and Murtomäki 2001.

                                                                                                            • Howell, Tim. Jean Sibelius: Progressive Techniques in the Symphonies and Tone Poems. New York: Garland, 1989.

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                                                                                                              Howell adopts a Schenkerian methodology to demonstrate how Sibelius’s orchestral works developed a particularly innovative sense of tonal space, melding complex modal collections with more familiar diatonic structures. Underpinning Howell’s thesis is the argument that, contra Adorno and others, the apparently conventional surface of much of Sibelius’s music revealed a more genuinely progressive approach to structure and temporality.

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                                                                                                              • Jackson, Timothy L., and Veijo Murtomäki. Sibelius Studies. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2001.

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                                                                                                                Includes Timothy L. Jackson’s extended study, “Observations on Crystallization and Entropy in the Music of Sibelius and Other Composers,” which proposes a series of Schenkerian readings of Sibelius’s major symphonic works. Other important contributions include Timo Virtanen’s study of the tone poem Pohjolas Daughter, Veijo Murtomäki on the orchestral ballad Skogsrået (“The Wood Nymph”), James Hepokoski’s study of the Sixth Symphony, and Edward Laufer’s study of the Seventh.

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                                                                                                                • Keane, Robert. “The Complete Solo Songs of Jean Sibelius.” PhD diss., University of London, 1993.

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                                                                                                                  The first doctoral study of Sibelius’s songs outside Finland. Keane considers Sibelius’s choice of texts and presents sensitive analyses of the songs themselves.

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                                                                                                                  • Kurki, Eija. “Satua, kuolema ja eksotiikkaa: Jean Sibeliuksen vuosisadanalun näyttämömusiikkiteokset.” PhD diss., Helsinki University, 1997.

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                                                                                                                    An important doctoral dissertation, in Finnish, of Sibelius’s theater music—the first sustained study of its kind. Kurki considers important new documentary source materials, including scores, drafts, and contemporary reviews, and shows that, although Sibelius did not compose a major operatic work, he maintained a keen interest in writing for the theater throughout his working life, and that many of his theater projects subsequently influenced his purely symphonic works.

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                                                                                                                    • Luyken, Lorenz. “… aus dem Nichtigen eine Welt schaffen …”: Studien zur Dramaturgie im symphonischen Spätwerk von Jean Sibelius. Kassel, Germany: Gustav Bosse, 1995.

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                                                                                                                      An important study that adopts Carl Dahlhaus’s notion of a “submotivic” tapestry of melodic threads as the starting point for an impressively reflective account of developmental processes and structural drama (“dramaturgie”) in Sibelius’s music. Particular strengths include Luyken’s critical interrogation of “organicism” in previous analytical accounts of Sibelius’s music and his innovative reading of Sibelius’s approach to large-scale musical form.

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                                                                                                                      • Tarasti, Eero. Myth and Music: A Semiotic Approach to the Aesthetics of Myth in Music, Especially that of Wagner, Sibelius, and Stravinsky. Helsinki: University of Helsinki, 1978.

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                                                                                                                        The earliest attempt to develop a systematic semiotic approach to Sibelius’s work, and an influential analysis of Sibelius’s approach to myth. Tarasti focuses on categories such as narrative, plot, and archetype to show how Sibelius’s music adapts a literary mode of representation, in parallel with “mythic” works by Wagner and Stravinsky. Tarasti’s book has since inspired a substantial subdiscipline of music studies within Finland.

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                                                                                                                        • Tovey, Donald Francis. Essays in Musical Analysis, Vol. 2. Symphonies, Variations and Orchestral Polyphony. London: Oxford University Press, 1935.

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                                                                                                                          Highly influential essays on Sibelius’s Third and Fifth Symphonies, which have had particular currency in Anglophone criticism. Tovey’s amiably accessible accounts combine evocative programmatic descriptions with discussion of thematic details and Sibelius’s handling of sonata form.

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                                                                                                                          Symphonies

                                                                                                                          Symphonies have attracted the largest proportion of critical writing on works by Sibelius. In the 1930s in particular, Sibelius was heralded by Gray 1935 as the natural successor to Beethoven. Later Finnish accounts, such as Krohn 1942 and Parmet 1959, stressed the thematic and formal characteristics of Sibelius’s symphonies. This trend provided the basis for Murtomäki’s revisionary study (Murtomäki 1993), which sought to strengthen claims regarding Sibelius’s historical significance as an innovative symphonic voice, an argument pursued also by Hepokoski 1997, a highly influential survey for Holoman’s collection.

                                                                                                                          • Gray, Cecil. Sibelius: The Symphonies. London: Oxford University Press, 1935.

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                                                                                                                            An analytical survey of the symphonies by one of Sibelius’s most vocal and influential supporters in Britain in the 1930s. Gray attempts to establish the universality of Sibelius’s music and argues that his work represented the most significant contribution to the symphonic canon after Beethoven—claims that aroused the ire of critics such as Adorno and Leibowitz.

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                                                                                                                            • Hepokoski, James. “Sibelius.” In The Nineteenth-Century Symphony. Edited by D. Kern Holoman, 417–449. New York: Schirmer, 1997.

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                                                                                                                              A short but intensively insightful survey of Sibelius’s symphonies, developing the principles of rotational form and teleological form that Hepokoski had introduced in his monograph on the Fifth Symphony (Hepokoski 1993, cited under Studies of Individual Works). Demonstrates how Sibelius developed a series of innovative creative solutions to a set of common problems in early-20th-century symphonic form. Highly recommended as an accessible introduction to advanced analytical thinking on Sibelius and musical form.

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                                                                                                                              • Krohn, Ilmari. Der Formenbau in den Symphonien von Jean Sibelius. Helsinki: Suomalainen Tiedeakatemia, 1942.

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                                                                                                                                Ilmari Krohn was a scholar and contemporary of Sibelius whose writing was highly influential in the development of Finnish musicology. His first study of Sibelius’s music, published in German during World War II, sought to demonstrate the underlying formal coherence of Sibelius’s work (implicitly in response to the assumption that his music was formless and rhapsodic), applying Formenlehre categories derived from German musicology and Alfred Lorenz’s model of Bar and Lied forms. Although highly contentious, the comprehensive and systematic quality of Krohn’s work was nevertheless very influential.

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                                                                                                                                • Krohn, Ilmari. Der Stimmungsgehalt der Symphonien von Jean Sibelius. Helsinki: Suomalainen Tiedeakatemia, 1945–1946.

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                                                                                                                                  Krohn’s second study builds on his earlier volume and offers a series of highly programmatic readings of key works, such as the Fourth Symphony. Central to Krohn’s argument is the fundamental role performed by mood or atmosphere (“Stimmung”), a category that allows him to develop a richly semiotic account of Sibelius’s music.

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                                                                                                                                  • Murtomäki, Veijo. Symphonic Unity: The Development of Formal Thinking in the Symphonies of Sibelius. Translated by Henry Bacon in cooperation with the author. Helsinki: University of Helsinki, 1993.

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                                                                                                                                    Contains detailed accounts of each of the symphonies, focusing intensively on issues of unity and formal coherence. Murtomäki argues against the assumption that Sibelius’s concern with such questions is indicative of a fundamentally conservative impulse in his work, claiming than Sibelius’s innovative approach to formal structure in his symphonies is a progressive trait.

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                                                                                                                                    • Parmet, Simon. The Symphonies of Sibelius: A Study in Musical Appreciation. Translated by Kingsley A. Hart. London: Cassell, 1959.

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                                                                                                                                      First published (in Swedish), 1955. An important early analysis of Sibelius’s symphonic works, written by a conductor who was closely associated with the performance and interpretation of Sibelius’s work. In his analyses, Parmet lays particular weight on the significance of a “kärnmotiv” (or germinal motif), from which, he claims, Sibelius’s musical structures grow organically.

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                                                                                                                                      Tone Poems

                                                                                                                                      Though symphonies have attracted the most sustained attention in Sibelius studies his orchestral tone poems are arguably an equally important contribution to the repertoire. Tanzberger 1943 employs a similar methodology to Krohn 1942 and Krohn 1945–1946 (cited under Symphonies), whereas Pinder 2005 is a major new contribution to Sibelius analysis.

                                                                                                                                      • Pinder, Brigitte. Form und Inhalt der symphonischen Tondichtung von Sibelius: Probleme und Lösungswege. Berlin: Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Berlin, 2005.

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                                                                                                                                        A study that builds on the foundations laid by Luyken and others and offers a series of thoughtful interpretations of Sibelius’s tone poems, exploring in particular the boundary between representation and more abstract musical design.

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                                                                                                                                        • Tanzberger, Ernst. Die symphonischen Dichtungen von Jean Sibelius: Eine inhalts- und formanalytische Studie. Würzburg DG: K. Triltsch, 1943.

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                                                                                                                                          Tanzberger’s study can be compared with Krohn’s closely contemporary account of formal structure in Sibelius and adopts a similar methodology, although it reaches some rather different conclusions. Published in Germany during World War II in a series entitled “Musik und Nation,” Tanzberger’s book provides a keen insight into German attitudes to Sibelius’s work during the Third Reich.

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                                                                                                                                          Studies of Individual Works

                                                                                                                                          Recent analytical accounts of Sibelius’s work have directed particular attention to a number of key landmark works in his output. Most significant of all is Hepokoski’s 1993 elegant and penetrating monograph on the Fifth Symphony, an account that galvanized analytical writing on Sibelius. Laufer 1999 and Josephson 1987 have detailed the structure and genesis of the Fourth Symphony, and Pike 2001 has considered modal structures in the Sixth Symphony—a piece that Sibelius described as “pure spring water.” The work of critical edition, Jean Sibelius Works (cited under Reference Works), has stimulated a number of critical studies, notably Goss 2003 on the early choral symphony Kullervo, and Virtanen 2005, a dissertation on the Third Symphony. Among other Finnish accounts, Salmenhaara’s study of the Violin Concerto (Salmenhaara 1996) is a useful introduction to one of Sibelius’s most popular pieces, and Virtanen 2011 describes the fate of Sibelius’s enigmatic Eighth Symphony—a work that is now thought to have been lost or destroyed in the late 1930s.

                                                                                                                                          • Goss, Glenda Dawn. “A Backdrop for Young Sibelius: The Intellectual Genesis of the Kullervo Symphony.” 19th Century Music 27 (2003): 48–73.

                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1525/ncm.2003.27.1.48Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                            Written as a supplement to Goss’s edition of the Kullervo symphony for Jean Sibelius Works, Goss’s essay addresses the cultural environment in which Sibelius conceived his first large-scale work, arguing that it was his exposure to late-19th-century Viennese modernism, particularly the decade that crystallized Freud’s theories of the unconscious, that focused Sibelius’s attention on the Finnish epic, the Kalevala.

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                                                                                                                                            • Hepokoski, James. Sibelius: Symphony No. 5. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1993.

                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511620188Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                              Hepokoski’s influential study outlines a new cultural-musical context for Sibelius’s work, presenting him as an active player in the European modernist wave, alongside Debussy, Richard Strauss, and Edward Elgar. Hepokoski identifies a series of strategies Sibelius devised in order to shape his music within this shifting aesthetic context, including the principles of rotational form (varied strophic structures) and teleological genesis (large-scale goal direction).

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                                                                                                                                              • Josephson, Nors S. “‘Die Skizzen zu Sibelius’ 4: Symphonie (1909–1911).” Die Musikforschung 40 (1987): 38–49.

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                                                                                                                                                Josephson devoted much energy to examining Sibelius’s extensive sketch materials in the years before the completion of Kilpeläinen 1991a and Dahlström 2003 (cited under Reference Works). This article traces the genesis of the Fourth Symphony, through Sibelius’s projected setting of Edgar Allan Poe’s poem The Raven for soprano Aino Ackté and his work on the string quartet Voces Intimae before summarizing the completion of the symphony in its final form.

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                                                                                                                                                • Laufer, Edward. “On the First Movement of Sibelius’s Fourth Symphony: A Schenkerian View.” In Schenker Studies 2. Edited by Carl Schachter and Hedi Siegel, 127–159. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1999.

                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511470295.010Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                  A detailed, systematic, and highly rewarding Schenkerian analysis of one of Sibelius’s most enigmatic and puzzling compositions. Laufer carefully considers issues of prolongation and elaboration, leading the reader through foreground and middle ground analyses of Sibelius’s music to consider issues of background structure and cadential articulation. The graphing is complex, but Laufer’s commentary is consistently illuminating.

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                                                                                                                                                  • Pike, Lionel. “Tonality and Modality in Sibelius’s Sixth Symphony.” Tempo 216 (April 2001): 6–16.

                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1017/S0040298200008445Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                    An analysis of one of Sibelius’s most interesting but neglected works. Pike concentrates on the interactions between modal and diatonic pitch collections in Sibelius’s music. The essay draws together and updates some of the analyses in Pike’s earlier monograph, Beethoven, Sibelius and the Profound Logic: Studies in Symphonic Analysis (London: Athlone, 1978).

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                                                                                                                                                    • Salmenhaara, Erkki. Jean Sibelius: Violin Concerto. Meisterwerke Nordische Musik 1. Wilhelmshaven, Germany: Noetzel, Heinrichshofen-Bücher, 1996.

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                                                                                                                                                      Salmenhaara’s final substantial contribution to Sibelius studies: a guide to one of Sibelius’s most popular compositions. Describes the genesis of the Violin Concerto and summarizes its problematic early performance history (including the aborted premieres of the work and the subsequent substantial revisions of the score), and then provides a brief analysis of the work’s major structural features in dialogue with conventional expectations.

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                                                                                                                                                      • Virtanen, Timo. “Jean Sibelius, Symphony No. 3 Manuscript Study and Analysis.” PhD diss., Sibelius Academy, 2005.

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                                                                                                                                                        A dissertation written in conjunction with Virtanen’s critical edition of the symphony for Jean Sibelius Works. Virtanen shows how the Third Symphony emerged at a crucial point in the composer’s musical development, drawing on materials for a number of related but distinct projects including a planned oratorio called Marjatta based on the final chapter of the Finnish epic the Kalevala.

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                                                                                                                                                        • Virtanen, Timo. “Palapeli ilman kuvaa: Jean Sibeliuksen myöhäiset luonnokset ja kahdeksas sinfonia.” Musiikki 3–4 (2011): 103–130.

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                                                                                                                                                          Part of a special issue dedicated to Sibelius studies, Virtanen’s essay is an authoritative account of the surviving sketch materials that can be attributed to the Eighth Symphony, and a summary of the work’s fate. Sibelius worked on the materials until the mid-1930s, and a first movement was copied, but he subsequently destroyed all substantial traces of the work.

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