Music Diaspora
by
Sylvia Alajaji
  • LAST MODIFIED: 25 February 2016
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199757824-0167

Introduction

Diaspora, a term describing the scattering of a population from a common point of origin and the communities that form as a result, is often described as a condition of placelessness: not fully belonging to any one place or another, being instead in-between, neither completely here nor there. At the same time, however, it is also a condition of placefulness: the lack of place being met by an almost preoccupation with it—if not by those in diaspora themselves, then by those who observe and study the diasporic condition. Etymologically derived from the Greek diaspeirein (“to scatter”), diaspora as a concept initially referred exclusively to Jewish exile and dispersions, then to two other populations—the Greek and the Armenian. While the Jewish, Greek, and Armenian dispersions continue to be considered “classic” diasporas, the term’s conceptual framework has broadened to include dispersions brought on by the transatlantic slave trade, labor and trade migrations, forced migrations, and colonial processes. As boundaries of the concept continue to be stretched, what has emerged is the great diversity inherent in diaspora and in diasporic processes. As a result, diaspora has become a notion as slippery as it is ubiquitous. However, while some may view this ubiquity as jeopardizing the usefulness of the concept, what has remained more or less consistent—and what has, in fact, illuminated the very diversity inherent in diaspora—are the lines of inquiry into diaspora that have been pursued by scholars across the humanities and social sciences. How do those in diaspora situate themselves, whether physically or temporally? How do they navigate the many places, whether imagined or actual, that comprise their histories and their identities? What is place when there is no place (or, when there are so many)? Given music’s ability to navigate such multiplicities and to sonically construct and hearken to place (Stokes 1994, cited under General Overviews), it is no surprise that the diasporic condition and the processes and concepts that have become absorbed into its ever-broadening semantic field (such as exile, migration, and transnationalism, among others) have been an important area of research for musicologists and ethnomusicologists since the 1980s at least. Music studies have much to offer to the study of diasporas in general as they can illuminate the processes and complexities within them in a number of ways. Music studies have also been on the frontlines of newer permutations and understandings of diaspora, including internal diasporas and digital diasporas. Furthermore, music ensembles that have proliferated globally without the presence of a diaspora community have widened. As can be seen from this bibliography, certain diasporic populations have received more attention than others. Thus, this bibliography should be able to both direct one to the most substantial scholarship in a certain area, but at the same time implicitly highlight those areas needing further research.

General Overviews

As with other fields, diaspora studies in music have been predominantly approached via case studies. However, in an effort to rein in the slipperiness of diaspora as a concept and to more concretely identify the ways in which musicologists and ethnomusicologists can contribute to diaspora discourses, a number of scholars have offered useful overviews of the concept as it has been approached within ethnomusicology and musicology and identify future directions for the concept within music studies. In dialogue with some of the foundational literature of diasporic studies, these articles also provide conceptual frameworks that delineate both the potentialities and limits inherent in the diaspora concept, specifically as they apply (or may apply) to music. For a general overview of the concept of diaspora from the musicological and ethnomusicological perspectives, Diaspora is an ideal place to begin. Ramnarine 2007, Slobin 2012, and Turino 2004 provide indispensable critical analyses of diaspora as it has been conceived of and understood both within and without ethnomusicology. Ramnarine 2007 and Turino 2004 offer their own analytical frameworks for the study of music and/in diaspora, while Slobin encourages scholars to engage with diaspora as a theoretical concept and not simply a categorical designation to be taken for granted. Turino 2003 proposes an alternative to the “global culture” model that has often been used in the study of diasporic and immigrant musics. Slobin 1993, a particularly useful source for the study of music within multiethnic societies, provides a theoretically rigorous model for the analysis of micromusics, or “small musics living in big systems” (p. xiii). While Stokes 1994 does not explicitly engage with the concept of diaspora, this important chapter provides critical insight into the relationship between music and identity—a relationship at the heart of the majority of the scholarship on music and diaspora. Finally, the author of Shelemay 2011 invites a critical re-examination of the notion of community (whether diasporic or otherwise), urging scholars to attend to the discursive implications of the term. Her call for a more rigorous, or at the very least re-examined, approach to the defining of community is of the utmost relevance to those studying diasporic communities, as the case study she provides demonstrates.

  • Bohlman, Philip V. “Diaspora.” In Oxford Music Online: Grove Music Online. Edited by Deane Root, Philip V. Bohlman, Jonathan Cross, Honey Meconi, and John H. Roberts. New York: Oxford University Press.

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    An overview of the notion of diaspora, both in general and as it relates to music.

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  • Ramnarine, Tina K. “Musical Performance in the Diaspora: Introduction.” In Musical Performance in the Diaspora. Edited by Tina K. Ramnarine, 1–18. New York: Routledge, 2007.

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    Both introduction and case study, the opening chapter to this edited volume draws upon Ato Quayson’s theory of calibration to provide insight into diasporic musical practice.

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  • Shelemay, Kay Kaufman. “Musical Communities: Rethinking the Collective in Music.” Journal of the American Musicological Society 64.2 (2011): 349–390.

    DOI: 10.1525/jams.2011.64.2.349Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Inspired by her ethnographic work with Ethiopian diasporic communities, Shelemay asserts that a reappraisal of the term “community” in the study of musical collectivities allows opportunities to elucidate the ways music generates, shapes, and sustains new collectivities. Proposes a framework for the notion of community that “re-claims ‘community’. . .as part of an updated search to define music’s generative role in social processes” (p. 350).

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  • Slobin, Mark. Subcultural Sounds: Micromusics of the West. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 1993.

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    This study of subcultural musics draws upon Arjun Appadurai’s theories of ethnoscapes, technoscapes, finanscapes, ideoscapes, and mediascapes as a way to explore the dynamics between supercultural, subcultural, and intercultural musical practices. Particularly useful for those working with diasporic musics is Slobin’s conception of a diasporic interculture, which “emerges from the linkages that subcultures set up across national boundaries” (p. 64).

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  • Slobin, Mark. “The Destiny of ‘Diaspora’ in Ethnomusicology.” In The Cultural Study of Music: A Critical Introduction. Edited by Martin Clayton, Trevor Herbert, and Richard Middleton, 284–296. New York and London: Routledge, 2012.

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    This brief article offers a useful overview of the use (and misuse) of the “diaspora” concept in ethnomusicology, both currently (as of 2012 in the updated edition) and over the years, examining the term’s emergence, expansion, and evolution in the field. He offers suggestions for future research, emphasizing in particular the concepts of sonic diaspora, intra-diasporic music, and “internet as diasporic agent.” Originally published in 2003.

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  • Stokes, Martin. “Introduction: Ethnicity, Identity and Music.” In Ethnicity, Identity and Music: The Musical Construction of Place. Edited by Martin Stokes, 1–27. Oxford and Providence, RI: Berg, 1994.

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    A critical overview of the relationship between music and identity, particularly in terms of the ways in which music can articulate/inform a sense of place; negotiate ethnic, national, and gender identities; and navigate within hybrid or pluralized identities.

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  • Turino, Thomas. “Are We Global Yet? Globalist Discourse, Cultural Formations, and the Study of Zimbabwean Popular Music.” British Journal of Ethnomusicology 12.2 (2003): 51–79.

    DOI: 10.1080/09681220308567363Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Utilizing the cultural formations of immigrant communities, diasporas, and cosmopolitan formations, Turino proposes an alternative framework to the concept of “global culture”—a framework that has often been employed in the study of trans-state musical processes.

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  • Turino, Thomas. “Introduction: Identity and the Arts in Diaspora Communities.” In Identity and the Arts in Diaspora Communities. Edited by Thomas Turino and James Lea, 3–20. Warren, MI: Harmonie Park, 2004.

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    The introduction to this interdisciplinary and diverse collection of articles argues that music (along with other expressive cultural forms) enables a “rich semiotic field that has the capability of producing particularly complex effects” (p. 17), thus making it particularly effective at representing, generating, and configuring diasporic identities.

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Edited Volumes

As in other fields, the study of music and diaspora is frequently approached via case studies of particular communities. Many of these studies are often compiled into edited volumes, categorized by the communities, genres, or processes under study. Ramnarine 2007, Slobin 1994, and Turino and Lea 2004 group together articles examining various diasporic communities. Ramnarine 2007 focuses particularly on a number of diasporic communities underrepresented in the ethnomusicological literature. Slobin 1994 is particularly notable as it is a special music-focused issue of the multidisciplinary pioneering journal Diaspora, as is Turino and Lea 2004, which offers a number of case studies from differing methodological and theoretical perspectives. Jairazbhoy and DeVale 1984, on Asian diasporic musics in North America, is one of the earliest collections explicitly dedicated to a study of the music of Asian American communities. Another collection devoted to the study of Asian diasporic musics, Um 2005 includes essays on South, Southeast, and East Asian diasporic communities. Allen and Wilkin 2001 presents site-specific studies of Caribbean popular musics in New York City, while Levi and Scheding 2010 examines displacement in Europe and its significance for expressive culture. Finally, Baily and Collyer 2006 and Dueck and Toynbee 2011 feature articles that utilize the conceptual framework of migration. Similar to Slobin 1994, Baily and Collyer 2006 is a special issue of the multidisciplinary Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies. See also Monson 2003, cited under African Diaspora; Kartomi and McCredie 2004, cited under Jewish Diaspora; and Madrid 2011, cited under Transnationalism.

  • Allen, Ray, and Lois Wilkin, eds. Island Sounds in the Global City: Caribbean Popular Music and Identity in New York City. New York: Institute for Studies in American Music, 2001.

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    A collection of articles examining diasporic cultural identity via the expressive cultures of the Caribbean diaspora in New York City.

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  • Baily, John, and Michael Collyer, eds. Special Issue: Music and Migration. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 32.2 (2006).

    DOI: 10.1080/13691830500487266Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This issue of the multidisciplinary Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies offers articles that examine in particular the relationship between music and migration, including a highly useful introductory article written by the editors themselves. Music and migratory processes are examined from the perspective of numerous wide-ranging case studies, many of which are underrepresented within the ethnomusicological literature.

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  • Dueck, Bryon, and Jason Toynbee, eds. Migrating Music. Abingdon, UK, and New York: Routledge, 2011.

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    This volume considers the complex dynamics of migration and mobility and explores “music in motion through migration” (p. 12). The book is divided into three sections: “Migrants,” which focuses on the migrant musicians themselves; “Translations,” which examines the performance and re-creation of musics removed from their old contexts; and “Media.” Each section opens with an introduction written by one of the editors.

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  • Jairazbhoy, Nazi, and Sue Carole DeVale, eds. Special Issue: Asian Music in North America. Selected Reports in Ethnomusicology 6 (1984).

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    One of the earliest volumes dedicated to a study of the presence of Asian musics in North America. Includes sections on South Asian, Southeast Asian, and East Asian musics.

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  • Levi, Erik, and Florian Scheding, eds. Music and Displacement: Diasporas, Mobilities, and Dislocations in Europe and Beyond. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow, 2010.

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    This collection of musicological case studies focuses particularly on displaced populations in Europe and covers an impressive range of genres, including jazz, classical, and popular musics. The introduction written by the editors provides a very useful overview of the concept of displacement, especially as it applies to music studies.

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  • Ramnarine, Tina K., ed. Musical Performance in the Diaspora. New York: Routledge, 2007.

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    The six chapters in this volume feature case studies of often-overlooked diasporic communities, including Kazakhs in Mongolia, Jewish communities in Australia, and Afroperuvians.

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  • Slobin, Mark, ed. Special Issue: A Special Section on Diasporic Music. Diaspora: A Journal of Transnational Studies 3.3 (1994).

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    The articles in this special issue of the journal Diaspora explicitly engage with the notion of diaspora as a theoretical framework (while acknowledging both its potentialities and its limitations). Despite the age of this issue, the articles are still quite relevant. Case studies include musics in the Haitian, Cuban, Chinese, Turkish, and Greek diasporas.

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  • Turino, Thomas, and James Lea, eds. Identity and the Arts in Diaspora Communities. Warren, MI: Harmonie Park, 2004.

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    This interdisciplinary collection of articles offers perspectives from ethnomusicology, comparative literature, architecture, and the visual arts. Articles by Jane Sugarman (Sugarman 1997, cited under Identity Formation), Veit Erlmann (“Communities of Style: Musical Figures of Black Diasporic Identity”; also appears in Monson 2003, cited under African Diaspora), and Gregory Diethrich (Diethrich 1999, cited under South Asian Diasporas) are of particular relevance to musicologists and ethnomusicologists.

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  • Um, Hae-Kyung, ed. Diasporas and Interculturalism in Asian Performing Arts: Translating Traditions. New York: RoutledgeCurzon, 2005.

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    Focuses primarily on the expressive cultures of South, Southeast, and East Asian diasporic communities. The articles are divided into two sections: “Asian Diaspora and Performing Arts” and “Intercultural Performances and Transnational Audiences.”

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Journals

The following are peer-reviewed journals primarily geared toward the study of diaspora and its affiliated processes. Black Music Research Journal is explicitly music-focused and features articles on musics from across the African diaspora. While Diaspora, Public Culture, and South Asian Diaspora are multidisciplinary journals, they often feature articles on music and other forms of expressive culture. Diaspora, which launched in 1991, is a pioneering journal in the field of diaspora studies. It was soon followed by Public Culture and South Asian Diaspora, two other journals explicitly devoted to the study of transnational movements and diasporic communities.

Audio/Visual Recordings and Transcriptions

Perhaps the best way to understand the music of diasporic communities is by listening to the music itself. Armenians on 8th Avenue (1996) and To What Strange Place (2011) are both fascinating remastered recordings of musicians in the United States who had recently arrived from the Ottoman Empire, while The Music of Arab Americans (1997) presents a variety of musics performed by Arab American musicians between 1910 and the 1960s. Rasmussen 1997 presents an important overview of many of these original records. The documentary Baily 2007, directed by ethnomusicologist John Baily (who has written extensively on the music of Afghanistan and its diaspora), focuses on the music and musicians of Afghan diasporic communities in London, Kabul, Hamburg, and Dublin. Robins 2011 is another documentary, this one on a Haitian rara band in Brooklyn. Quisqueya en el Hudson (2004) presents different Dominican genres as they are performed in New York City. Finally, Chapman Nyaho 2009 presents a compilation of piano music composed by African composers throughout the diaspora. See also Idelsohn 1914–1932 (cited under Jewish Diaspora).

  • Armenians on 8th Avenue. Various artists. Produced by Harold G. Hagopian. CD 4279. New York: Traditional Crossroads, 1996.

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    Remastered recordings of Armenian musicians who had recently immigrated from what is today Turkey (originally recorded between the 1920s and 1950s). Performing primarily in Greek-owned nightclubs on Manhattan’s 8th Avenue, these musicians performed an urban, cabaret-style of Anatolian music from the Ottoman Empire. As this music quickly disappeared with the birth of the Republic of Turkey, it was preserved and perpetuated by these musicians in an entirely new context. With 22-page booklet of notes, photographs, and song lyrics.

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  • Baily, John, dir. Scenes of Afghan Music: London, Kabul, Hamburg, Dublin. DVD. London: Afghanistan Music Unit, Goldsmiths, University of London, 2007.

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    A documentary film made by ethnomusicology John Baily, whose extensive research on Afghani music in Afghanistan and in the diaspora, has been widely published. This film, made in his “fieldwork movie” style, documents Afghani expressive culture in both Afghanistan and the diaspora (focusing on London, Hamburg, and Dublin). The music of the latter in particular demonstrates the transnational character of Afghani communities living outside the homeland.

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  • Chapman Nyaho, William H. Piano Music of Africa and the African Diaspora. 5 vols. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009.

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    A rich compilation of piano music representative of a variety of genres and styles, composed by black composers from Africa and numerous parts of the African diaspora including Europe, Latin America, the Caribbean, and North America. Includes composer biographies and notes for performance.

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  • The Music of Arab Americans: A Retrospective Collection. Various artists. Research and documentation by Anne K. Rasmussen. CD 112. Cambridge, MA: Rounder Records, 1997.

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    A collection of diverse Arab American recordings made by various performers in the United States between 1910 and the 1960s. Originally released on 78-rpm discs, the tracks on the album feature a broad selection of styles and genres, from traditional to those heard at Middle Eastern nightclubs and parties. With 24-page booklet of notes, photographs, and song lyrics transliterated by John Eisele and Ali Jihad Racy.

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  • Quisqueya en el Hudson: Dominican Music in New York City. Various artists. Produced by Center for Traditional Music and Dance. CD 40495. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Folkways, 2004.

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    Featuring primarily traditional Dominican musics as they are performed by the diaspora in New York City, including (but not limited to) merengue, bachata, and the Dominican variation of the Cuban son. An excellent sonic example of the ways in which traditional musics adapt to new environments in the diaspora. With 33-page booklet of notes.

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  • Rasmussen, Anne K. “Made in America: Historical and Contemporary Recordings of Middle Eastern Music in the United States.” Middle East Studies Association Bulletin 31.2 (1997): 158–162.

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    A very useful overview and listing of recordings made by American musicians of Lebanese, Armenian, Turkish, Egyptian, and Palestinian origin, from the 1920s to the 1950s. Many of these musicians originally recorded with major record labels such as Columbia, Victor, and His Master’s Voice, while others created their own labels.

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  • Robins, Jeremy, dir. The Other Side of the Water: The Journey of a Haitian Rara Band in Brooklyn. DVD. Produced by Jeremy Robins and Magali Damas. New York: Ibis, 2011.

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    A documentary following the lives of Haitian immigrants in Brooklyn, told through the lens of the rara band, DJARARA. Combining archival footage with cinéma-vérité narrative style, illuminates the struggles encountered by Haitians in New York and the ways in which their expressive culture navigates the complexities of their diasporic identity.

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  • To What Strange Place: The Music of the Ottoman-American Diaspora, 1916–1929. Various artists. Curated and compiled by Ian Nagoski. San Francisco: Tompkins Square, 2011.

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    A fascinating collection of remastered recordings of music originally recorded on 78-rpm discs. The Greek, Sephardic, Armenian, Syrian, and Turkish artists featured on the three discs comprising this collection continued to perform, in the United States, musics of the Ottoman Empire. Although these musics would virtually cease to exist after the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire, they continued in the United States, played in clubs, taverns, cafes, and immigrant enclaves throughout cities such as Detroit, Chicago, and New York City. With 20-page booklet of notes and photographs.

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Analytical Frameworks

Despite the great diversity inherent to diaspora studies, a number of recurring analytical frameworks can be found. Studies that employ these analytical frameworks approach the diasporic processes under study through specific theoretical lenses. These studies thus steady the often-unwieldy parameters of diaspora within a highly constructive and illuminating framework, drawing upon and engaging with theories from across the humanities and social sciences. Within the ethnomusicological literature especially, the musics of diasporic communities are often framed in terms of questions of representation, a diasporic community’s relationship to its homeland, collective memory, identity formation, transnationalism, and exile. Of course, these categories are not mutually exclusive and often case studies will touch on more than one. However, the works listed here more or less explicitly frame their inquiries around the topics listed. This list is also by no means exhaustive. While other conceptual frameworks have certainly been adopted, those listed here have been more substantially so.

Representation

The question of representation—how music can represent both self and other—is one that appears with some regularity within the musicological and ethnomusicological literatures. Rasmussen 1992 and Wong 2004 engage the question of self-representation in music explicitly but as applied to a diasporic context.

  • Rasmussen, Anne K. “‘An Evening in the Orient’: The Middle Eastern Nightclub in America.” Asian Music 23.2 (1992): 63–88.

    DOI: 10.2307/834173Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Building on Edward Said’s seminal work on orientalism, this article examines the self-orientalizing musical expressions of Arab immigrants in the United States during the 1960s and 1970s.

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  • Wong, Deborah. Speak It Louder: Asian Americans Making Music. New York: Routledge, 2004.

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    Examines the processes of representation inherent within the performative expressive cultural practices of Asian-Americans, viewing them, at least in part, as “strategic responses” (p. 5) to systemic disempowerment and marginalization.

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Homeland(s)

A lingering debate within diasporic studies continues to be on the relationship of “home” to diasporic communities. While some have found the concept of home to be overemphasized and understood only as existing in a polarized relationship to the diaspora, there continue to be rich, nuanced studies examining the place of home within diasporic consciousness in the ethnomusicological literature. Baily 2009 and Manuel 1997–1998 are two such examples, each examining the ways in which the homeland factors into the identities of the diasporic communities under study. Post 2007 examines the ways in which music articulates the complexity of “home” for diasporic communities. Kassabian 2013 and Ramnarine 2007 problematize the very notion of a singular home, emphasizing instead the multi-locality inherent in the diasporic communities in their studies.

  • Baily, John. “The Circulation of Music between Afghanistan and the Afghan Diaspora.” In Beyond the “Wild Tribes”: Understanding Modern Afghanistan and Its Diaspora. Edited by Ceri Oeppen and Angela Schlenkoff, 157–171. London: Hurst, 2009.

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    Explores the relationship between diaspora and homeland through the examination of the flow(s) of music between Afghanistan (particularly Kabul) and its “periphery”—a periphery that has become the center of creativity for Afghan music.

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  • Kassabian, Anahid. Ubiquitous Listening: Affect, Attention, and Distributed Subjectivity. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2013.

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    While this book as a whole examines the ways in which the ubiquity of sound has affected the act of listening, two chapters in particular—“Listening to Video Art and the Problem of Too Many Homelands” (chapter 2) and “Improvising Diasporan Identities: Armenian Jazz” (chapter 5)—use examples from the Armenian diaspora to challenge the often overly simplified understanding of a diasporic community’s relationship to a presumably singular homeland.

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  • Manuel, Peter. “Music, Identity, and Images of India in the Indo-Caribbean Diaspora.” Asian Music 29.1 (1997–1998): 17–35.

    DOI: 10.2307/834410Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Examines the ways in which the musics of the Indo-Caribbean diaspora sustain, construct, negotiate, and reconcile its connections to the homeland. The diverse and at times conflicting images of India that emerge speak to the complex of identities within migrant communities.

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  • Post, Jennifer C. “‘I Take My “Dombra” and Sing to Remember My Homeland’: Identity, Landscape and Music in Kazakh Communities of Western Mongolia.” Ethnomusicology Forum 16.1 (2007): 45–69.

    DOI: 10.1080/17411910701276369Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Examines the ways in which Kazakh communities in Mongolia maintain a distinct sense of self and use music to construct and reconstruct their perceptions of home.

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  • Ramnarine, Tina. Beautiful Cosmos: Performance and Belonging in the Caribbean Diaspora. London: Pluto, 2007.

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    Using the musics and musical performances of the Caribbean diaspora as case studies, the author explores the question, “where is home in the diaspora?” (p. 19). In this study, “home” emerges as the diaspora itself—a complex space that, in its multi-locality, enables a sense of belonging.

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Collective Memory

One particularly illuminating conceptual framework for the study of the role of music within diasporic communities is the ways in which music contributes to the preservation, construction, and negotiation of collective memory. Shelemay 1998 and Olsen 2004 are both based on extensive fieldwork with little-studied diasporic communities: Shelemay focuses on the Syrian-Jewish communities of New York City, Mexico, and Israel while Olsen’s study focuses on the Japanese diaspora in South America. Muller 2006 uses the notion of collective memory as a way to introduce a reformulation of the African diasporic experience, while the wide-ranging collection of essays in Chaudhuri and Seeger 2007 examine the relationship between music and cultural memory for diasporic communities in India and Indian communities outside India.

  • Chaudhuri, Shubha, and Anthony Seeger, eds. Remembered Rhythms: Essays on Diaspora and the Music of India. London: Seagull, 2007.

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    Comprised of essays by scholars across the humanities and social sciences, this wide-ranging collection explores the ways in which music and cultural memory shape diasporic identity. Case studies include both Indian diasporic communities and African and Jewish diasporic communities in India. Includes audio examples.

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  • Muller, Carol A. “The New African Diaspora, the Built Environment and the Past in Jazz.” Ethnomusicology Forum 15.1 (2006): 63–86.

    DOI: 10.1080/17411910600634270Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Argues for a reformulation of understandings of the new African diasporic experience (as opposed to the older African diaspora) through an analysis of the ways in which the past is invoked and brought into the present in the jazz performances of Cape Town–born, New York–based singer Sathima Bea Benjamin.

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  • Olsen, Dale A. The Chrysanthemum and the Song: Music, Memory, and the South American Japanese Diaspora. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2004.

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    Through a study of “active” and “passive” music-making among Nikkei (people of Japanese heritage) in South America, this book examines the ways in which music, through its invocation and creation of cultural memory, allows for the maintenance and negotiation of diasporic identity. Utilizes and builds upon the model for diasporic music study proposed in Slobin 1993 (cited under General Overviews).

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  • Shelemay, Kay Kafuman. Let Jasmine Rain Down: Song and Remembrance among Syrian Jews. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998.

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    This seminal study examines the construction, evocation, and complexities of collective memory and remembrance through an ethnographic analysis of a repertory of sacred Syrian-Jewish songs known as pizmonim, as sung and performed by Syrian-Jewish diasporic communities of New York City, Mexico, and Israel.

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Identity Formation

By far, one of the most often recurring concerns within the study of music and diaspora is the question of diasporic consciousness and the extent to which music contributes to collective identity in diaspora. These studies challenge notions of essentialism, finding within diasporic communities a collective identity that is hybrid and multiple. In Gross, et al. 1996, the hybridity inherent in raï is essential to the establishment of a distinctly Franco-Maghrebi identity. The genres under study in Cohen 1989 (Judeo-Spanish song), Manuel 2000 (tān-singing and chutney), and Simonett 2001 (Mexican banda) play a similarly constructive role. In Pacini Hernandez 2010 and Rapport 2014 the trajectories of multiple genres are traced (among Latin American and Bukharian Jewish communities, respectively) in order to demonstrate the shifts in self-conception over time. Rather than focus on a single community, Guilbault 2005 uses Trinidadian calypso competitions as a way to examine intersecting subjectivities and the ways those sonic encounters—what Guilbault terms “audible entanglements”—contribute to the formation of diasporic consciousness. Finally, Sugarman 1997 examines in particular the construction of gendered subjectivities among the Prespa.

  • Cohen, Judith R. “The Impact of Mass Media and Acculturation on the Judeo-Spanish Song Tradition in Montreal.” In World Music, Politics and Social Change: Papers from the International Association for the Study of Popular Music. Edited by Simon Frith, 90–97. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press, 1989.

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    Examines the role of music in the shaping and maintenance of collective identity through a study of acculturation in Judeo-Spanish songs as sung by and disseminated among the Sephardic community in Montreal.

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  • Gross, Joan, David McMurray, and Ted Swedenburg. “Arab Noise and Ramadan Nights: Raï, Rap, and Franco-Maghrebi Identities.” In Displacement, Diaspora, and Geographies of Identity. Edited by Smadar Lavie and Ted Swedenburg, 119–156. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1996.

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    Through an analysis of the expressive culture of Maghrebi populations in France, particularly the radio program Ramadan Nights and the Algerian popular music genre raï, the authors trace the trajectory and construction of Franco-Maghrebi identity, arguing that such cultural expressions have the potential to serve as models of “decentralized plurality and multiple affiliations, a means of recasting contemporary French identity” (p. 121).

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  • Guilbault, Jocelyne. “Audible Entanglements: Nation and Diasporas in Trinidad’s Calypso Music Scene.” Small Axe 9.1 (2005): 40–63.

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    A study of Trinidadian calypso competitions—a space shared by more than one diasporic community—as an example of what the author terms “audible entanglement.” In their audible and visible renderings of various subjectivities, these competitions elucidate the complex production of nation and diaspora.

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  • Manuel, Peter. East Indian Music in the West Indies: Tān-Singing, Chutney, and the Making of Indo-Caribbean Culture. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2000.

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    Examines two genres from the Indo-Caribbean diaspora, tān-singing and chutney (the former a traditional genre from India, the latter a popular genre that emerged in diaspora), as vehicles for the maintenance, construction, and adaptation of Indian diasporic identity. Focuses specifically on Indo-Caribbean communities in Trinidad, Guyana, and Suriname.

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  • Pacini Hernandez, Deborah. Oye Como Va: Hybridity and Identity in Latino Popular Music. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2010.

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    A tracing of the trajectory of various Latin musical genres and the ways in which the hybridities within and the discourses surrounding them both shape and challenge conceptions of Latin American identity.

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  • Rapport, Evan. Greeted with Smiles: Bukharian Jewish Music and Musicians in New York. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014.

    DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199379033.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Focusing on the little-studied musical traditions of Bukharian Jewish immigrants, this study finds music to be a central component of their evolving self-definition as an immigrant community. Three distinct repertoires form the focal point of the ethnography: maquom, religious music, and popular music.

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  • Simonett, Helena. Banda: Mexican Musical Life across Borders. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 2001.

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    The first full-length monograph of banda, the wind-based genre that originated in the Mexican state of Sinaloa, and technobanda, the electronic version of the genre that arose in the United States, this study examines expressive culture as discursive practice, generating and navigating between complex intersecting social identities among Mexican and Mexican American communities.

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  • Sugarman, Jane. Engendering Song: Singing and Subjectivity at Prespa Albanian Weddings. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997.

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    An indispensable ethnographic study of the musical life of Prespa communities in the Balkans and the North American diaspora (in the Great Lakes region). Informed by theories of power and subjectivity drawn from Bourdieu and Foucault, among others, this book examines the ways in which formalized wedding customs and conventions (those preceding and during the wedding) generate, transform, and renegotiate complex social structures and relations of power within Prespa communities.

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Transnationalism

Many scholars approach diasporas as collectivities that challenge the boundaries of the nation-state and exist in a place beyond it, thus making them transnational. Studies that approach diasporic communities via a transnational conceptual framework emphasize the flows and movements of expressive culture and identify the diasporic space as heterogeneous. Averill 1994, Hemmasi 2011, and Sugarman 2004 examine, respectively, Haitian, Iranian, and Albanian popular musics and the ways in which they enable a particularly transnational identification. In its multi-sited approach to an analysis of the music of the Roma diaspora, Silverman 2012 offers a provocative and critical examination of transnationalism and its application to music. Kim 2011 examines the transnational movements of Korean p’ungmul, while Aparicio and Jaquez 2003 is a collection of essays that examine the shifting transnational meanings of Latin American musics as they traverse space and time. Madrid 2011 and Zheng 2010 examine the multiple and complex networks inherent in the musics of the Mexican American and Chinese American diasporas. Finally, Jung 2014 examines the role played by social media in the transnational flow and dissemination of music.

  • Aparicio, Frances R., and Candida F. Jaquez. Musical Migrations: Transnationalism and Cultural Hybridity in Latin/o America. Vol. 1. New York: Macmillan, 2003.

    DOI: 10.1057/9780230107441Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This collection of essays emphasizes shifts in cultural meaning that occur as musics traverse geographical borders and historical periods. Focusing entirely on Latin American musics, the essays cover a wide-ranging number of genres and musical practices, including salsa, mariachi, reggae, rock, and Peruvian indigenous music, among many others.

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  • Averill, Gage. “‘Mezanmi, Kouman Nou Ye? My Friends, How Are You?’ Musical Constructions of the Haitian Transnation.” Diaspora: A Journal of Transnational Studies 3.3 (1994): 253–272.

    DOI: 10.1353/dsp.1994.0015Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    One of the seven music-focused articles appearing in the Mark Slobin-edited issue of the journal Diaspora. Examines the configuration and construction of the distinctly transnational character of the Haitian diaspora—described by Averill as “suspended in the new transnational space between nation state and diaspora” (p. 253)—through a careful tracing of the flow and circulation of Haitian popular music.

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  • Hemmasi, Farzaneh. “Iranian Popular Music in Los Angeles: A Transnational Public beyond the Islamic States.” In Muslim Rap, Halal Soaps, and Revolutionary Theater: Artistic Developments in the Muslim World. Edited by Karin Van Nieuwkerk, 85–114. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2011.

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    Examines the “exilic preoccupation with Iran” in Los Angeles–produced Iranian popular musics as generating an alternative public sphere in which distinctly transnational representations of Iranian identity both subvert and dialogue with the policies of the Islamic Republic.

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  • Jung, Eun-Young. “Transnational Migrations and YouTube Sensations: Korean Americans, Popular Music, and Social Media.” Ethnomusicology 58.1 (2014): 54–82.

    DOI: 10.5406/ethnomusicology.58.1.0054Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Examines the music-making of Korean Americans, focusing in particular on three Korean American male musicians with a significant presence on social media. Through these three case studies, Jung explores the ways in which social media enables Korean American youth to circumvent racial and ethnic barriers.

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  • Kim, Soo-Jin. “Diasporic P’ungmul in the United States: A Journey between Korea and the United States.” PhD diss., The Ohio State University, 2011.

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    This dissertation examines the history, transnational movements, and recent iterations of the Korean folk music tradition p’ungmul. Explores the ways in which p’ungmul operates as a dynamic site of continuous exchange.

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  • Madrid, Alejandro L., ed. Transnational Encounters: Music and Performance at the U.S.-Mexico Border. New York: Oxford University Press, 2011.

    DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199735921.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Although rather wide-ranging in scope, with articles that explore genres such as reggae, rap, norteña, narcocorrido, and waila in addition to lesser-discussed musical traditions such as Mascogo hymn singing, together these seventeen articles demonstrate not only the significant diversity in Mexican American musical practices but also the ways in which the transnational connections inherent in these genres invite a critical re-examination of our understandings of notions such as borders and diaspora. Madrid’s introduction provides an excellent overview of the collection’s objectives.

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  • Silverman, Carol. Romani Routes: Cultural Politics and Balkan Music in Diaspora. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012.

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    While important for its critical examination of issues of transnationalism, this expansive, theoretically emplaced ethnography also offers an important consideration of the notions of diaspora, hybridity, cosmopolitanism, and identity and their implications for the Romani diaspora. Through a study of transnational Romani musicians and musics—and the marketing of said musics—this book examines the way music performatively constitutes, forges, and sustains the multi-stranded identities of the Romani communities.

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  • Sugarman, Jane. “Diasporic Dialogues: Mediated Musics and the Albanian Transnation.” In Identity and the Arts in Diaspora Communities. Edited by Thomas Turino and James Lea, 21–38. Warren, MI: Harmonie Park, 2004.

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    A comparative study of two diasporic Albanian subgroups—those in the United States, Canada, and Australia and those in Europe—that demonstrates the way Albanian popular musics mediate and reconcile the tensions between the memories and realities of the homeland with the realities of life in the diaspora.

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  • Zheng, Su. Claiming Diaspora: Music, Transnationalism, and Cultural Politics in Asian/Chinese America. New York: Oxford University Press, 2010.

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    Adopts the conceptual framework of “transnationalism from below” (11) to convey the numerous interactions and negotiations (such as with the homeland, the host country, and internal differences and division) that shape and are shaped by the expressive culture of Chinese Americans.

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Exile

Of special consideration within studies of music and diaspora are those communities that form as a result of involuntary migration. Naficy 1993, although not focused on music explicitly, remains a pivotal text on the role of expressive culture in exilic communities. Muller 2014 utilizes Edward Said’s notion of being “out of place” as a way to examine exile among South African musicians during the height of apartheid. Reyes 1999, a case study of Vietnamese refugees in the Philippines and the United States, was one of the earliest monographs to explicitly address music among refugee communities. Baily 2005 employs a similarly multi-sited approach, focusing on Afghan refugees in Pakistan and California. Finally, Diehl 2002 also examines music in a refugee community, focusing on Tibetan refugees in Dharamsala, India.

  • Baily, John. “So Near, So Far: Kabul’s Music in Exile.” Ethnomusicology Forum 4.2 (2005): 213–233.

    DOI: 10.1080/17411910500329658Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A comparative study of Afghan music culture in Peshawar, Pakistan and Fremont, California—two cities with significant Afghan refugee populations. Each city differs considerably from the other, presenting an opportunity to examine the effects on and role of music and its performance in situations of forced migration.

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  • Diehl, Keila. Echoes from Dharamsala: Music in the Life of a Tibetan Refugee Community. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2002.

    DOI: 10.1525/california/9780520230439.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Utilizes the idea of “global flow” to examine the ways in which Tibetan refugees in Dharamsala, India use music to articulate their understandings and perceptions of home and place and to navigate through their hybridized identities and struggles with displacement.

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  • Muller, Carol. “Musical Remembrance, Exile, and the Remaking of South African Jazz (1960–1979).” In The Oxford Handbook of Music Revival. Edited by Caroline Bithell and Juniper Hill, 644–665. New York: Oxford University Press, 2014.

    DOI: 10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199765034.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Building upon Edward Said’s notion of being and feeling “out of place,” this article examines the ways in which South African musicians exiled during the height of apartheid used music as a way to remember and reimagine the homeland and to reconcile and confront the challenges and burdens of the exilic condition.

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  • Naficy, Hamid. The Making of Exile Cultures: Iranian Television in Los Angeles. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1993.

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    While not explicitly about music per se, this book is an important contribution to the study of the role of expressive and popular culture in the construction and navigation of exilic identity, focusing on cultural production in the Iranian exilic community in Los Angeles.

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  • Reyes, Adelaida. Songs of the Caged, Songs of the Free: Music and the Vietnamese Refugee Experience. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1999.

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    Urging ethnomusicologists to pay closer attention to the music and experiences of refugee and forced-migrant communities, the author presents an account of how music has functioned in the lives of Vietnamese refugees in four distinct locations (two refugee camps in the Philippines and two resettlement locations in the United States), and, consequently, provides a critical lens into the refugee experience.

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Jewish Diaspora

Along with the African diaspora, the musics of the Jewish diaspora have received significant attention in the musicological and ethnomusicological literature. Given the expansive parameters of the diaspora, the literature is vast and varied (see Jewish Music). With one exception, the few selected here are those that deal explicitly, rather than implicitly, with the notion of diaspora as a critical and conceptual framework and engage with and build upon the foundational theoretical works related to diaspora studies. Idelsohn 1914–1932 is unlike the others in that it is a collection of melodies gathered from throughout the Jewish diaspora. However, in establishing such a repertory, this monumental work set the groundwork for a study of Jewish music in diaspora. Bohlman 2002 is a very useful starting point for an overview of the relationship between Jewish studies and Jewish music studies, with a particular focus on diaspora. Bohlman 2008 and Janeczko 2009 engage provocatively with two critical questions: Bohlman engages with the nature and possibility of a Jewish music in light of modernity (encompassing the Holocaust and its aftermath) while Janeczko ponders the potentialities and limits of the concept of diaspora in the study of Jewish music. One of the earliest ethnomusicological works to explicitly utilize the notion of diaspora, Slobin 1982 presents an invaluable study of Yiddish melodies as they were brought to the United States by Jewish immigrants in the early 20th century. As a special issue of Ethnomusicology Forum, Kartomi and McCredie 2004 offers a collection of essays on little-studied Jewish diasporic communities of East and Southeast Asia, thus expanding the geographical scope of the literature on Jewish diasporic music, which tends to focus mainly on communities in North America, Europe, and, to a lesser extent, West Asia. For other sources related to musics in the Jewish diaspora, see Cohen 1989 (cited under Identity Formation), Rapport 2014 (cited under Identity Formation), Shelemay 1998 (cited under Collective Memory), and Slobin 2002 (cited under Diasporic Practices).

  • Bohlman, Philip. “Music.” In The Oxford Handbook of Jewish Studies. Edited by Martin Goodman, Jeremy Cohen, and David Sorkin, 852–869. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.

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    An analysis of the ways in which Jewish music studies and Jewish studies inform and build upon one another. Pays particular attention to the notion of diaspora in Jewish music studies.

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  • Bohlman, Philip. Jewish Music and Modernity. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008.

    DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195178326.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Asking, “Is there really such a thing as Jewish music?”, this survey examines the survival and trajectory of Jewish expressive culture—from the Middle Ages through the Holocaust—in light of the aesthetic and political challenges of modernity.

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  • Idelsohn, Abraham Z. Hebräisch-orientalischer Melodienschatz. 10 vols. Leipzig and Berlin: Benjamin Herz, 1914–1932.

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    A monumental collection comprising ten volumes of Jewish melodies collected systematically from throughout the Jewish diaspora. Volumes encompass (but are not limited to) music traditions from Yemen, Central Asia, North Africa, Germany, and Eastern Europe.

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  • Janeczko, Jeff. “A Tale of Four Diasporas: Case Studies on the Relevance of ‘Diaspora’ in Contemporary American Jewish Music.” In Perspectives on Jewish Music: Sacred and Secular. Edited by Jonathan L. Friedmann, 9–40. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2009.

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    Interogates the potential of “diaspora” as a creative, constructive, and potentially destructive resource in the analysis of Jewish music and musicians through an analysis of the work of four Jewish artists and musicians, each of whom explicitly draw upon and engage with the concept of diaspora. The four artists under study include Jewlia Eisenberg, Ned Rothenberg, Steven Bernstein, and Marc Ribot.

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  • Kartomi, Margaret, and Andrew D. McCredie, eds. Special Issue: Silk, Spice and Shirah: Musical Outcomes of Jewish Migration into Asia c. 1780–c. 1950. Ethnomusicology Forum 13.1 (2004).

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    Collection of articles examining the expressive culture of Jewish diasporic communities in the little-studied enclaves of East and Southeast Asia.

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  • Slobin, Mark. Tenement Songs: The Popular Music of the Jewish Immigrants. Urbana-Champaign: University of Illinois Press, 1982.

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    Traces the development of Jewish American identity through the lens of the popular music culture of Jewish immigrants in the United States in the late 19th century. Examines in particular the development of eastern European Yiddish popular songs as they were sung, listened to, performed, and disseminated in the United States.

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African Diaspora

Along with the Jewish diaspora, ethnomusicological literature on the African diaspora is vast and varied. The sources cited here examine the diaspora that formed as a result of the transatlantic slave trade, thus distinguishing it from what is commonly referred to as the “new” African diaspora (see “Sub-Saharan African Diasporas”). While the study of any Afro-Caribbean or African American (whether North, South, or Central American) community could be technically considered a study of a diasporic community, diaspora as a conceptual framework is not always applied. The sources chosen here are those that explicitly adopt diaspora as a conceptual framework and engage with and build upon the foundational theoretical works related to diaspora studies. Gilroy 1993, perhaps one of the most influential works on the African diaspora, continues to be of relevance to musicologists and ethnomusicologists studying the musics of the African diasporas (and to those studying music and diaspora more generally). Monson 2003 presents a wide-ranging collection of essays examining music from throughout the African diaspora. A case study of popular African-influenced musics in Colombia, Wade 2008 includes a theoretically rigorous explication of the notion of diaspora. Moore 1997 examines the expressive culture of afrocubanismo, while Weheliye 2009 presents an examination of Afro-German music. Veal 2007 focuses on the genre of dub within a postcolonial, Afrodiasporic contextual framework.

  • Gilroy, Paul. The Black Atlantic: Modernity and Double Consciousness. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1993.

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    While not solely about music, this seminal text continues to be of relevance to studies of music in diasporic contexts (see in particular chapter 3). Building upon the work of Hegel, Du Bois, and others, Gilroy develops an intellectual history of the Black Atlantic, stressing the hybridities and complexities within the concept of identity, thus challenging the essentialist (and essentializing) discourses that surround the black diaspora.

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  • Monson, Ingrid, ed. The African Diaspora: A Musical Perspective. New York: Routledge, 2003.

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    This essential collection of essays spans numerous genres and a wide-ranging geographic scope. Of particular note is Monson’s introduction, which provides a critical analysis of the ways in which the African diaspora has been theorized and conceptualized. Of the three sections comprising the volume, the first examines musics that emerged through the exchanges between African America, Europe, and the Black Atlantic, while the second and third sections include studies of contemporary African diasporic formations.

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  • Moore, Robin D. Nationalizing Blackness: Afrocubanismo and Artistic Revolution in Havana, 1920–1940. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1997.

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    Examines the aesthetics and reception of the expressive culture of afrocubanismo as a way of tracing the discourses of race and national identity in Cuba.

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  • Veal, Michael. Dub: Soundscapes and Shattered Songs in Jamaican Reggae. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 2007.

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    A comprehensive examination of the emergence, trajectory, aesthetics, and sociological significance of dub within the sociopolitical contexts from which it arose. Explores the ways in which the genre crossed musical and cultural boudnaries and how the “dub revolution” came to influence and transform world popular music.

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  • Wade, Peter. “African Diaspora and Colombian Popular Music in the Twentieth Century.” Black Music Research Journal 28.2 (2008): 41–56.

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    Through a case study of the African-influenced popular musics of Colombia, this article problematizes unidirectional understandings of the relationship between the diaspora and its point of “origin,” building upon the work of Paul Gilroy (see Gilroy 1993), Stuart Hall, and Rogers Brubaker

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  • Weheliye, Alexander G. “My Volk to Come: Peoplehood in Recent Diaspora Discourse and Afro-German Popular Music.” In Black Europe and the African Diaspora. Edited by Darlene Clark Hine, Trica Danielle Keaton, and Stephen Small, 161–179. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2009.

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    Weheliye unpacks the assumptions inherent in notions of community, diaspora, and peoplehood through an examination of Afro-German music.

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Armenian Diasporas

Despite being considered one of the “classic” diasporas (along with the Greek and Jewish diasporas), the Armenian diaspora has received comparatively little attention in the ethnomusicological literature, with most of the research focused on the Armenian nation-state. Sarkissian 1990, which focuses on two Armenian choirs in Toronto, is one of the earliest ethnomusicological studies of an Armenian diasporic community. McCollum 2004, another integral early work, also focuses on Armenian communities in North America, particularly on the role of sacred musics in the construction of Armenian diasporic identity. Recently, Yıldız 2012, Alajaji 2015, and Bilal 2013 have expanded the geographic scope. Yıldız 2012 and Bilal 2013 provide critical examinations of Armenian music and music-making within Turkey (n.b. although the categorization of Armenians in Turkey as diasporic is a fraught one, their musical traditions and musical practices, as a consequence of taking place outside of the nation-state of Armenia, have received very little attention in the literature on Armenian music), while Alajaji 2015 focuses on the historically significant communities in the United States and Lebanon. Kassabian 2013 (cited under Homeland(s)) examines the musics of the Armenian diaspora in a theoretically rigorous manner, problematizing, via music, the notion of homeland within the diaspora. Bilal and de la Bretèque 2013 considers the Armenian lullaby as performed in Istanbul. See also Armenians on 8th Avenue (cited under Audio/Visual Recordings and Transcriptions).

  • Alajaji, Sylvia. Music and the Armenian Diaspora: Searching for Home in Exile. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2015.

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    A multi-sited study of Armenian diasporic communities in the United States and Lebanon. Examines the ways in which the notion of “home” factors into the musical identities and musical narratives of the post-genocide diaspora. A companion website includes audio examples.

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  • Bilal, Melissa. “‘Thou Need’st Not Weep, for I Have Wept Full Sore’: An Affective Genealogy of the Armenian Lullaby in Turkey.” PhD diss., University of Chicago, 2013.

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    An archival and ethnographic study of the Armenian lullaby in Turkey that traces the history of the genre and its transformations, continuities, and gaps from the 19th century to the present day. Ultimately argues for the genre’s capacity to function as a metonym that challenges current liberal and nationalist discourses in and of Turkey. Accompanied by audio examples.

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  • Bilal, Melissa, and Estelle Amy de la Bretèque. “The Oror and the Lorî: Armenian and Kurdish Lullabies in Present-Day Istanbul.” In Remembering the Past in Iranian Societies. Edited by Christine Allison and Philip G. Kreyenbroek, 125–140. Wiesbaden, Germany: Harrassowitz Verlag, 2013.

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    Examines both Kurdish and Armenian lullabies in Istanbul, not in a comparative context but juxtaposed in such a way as to illuminate gendered expressions and experiences of the Armenian and Kurdish communities in Turkey and the ways in which each community has been “historically shaped in relation to each other” (p. 125).

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  • McCollum, Jonathan. “Music, Ritual, and Diasporic Identity: A Case Study of the Armenian Apostolic Church.” PhD diss., University of Maryland, 2004.

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    Through the lens of music, McCollum examines the role of the Armenian Apostolic Church in the formation and maintenance of Armenian diasporic identity, and, by extension, conceptions of faith within the diaspora. Draws upon theories from ethnomusicology, theology, and ritual studies.

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  • Sarkissian, Margaret. “The Politics of Music: Armenian Community Choirs in Toronto.” In Ethnomusicology in Canada: Proceedings of the First Conference on Ethnomusicology in Canada. Edited by Robert Witmer, 98–104. Toronto: Institute for Canadian Music, 1990.

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    Presents an ethnographic case study of two Armenian community choirs in Toronto, each made up almost entirely of first- and second-generation Armenian immigrants from the Middle East. Each choir is affiliated with a distinct segment of the Armenian community in Toronto and thus articulates and brings into relief the divisions and heterogeneities inherent in the often-essentialized Armenian diaspora.

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  • Yıldız, Burcu. “Cultural Memory, Identity and Music.” PhD diss., Istanbul Technical University, 2012.

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    Examines the role of music in the maintenance and transmission of cultural memory among Armenians in Istanbul.

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Caribbean Diasporas

Studies of music and the Caribbean diaspora focus primarily on diasporic Caribbean communities in the United States. For Afro-Caribbean populations in the United States, there is considerable intersection with the literature concerning music and the African diaspora (see in particular Veal 2007, cited under African Diaspora, and Allen and Wilkin 2001, cited under Edited Volumes). Cuban, Dominican, and Haitian diasporic communities have received the most significant scholarly attention. See also Ramnarine 2007 (cited under Homeland(s)).

Cuban Diasporas

While both Cornelius 1991 and García 2006 examine musics of Cuban diasporic communities in the United States, Cornelius focuses specifically on Santería drumming in New York City and García on the highly influential musician Arsenio Rodriguez. Taken together, both studies illuminate the important role played by both popular and traditional musics in the shaping of Cuban diasporic identity. See also Boggs 1992 (cited under Diasporic Practices).

  • Cornelius, Steven H. “Drumming for the Orishas: Reconstruction of Tradition in New York City.” In Essays on Cuban Music: North American and Cuban Perspectives. Edited by Peter Manuel, 137–155. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1991.

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    An analysis of the growing practice (as of 1991) of Santería drumming in New York City, and the ways in which both Cuban and non-Cuban musicians have contributed to its development outside of Cuba.

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  • García, David F. Arsenio Rodriguez and the Transnational Flows of Latin Popular Music. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2006.

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    The first monograph-length study of the life and music of one of the most important and influential Cuban musicians of the 20th century. Examines in particular the transnational flows of Rodriguez’s music and the role played by race, identity, and politics in shaping it.

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Dominican Diasporas

The musics of the Dominican diaspora are most often approached via a transnational framework, examining not just how they enable connections to the homeland but also how they function and transform over time as part of the multifaceted, multilocal reality of the Dominican diaspora. Austerlitz 1998, Hutchinson 2006, and van Buren and Dominguez 2004 each employ an explicitly transnational framework in their analyses. While Austerlitz 1997 focuses primarily on the emergence and development of merengue in the Dominican Republic, the sections on its presence in the diaspora allow for an understanding of how it developed outside the homeland in juxtaposition with its development in the homeland. Tallaj 2006 takes New York City as its primary site of inquiry and examines various marginalized Dominican genres and the role they play in enabling a uniquely diasporic identity. Finally, Pacini Hernandez 2013 presents an overview of sound recordings that document various Dominican diasporic genres.

  • Austerlitz, Paul. Merengue: Dominican Music and Dominican Identity. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1997.

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    Although more generally a study of the complex history and development of the Dominican genre of merengue, the book’s sections (particularly chapter 7) on the role of the genre in the Dominican diaspora illuminate its significance as a symbol of Dominican identity.

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  • Austerlitz, Paul. “From Transplant to Transnational Circuit: Merengue in New York.” In Island Sounds in the Global City: Caribbean Popular Music and Identity in New York. Edited by Ray Allen and Lois Wilcken, 44–60. New York: Institute for Studies in American Music, 1998.

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    Examines the social history of merengue in New York, focusing in particular on its development from a “transplanted” genre with a modest presence in the 1950s to a high-profile international genre.

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  • Hutchinson, Sydney. “Merengue Típico in Santiago and New York: Transnational Regionalism in a New-Traditional Dominican Music.” Ethnomusicology 50.1 (2006): 37–72.

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    A comparative study of merengue típico in two distinct locations: the city of Santiago in the Dominican Republic and New York. Argues that changes in the genre over the past three decades reflect the realities of the transnational Dominican population.

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  • Pacini Hernandez, Deborah. “Musical Dialogues between the Dominican Republic and New York: A Review Article.” Ethnomusicology 57.1 (2013): 143–151.

    DOI: 10.5406/ethnomusicology.57.1.0143Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This review essay provides a very useful overview of audio/visual materials that demonstrate the ways in which Dominican musical practices have been transformed by transnational cultural flows between the Dominican Republic and the various diasporic Dominican communities.

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  • Tallaj, Angelina. “A Country That Ain’t Really Belong to Me’: Dominicanyorks, Identity, and Popular Music.” Phoebe 18.2 (2006): 17–30.

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    Examines the use of once-marginalized forms of music (such as bachata, merengue típico, and varieties of Afro-Dominican music) to generate and conceptualize Dominican identity in the United States.

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  • Van Buren, Tomas, and Leonardo Ivan Dominguez. “Transnational Music and Dance in Dominican New York.” In Dominican Migration: Transnational Perspectives. Edited by Ernesto Sagas and Sintia E. Molina, 244–273. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2004.

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    An analysis of the hybridities and transnational character of Dominican musical life in New York City from the 1920s to the present.

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Haitian Diasporas

The present-day Haitian diaspora can be largely traced to the large-scale emigrations that occurred with the rise of François Duvalier (“Papa Doc”) in the late 1950s. Most came to North America, where significant numbers of Haitians still reside. As can be seen in the literature cited below, music for the Haitian diaspora has been a critical means of both retaining and constructing a sense of Haitian-ness. While most of the scholarship examines the Haitian diaspora in the United States, Juste-Constant 1989 offers a case study of Haitian popular music in Montreal. The Other Side of the Water: The Journey of a Haitian Rara Band in Brooklyn (Robins 2011, cited under Audio/Visual Recordings and Transcriptions) presents a first-hand account of the experiences of the rara band DJARARA. McAlister 2002 presents a multidisciplinary account of rara, a street processional featuring music and dance, in both Haiti and the diaspora. Both Averill 1998 and Schiller and Fouron 1990 are case studies centered on performers: Averill focuses on the popular and influential band Tabou Combo, while Schiller and Fouron examine the significance and influence of the sadly short-lived singer Ti Manno. See also Averill 1994 (cited under Transnationalism).

  • Averill, Gage. “‘Moving the Big Apple’: Tabou Combo’s Diasporic Dreams.” In Island Sounds in the Global City: Caribbean Popular Music and Identity in New York. Edited by Ray Allen and Lois Wilcken, 138–161. New York: Institute for Studies in American Music, 1998.

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    Through a framing of the popular and influential Haitian band Tabou Combo as a distinctly diasporic band “poised between cultures,” (p. 145), this article examines the cultural negotiations at work within large communities of transplanted migrants.

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  • Juste-Constant, Vogeli. “Haitian Popular Music in Montréal: The Effect of Acculturation.” Popular Music 9.1 (1989): 79–86.

    DOI: 10.1017/S0261143000003743Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Presents a case study of popular music of the Haitian diasporic community in Montreal as a way to understand both the processes of acculturation to which the music has been subject and the ways in which a sense “Haitian-ness” has been maintained in spite of these processes.

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  • McAlister, Elizabeth. Rara! Vodou, Power, and Performance in Haiti and Its Diaspora. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2002.

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    The first published ethnography of rara, a Lenten processional festival in Haiti. Presents an analysis of its history, religious foundations, and cultural and political significance in both Haiti and the Haitian diaspora.

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  • Schiller, Nina Glick, and Georges Fouron. “Everywhere We Go, We Are in Danger’: Ti Manno and the Emergence of a Haitian Trans-national Identity.” American Ethnologist 17.2 (1990): 329–347.

    DOI: 10.1525/ae.1990.17.2.02a00080Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Examines the music, lyrics, and reception of the popular and outspoken Haitian-born, New York-based singer Ti Manno as a way of understanding the ways in which class, race, and nationalism factor into and shape the identities of Haitian diasporic communities.

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East Asian Diasporas

The Chinese diaspora is by far the largest of the East Asian diasporas, formed largely as a result of labor migrations that took place during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Lau 2007 provides a very useful overview of Chinese music in the diaspora, emphasizing the importance of regional homelands to Chinese communities in diaspora. Mackerras 2005 examines the notion of diaspora as it applies to the Chinese diaspora and establishes its usefulness for a study of Chinese diasporic performing arts. Lee 2009 and Wichmann-Walczak 2005 focus on the performance of Chinese opera in diaspora (Cantonese opera in northern England and Peking/Beijing opera in Honolulu, respectively) and the role it plays in the construction of a Chinese diasporic identity. Riddle 1983 is a fascinating early study of music in San Francisco, one of the largest Chinese diasporic communities. Roberson 2010 presents a case study of the Okinawan diaspora and the way in which music enables the formation of a “diaspora space.” Um 1996 and Um 2000 offer examinations of little-studied Korean diasporic communities in the former USSR. See also Zheng 2010 (cited under Transnationalism), Kim 2011 (cited under Transnationalism), and Olsen 2004 (cited under Collective Memory) for additional studies of the Chinese, Korean, and Japanese diasporas.

  • Lau, Frederick. Music in China: Experiencing Music, Expressing Culture. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.

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    Although about the music of China in general, the final chapter in Lau’s text (chapter 6, “Chinese Music in China”) provides an excellent overview of Chinese music throughout Southeast Asia. Through the various case studies presented, what emerges is the notion that for many diasporic communities, the relationship to home is not always conceived of in terms of the nation, but is often something more regional.

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  • Lee, Tong Soon. “Grace Liu and Cantonese Opera in England: Becoming Chinese Overseas.” In Lives in Chinese Music. Edited by Helen Rees, 119–144. Urbana-Champaign: University of Illinois Press, 2009.

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    Based on years of interviews with Grace Liu, an amateur yet highly skilled performer of Cantonese opera residing in northern England, this article explores the place of Cantonese opera in the identities and imaginaries of first-generation Hong Kong immigrants and examines music’s ability to both sustain a distinct identity for the Cantonese-speaking communities and forge ties with the surrounding British-born community.

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  • Mackerras, Colin. “Identity, Modernity, and Power in the Performing Arts among the Chinese Diasporas.” In Diasporas and Interculturalism in Asian Performing Arts: Translating Traditions. Edited by Hae-kyung Um, 17–29. New York: RoutledgeCurzon, 2005.

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    Provides a useful overview of the concept and nature of diasporas as they relate to the Chinese diaspora and asserts that the dichotomy between tradition and modernity continues to be a prevalent theme in the Chinese intellectual discourse surrounding expressive culture in the diaspora.

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  • Riddle, Ronald William. Flying Dragons, Flowing Streams: Music in the Life of San Francisco’s Chinese. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1983.

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    A pioneering study of music in San Francisco’s Chinatown, based largely on first-hand interviews and archival records. Offers fascinating insight into the musical traditions and practices of one of the oldest and largest Chinese American communities.

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  • Roberson, James E. “Singing Diaspora: Okinawan Songs of Home, Departure, and Return.” Identities 17.4 (2010): 430–453.

    DOI: 10.1080/1070289X.2010.492330Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Examines Okinawan songs that illuminate and internalize the diasporic experience through their evocations of departure and return.

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  • Um, Hae-Kyung. “The Korean Diaspora in Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan: Social Change, Identity, and Music-Making.” In Nationalities, Minorities, and Diasporas: Identity and Rights in the Middle East. Edited by Kirsten E. Schulze, Martin Stokes, and Colm Campbell, 217–232. London: Tauris Academic Studies, 1996.

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    Examines the dynamics of music-making and social change among migrant and refugee Korean populations in Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan, particularly within the context of the collapse of the Soviet Union.

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  • Um, Hae-Kyung. “Listening Patterns and Identity of the Korean Diaspora in the Former USSR.” British Journal of Ethnomusicology 9.2 (2000): 121–142.

    DOI: 10.1080/09681220008567303Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Focuses on music listening as “social performance” among Koreans in the former Soviet Union and the ways in which patterns of listening and music consumption illuminate processes of identity construction in the Korean diaspora.

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  • Wichmann-Walczak, Elizabeth. “Jingju (Beijing/Peking ‘Opera’) as International Art and as Transnational Root of Cultural Identification: Processes of Creation and Reception in Shanghai, Nanjing, and Honolulu.” In Diasporas and Interculturalism in Asian Performing Arts: Translating Traditions. Edited by Hae-kyung Um, 161–175. New York: RoutledgeCurzon, 2005.

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    A multi-sited comparative study of jingju (Peking opera) groups in Shanghai, Nanjing, and Honolulu that demonstrates how concepts of “Chineseness” are negotiated and redefined.

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European Diasporas

Since 2000, there has been an increased amount of attention given to European musics in diaspora. Although the focus still tends to be generally on non-Western diasporic communities and genres, certain European communities have begun to be studied in a distinctly diasporic contextual framework. For example, Sugarman 1997 (cited under Identity Formation) and Sugarman 2004 (cited under Transnationalism) focus particularly on Albanian diasporic communities in the United States, Canada, and Australia, while Silverman 2012 (cited under Transnationalism) focuses on the Romani diaspora. The Polish American diaspora is the focus of Savaglio 2004, while Keil, et al. 1992 presents a study of the role of polka in Polish American identity. The musics of the Irish diasporas in North America have been the subject of recent studies in Cooper 2009 and Williams 2014, each focusing in particular on the performance of traditional musics. Collins 2010 also examines the performance of traditional Irish music in the United States, but focuses particularly on a community from Sliabh Aughty, while Spencer 2010 offers a look at the early recordings of Irish American musicians. Stokes and Bohlman 2003 offers a collection of essays that examine the role of music in shaping Celtic identity in diaspora. Bohlman 2011 approaches the significance of European musics in diaspora from a more general perspective, offering a very useful framework for future studies.

  • Bohlman, Philip V. Focus: Music, Nationalism and the Making of the New Europe. New York and London: Routledge, 2011.

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    Although more generally a study of music’s role in the shaping of nationalism and nationalist identifications in Europe, this book contains important analyses of the role such music plays for European ethnic and immigrant communities in North America.

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  • Collins, Tim. “‘Tis Like They Never Left’: Locating ‘Home’ in the Music of Sliabh Aughty’s Diaspora.” Journal of the Society for American Music 4.4 (2010): 491–508.

    DOI: 10.1017/S1752196310000404Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Through a study of the music and musical practices of a group of musicians originally from Sliabh Aughty (a region in the west of Ireland), this article explores the complex notion of “home” for those in diaspora and the ways in which traditional music can enable and navigate such a notion.

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  • Cooper, David. The Musical Traditions of Northern Ireland and Its Diaspora: Community and Conflict. Farnham, UK: Ashgate, 2009.

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    Examines the cultural dynamics in Northern Ireland and the diaspora in terms of traditional and popular Irish expressive culture. See in particular chapter 5, “Music in the Northern Irish Diaspora in America.”

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  • Keil, Charles, Angeliki V. Keil, and Dick Blau. Polka Happiness. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1992.

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    This highly readable text consists of stunning photographs that document the varied polka traditions of America’s Rust Belt, focusing specifically on Polish American communities in Chicago, Milwaukee, and Buffalo. Includes a history of the Polish American polka and numerous first-hand accounts—from musicians and non-musicians alike—of the importance of polka to Polish American identity.

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  • Savaglio, Paula. Negotiating Ethnic Boundaries: Polish American Music in Detroit. Warren, MI: Harmonie Park, 2004.

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    Examines the notion of a “Polish American” identity and the ways in which the boundaries of such a notion are constructed, maintained, and negotiated through the performance and creation of Polish music. Based on fieldwork conducted in Detroit.

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  • Spencer, Scott. “Wheels of the World: How Recordings of Irish Traditional Music Bridged the Gap between Homeland and Diaspora.” Journal of the Society for American Music 4.4 (2010): 437–449.

    DOI: 10.1017/S1752196310000374Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Through a study of commercial and subcommercial recordings from the early 20th century, this article examines the ways in which recorded Irish American music navigated and reflected shifting Irish American identity and, through its dissemination in Ireland, helped maintain a line of communication between the homeland and those in the United States.

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  • Stokes, Martin, and Philip V. Bohlman, eds. Celtic Modern: Music at the Global Fringe. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow, 2003.

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    A collection of essays that explores the role of traditional (and, to a lesser extent, popular) musics in the shaping of conceptions of contemporary Celticism. Essays span diasporic and immigrant communities in Corsica, Australia, Canada, and Wales, among others.

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  • Williams, Sean. “Irish Music Revivals through Generations of Diaspora.” In The Oxford Handbook of Music Revival. Edited by Caroline Bithell and Juniper Hill, 598–617. New York: Oxford University Press, 2014.

    DOI: 10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199765034.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Examines images, signifiers, and discourses of the idealized “homeland” in the performance Irish traditional music in the diaspora.

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Iranian Diasporas

Iranian diasporic communities emerged largely after the 1979 Islamic Revolution, with the most significant community forming in Los Angeles. Consequently, most studies of the expressive culture of the Iranian diaspora focus on the many television studios, record labels, and cultural organizations that arose in Los Angeles and the many performers centered there. Moreover, as a reformist chill set over Iran after the revolution, most of the popular music that came there was being made and produced in Los Angeles. While the majority of studies of music in the Iranian diaspora focus on popular music, Shay 2014 examines the revival of classical Iranian “national dance.” Shay 2000 examines the little-studied popular music genre mardomi. See also Hemmasi 2011 (cited under Transnationalism) and Naficy 1993 (cited under Exile).

  • Shay, Anthony. “The 6/8 Beat Goes On: Persian Popular Music from Bazm-e Qajariyyeh to Beverly Hills Garden Parties.” In Mass Mediations: New Approaches to Popular Cultures in the Middle East and Beyond. Edited by Walter Armbrust, 61–87. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000.

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    Examines the mardomi (people’s music) genre of popular music—a genre produced almost entirely in the United States—as it is viewed, performed, and listened to among the Iranian communities in California.

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  • Shay, Anthony. “Reviving the Reluctant Art of Iranian Dance in Iran and in the American Diaspora.” In The Oxford Handbook of Music Revival. Edited by Caroline Bithell and Juniper Hill, 618–643. New York: Oxford University Press, 2014.

    DOI: 10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199765034.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Discusses the revival of classical Iranian “national dance” (a style of dance consisting of elements of Western ballet and solo improvisation) in both Iran and the diaspora. For the latter, the revival of the form serves as a form of representation of ethnic identity.

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Levantine Diasporas

The Levant is an encompassing term used to refer to the regions of the eastern Mediterranean, including Israel, Lebanon, Syria, Egypt, Iraq, Palestine, and Jordan. Of these, Arab diasporas have received the most attention in the ethnomusicological literature, with significantly less written about the Israeli diaspora. Although Levantine diasporas are widespread, scholarship has tended to focus on the communities in the United States, specifically Detroit, with very little written about the significant communities in the Caribbean and South America. Nonetheless, the existing research goes a very long way toward illuminating the important contributions made by Arab musicians to the American sonic landscape. Rasmussen 1997 and Shyrock 2000 focus on the expressive cultures of the Arab American community in Detroit, while Rasmussen 1996 focuses on a specific instrument, the Arabic “org” (keyboard) as played by Arab American musicians. See also Rasmussen 1992 (cited under Representation) and Rasmussen 1997 (cited under Audio/Visual Recordings and Transcriptions). Regarding the Israeli diaspora in New York in general, Shokeid 1988 includes an important chapter on group singing.

  • Rasmussen, Anne K. “Theory and Practice at the ‘Arabic Org’: Digital Technology in Contemporary Arab Music Performance.” Popular Music 15.3 (1996): 345–365.

    DOI: 10.1017/S0261143000008321Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Examines the Arabic “org,” or keyboard, as played by six different Arab American musicians. Explores the instrument’s capability to convey a sound that is seemingly indigenous despite its synthetic idiom.

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  • Rasmussen, Anne K. “The Music of Arab Detroit: A Musical Mecca in the Midwest.” In Musics of Multicultural America: A Study of Twelve Musical Communities. Edited by Kip Lornell and Anne K. Rasmussen, 73–100. New York: Schirmer, 1997.

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    Building on years of research with the Arab American community in Detroit, in this article Rasmussen provides a general history of Arab American music and focuses particularly on three wedding celebrations in Detroit (one Iraqi, one Yemeni, and one Lebanese) as a way of illustrating the role played by music in immigrant communities.

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  • Shokeid, Moshe. Children of Circumstances: Israeli Emigrants in New York. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1988.

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    This important study focuses on Israeli immigrants to the United States, commonly referred to as yordim (“those who go down”). Focusing specifically on the community in Queens, New York, Shokeid unravels the complexities of Israeli diasporic identity and the community’s position among American Jews specifically, and within the United States more generally. A chapter on group singing illuminates the ways in which music navigates this complexity.

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  • Shyrock, Andrew. “Public Culture in Arab Detroit: Creating Arab-American Identities in a Transnational Domain.” In Mass Mediations: New Approaches to Popular Cultures in the Middle East and Beyond. Edited by Walter Armbrust, 32–60. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000.

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    Although primarily a study of televised media, this article provides a useful analysis of the transnational character of diasporic communities through a case study of the diverse Arab American community in Detroit.

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North African Diasporas

By far, the majority of literature on the North African diaspora—one formed largely as a result of colonial migrations—focuses on France, where the largest community formed. The creation of a distinctly Franco-Maghrebi identity, and music’s role in such a process, is the focus of Gross, et al. 1996 (cited under Identity Formation), Derderian 1996, Marranci 2000, and Miliani 1995. Derderian 1996 traces the trajectory of North African immigration to France through the lens of music, while Gross, et al. 1996 focuses more specifically on raï and the popular radio program “Ramadan Nights.” Marranci 2000 and Miliani 1995 also examine popular genres, namely, raï and rap, but particularly in terms of their role in the identity formation of North African youth populations in France. Kapchan 2009 also examines the role of music in the creation of Franco-Maghrebi identity, but turns the focus to Sufi liturgies. Virolle-Souibès 1995 and Landau 2011 both offer multi-sited case studies of the Algerian and Moroccan diasporas, respectively. Finally, Landau 2012 examines the role of archival sound recordings in the maintenance and construction of Moroccan identity in the United Kingdom.

  • Derderian, Richard L. “Popular Music from the North African Immigrant Community: Multiculturalism in Contemporary France, 1945–94.” Contemporary French Civilization 20 (1996): 205–219.

    DOI: 10.3828/cfc.1996.20.2.001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Examines four stages of the North African immigrant experience in France as seen through the popular music and musicians of each stage and the ways in which each stage was navigated by the popular expressive cultures of the community.

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  • Gibert, Marie-Pierre. “Transnational Ties and Local Involvement: North African Musicians in and beyond London.” Music and Arts in Action 3 (2011): 92–115.

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    Focuses on North African musicians based in the United Kingdom and France and the strategies employed by each in navigating the migrant experience.

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  • Kapchan, Deborah. “Singing Community/Remembering in Common: Sufi Liturgy and North African Identity in Southern France.” International Journal of Community Music 2 (2009): 9–23.

    DOI: 10.1386/ijcm.2.1.9_1Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Examines Sufi sung liturgies as practiced among Moroccan immigrants in southern France and the ways in which a sense of religious and cultural identity is generated for those living outside the homeland.

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  • Landau, Carolyn. “‘My Own Little Morocco at Home’: A Biographical Account of Migration, Mediation and Music Consumption.” In Migrating Music. Edited by Byron Dueck and Jason Toynbee, 38–54. Abingdon, UK, and New York: Routledge, 2011.

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    This multi-sited ethnography follows the life and experiences of Moroccan-born Mohamed through his immigration to France, Denmark, Canada, and finally Britain. Different sonic landscapes are encountered in each, allowing Landau to explore the different and sometimes conflicting subject positions enabled by expressive culture.

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  • Landau, Carolyn. “Disseminating Music amongst Moroccans in Britain: Exploring the Value of Archival Sound Recordings for a Cultural Heritage Community in the Diaspora.” Ethnomusicology Forum 21.2 (2012): 259–277.

    DOI: 10.1080/17411912.2012.689468Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Examines the ways in which archives and archival holdings have the potential to allow diasporic communities to both reclaim and proclaim their cultural heritage and thus enable a sense of identity. Focuses particularly on the holdings of the British Library’s World and Traditional Music Section and the role it has played for Moroccans living in Britain.

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  • Marranci, Gabriele. “A Complex Identity and Its Musical Representation: Beurs and Raï Music in Paris.” Music and Anthropology 5 (2000).

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    In this article, Marranci examines the heterogeneity of raï music as playing a critical mediating role for beurs—French-born Algerian youth—who have found themselves marginalized as a result of their “in-between” cultural identity.

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  • Miliani, Hadj. “Banlieues entre rap et raï.” Hommes and Migrations 1191 (1995): 24–30.

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    Explores the popular music genres embraced by North and sub-Saharan African youth in the banlieues of France in the 1980s. Focuses particularly on the hybridity inherent within these genres (including rap, raï, reggae, and rock) and the ways in which this hybridity mediates and negotiates between the multi-stranded facets of their identity.

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  • Virolle-Souibès, Marie. La chanson raï: De l’Algérie profonde à la scène internationale. Paris: Karthala, 1995.

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    An overview of the roots and trajectory of raï, both in Algeria and in the Algerian diaspora. Focuses on issues related to gender, cultural identity, and the relationship between raï and religion.

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Mexican Diasporas

As the literature on Mexican American music is rather extensive (from across the humanities and social sciences), the conceptual frameworks utilized are quite varied. Those listed in this bibliography explicitly examine the musics and communities under study through a diasporic lens. Along with Simonett 2001 (cited under Identity Formation) and Madrid 2011 (cited under Transnationalism), Ragland 2003 and Ragland 2009 adopt a transnational conceptual framework for a study of Mexican American youth scenes in New York and New Jersey and a study of música norteña, respectively, while Sheehy 2005 presents a focused analysis of mariachi in the United States.

  • Ragland, Cathy. “Mexican Deejays and the Transnational Space of Youth Dances in New York and New Jersey.” Ethnomusicology 47.3 (2003): 338–354.

    DOI: 10.2307/3113938Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Examines social dance events popular among Mexican migrant and immigrant communities in New York City and northern New Jersey. As Ragland asserts, these events “turn feelings of displacement and marginalization into a collective sense of identity and connectedness” (p. 339), thus creating a powerful transnational public sphere.

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  • Ragland, Cathy. Música Norteña: Mexican Migrants Creating a Nation between Nations. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2009.

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    An examination of the emergence in northern Mexico of música norteña and its subsequent trajectory through the Mexican diaspora in the United States, focusing in particularly on the sociological, political, and economic forces that shaped the genre.

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  • Sheehy, Daniel. Mariachi Music in America: Experiencing Music, Expressing Culture. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.

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    Presents a compelling historical, sociological, and ethnographic introduction to mariachi as it exists in the United States, focusing particularly on the genre’s rising popularity among Mexican Americans.

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South Asian Diasporas

South Asian diasporic communities have received significant attention in the ethnomusicological literature. This literature can be very roughly divided into two categories (with exceptions, of course): the study of South Asian diasporic communities in the Caribbean (those who arrived as indentured laborers) and the study of South Asian diasporic communities in England and North America (those who arrived as a result of colonial and postcolonial migrations). The theoretical frameworks employed by studies in each category are thus largely driven by the different forces that drove the migrations, in addition to the differing contexts of the Caribbean, England, and North America. Music and the South Asian Diaspora provides a very useful overview and includes entries on less researched diasporic communities in Réunion Island, Fiji, and South Africa. Baily 2011 and Hodgson 2014 focus on the musics of Gujarati and Pakistani Muslims in the United Kingdom, while Myers 1998 is a seminal study of Hindu musical traditions and songs in Trinidad (see also Manuel 1997–1998, cited under Homeland(s), and Manuel 2000, cited under Identity Formation). Diethrich 1999 and Sharma, et al. 1996 examine the musics and performance contexts of South Asian youth culture in North America and the United Kingdom. Finally, Bhattacharjya 2009 offers a very interesting examination of perceptions in India of the diaspora via Hindi film song sequences set abroad. For sources that focus on bhangra and chutney, see Genres.

  • Baily, John. “‘Music Is in Our Blood’: Gujarati Muslim Musicians in the UK.” Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 32.2 (2011): 257–270.

    DOI: 10.1080/13691830500487241Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Examines the perceptions of music-making among the Gujarati Muslim population in the United Kingdom.

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  • Bhattacharjya, Nilanjana. “Popular Hindi Film Song Sequences Set in the Indian Diaspora and the Negotiating of Indian Identity.” Asian Music 40.1 (2009): 53–82.

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    Building on the work of Partha Chatterjee this article examines diasporic identity and perceptions of the Indian diaspora as conveyed through Hindi films and song sequences set outside of India’s borders.

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  • Diethrich, Gregory. “Desi Music Vibes: The Performance of Indian Youth Culture in Chicago.” Asian Music 31.1 (1999): 35–61.

    DOI: 10.2307/834279Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Through a case study of desi expressive culture in Chicago, particularly bhangra-beat and Hindi remixes, this article demonstrates music’s transformative and generative roles within diasporic communities. Asserts that music both unifies and empowers through its creation of a mediated diasporic space.

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  • Hodgson, Thomas E. “Multicultural Harmony? Pakistani Muslims and Music in Bradford.” In Music, Culture and Identity in the Muslim World: Performance, Politics and Piety. Edited by Kamal Salhi, 200–229. London and New York: Routledge, 2014.

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    Presents a case study of the annual Bradford Mela festival in England and examines how in its transformation over the years, it has come to represent a site for the “(re)configuration” of Pakistani identity.

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  • “Music and the South Asian Diaspora.” In The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. Vol. 5, South Asia: The Indian Subcontinent. Edited by Alison Arnold, 571–620. New York: Garland, 1999.

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    A very thorough and highly useful overview of South Asian musical practices and traditions in the widespread diaspora. Features sections on the United Kingdom, North America, Trinidad, Martinique, Guyana, Réunion Island, Fiji, and South Africa (each written by a different author).

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  • Myers, Helen. Hindu Trinidad: Songs from the India Diaspora. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998.

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    This seminal study, based on years of fieldwork, presents a fascinating account of the musical traditions, repertories, and practices of Felicity, Trinidad—a village almost entirely populated by East Indians—and asks how music has contributed to the formation of identity in the diaspora.

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  • Sharma, Sanjay, John Hutnyk, and Ashwani Sharma, eds. Dis-orienting Rhythms: The Politics of the New Asian Dance Music. London: Zed Books, 1996.

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    An interdisciplinary collection of essays primarily concerned with the expressive culture of South Asian youth in the United Kingdom and North America.

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Southeast Asian Diasporas

Southeast Asian diasporic communities have been the subjects of a number of ethnomusicological studies. The most substantial of these studies have focused on Cambodian, Vietnamese, and Filipino diasporic communities. Considering the contexts in which a number of these communities were formed, these studies have contributed substantially to an understanding of the complex role played by music among refugees. Reyes 1999 (cited under Exile) was one of the earliest of such studies, focusing particularly on the Vietnamese refugee populations in the Philippines and the United States that formed after 1975. Giuriati 2005 and Pecore 2004 examine music and music-making among Cambodian diaspora and refugee populations in France and the United States—communities that formed largely during and immediately after the Khmer Rouge regime of 1975–1979. Mok 2011 and Watkins 2009 examine the Filipino diaspora in Hong Kong, a community consisting largely of domestic laborers. Gonzalves 2010 focuses on the Filipino diaspora in the United States, as seen through the lens of Pilipino Cultural Nights at universities throughout the United States. Wong and Elliot 1994 and Devitt 2008 focus particularly on Southeast Asian youth culture and music in the United States.

  • Devitt, Rachel. “Lost in Translation: Filipino Diaspora(s), Postcolonial Hip Hop, and the Problems of Keeping It Real for the ‘Contentless’ Black Eyed Peas.” Asian Music 39.1 (2008): 108–134.

    DOI: 10.1353/amu.2007.0045Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Focuses on the Filipino American youth relationship to the music of the Black Eyed Peas, whose Filipino American MC often incorporates sonic evocations of Filipino language and culture.

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  • Giuriati, Giovanni. “Idealization and Change in the Music of the Cambodian Diaspora.” In Diasporas and Interculturalism in Asian Performing Arts: Translating Traditions. Edited by Hae-kyung Um, 129–143. New York: RoutledgeCurzon, 2005.

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    Examines the complex dynamics of the Cambodian diaspora’s perceptions of and relationships to the homeland through an analysis of the ways in which music is made, consumed, listened to, and talked about among Cambodian refugee communities in France and the United States.

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  • Gonzalves, Theodore. The Day the Dancers Stayed: Performing in the Filipino/American Diaspora. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2010.

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    Through a study of “culture nights” at American universities, Gonzalves traces the relationship between performance and Filipino diasporic identification and the ways in which performance is utilized to navigate what it means to be Filipino American.

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  • Mok, Annie On Nei. “From Homeland to Hong Kong: The Dual Musical Experience and Identity of Diasporic Filipino Women.” In Learning, Teaching, and Musical Identity: Voices across Cultures. Edited by Lucy Green, 47–59. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2011.

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    Examines the diasporic context for music-making among women in the Filipino diaspora in Hong Kong. Focuses particularly on processes of music enculturation and music learning in the diaspora and how those processes affect their identities as a diasporic Filipino community.

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  • Pecore, Joanna. “Sounding the Spirit of Cambodia: The Living Tradition of Khmer Music and Dance-Drama in a Washington, D.C. Community.” PhD diss., University of Maryland, 2004.

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    Presents a case study of a Cambodian community in Washington, DC, and illustrates the fundamental role that Khmer music has played in imagining the homeland.

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  • Watkins, Lee. “Minstrelsy and Mimesis in the South China Sea: Filipino Migrant Musicians, Chinese Hosts, and the Disciplining of Relations in Hong Kong.” Asian Music 40.2 (2009): 72–99.

    DOI: 10.1353/amu.0.0034Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Through a colonial and neocolonial framework informed by the theories of Homi Bhabha among others, this article offers a reinterpretation of minstrelsy via an analysis of the musical practices and performances of Filipino musicians in Hong Kong.

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  • Wong, Deborah, and Mai Elliot. “‘I Want the Microphone’: Mass Mediation and Agency in Asian-American Popular Music.” Drama Review 38.3 (1994): 152–167.

    DOI: 10.2307/1146384Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Examines the ways in which the performance, creation, and interaction with mass-mediated popular musics articulate and navigate Southeast Asian youth identity in the United States.

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Sub-Saharan African Diasporas

Literature on African diasporas tends to distinguish between those communities that have formed as a result of comparatively recent and generally voluntary migrations from those that formed as a result of the transatlantic slave trade (see African Diaspora), with the former often referred to as comprising a “new” African diaspora. The ethnomusicological research on these “new” communities has focused primarily on the Ethiopian, Somalian, South African, and Zimbabwean diasporic communities. Shelemay 2006 and Shelemay 2009 examine Ethiopian diasporic populations in the United States (Shelemay 2006 and Shelemay 2009); other works examine Somalian (Brinkhurst 2012), South African (Muller 2006, cited under Collective Memory, and Muller 2014, cited under Exile), and Zimbabwean (Kyker 2013) diasporic communities. See also Monson 2003, cited under African Diaspora.

  • Brinkhurst, Emma. “Archives and Access: Reaching Out to the Somali Community of London’s King’s Cross.” Ethnomusicology Forum 21.2 (2012): 243–258.

    DOI: 10.1080/17411912.2012.689470Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Through a case study of the Somali community residing in the King’s Cross area of London, this article examines the potential role to be played by archival recordings in the unlocking of “embodied memories” and their contributive role in the shaping of diasporic identities.

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  • Kyker, Jennifer W. “Listening in the Wilderness: The Audience Reception of Oliver Mtukudzi’s Music in the Zimbabwean Diaspora.” Ethnomusicology 57.2 (2013): 261–285.

    DOI: 10.5406/ethnomusicology.57.2.0261Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Examines the reception of Zimbabwean popular musician Oliver Mtukudzi by audiences in the Zimbabwean diaspora. Asserts that identities and subjectivities are formed not only through performance, but through musical listening as well.

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  • Shelemay, Kay Kaufman. “Ethiopian Musical Invention in Diaspora: A Tale of Three Musicians.” Diaspora: A Journal of Transnational Studies 15.2/3 (2006): 303–320.

    DOI: 10.1353/dsp.2011.0067Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Focuses on three prominent Ethiopian musicians living in diaspora, each representative of three different stylistic domains. This ethnographic study examines how each musician navigates the transition to life in diaspora and illuminates the role played by musicians in the “subtle processes of diaspora community formation” (p. 304).

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  • Shelemay, Kay Kaufman. “Music of the Ethiopian American diaspora: A Preliminary Overview.” In Proceedings of the 16th International Conference of Ethiopian Studies: July 2–6, 2007, Trondheim, Norway. Edited by Svein Ege, Harald Aspen, Birhanu Teferra, and Shiferaw Bekele, 1153–1164. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2009.

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    Provides an overview of Ethiopian music and musicians in the United States, with the intention of conveying the role played by music in the establishment and maintenance of cultural identity in diaspora.

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Turkish Diasporas

As the largest ethnic minority in Germany is Turkish, the expressive culture of Turkish communities there has been the focal point of numerous studies. Greve 2003 and Hemetek and Sağlam 2007 present very useful, broad overviews of traditional, religious, and popular music-making among Turkish communities in Germany. Greve 2000 provides a more focused analysis, examining specifically Turkish Alevi identity. Hip-hop in the Turkish diaspora has been an important area of study for over a decade, with some of the earliest studies dating to 2001. As a genre whose hybridities navigate numerous intersecting identities, this has proven to be an especially rich area of study. Kaya 2001 and Kaya 2002 provide in-depth examinations of hip-hop among Turkish youth in Berlin, while Solomon 2006 examines the role of the genre as it relates to the Islamic identities of Turkish youth in Germany.

  • Greve, Martin. “Alevitische und musikalische Identitäen in Deutschland.” Zeitschrift für Türkeistudien 13.2 (2000): 213–238.

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    Examines Turkish Alevi identity in Germany via their musical practices.

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  • Greve, Martin. Die Musik der imaginären Türkei: Musik und Musikleben im Kontext der Migration aus der Türkei in Deutschland. Stuttgart: Verlag J.B. Metzler, 2003.

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    Utilizes Anderson’s notion of “imagined community” as a way to understand the role played by music for Turkish immigrant communities in Germany. Focuses in particular on the dissemination and marketing of Turkish music in Germany, in addition to music festivals and concerts.

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  • Hemetek, Ursula, and Hande Sağlam, eds. Music from Turkey in the Diaspora. Proceedings of the international symposium held in Vienna in November 2007, organized by the UNESCO Working Group Vienna and the Institute of Folk Music Research at the University of Music and Performing Arts Vienna. Vienna: Institut für Volksmusikforschung und Ethnomusikologie, 2007.

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    A wide-ranging set of essays (with accompanying CD) examining the various genres, styles, and discourses of Turkish music in the diaspora. Case studies include ethnographies of diasporic communities in Austria, Germany, the United Kingdom, and Canada, among others.

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  • Kaya, Ayhan. “Sicher in Kreuzberg”: Constructing Diasporas: Turkish Hip-Hop Youth in Berlin. Bielefeld, Germany: Transaction, 2001.

    DOI: 10.14361/9783839400715Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Examines the role of Turkish hip-hop in constructing a diasporic consciousness among working-class youth in Kreuzberg (Berlin’s “Little Istanbul”).

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  • Kaya, Ayhan. “Aesthetics of Diaspora: Contemporary Minstrels in Turkish Berlin.” Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 28.1 (2002): 43–62.

    DOI: 10.1080/13691830120103921Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    An analysis of Turkish hip-hop in Germany and its enabling of Turkish-German subjectivities through an examination of the genre’s “universalist” and “particularist” axes.

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  • Solomon, Thomas. “Hardcore Muslims: Islamic Themes in Turkish Rap in Diaspora and in the Homeland.” Yearbook for Traditional Music 38 (2006): 59–78.

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    Examines the ways Turkish rappers use hip-hop and Islam as a way to construct and imagine their identities. Attempts to counter the lack of attention paid in globalization discourses to the ways in which “locally significant issues and discourses are adapted to and embodied in globally circulating cultural forms” (p. 59). Focuses particularly on Turkish rap in diasporic communities (including Berlin, Holland, France, Switzerland, Britain, and the United States) and the implications of the flow of Turkish diaspora hip-hop to Turkey. See also Solomon, Thomas. “Hardcore Muslims: Islamic Themes in Turkish Rap in Diaspora and in the Homeland.” In Muslim Rap, Halal Soaps, and Revolutionary Theater: Artistic Developments in the Muslim World. Edited by Karin Van Nieuwkerk, 27–54. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2011.

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Internal Diasporas

Despite still being a relatively small field within diaspora studies in music, recently scholars have begun to explore the expressive cultures of communities that are classified as internal diasporas. Internal diasporas are those that remain in their country or region of origin, but migrate within it. These studies emphasize the importance of regional identifications and attachments and the ways in which those are constructed, maintained, and negotiated. The works cited in this section thus push diasporic discourses beyond those determined solely by the nation-state. Two recent studies examine the musics of internal diasporas: Tang 2014 examines the music of internal migrants in China, while Diettrich, et al. 2012 explores the circulation of musics among the island cultures of the South Pacific.

  • Diettrich, Brian, Jane Freeman Moulin, and Michael Webb. Music in Pacific Island Cultures: Experiencing Music, Expressing Culture. New York: Oxford University Press, 2012.

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    Focuses on the diverse musical traditions of Melanesia, Micronesia, and Polynesia. Although this book serves as an introduction to these musics, it also provides an important examination of the ways in which the musics from this area flow from one region as the communities themselves migrate among the islands.

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  • Tang, Kai. “The Musical Culture of Chinese Floaters.” PhD diss., Harvard University, 2014.

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    This study is one of the first in the ethnomusicological literature to focus on Chinese internal migrants commonly known as “floaters.” Examines the music of these migrants through a series of three case studies, each focused on a different musical practice. Based on two years of ethnographic research in China.

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Diasporic Practices

A number of musical practices can be considered diasporic in the sense that they emerged in diaspora and serve as excellent documents of the diasporic condition. Slobin 2001 and Slobin 2002 focus on klezmer in North America, while Boggs 1992 presents a collection of essays examining salsa. The South Asian diasporic genres of bhangra and chutney have been the focus of a significant number of studies from across the humanities and social sciences. These studies vary in terms of both their geographic focus and the theoretical frameworks employed. Gopinath 1995 and Leante 2004 focus specifically on bhangra in the United Kingdom, while Warwick 2000 examines the genre among the South Asian communities in Toronto. Ramnarine 1996 presents a very useful overview of chutney as it arose in the Caribbean and eventually made its way to London.

  • Boggs, Vernon W., ed. Salsiology: Afro-Cuban Music and the Evolution of Salsa in New York City. New York: Greenwood, 1992.

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    This collection of essays examines the emergence, trajectory, and sociological implications of Afro-Cuban jazz and salsa in New York City.

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  • Gopinath, Gayatri. “Bombay, U.K., Yuba City: Bhangra Music and the Engendering of Diaspora.” Diaspora: A Journal of Transnational Studies 4.3 (1995): 303–321.

    DOI: 10.1353/dsp.1995.0011Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Examines the complex negotiations between race, gender, sexuality, and nation that take place within the South Asian diasporic genre of bhangra. In doing so, the author simultaneously considers the limits and potentialities of the notion of diaspora as a theoretical framework.

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  • Leante, Laura. “Shaping Diasporic Sounds: Identity as Meaning in Bhangra.” The World of Music 46.1 (2004): 109–132.

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    Utilizing the concept of “pertinence” (as developed by semiologist Luis Preito), the author traces the context in which bhangra emerged and the ways in which the genre contributes to the construction of diasporic identity. Based on fieldwork carried out among the South Asian communities of West London between 2001 and 2003.

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  • Ramnarine, Tina Karina. “‘Indian’ Music in the Diaspora: Case Studies of ‘Chutney’ in Trinidad and in London.” British Journal of Ethnomusicology 5 (1996): 133–153.

    DOI: 10.1080/09681229608567251Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Examines the Indo-Caribbean genre of chutney as an expression of distinctly Indo-Caribbean identity. Traces its trajectory from its roots as a predominantly private, rural genre performed by females to a public, popular, urban genre predominantly performed by males.

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  • Slobin, Mark. Fiddler on the Move: Exploring the Klezmer World. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.

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    Structured around a set of four essays, this book examines not necessarily the history of modern klezmer, but rather how to study this dynamic, highly diverse, and constantly expanding musical system.

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  • Slobin, Mark, ed. American Klezmer: Its Roots and Offshoots. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002.

    DOI: 10.1525/california/9780520227170.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This wide-ranging collection of essays, with contributions from academics and performing musicians, is split into two sections: the first examines the “roots” of klezmer and the second its offshoots, such as the klezmer revival that took place in the 1970s.

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  • Warwick, Jacqueline. “‘Make Way for the Indian’: Bhangra Music and South Asian Presence in Toronto.” Popular Music and Society 24.2 (2000): 25–44.

    DOI: 10.1080/03007760008591766Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    While most studies of the popular music genre of bhangra examine it in the British context in which it originally emerged, this study shifts the focus to Canada.

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Diasporas of Musical Ensembles

Recently, ethnomusicologists have begun to study the implications and significance of global musical ensembles that have proliferated not necessarily through the diasporic community itself, but through the initiatives of academic programs (such as ethnomusicology) or embassies. Gamelan is perhaps the most visible of these ensembles, having found a home in numerous university programs throughout the United States. Becker 1983 is one of the earliest studies of gamelan in the United States, while Becker and Benary 1999 provides a very useful overview of Indonesian ensembles in the United States. Lee 2012 examines the spread of the percussion genre samulnori beyond South Korea. For a study of the spread of the Korean folk music tradition p’ungmul, see Kim 2011 (cited under Transnationalism).

  • Becker, Judith. “One Perspective on Gamelan in America.” Asian Music 15.1 (1983): 81–89.

    DOI: 10.2307/833916Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This article examines the political significance and implications of the presence and popularity of gamelan ensembles and compositions in the United States

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  • Becker, Judith, and Barbara Benary. “Indonesian Music.” In The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. Vol. 3, United States and Canada. Edited by Ellen Koskoff, 1041–1053. New York: Garland, 1999.

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    This chapter provides a very useful overview of the history and growing popularity of Indonesian ensembles in the United States, with a particular focus on the institutions that support such ensembles, the composers who have written for them, and the Indonesian teachers and performers who have taught, inspired, and led them.

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  • Lee, Katherine In-Young. “Encounters with Samulnori: The Cultural Politics of South Korea’s Dynamic Percussion Genre.” PhD diss., Harvard University, 2012.

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    This dissertation examines the popular samulnori percussion genre, focusing particularly on its transnational dimensions and the ways in which the genre’s symbolic significance has transformed over space and time.

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