Music Canada
by
Mary I. Ingraham
  • LAST MODIFIED: 21 January 2016
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199757824-0168

Introduction

The earliest documented musical encounters between indigenous peoples of what is now known as Canada and early European explorers date from the early 1500s. Permanent settlements were not established until the early 17th century, first by the French and then ceded to the British in 1783 following the Treaty of Paris. Settlements known as Upper and Lower Canada remained under British rule until they were joined as the Province of Canada in 1841 and, with Nova Scotia and New Brunswick in 1867, formed the federal Dominion of Canada. Other provinces and territories joined in the years following confederation, and Canada now includes ten provinces and three territories, each possessing unique indigenous and settlement histories that are often reflected in musical scholarship. Music in Canada has developed within a unique social and political environment and been influenced by many cultures including those of indigenous peoples, English, French, and numerous other immigrant communities. This diversity is reflected in distinct communities of cultural practice in Canada as well as in often-complex expressions of intercultural encounters. The majority of historical scholarship on music in Canada has focused on English and French traditions, documenting early settlement practices coincident with the evolution of the nation. In recent years, increasing interest by and in communities of indigenous and immigrant cultures has resulted in an explosion of critical scholarship in music of all genres and styles across disciplinary and methodological interests, all of which now contributes to a diverse and vibrant body of work reflecting Canada’s multicultural society. Music in Canada thus is not defined by any one group or culture but by the integration of many voices into the musical landscape. By considering music in Canada (rather than referring to a national music or Canadian music) scholars are empowered to address the breadth of activities of creators, performers, producers, and audiences who contribute to music in Canada. The purpose of this bibliography is to encourage such a broad reading of culture in Canada and to contextualize and develop critical understanding of its complexity. While not comprehensive, entries chosen attempt to provide an overview of the practices and issues around music in Canada, nationally and regionally, and across a broad spectrum of indigenous and immigrant cultures and repertoires that include art, folk and traditional, indigenous, and popular genres and styles. It is anticipated that many of the authors and works cited will direct readers to additional resources.

General Overviews

Doing justice to Canada’s multicultural society and across multiple genres and styles of music is not possible in a single volume. Apart from encyclopedia entries, early national perspectives on music in Canada generally limited their consideration of music-making across the country by their exclusion of voices outside the European art music tradition. More recent scholarship, however, is contributing directed and diverse studies to the conversation of music in Canada. The works cited here include histories of specific art forms as well as others that introduce additional perspectives and histories for studying music in Canada; in addition to the entry on Canada (Morey, et al. 2001) in Grove Music Online noted in this section, encyclopedia resources that offer comprehensive overviews in specific areas appear in Reference Works. Kallmann 1987 remains a central text in music in Canada for its description of musical society and events from Jacques Cartier’s arrival in the New World in the 1500s up to the First World War. Ford 1982 and McGee 1985 enhance and respond to Kallmann’s work, extending the historical discussion into the middle of the 20th century and providing new perspectives on the role of composers and musicians in society, although also largely concentrating on art, folk, and traditional music (see Diamond 1995, cited under History and Criticism: Art Music, for a comparison of these texts). Gallat-Morin and Pinson 2003 focuses more specifically on providing comprehensive histories of music in New France from early settlement up to the arrival of the British in the 1760s and thus fills a void in coverage from other, largely English histories. Whereas Vance 2009 is largely concerned with culture and society in Canada as a whole, this text contextualizes music and music-making (and offers several specific examples) more generally. Keillor 2006 offers the most comprehensive overview of music in Canada to date as it includes music from indigenous, folk, popular, and art music communities. A focused narrative on popular music in Canada is found in Edwardson 2009. Diamond and Witmer 1994 includes chapters pointing to the unique multi- and interdisciplinary requirements of studying music and music-making in Canada in general.

  • Diamond, Beverley, and Robert Witmer, eds. Canadian Music: Issues of Hegemony and Identity. Toronto: Canadian Scholars, 1994.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Includes twenty-nine chapters that discuss various approaches to the study of music in Canada from multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary perspectives. Chapters are organized from general to specific and include issues surrounding institutions, nationalism, ethnocultural communities, and individuals. Incisive introductory essays link these broad sections and include suggestions for further reading.

    Find this resource:

  • Edwardson, Ryan. Canuck Rock: A History of Canadian Popular Music. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2009.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A chronological study of popular music and the music industry in Canada from the emergence of rock and roll in Canada in the 1950s. Sources of research include general newspapers and magazines, trade journals, and government documents that have impacted the cultural industry as well as other forms of media. Discusses relationships between musicians and media.

    Find this resource:

  • Ford, Clifford. Canada’s Music: An Historical Survey. Agincourt, ON: GLC, 1982.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Following Kallmann 1987 (originally published 1969), adopts a sociological approach, placing music and musicians within a social framework to consider more broadly the role of music education, economics, cultural politics, and media. Organized chronologically, enabling the author to consider the development and relationships of these roles to music and musicians in Canada.

    Find this resource:

  • Gallat-Morin, Élisabeth, and Jean-Pierre Pinson. La vie musicale en nouvelle-France. Sillery, QC: Les Éditions du Septentrion, 2003.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    An insightful look at French culture, 1500 to 1760. Archival, journal, and community documents were sourced for this extensive text. Descriptions of institutions, individuals, and practices are included and materials are organized thematically within two sections: religious music and music in society. Indigenous peoples in religious contexts and folk music included.

    Find this resource:

  • Kallmann, Helmut. A History of Music in Canada, 1534–1914. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1987.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Originally printed in 1969, Kallmann provides a narrative history of music and music-making in Canada since early European contact. Kallmann identifies aspects of the cultural heritage of early European settlers and describes their music-making activities. Includes some references to folk and traditional music of French and English settlers.

    Find this resource:

  • Keillor, Elaine. Music in Canada: Capturing Landscape and Diversity. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2006.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Keillor embraces music, music-making and musicians of many genres and styles, including First Peoples and settler experiences and cultures, and considers their relationships in society and in performance. Music is categorized as either “refined” or “popular.” Brief vignettes of selected musical experiences and musicians in particular locales appear throughout.

    Find this resource:

  • McGee, Timothy J. The Music of Canada. New York: Norton, 1985.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A general history of English and French music in Canada since the arrival of the British. Contextualizes art, folk and traditional, and jazz music and musicians in Canada within the contemporary social and political landscape, reproduces twelve musical scores written by Canadian composers, and includes an appendix of readings, recordings, and films for classroom use.

    Find this resource:

  • Morey, Carl, Gordon E. Smith, Elaine Keillor, et al. “Canada.” In Grove Music Online. 2001.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Now hosted by Oxford Music Online, Grove Music Online is an important resource for research on music of all genres. The subject entry on Canada provides a thorough overview of art, traditional and popular music in Canada. Includes extensive reference lists and cross-referencing. Available online by subscription. Updated and revised in July 2014.

    Find this resource:

  • Vance, Jonathan. A History of Canadian Culture. Don Mills, ON: Oxford University Press, 2009.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Incorporates a range of cultural activities from indigenous and settler-immigrant cultures into a chronological narrative describing the social and political history of culture from early European contact to the present day. Reveals the impact of settlement on indigenous cultures and the influence of societies and politics on creative production.

    Find this resource:

Reference Works

Reference works on music in Canada appear in both print and online, and entries on Canada are included in most standard resources for music study. Those that provide more extensive coverage of music, culture, people, and issues include Grove Music Online and others noted here. Since its first printing, Encyclopedia of Music in Canada has become the primary resource for music in Canada and is now hosted by Historica Canada within the Canadian Encyclopedia. Extensive entries relating to Canada in the Garland Encyclopedia of World Music (vol. 3, The United States and Canada) offer detailed information as well as a critique that contextualizes music and musicians in a cross-cultural narrative. Keillor and Archambault 2013 and Magocsi 1999 provide significant resources on the music of indigenous peoples. Lefebvre 2009 includes sacred and secular music references from French Canada. For the music of Canadian art music composers, the Canadian Music Centre provides online resources that are invaluable and include composer, performance, and educational materials. Jackson 1994, Jackson 1996, and Miller 2001 contain entries on music and musicians in Canada involved in country, rock, popular, folk, and jazz repertoires.

  • The Canadian Encyclopedia.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Hosted by Historica Canada and available in French and English, this is a primary encyclopedic resource that includes entries on all aspects of musical life in Canada: biographies, histories of individuals and organizations, discussions of concepts and topics, and areas relating to musicians and musical activity. Extensively cross-referenced. Since 2003 has assumed responsibility for the maintenance and expansion of the Encyclopedia of Music in Canada, edited by Hellmut Kallman, Gilles Potvin, and Kenneth Winters (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1981).

    Find this resource:

  • Canadian Music Centre.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A primary source for information on Canadian composers of art music. Resources include biographical information, works lists (much of which is unpublished), and access to archival and commercial recordings. Educational materials on companion sites for primary, secondary, and postsecondary students, including “Sound Adventure,” “Sound Progression,” and “Influences of Many Musics.”

    Find this resource:

  • Jackson, Rick. Encyclopedia of Canadian Rock, Pop and Folk Music. Kingston, ON: Quarry, 1994.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The text, a companion to Jackson 1996, provides a listing of rock, pop, and folk artists and groups in Canada who were active from the 1950s to 1994. Alphabetical by artist/group, including brief biographical information, lists of songs, album titles, and band members. Appendices include list of Juno Award winners from 1964 to 1995.

    Find this resource:

  • Jackson, Rick. Encyclopedia of Canadian Country Music. Kingston, ON: Quarry, 1996.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Provides a listing of Canadian country artists and groups active from the 1930s to 1995. Entries are alphabetical by artist/group and include brief biographical information, lists of songs, album titles, and band members. Appendices include list of winners of Canadian Country Music Awards from 1982 to 1995 and Juno Awards from 1964 to 1995.

    Find this resource:

  • Keillor, Elaine, and John M. H. Archambault. Encyclopedia of Native American Music of North America. Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood, 2013.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Includes Indigenous peoples of Canada in discussion of cultural areas entitled “Arctic,” “Subarctic,” “Northwest Coast,” “Great Plateau,” “Plains,” and “Northeastern” regions. Entries list the main cultures in each region and include descriptions of cultural activities (including singing and dancing) and the social situations in which they were used.

    Find this resource:

  • Koskoff, Ellen, ed. The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. Vol. 3, The United States and Canada. New York: Garland, 2001.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Various entries in this important resource discuss aspects of music in Canada, musicians, musicals styles, genres, and regions. Of special note is Beverley Diamond’s overview (“Intercultural Traditions on the Canadian Prairies,” pp. 342–344) that includes descriptions of Canada’s cultural policy, music industry, and regional music-making. Indigenous, immigrant, and settler discussions and multiple genres, cultures, and practices are included.

    Find this resource:

  • Lefebvre, Marie Thérèse. Chronologie musicale du Québec 1535–2004: Musique de concert et musique religieuse. Quebec: Septentrion, 2009.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Lists individuals, founding, and important events of institutions, creators and performers, publications, schools, and prizes for music in French Canadian society since early settlement. Table layout promotes cross-generic understanding of the creation, production, performance, and dissemination of musical activities. Based on information found in the Encyclopedia of Music in Canada, edited by Hellmut Kallman, Gilles Potvin, and Kenneth Winters (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1981).

    Find this resource:

  • Magocsi, Paul R., ed. Encyclopedia of Canada’s Peoples. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1999.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Also available online by subscription, this is an excellent source for information on Canada’s ethnocultural communities and their sociocultural development.

    Find this resource:

  • Miller, Mark. The Miller Companion to Jazz in Canada and Canadians in Jazz. Toronto: Mercury, 2001.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Includes biographical information on musicians and bands, clubs, record labels, and brief historical surveys of ragtime, classic jazz, swing, bebop, fusion, and avant-garde music. Information organized alphabetically and cross-referenced within the text.

    Find this resource:

Bibliographies and Archives

Bibliographies of music in Canada provide access to a body of materials from government documents to early cultural histories and current online sources. Morey 1997 and Elliott 2004 together are important resources for lists of scholarly writing on art, folk, and traditional music in Canada. Elliott 2004 expands the resources of Morey 1997 considerably by including scholarship on popular music and musicians, First Nations cultures, and the many dissertations produced as a result of increased interest in music in Canada in post-graduate studies. Relating to other cultural communities are bibliographies compiled in Francis 2000, which provides a guide to sources relating to African-Canadians in Canada; Barkwell, et al. 2001, which offers an extensive and annotated bibliography on Métis Peoples that is accompanied by several critical essays; and Georges and Stern 1982, which includes an annotated bibliography of English writings on immigrant cultures from 1888 to 1980. Keeling 1997 is an annotated reference for studies of Native American (and Canadian) cultures in North America including topics and documents from 1535 to 1995. The extensive archives of cultural materials are maintained at all levels of government in Canada: federal, provincial, and municipal. Although the fluctuating economy has occasionally resulted in migration of documents and materials, these objects remain for the most part accessible for research and often primarily (as a result of major funding to increase accessibility) in digital formats. A major archival collection of Quebec music can be found at the Bibliothèque et archives nationales du Québec (BAnQ) and a guide to musical sources held at the National Library of Canada (now Library and Archives Canada, see “The Music Collection of Library and Archives Canada in 2011”) is also available online.

  • Barkwell, Lawrence J., Leah Dorion, and Darren R. Préfontaine, eds. Métis Legacy: A Métis Historiography and Annotated Bibliography. Winnipeg, MB: Pemmican, 2001.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    An extensive and annotated bibliography of printed and audio material on the Métis people of Canada that includes sixteen critical essays on Métis history, historiography, politics, and aspects of their lifeways. Of note is the essay “Métis Music” by Lynn Whidden. Co-published by the Louis Riel Institute and the Gabriel Dumont Institute of Native Studies and Applied Research.

    Find this resource:

  • Barriault, Jeannine, and Maureen Nevins. Music Archives at the National Library of Canada: A Guide. Ottawa, ON: National Library of Canada, 2000.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Music holdings of the National Library of Canada are now held online by Library and Archives Canada; 285 fonds and collections relating to music and musicians up to 2000 can be located online. Includes an alphabetical list of the collection and brief biographical and commentary on materials in each.

    Find this resource:

  • Bibliothèque et archives nationales du Québec. Collection nationale de musique.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The National Music Collection of Quebec held at the BAnQ includes music scores and recordings. Bilingual online resources include information on and access to this collection and include a history of Quebec music with articles specific to the collection written by BAnQ staff.

    Find this resource:

  • Elliott, Robin. “A Canadian Music Bibliography, 1996–2003.” Institute for Canadian Music Newsletter 2–3 (September 2004).

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Updated resource from Morey 1997 that includes additional pre-1996 sources as well as newly published materials from 1996 to 2004. Includes important new entries in areas of popular music, First Nations studies, and post-graduate dissertations. Index of authors provided; not annotated.

    Find this resource:

  • Francis, Flora Blizzard. A Black Canadian Bibliography. Ottawa, ON: Pan-African, 2000.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Focusing on African-Canadian studies and intended as a complement to the author’s previously published bibliography West Indians in Canada: A Selective Annotated Bibliography (Guelph, ON: University of Guelph, 1970). Includes English and French texts, audio and video sources, and dissertations relating to blacks in Canada from the 19th century to 2000.

    Find this resource:

  • Georges, Robert A., and Stephen Stern. American and Canadian Immigrant and Ethnic Folklore: An Annotated Bibliography. New York: Garland, 1982.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Annotated entries of English-only published work from 1888 to 1980, focusing on written and audio records of fifty-six distinct immigrant cultures in Canada. Arranged by ethnicity; extensive subject, region, and author indices provided.

    Find this resource:

  • Keeling, Richard. North American Indian Music: A Guide to Published Sources and Selected Recordings. New York: Garland, 1997.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    An expanded reference tool covering the period from 1535 to 1995. Entries are annotated and arranged within one of ten culture areas. The introductory chapter on the historiography of research is a valuable resource. Also important as an early and comprehensive bibliography of the topic.

    Find this resource:

  • Morey, Carl. Music in Canada. A Research and Information Guide. New York: Garland, 1997.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A comprehensive collection of studies on music in Canada up to 1996. Entries are organized into multiple sections by type, and a brief description of each section is included. Important as the first and most comprehensive bibliography of sources. See also this author’s article in Grove Music OnlineCanada: Art Music,” available by subscription.

    Find this resource:

Journals

Several peer-reviewed journals relating to music in Canada are published in Canada, and while they do not publish exclusively the work of Canadian scholars or on topics relating to music in Canada, those mentioned here include considerable Canadian content. Because of the interdisciplinary nature of music creation, performance, and scholarship, articles relating to music in Canada can also be found in international journals across many disciplines, many of which are affiliated with national and international scholarly associations. In Canadian journals, Les Cahiers de l’ARMuQ is a publication of the activities of the Société québécoise de recherche en musique; Intersections is the journal of the Canadian University Music Society; MUSICultures is the journal of the Canadian Society for Traditional Music; and musicanada was published briefly by the Canadian Music Centre and then by the Canadian Music Council. Circuit: Musique contemporaines publishes in English and French on the music of Quebec, North America, and elsewhere. Special issues devoted to music in Canada have been published in major international journals, and a few are indicated here: Ethnomusicology, Fontes Artis Musicae and the Nineteenth Century Music Review.

Musical Instrument Making

Musical instrument making in Canada has been traced back to at least the mid-1700s for stringed instruments and to the early 1800s for the manufacturing of pianos and organs. Early settlers and immigrants often arrived with their own instruments, but increases in population, widespread settlement across the country, and continuous developments in educational and social opportunities across the 19th century meant that more economical and practical options were needed. The manufacturing of instruments was largely centered in Ontario and Quebec in the 19th century, with piano manufacturing being the most common. New manufacturers of pianos and Canadian subsidiaries of international companies produced instruments for the growing Canadian market into the 20th century and are discussed in Kelly 1991. Makers of stringed instruments comprise another large group of Canadian-made instruments. Bégin 1983 describes the revival in instrument making at the end of the 20th century within the context of instruments held at the Museum of Civilization. Lapointe 1979 writes of the one hundredth anniversary of Quebec organ manufacturer Casavant frères as the longest surviving instrument manufacturing company in Canada. Diamond, et al. 1994 provides a critical and contextual look at over seven hundred instruments of indigenous cultures built and played in northeastern North America. A unique project to build a guitar of all-Canadian materials is the focus of Taylor 2009.

  • Bégin, Carmelle. Opus: The Making of Musical Instruments in Canada. Hull, QC: Canadian Museum of Civilization, 1983.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Images, descriptions, and commentaries of one hundred instruments at the Canadian Music of Civilization, including instruments from European art music traditions and those used in performing folk and traditional and indigenous music. Includes brief biographies of approximately fifty contemporary instrument makers.

    Find this resource:

  • Diamond, Beverley, M. Sam Cronk, and Franziska von Rosen. Visions of Sound: Musical Instruments of First Nations Communities in Northeastern America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A comprehensive, critical study of musical instruments used in First Nations communities in Northeastern America. Discussion focuses on fieldwork in fifteen First Nations communities and includes photographs, conversations with makers and performers, and critical commentary on their symbolism and use. An important resource for ethnomusicologists and others interested in cultural studies.

    Find this resource:

  • Kelly, Wayne. Downright Upright: A History of the Canadian Piano Industry. Toronto: Natural Heritage, Natural History, 1991.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Outlines briefly a social history of the use and interest in keyboard instruments in Canada since the arrival of early settlers. Includes Canadian manufacturers of pianos and organs and Canadian subsidiaries of international brands that have been made in Canada since the early 19th century, indicating their years of activity. Includes some historical photographs and an alphabetical list of instrument brands and builders.

    Find this resource:

  • Lapointe, Laurent. Casavant frères, 1879–1979. Saint-Hyacinthe, QC: La Société l’histoire régionale de Saint-Hyacinthe, 1979.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Written to celebrate the one hundredth anniversary of Casavant frères organ builders in Quebec, the longest-surviving organ manufacturer in Canada. Author provides a narrative documentary of details of construction, names, and brief biographies of builders and other manufacturing activities of the company in building phonographs and furniture.

    Find this resource:

  • Taylor, Jowi. Six String Nation. Vancouver, BC: Douglas & McIntyre, 2009.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Book about a project to build “Voyageur,” an all-Canadian guitar constructed from significant elements in Canada’s cultural history. Author narrates the story of each of the sixty-nine elements included in the guitar from conception to final construction and includes photos and commentary of contributors and performers.

    Find this resource:

Sound Recording

Scholarly literature on sound recording in Canada emerged in the late 20th century with publications on the histories of commercial companies as well as critical scholarship that emerged within the fields of cultural and media studies. Histories of major record companies in Canada are considered in Jennings 2000 (EMI in Canada), Matejcek 1996 (BMI Canada), and Moogk 1975, which covers the history of early gramophone companies. Other sources included here reflect the diversity of current scholarship and illuminate Canadian-specific interests and media nationalism. McCartney 2006 explores the gendered practices of electronic music composition, while authors in the collection edited by Flaherty and Manning 1993 compare Canadian and US popular music, and Edwardson 2008 describes the role of mass media in supporting culture. Scales 2012 considers the specialized performing and recording practices of aboriginal powwow music, while Wright-McLeod 2005 provides a more general reference to the recording of aboriginal artists’ music across the 20th century.

  • Edwardson, Ryan. Canadian Content: Culture and the Quest for Nationhood. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2008.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Considers culture and identity through the development of mass media led by federal agencies and policies and the commodification of Canadian content.

    Find this resource:

  • Flaherty, David H., and Fred E. Manning, eds. The Beaver Bites Back? American Popular Culture in Canada. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 1993.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Collection of scholarly essays that consider Canadian responses to American popular culture in media radio, television, on stage and in film, and on topics including performance and dissemination. Important as a study of the complex relationship between Canadian and US popular culture and scholarship.

    Find this resource:

  • Jennings, Nicholas. Fifty Years of Music: The Story of EMI Music Canada. Toronto: Macmillan, 2000.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Critical narrative of EMI’s business and recordings activities that focuses on the selection and promotion of individual musicians and recordings for and in the Canadian market. Appendix 2 includes a list of recordings in the 6000 Series (1960–1987) that eventually featured Canadian only artists.

    Find this resource:

  • Matejcek, Jan V. History of BMI Canada Ltd. and PROCAN: Their Role in Canadian Music and in the Formation of SOCAN (1940–1990). 2d rev. ed. Toronto: Jan V. Matejcek, 1996.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Describes the political and legal actions that influenced production and dissemination of music in Canada and identifies the key people and events that impacted activities leading up to the merger of PROCAN and CAPAC into SOCAN.

    Find this resource:

  • McCartney, Andra. “Gender, Genre and Electroacoustic Soundmaking Practices.” Intersections: Canadian Journal of Music 26.2 (2006): 20–48.

    DOI: 10.7202/1013224arSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Explores intersections of gender and genre in the electroacoustic compositions of several Canadian women artists, including Bartley, Craig, Kennedy, LeBoeuf, and Westerkamp. Research undertaken as part of the In and Out of the Sound Studio Project, an ethnographic study of the place and role of women within contemporary sound-making practices.

    Find this resource:

  • Moogk, Edward B. Roll Back the Years: History of Canadian Recorded Sound and Its Legacy, Genesis to 1930. Ottawa: National Library of Canada, 1975.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This text is important as a contribution to the early history of recorded sound in Canada. Narrative historical presentation includes biographical notes and interviews with artists as well as discographies of performers, composers, and lyricists and descriptions of the development of early gramophone companies.

    Find this resource:

  • Scales, Christopher. Recording Culture: Powwow Music and the Aboriginal Recording Industry on the Northern Plains. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2012.

    DOI: 10.1215/9780822395720Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Ethnographic study of aboriginal peoples and the music industry. Specific focus on powwow music, its social and political networks, and the aesthetics of recording practices and competition. Also considers distinct sounds and rhythms of powwow music, including the aspects of the powwow drum sound.

    Find this resource:

  • Wright-McLeod, Brian. Encyclopedia of Native Music: More Than a Century of Recordings from Wax Cylinder to the Internet. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 2005.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Traces history of commercially recorded music and serves as a comprehensive reference for artist biographies and discographies of early traditional singers, compilation albums, and contemporary film soundtracks. Separates Artic/Circumpolar region from the rest of North America and considers Canadian artists equally within these context.

    Find this resource:

Cultural Politics

With public radio and television media still supported by federal funding and ongoing legislation that controls minimum requirements for Canadian content, the politics of creation and dissemination of music in Canada remains complex and diverse. Texts included here contribute variously to the thriving critique of institutions and government legislation that impact the creation and performance of culture. These provide a broad overview of the cultural politics that influence music in Canada and respond to a range of topics including constitutional, economic, political, social, and cultural concerns as well as to expressions of technological nationalism and the policies that underscore them. Approaches to consideration and critique of Canadian cultural nationalism include Hurley 2011 on “Quebecness” and Mackey 2002 on debunking the myth of (multi)cultural tolerance; communications and media studies that explore nationalist agendas are discussed in Berland 2009 and Robinson 2004; nationalism and the canonization of literatures is the focus of Corse 1997; and Heble and Fischlin 2003 considers human rights and activism in culture. Litt 1992 and Tippett 1990 examine culture in Canada before (Tippett) and after (Litt) the highly influential Report of the Massey Commission published in 1951. See also additional chapters in Diamond and Witmer 1994 (cited under General Overviews).

  • Berland, Jody. North of Empire: Essays on the Cultural Technologies of Space. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2009.

    DOI: 10.1215/9780822388661Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Addresses the politics of Canadian and American media cultures that divide and connect the border between these two countries. Expands the scholarly discourse on Canada by moving beyond the discussion of differences to consider the electronic mediation and commodification of space. The chapter on locating listening is particularly applicable to music studies.

    Find this resource:

  • Corse, Sarah M. Nationalism and Literature: The Politics of Culture in Canada and the United States. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1997.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Describes the development of national identity through cultural expression, suggesting a connection between the canonization and institutional consecration of national literatures in a way that is applicable to high-culture formation of art music in Canada.

    Find this resource:

  • Heble, Ajay, and Daniel Fischlin, eds. Rebel Musics: Human Rights, Resistant Sounds, and the Politics of Music Making. Montreal: Black Rose, 2003.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Authors discuss a wide range of musicians and musical styles as exemplars of political activism, highlighting discourses of human rights and music-making and the power for music to advocate for social change.

    Find this resource:

  • Hurley, Erin. National Performance: Representing Quebec from EXPO 67 to Céline Dion. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2011.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Central concern is to redefine “Quebecness” (québécité) through performance as enactment of nationhood. Examines art and popular cultures (theatrical and musical) and their performers and uses performance-based concepts such as mimesis to consider specific works.

    Find this resource:

  • Litt, Paul. The Muses, the Masses, and the Massey Commission. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1992.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The Report of the Massey Commission mid-20th century provides important information for understanding Canadian cultural history and politics. Litt considers the preparation and writing of the report, committee members and their influence, and responses to the report that marked a turning point for culture and cultural institutions and organizations in Canada.

    Find this resource:

  • Mackey, Eva. The House of Difference: Cultural Politics and National Identity in Canada. London: Routledge, 2002.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Examines multiculturalism and the construction of identity in Canada to reveal remnants of coloniality and continuing representations of racialized practices. Exposes political and social contradictions in understanding national identity, multiculturalism, and assumed tolerance, analyzing the construction of historical and present-day events to reveal continued imbalances.

    Find this resource:

  • Robinson, Daniel J., ed. Communication History in Canada. Don Mills, ON: Oxford University Press, 2004.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A cross-disciplinary collection of articles collected from previously published work. A single-volume historical context for communication studies in Canada that includes a section relating specifically to the cultural industries of film and sound recording, with the notable essays “The English-Canadian Recording Industry since 1970” by Will Straw and “‘Dream, Comfort, Memory, Despair’: Canadian Popular Musicians and the Dilemma of Nationalism, 1968–1972,” by Robert A. Wright (first edition only). Second edition published in 2009.

    Find this resource:

  • Tippett, Maria. Making Culture: English-Canadian Institutions and the Arts before the Massey Commission. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1990.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    An historical investigation of English-Canadian culture in the period 1900–1950 that focuses on connections to fine arts and literature in Canada in both amateur and professional arenas. Exposes considerable activity in cultural production in this period organized to illuminate features of professionalization, education, patronage, and foreign influence.

    Find this resource:

History and Criticism

Despite a long record of documentation of culture in Canada, critical scholarship on music has only been available since the middle of the 20th century. Initially founded almost exclusively on European art music materials, these texts most often took the form of life and works studies or analysis. Increased interest in the diversity of musical activity in Canada since mid-century has resulted in broad historical and critical studies and materials, and these studies range in approach and content across music and other related disciplines. In addition to the general histories already noted, interdisciplinary studies of clearly delineated cultural communities continue to be the most common. Within this section of sources on history and criticism, Canada’s cultural communities are subdivided according to common fields of study in Canadian academic institutions and according to the following cultural and stylistic groupings: the music of Indigenous communities (including First Nations, Métis and Inuit peoples); the folk and traditional oral repertoires and practices of the governing cultures of English and French; the music of other immigrant cultures, both European and non-European; western European art music; and popular music. See also Morey, et al. 2001 in Grove Music Online (cited under General Overviews).

Indigenous Peoples

The music of Indigenous peoples of Canada has been examined in its diversity by musicologists, ethnomusicologists, anthropologists, and folklorists. As with traditional music of all immigrant cultures, initially Canada’s indigenous cultures were studied and their musical expressions collected and transcribed by scholars and composers. Early anthropologists, ethnomusicologists, and folklorists such as Frank Boas, Edward Curtis, Marius Barbeau, and others collected cultural artifacts and music from numerous aboriginal communities, and their work remains available for ongoing study. Later scholars turned increasingly to analytical and critical investigation of the social and political aspects of these materials and cultural expressions in creation and performance, and the cross-disciplinary nature of some of these approaches is reflected here. In particular, Emberley 2007 considers issues of decolonization across cultural contexts, while Hoefnagels and Diamond 2012 provides an excellent multi-authored collection of contemporary topics and methods. In discussions of specific communities, Audet 2012; Cavanagh 1982, and Pelinski 1981 examine three different Inuit communities and forms of expression, and Whidden 2007 investigates the northern Cree. Diamond 2008 proposes multiple perspectives of study of First Nations and Inuit communities of practice, and Dueck 2013 examines contemporary repertoires of First Nations and Métis musicians. See also Johnson, et al. 2012 (cited under Music and Musicians: Other Immigrant Communities).

  • Audet, Véronique. Innu Nikamu: L’Innu chante: Pourvoir des chants identité et guérison chex les innus. Quebec: Pressese l’Université Laval, 2012.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Considers popular songs of a community of Innu living on the north coast of the Gulf of St. Laurence in Quebec and Labrador and examines how these songs assist in supporting the decolonization and reevaluating of Inuit culture. Addresses issues of language, tradition, and the impact of contemporary society and culture and the agency of the Innu in the transformation of their own culture.

    Find this resource:

  • Cavanagh, Beverley. Music of the Netsilik Eskimo: A Study of Stability and Change. Ottawa, ON: National Museums of Canada, 1982.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A large-scale study of musical styles and genres of the Netsilik peoples. Focuses on drum dance, animal, and game songs, examining the impact of settler contact on their social and cultural expression and analyzing the melodic, harmonic, tonal, and structural materials.

    Find this resource:

  • Diamond, Beverley. Native American Music in Eastern North America: Experiencing Music, Expressing Culture. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Examines specific case studies of indigenous North Americans including First Nations and Inuit communities in Canada from traditional, historical, and contemporary ethnographic perspectives. Proposes a framework for study that considers the influence of traditional and learned values and practices across centuries of cross-cultural encounters.

    Find this resource:

  • Dueck, Byron. Musical Intimacies and Indigenous Imaginaries: Aboriginal Music and Dance in Public Performance. New York: Oxford University Press, 2013.

    DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199747641.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    An examination of the creation, performance, and audiences of music (especially fiddling, country, and Christian music) and step dancing in First Nations and Métis communities in Manitoba that exposes the complexity of contemporary music and musicians in these communities.

    Find this resource:

  • Emberley, Julia V. Defamiliarizing the Aboriginal: Cultural Practices and Decolonization in Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2007.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Examines representations of coloniality and the performance of race, gender, and difference in Canadian film, photography, and literature and other cultural expressions and discusses constructions of difference based on comparisons with the colonial settler family unit as the site of social and political power in early 20th century Canada.

    Find this resource:

  • Hoefnagels, Anna, and Beverly Diamond, eds. Aboriginal Music in Contemporary Canada: Echoes and Exchanges. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2012.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    An important collection of essays that trace historical and contemporary influence on aboriginal cultures in Canada. Includes multiple voices and ways of telling history in essays, interviews, and personal reflections from profession and community scholars and artists.

    Find this resource:

  • Pelinski, Ramon. La musique des Inuit du Caribou: Cinq perspectives méthodologiques. Montreal: Presses de l’université de Montréal, 1981.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A collection of five articles that presents methodological reflections based on fieldwork in the Inuit communities of Rankin Inlet and Eskimo Point in northern Canada and includes overviews and analyses of songs and dances in these locations, their singers, and genres and a classification method for them based on melodic contour and structural analysis.

    Find this resource:

  • Whidden, Lynn. Essential Song: Three Decades of Northern Cree Music. Waterloo, ON: Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 2007.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Important as the first detailed account of the origins, traditions, and impact of hunting songs and women’s songs for the northern Cree in Quebec and Manitoba. The goal of this book is to trace cross-cultural influences and the importance of song to the lifeways of the northern Cree.

    Find this resource:

Folk and Traditional Music

Folk and traditional music in Canada is used here to include the oral-tradition music of English and French heritages in Canada and includes those repertoires not cultivated as art music or as commercially recorded and distributed as popular music. Sources relating to other immigrant communities are considered separately where practical; within the section on History and Criticism: Other Immigrant Communities, however a clear delineation of repertoire is not always useful or possible. In addition, sources often combine disciplinary perspectives and methodological processes to reflect the complexity of the field. Titles here include historical perspectives on specific cultural spaces such as western Canadian festivals in Cristall 2012 and MacDonald 2010 and eastern Canadian folk song in McKay 1994. Critical cross-disciplinary and multi-genre studies are in collected editions such as Elliott and Smith 2010; Hoefnagels and Smith 2007; and Jessop, et al. 2008, and the ideologies of individual collectors of folk materials are included in Carlin 2008 on Asch, Jessop, et al. 2008 on Barbeau, and McKay 1994 on Creighton.

  • Carlin, Richard. Worlds of Sound: The Story of Smithsonian Folkways. New York: Smithsonian, 2008.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Important as background research into the cultural and political motivations of Moses Asch’s lifework in recording and collecting the materials now held in the Folkways Smithsonian collection. Includes brief discussions on his legacy at folkwaysAlive! at the University of Alberta.

    Find this resource:

  • Cristall, Gary. “The Vancouver Folk Song and Dance Festival with Arts and Crafts Exhibition: The First Ongoing Multicultural Festival in Canada.” Canadian Folk Music 46.2 (2012): 19–27.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A study of the first ten years of the Vancouver Folk Song and Dance Festival (after 1980, Vancouver Folk Festival) from its origins in 1933, examining printed programs for their expressions of ideology in areas of programming, curation of multiple forms of cultural expression, sponsors, repertoire, and participants.

    Find this resource:

  • Elliott, Robin, and Gordon E. Smith, eds. Music Traditions: Cultures and Contexts. Festschrift in Honour of Beverley Diamond. Waterloo, ON: Wilfred Laurier University Press, 2010.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A collection of essays written by colleagues and former students to honor Beverley Diamond’s extraordinary achievements in musicology and ethnomusicology in Canada. Individual chapters consider historical and contemporary issues of creation, performance, and critique in studies of diverse repertoires and cultural contexts.

    Find this resource:

  • Hoefnagels, Anna, and Gordon E. Smith, eds. Folk Music, Traditional Music, Ethnomusicology: Canadian Perspectives, Past and Present. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Cambridge Scholars, 2007.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Edited collection from the 2006 Canadian Society for Traditional Music conference. Chapters include diverse studies of place and historical perspectives, case studies of performers and traditions, and subject matter includes folk, traditional, and First Nations music. Important as a resource of contemporary interdisciplinary research directions.

    Find this resource:

  • Jessop, Lynda, Andrew Nurse, and Gordon E. Smith, eds. Around and about Marius Barbeau: Modelling Twentieth Century Culture. Gatineau, QC: Canadian Museum of Civilization, 2008.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Expands scholarly discourse on this important 20th century ethnomusicologist to include critical approaches of his work film, performance, and historiography. Of particular interest are Elaine Keillor’s chapter “Marius Barbeau as a Promoter of Folk Music Performance and Composition,” Marie-Thérèse Lefebvre’s study “Marius Barbeau: Une éminence grise dans milieu musical canadíen-français,”, Jean-Nicolas de Surmount’s “Genèse de l’enquête ethnomusicologique collective au Canada français,” and Gordon E. Surmont’s “Ethnomusicological Modelling and Marius Barbeau’s 1927 Nass River Field Trip” on his influence on the field of ethnomusicology in general.

    Find this resource:

  • MacDonald, Michael B. “Back to the Garden: Territory and Exchange in Western Canadian Folk Music Festivals.” PhD diss., University of Alberta, 2010.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A critical look at the history of western Canadian folk festivals that considers folk music as commodity and a construction of community, irrespective of nation, that is united in a desire to articulate specific economic and political goals.

    Find this resource:

  • McKay, Ian. The Quest of the Folk: Antimodernism and Cultural Selection in Twentieth Century Nova Scotia. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 1994.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Examines the impact of tourism on cultural production and historiography. Critically considers the roles that folklorists such as Helen Creighton played in the construction of identity in Nova Scotia.

    Find this resource:

Other Immigrant Communities

The end of the 19th century saw tremendous population growth in Canada as a result of large-scale immigration of Italians, Chinese, Ukrainians, and other European and non-European cultural groups as federal government initiatives targeted specific countries for settlement in the West. More work remains to be done to contextualize the historical and contemporary practices of these diverse communities, however, included here are examples largely from dissertations and journals that open such conversations for consideration. Helmer 2009 and Lorenzkowski 2010 provide valuable overviews, respectively, of the diversity of immigrant communities and of German communities in the Great Lakes areas of the United States and Canada. Berg 1985 and the authors in Epp and Weaver 2005 consider the choral and other cultural activities of western Canada’s Mennonite communities, and authors such as Gallaugher in Ruprecht and Taiana 1995 suggest interdisciplinary approaches to Latin American cultures. Outstanding doctoral work is being undertaken in these areas; three such examples are Allen-Trottier 2006 on the Roma in Montreal and Toronto, Ostashewski 2009 on Ukrainians in Alberta, and Wolters-Fredlund 2005 on Jewish choirs in Toronto. See also Georges and Stern 1982 (cited under Bibliographies and Archives) and Annemarie Gallaugher, “Trinbago North: Calypso Culture in Toronto,” in Diamond and Witmer 1994 (cited under General Overviews), pp. 359–382.

  • Allen-Trottier, Melaena Kim. “Romani Traditional Song in Canada: Origin, Transmission, and Romani Identity.” PhD diss., University of Alberta, 2006.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    An investigative study of Roma communities in Toronto and Montreal that examines the transnational context of Roma-Canadian identity and the global context of cultural expressions. Montreal Roma musicians are found to be more integrated into the social and professional fabric of this city than are Roma in other parts of the country.

    Find this resource:

  • Berg, Wesley. From Russian with Music: A Study of the Mennonite Choral Singing Tradition in Canada. Winnipeg, MB: Hyperion, 1985.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Discusses the development of choirs in Russia and their transference to Canada with immigrant communities in prairie provinces. Examines the social and public activities of the Mennonite communities and considers potential social and political influences on choral singing.

    Find this resource:

  • Epp, Maureen, and Carol Ann Weaver, eds. Sound in the Land: Essays on Mennonites and Music. Kitchener, ON: Pandora, 2005.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Conference proceedings from 2004 that include the work of composers, performers, writers, and researchers in exploring the contemporary expressive styles and analyses of music in Mennonite communities. Includes scholarly discussions of traditional hymnody, performers, ethnographic work as well as contemporary perspectives on worship music.

    Find this resource:

  • Helmer, Paul. Growing with Canada: The Émigré Tradition in Canadian Music. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2009.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Introduces new voices into a discussion of the influence new Canadians have had in the development of music education, performance, and arts institutions. Specifically emphasizes their influence on opera production.

    Find this resource:

  • Lorenzkowski, Barbara. Sounds of Ethnicity: Listening to German North America, 1850–1914. Winnipeg, MB: University of Manitoba Press, 2010.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Focuses on the role of language and music in cultural activities of German immigrants in the Great Lakes region (United States and Canada). Considers the impact of German-language education and musical practices on the intercultural communities in which they lived, the tensions that arose, and the cultural and hybrid national identities that resulted.

    Find this resource:

  • Ostashewski, Marcia. “Performing Heritage: Ukrainian Festival, Dance and Music in Vegreville, Alberta.” PhD diss., York University, 2009.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    An extensive study of music and dance at the Ukrainian Cultural Festival in Vegreville, Alberta, focusing on the negotiation of identity in historical narratives and cultural practices. Considers also the social politics of hybrid identity formation in this Ukrainian-Canadian community as an exemplar of contemporary society.

    Find this resource:

  • Ruprecht, Alvina, and Cecilia Taiana, eds. The Reordering of Culture: Latin America, The Caribbean and Canada in the Hood. Ottawa, ON: Carleton University Press, 1995.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This collection of essays offers perspectives on modernity as revealed in multicultural communities in Canada and proposes an interdisciplinary approach to inter-American and inter-Caribbean cultures. Includes the chapter by Annemarie Gallaugher, “Constructing Caribbean Culture in Toronto: The Representation of Caribana” (pp. 397–408), on Toronto’s Trinidadian Carnival-based festival Caribana that looks at the impact of media on community.

    Find this resource:

  • Wolters-Fredlund, Benita. “‘We Shall Go Forward with Our Songs into the Fight for Better Life’: Identity and Musical Meaning in the History of the Toronto Jewish Folk Choir, 1925–1959.” PhD diss., University of Toronto, 2005.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A study of the background and musical activities of the Toronto Jewish Folk Choir from 1925 to 1959, with special consideration of issues of identity and the social and political meanings of repertoire and genre choices and events.

    Find this resource:

Art Music

Canada’s founding governments of French and English shared a common interest in promoting high culture activity in Canadian society. As a result and with the consecration of art music in federal institutions in their early years of development, a great deal of the scholarship in music in Canada engages with art music genres, styles, creators, and performers. Sources based on art music include Ford 1982; Kallmann 1987; Keillor 2006 and McGee 1985 (all cited under General Overviews). Others include Amtmann 1975, a general history of music in Canada in English; Amtmann 1976, in French; and Vincent 2000, on the history of music in Quebec. Collections of essays on aspects of music in Canada such as Beckwith and Hall 1988 and Kallmann, et al. 2013 provide readers access to shorter, critical writings on art music in Canada by Helmut Kallmann, while McGee 1995 is a collection of critical essays that reflect on the career of Canadian composer, educator, and music scholar John Beckwith. Diamond 1995, a chapter in McGee 1995 is isolated here as a central critical text in the examination of three of the most widely used, general histories of music in Canada: Ford 1982; Kallmann 1987 and McGee 1985 (all cited under General Overviews).

  • Amtmann, Willy. Music in Canada, 1600–1800. Cambridge, ON: Habitex, 1975.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Expands Kallmann 1987 (originally published 1969) to examine additional materials and to focus on music in French settlements in early Canada (then New France). Includes descriptions and documentation of sacred and secular music and musicians from 1600 up to the arrival of the British in 1759.

    Find this resource:

  • Amtmann, Willy. La musique au Québec, 1600–1875. Montreal: Editions de l’Homme, 1976.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    French translation, lightly revised, of Amtmann 1975. Includes additional supporting images and documents not found in the English text; also adds a chapter on the rise of culture in Quebec in the 19th century.

    Find this resource:

  • Beckwith, John, and Frederick Hall, eds. Musical Canada: Words and Music Honouring Hellmut Kallmann. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1988.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Collection of twenty-three essays that reflects the breadth and reach of Kallmann’s scholarship. Essays include analyses, biographical studies, discussions of music education and cultural institutions, and an examination of Canadian composers and their works. Concludes with a list of Kallmann’s own writings from 1947 to 1987.

    Find this resource:

  • Diamond, Beverley. “Narratives in Canadian Music History.” In Taking a Stand: Essays in Honour of John Beckwith. Edited by Timothy J. McGee, 273–305. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1995.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    An important critique of the primary histories of music in Canada, by Ford, Kallmann, and McGee. Diamond deconstructs these texts to examine their assumptions about music, musicians, and music-making in Canada and to compare their coverage of regions, communities, musical styles, and time periods.

    Find this resource:

  • Kallmann, Helmut, Robin Elliott, and Gordon Smith, eds. Mapping Canada’s Music: Selected Writings of Helmut Kallmann. Waterloo, ON: Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 2013.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Compiles additional writings (see Beckwith and Hall 1988) by this influential scholar of music in Canada, including five previously unpublished essays, selected correspondence, and numerous other musical reflections and research articles.

    Find this resource:

  • McGee, Timothy J. Taking a Stand: Essays in Honour of John Beckwith. Toronto: University of Toronto, 1995.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A collection of essays published in honor of composer, educator, scholar, and critical musicologist John Beckwith. Essays are organized to reflect Beckwith’s broad interests in composer studies, music education, comparative studies (between Canada and the United States), and popular music. Includes a list of Beckwith’s principal compositions and writings to 1994.

    Find this resource:

  • Vincent, Odette. La vie musical au Québec: Art lyrique, musique classique et contemporaine. Saint-Nicolas, QC: Éditions de l’IQRC, 2000.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A general interest publication that narrates the practices and publics of art music in Quebec in both amateur and professional communities. Provides a brief historical overview of musicians and music-making from 1608 to 2000 illustrated by numerous photos and images.

    Find this resource:

Popular Music

Popular music in Canada has only recently been recognized in music scholarship, and attempts to identify what is distinct about Canadian music and musicians within a field that is otherwise dominated by the US (and, to a lesser extent, British) industry remain a central scholarly concern. Popular music in Canada is studied as an exemplar of cultural politics, within the fields of media and communication and cultural studies as well as for its contribution to Canada’s cultural history. Starr, et al. 2009 surveys the history and politics of music and musicians in multiple popular genres in the Canadian scene since the Second World War, while Miller 1997 focuses exclusively on providing an historical overview of jazz in Canada. Comparative critical studies with the United States, Britain, Australasia, and Latin America include Diamond, et al. 2008 (on the United States and Britain) and Joynson 1999 (on Australasian and Latin American music). In the broader arena of race and gender studies, Walcott 2003 scrutinizes the lyrics of black rap music for their expressions of locality, and Whiteley 2000 explores issues of gender and sexuality in the careers of Canadian musicians Joni Mitchell and k. d. lang. See also Edwardson 2009 (cited under General Overviews).

  • Diamond, Beverley, Denis Crowdy, and Daniel Downes, eds. Post-Colonial Distances: The Study of Popular Music in Canada and Australia. Newcastle, UK: Cambridge Scholars, 2008.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Essays in this edited collection are drawn from papers at an international conference that featured the popular music, folklore, and ethnomusicology of Canada and Australia as voices in postcolonial nations. Chapters propose comparatives—similarities and distinctions—between musical responses to the dominant music industries of the United States and Britain.

    Find this resource:

  • Joynson, Vernon. Dreams, Fantasies, and Nightmares from Far Away Lands: Canadian, Australasian, and Latin American Rock and Pop. Telford, UK: Borderline, 1999.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    An encyclopedic guide to musicians and music, including discographies, biographies and commentary on Canadian and Australasian bands of 1963–1976. A revised text entitled Dreams, Fantasies and Nightmares from Far Away Lands Revisited, published in 2008 (London: Borderline) includes sections on South America and South Africa and covers additional genres of popular music.

    Find this resource:

  • Miller, Mark. Such Melodious Racket: The Lost History of Jazz in Canada, 1914–1949. Toronto: Mercury, 1997.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This historical narrative describes the beginnings and development of the jazz scene in Canada from 1914 to 1949. Details included are based on contemporary newspapers and biographies.

    Find this resource:

  • Starr, Larry, Christopher Waterman, and Jay Hodgson. Rock. A Canadian Perspective. Don Mills, ON: Oxford University Press Canada, 2009.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Useful as a survey and textbook of the history and development of rock in Canada. Critical presentation articulates what is unique in this national perspective by considering Canada’s distinct political and economic climate and its impact on rock music. Information is presented chronologically from post-Second World War to the early 2000s.

    Find this resource:

  • Walcott, Rinaldo. Black like Who? Writing Black Canada. 2d rev. ed. Toronto: Insomniac, 2003.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Concentrates primarily on a Canadian issues, with chapters 7 and 8 dealing specifically with music: chapter 7 is a discussion of how the lyrics of rap reflect locality and impact identity in black Atlantic artists, and chapter 8 is a discussion of the discourse of black heritage in black popular culture in Canada and its impact on self-identity.

    Find this resource:

  • Whiteley, Sheila. Women and Popular Music: Sexuality, Identity, and Subjectivity. London: Routledge, 2000.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Examines women musicians and their songs to consider how their developments resonate within popular culture. Of special interest are chapters involving Joni Mitchell and k. d. lang in which the author discusses issues of sexuality and gender to uncover the changing role of women in the popular music industry.

    Find this resource:

Music and Musicians

Studies of music and musicians in Canada increased in quantity across the 20th century and involve life and works explorations, various biographical, autobiographical narratives, and, in more recent scholarship, critical consideration of personal and professional activities. Resources included here are arranged along stylistic lines and include scholarship relating to Indigenous Peoples, Folk and Traditional Music, and Other Immigrant Communities, Art Music and musicians, and Popular Music styles. Additional subsections on Song Collections and Theatrical and Dramatic Music expand the available resources in these areas.

Indigenous Peoples

Indigenous music and musicians in Canada appear across regional and community studies and often are linked with broader cultural concerns. The examples selected here include approaches to their music, artists, and cultural groups. Consideration of traditional music in these texts include Lederman 2013 on aboriginal fiddling in Quebec and the West, Mishler 1993 on music and dance in the Yukon, Quick 2008 on Métis practices in western provinces, and Tulk 2012 on connections between the Mi’kmaw and their environment. Marsh 2009 and Dueck 2013 examine indigenous popular music in the prairies, in Regina, Saskatchewan, and Winnipeg, Manitoba, respectively. A consideration of cross-cultural collaboration in music-making in Labrador is found in Gordon 2007. See also Hoefnagels and Diamond 2012 (cited under History and Criticism: Indigenous Peoples) and Gordon E. Smith, “Lee Cremo: Narratives About a Micmac Fiddler” (pp. 541–556) and Franziska von Rosen, “Thunder, That’s Our Ancestors Drumming”: Music as Experienced by a Micmac Elder” (pp. 557–579), in Diamond and Witmer 1994 (cited under General Overviews).

  • Dueck, Bryon. “Rhythm and Role Recruitment in Manitoban Aboriginal Music.” In Experiencing and Meaning in Music Performance. Edited by Martin Clayton, Byron Dueck, and Laura Leante, 135–160. New York: Oxford University Press, 2013.

    DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199811328.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    An interdisciplinary approach to the experience of sound that considers the embodiment of rhythm in the performance of song leaders and other musical artists. Discusses distinct metrical practices and their social implications in indigenous popular music in Manitoba.

    Find this resource:

  • Gordon, Tom. “Found in Translation: The Inuit Voice in Moravian Music.” Newfoundland and Labrador Studies 22.1 (2007): 287–314.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Considers the involvement of Moravian missionaries in developing anthem repertoire with the Inuit of Labrador beginning in the late 18th century, their focus on spiritual conversion and the transformative nature of their cross-cultural collaborations as models of tolerance and assimilation.

    Find this resource:

  • Lederman, Anne. “Aboriginal Fiddling: The Scottish Connection.” In Irish and Scottish Encounters with Indigenous Peoples: Canada, the United States, New Zealand, and Australia. Edited by Graeme Morton and David A. Wilson, 323–340. Montreal: McGill Queen’s University Press, 2013.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A discussion of fiddling in Quebec and western Aboriginal communities that examines the cultural influences of French, Scottish, and other music practices on aboriginal performance and repertoire. Melodic characteristics, features of style in performance, and dance forms are used to illustrate connections.

    Find this resource:

  • Marsh, Charity. “Interview with Saskatchewan Hip Hop Artist Eekwol (a.k.a. Lindsay Knight).” Canadian Folk Music Bulletin 43.1 (2009): 11–14.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Eekwol is a Muskoday First Nations hip hop artist whose compositions and performances expose aspects of cultural politics inherent among many First Nations communities in western and northern Canada. Considers the possibilities for contemporary expression to contribute to decolonization of these communities.

    Find this resource:

  • Mishler, Craig. The Crooked Stovepipe: Athapaskan Fiddle Music and Square Dancing in Northeast Alaska and Northwest Canada. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1993.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    An ethnography and ethnohistory of an area that spans the Yukon River between Alaska, United States, and the Yukon, Canada. Author describes “upriver” and “downriver” styles, some of which appear across the territory. Appendices include transcribed interviews and music with annotations.

    Find this resource:

  • Quick, Sarah. “Performing Heritage: Métis Music, Dance and Identity in a Multicultural State.” PhD diss., Indiana University, 2008.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A semiotic study of the aesthetics and symbolism of Métis fiddling and dance styles in western Canada involving performers, producers, and events. Argues for consideration of Métis heritage within social and political structures and identity within local as well as nationalist narratives.

    Find this resource:

  • Tulk, Janice Esther. “Sound and Music, Movement and Dance: Exploring the Relationship between Mi’kmaw Expressive Culture and the Environment.” MUSICultures 39.1 (2012):169–187.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Drawing on storytelling, myths, and legends, explores the relationships between sounds in the natural environment and musical and dance expressions of the Mi’kmaw. Considers the potential impact of environmental change on song elements and new song creation.

    Find this resource:

Folk and Traditional Music

Critical studies of folk and traditional music and musicians are often regional in focus, delimited along cultural or generic boundaries. These frequently incorporate folklore collected by previous generations of scholars as well as biographical material and more recently include critical analysis of larger communities. Listed here are regional studies: Gibson 2002 on Scottish bagpiping in Nova Scotia, Quigley 1995 on French-Canadian fiddling, and Trew 2009 on Irish music and dance in the Ottawa Valley. Creighton 1975 offers intriguing insights into the life, work, and ideology of this important collector of folk songs; Guigné 2006 examines the principles behind Kenneth Peacock’s works, providing a more politicized critique of the activities and outputs of one of his best-known collections. Broader genre and community studies include Greenhill and Tye 1997 on women performers of ballads, Mitchell 2007 on expressions of Canadian national identity in the folk music revival of the 1960s, Rosendahl 2012 on the politics of musical programming for Pride Toronto, and Sullivan 1999 on Canadian women performers of Celtic music. See also Patrick Hutchinson, “The Work and Words of Piping” (pp. 581–615) in Diamond and Witmer 1994 (cited under General Overviews), and Neil V. Rosenberg, “The Politics of Organology and the Nova Scotia Banjo” (pp. 181–207), in Elliott and Smith 2010 (cited under History and Criticism: Folk and Traditional Music).

  • Creighton, Helen. Helen Creighton: A Life in Folklore. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 1975.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This autobiography by a prolific collector of folklore and music in the Maritime provinces is written in a narrative style that incorporates descriptions of Creighton’s personal and professional activities including specifics of ethnographic research and the people and communities included in her work.

    Find this resource:

  • Gibson, John G. Old and New World Highland Bagpiping. Montreal and Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2002.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    An in-depth study of published records, memoirs, personal interviews, and folklore that explores the lineages and influences of highland bagpiping and step-dancing activities of Scottish emigres in Cape Breton, Nova Scotia. Focuses on musicians rather than providing an historical narrative.

    Find this resource:

  • Greenhill, Pauline, and Diane Tye, eds. Undisciplined Women: Tradition and Culture in Canada. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 1997.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    An edited collection of essays on the contributions of women performers and presenters of traditional folklore in Canada. Incorporates multidisciplinary approaches to several ethnic groups and regions. Of interest is an examination of the songs texts of “cross-dressing” ballads in Peacock’s Newfoundland collection from 1965.

    Find this resource:

  • Guigné, Anna Kearney. Folk Songs and Folk Revivals: The Cultural Politics of Kenneth Peacock’s “Songs of the Newfoundland Outports.” St. John’s, NF: Institute of Social and Economic Research 71, 2006.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A critical look at the personal and political environment in which Peacock produced his influential collection of Newfoundland songs that examines the impact of the contemporary folk music revival as well as the social and cultural interests and expectations of the period.

    Find this resource:

  • Mitchell, Gillian. The North American Folk Music Revival: Nation and Identity in the United States and Canada, 1945–1980. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 2007.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Considers issues of national identity as represented in folk music festivals in the United States and Canada with a specific emphasis on the 1960s, addressing similarities and differences. Important for its transnational focus and approach to expressions of national identity, political ideology, and musical representation.

    Find this resource:

  • Quigley, Colin. Music from the Heart: Compositions of a Folk Fiddler. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1995.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A life and works investigation of French-Newfoundland fiddler Emile Benoit (b. 1913–d. 1992) that considers his personal and professional activities and the social environment of a career that spans most of 20th century.

    Find this resource:

  • Rosendahl, Todd. “Setting the Stage: The Selection, Programming, and Staging of Musical Entertainment at Pride Toronto.” Canadian Folk Music 46.2 (2012): 12–18.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Through interviews with organizers and volunteers, discusses the significance of music in this large (over three hundred events) festival, the choices of performing artists for diverse communities, staging, and tensions in production. Important as an insider look at the complexity of concerns for multi-community public festival programming.

    Find this resource:

  • Sullivan, Mairéid. Celtic Women in Music: A Celebration of Beauty and Sovereignty. Kingston, ON: Quarry, 1999.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A critical look at the contributions of over thirty female performers from Ireland, Scotland, England, Canada, the United States and Australia, and including Canadians Mary Jane Lamond, Eileen McGann, and Loreena McKennitt. Biographical and personal commentary is based on interviews and considers traditional and innovative approaches in each artist’s work.

    Find this resource:

  • Trew, Johanne Devlin. Place, Culture and Community: The Irish Heritage in the Ottawa Valley. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Cambridge Scholars, 2009.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Documents significant texts of Irish communities in and around Ottawa, with a focus on music and dance as well as storytelling and other cultural concerns. Considers oral traditions, traditional music, dance practices, and historical and contemporary influences on cultural activities.

    Find this resource:

Other Immigrant Communities

For most of the 19th and 20th centuries the music of immigrants other than those of the French and English generally took place outside of public funding and performance, existing primarily in the locality of the immigrant communities. As a result, academic scholarship on these cultural communities appeared more often within cultural and anthropological studies than in music texts. With the increase in ethnomusicological research in Canada since the late 1960s, scholarship on the music and musicians of other European and non-European cultures that reside within Canada’s multicultural communities has increased tremendously. Witmer 1990 is a compilation of articles demonstrating the range of scholarly pursuits in Canadian ethnomusicology near the end of the 20th century. In addition to studies of specific cultural practices such as dance considered in Nahachewsky 2002, fiddle and accordion music and artists in Johnson, et al. 2012, song studies in Del Giudice 1994 and Kim-Cragg 2012, scholars have turned to ethnographic and critical research on complex cultural events such as festivals (Chan 2001; Nahachewsky 2012) in which traditional practices may be upheld or developed for contemporary audiences. Ostashewski 2009 reflects on the contemporary voice in the traditional music of an artist of mixed immigrant-aboriginal heritage. See also essays included in section 5: Individual Musicians in the Canadian Context in Diamond and Witmer 1994 (cited under General Overviews) and several articles in the 1972 special Canadian Issue of Ethnomusicology (Katz 1972, cited under Journals).

  • Chan, Margaret Rose Wai Wah. “Chinese-Canadian Festivals: Where Memory and Imagination Converge for Diasporic Chinese Communities in Toronto.” PhD diss., York University, 2001.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A critical look at four major Chinese festivals celebrated annually: Chinese New Year, Dragon Boat Festival, Mid-Autumn Festival, and Dong Festival. Examines expressions of identity represented in these festivals in Toronto and analyzes their origins, philosophical undercurrents, aesthetics, cosmology, and cultural content.

    Find this resource:

  • Del Giudice, Luisa. “Italian Traditional Song in Toronto: From Autobiography to Advocacy.” Journal of Canadian Studies 29.1 (1994):74–89.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A discussion of the history and development of traditional folk song among Italian-Canadians in Toronto, advocating for the significance of traditional song in revitalizing a sense of identity for this community.

    Find this resource:

  • Johnson, Sherry Anne, Trent Bruner, Éric Favreau, et al. Bellows and Bows: Historical Recordings of Traditional Fiddle and Accordion Music from Across Canada. St. John’s, NL: Research Center for the Study of Music, Media, & Place, Memorial University, 2012.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A diverse collection of sixty-five recordings from the 1920s to the 1990s with an accompanying text that provides extensive historical and biographical background on fiddle and accordion music and musicians. Includes artists of Ukrainian, German, Norwegian, Anglo-Scottish, Aboriginal (Inuit, Métis, and First Nations), and Quebecois heritage. Includes selective glossary.

    Find this resource:

  • Kim-Cragg, HyeRan. Story and Song: A Postcolonial Interplay between Christian Education and Worship. New York: Peter Lang, 2012.

    DOI: 10.3726/978-1-4539-0873-0Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Examines the role of narrative in contemporary Christian music in Korean-Canadian communities, with a focus on song and story. Focuses on a case study with the Korean Association of Women Theologians.

    Find this resource:

  • Nahachewsky, Andriy. “New Ethnicity and Ukrainian Canadian Social Dances.” Journal of American Folklore 115.456 (2002): 175–190.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Examines participatory dances of rural Ukrainian-Canadians to consider their development and significance in establishing identity.

    Find this resource:

  • Nahachewsky, Andriy. “Eat, Dance, and Be Ukrainian: The Dickenson and Dauphin Summer Festivals.” In The Paths of Folklore: Essays in Honour of Natalie Kononeko. Edited by Svitlana Kukharenko and Peter Holloway, 175–193. Bloomington, IN: Slavica, 2012.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Considers differences between annual Ukrainian community festivals in Dauphin, Manitoba, and Dickinson, North Dakota, based on their organizational and event structures, their content and cultural displays and events, and their unique focus on local and often contemporary expressions.

    Find this resource:

  • Ostashewski, Marcia. “A Fully-Fledged and Finely Functioning Fiddle: Humour and the ‘Uke-Cree Fiddler.’” Canadian Folk Music Bulletin 43.1 (2009): 1–5.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Considers the function of humor in establishing commonality across cultural boundaries. Arnie Strynadka, “The Uke-Cree Fiddler,” is of mixed Aboriginal-Ukrainian heritage. His performances and music are discussed to expose important features of the cultures and identity of both communities.

    Find this resource:

  • Witmer, Robert, ed. Ethnomusicology in Canada: Proceedings of the First Conference on Ethnomusicology in Canada/Premier congrès sur l’ethnomusicologie au Canada Held in Toronto 13–15 May, 1988. Toronto: ICM, 1990.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A collection of essays following the 1988 conference on ethnomusicology in Canada sponsored by the Institute for Canadian Music at the University of Toronto. Includes chapters on music in diverse communities. Of special note for its uniqueness is Sarkissian’s chapter “The Politics of Music: Armenian Community Choirs in Toronto” (pp. 98–104) on Armenian musical culture and the political and social implications of Armenian Choral music and performance in Toronto.

    Find this resource:

Art Music

Comprehensive studies on musicians in Canada include the biographies of individual composers and performers and collections of essays dedicated to individual artists. While this is an area of research that warrants considerably more critical attention, studies of several influential artists across the history of music in Canada have been undertaken. Looking primarily at biographical narratives of 19th and 20th century artists are Barrière 2001 on late 19th-century composer Calixa Lavallée, Bruneau and Duke 2005 on Jean Coulthard, Eastman and McGee 1983 on Barbara Pentland, Lefebvre 1986 on Serge Garant, and Gilmore 2014 on Claude Vivier. Each of these texts represents the first or only biography of the artist. Drawing on a range of previous biographical and autobiographical materials, Bazzana 2004 presents a more critical perspective on the life and music of pianist Glenn Gould. Similarly, collections of scholarly chapters on John Weinzweig (in Beckwith and Cherney 2011) and István Anhalt (in Elliott and Smith 2001) offer biographical background as well as critical perspectives on the output, influence, and reception of these leading composers of the mid- to late 20th century. A unique contribution is Steenhuisen 2009, a published collection of perceptive interviews with over two dozen Canadian composers offering insight into life, works, and creative processes.

  • Barrière, Mireille. Calixa Lavallée. Montreal: Lidec, 2001.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A biography of one of the most influential Quebec composers of the last half of the 19th century, whose works include operatic, other vocal and instrumental genres, and the music for Canada’s national anthem. Includes a list of private archives, contemporary illustrations, and a bibliography of additional resources.

    Find this resource:

  • Bazzana, Kevin. Wondrous Strange: The Life and Art of Glenn Gould. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A new biography of the iconic Canadian pianist Glenn Gould that draws on the breadth of previous studies and critical writing, extending it with information from additional interviews, broadcasts, and other media in an attempt to place Gould more specifically within the society and politics of his cultural milieu.

    Find this resource:

  • Beckwith, John, and Brian Cherney, eds. Weinzweig: Essays on His Life and Music. Waterloo, ON: Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 2011.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    An unrelenting advocate for music in and of Canada, John Weinzweig’s reach extended across the founding of several significant Canadian institutions and societies. Contributors write, variously, of his impact on their work as composers, educators, and performers and on his innovative contributions to the development of music in Canada.

    Find this resource:

  • Bruneau, William, and David Gordon Duke. Jean Coulthard: A Life in Music. Vancouver, BC: Ronsdale, 2005.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    An extensive study of the life and music of this influential Canadian composer, performer, and educator from within musical and social contexts. Authors discuss Coulthard’s training, promotion of music in Canada, and her influence on younger composers and Canadian music. Includes a chart of her life and compositions in the context of relevant contemporary cultural events.

    Find this resource:

  • Eastman, Sheila, and Timothy McGee. Barbara Pentland. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1983.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Pentland was a composer, performer, and teacher of high musical standards; this is the first extended study of her career and compositions. Written during her lifetime, this source includes numerous musical examples to illustrate the development of her style and approach to musical materials.

    Find this resource:

  • Elliott, Robin, and Gordon Smith, eds. István Anhalt: Pathways and Memory. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2001.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Written during the composer’s lifetime, this collection includes biographical reflections as well as critical essays on selected works. Four chapters contributed by Anhalt himself describe his work and compositional processes. Also includes a complete listing of Anhalt’s compositions and critical writings to date.

    Find this resource:

  • Gilmore, Bob. Claude Vivier: A Composer’s Life. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press, 2014.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This biography of composer Claude Vivier offers a complete historical and social perspective on his life and works, incorporating personal and professional commentary from family, friends, and colleagues. Provides personal as well as musical contexts for creative works.

    Find this resource:

  • Lefebvre, Marie Thérèse. Serge Garant et la révolution musicale au Québec. Montreal: L. Courteau, 1986.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Garant was an influential composer, teacher, and writer; this biography situates him within the context of musical modernism mid-century and examines his impact on the development of culture in Quebec. Includes interviews and public statements on music as well as program notes for several of his works. List of works at the end.

    Find this resource:

  • Steenhuisen, Paul. Sonic Mosaics Conversations with Composers. Edmonton: University of Alberta Press, 2009.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A collection of probing, personal interviews and conversations with twenty-six Canadian composers that reveal features of creative processes and suggest approaches to experiencing their work. Written initially for a series of articles in Wholenote, as a collection these interviews provide a unique exposé of some of Canada’s most innovative creators.

    Find this resource:

Popular Music

Sources here are chosen to reflect the breadth of scholarship on the multiple styles, genres, and musicians involved in popular music in Canada. Musical analysis of popular styles and materials in Canada frequently engages in cross-border comparisons, as popular artists perform and record broadly within the North American market. Examples of Canadian musicians who have gained significantly wide recognition in the North American market are discussed in these sources, and reflections on their careers are included as exemplars of particular scholarly approaches. In a critical biography format, the Marom 2014 study of Joni Mitchell expands our understanding of popular music creation and dissemination, while Peterson and Palmer 2002, an autobiography, offers a first-person narrative that contextualizes Peterson’s music and musical partners within the North American jazz scene. Chamberland 2001 and Pegley 2008 place Canadian popular music in live and recorded video performances within cross-border contexts to consider aspects of their Canadianess and the politics of their production. Wilson 2012 presents an historical narrative of popular entertainment in the early 20th century that carried Canadian artists from performances before their fellow soldiers during the First World War to London, New York, and Canada on their return. Collections and analysis of song texts provided in Carrier and Vachon 1977–1979 and Chamberland 1994 and the critical biography of one of Quebec’s early popular singers, Madame Bolduc, in Dufour 2001 reflect a politicized view of French-Canadian song since the late 1700s. See also Timothy Rice and Tammy Gutnik, “What’s Canadian about Canadian Popular Music? The Case of Bruce Cockburn” (pp. 238–258), in McGee 1995 (cited under History and Criticism: Art Music).

  • Carrier, Maurice, and Monique Vachon. Chansons politiques du Québec. 2 vols. Ottawa: Les editions Leméac, 1977–1979.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    These two volumes (vol. 1: 1765–1833; vol. 2: 1834–1858) are collections of popular songs that appeared in print journals in New France prior to 1858. Includes a discussion of identity and politics in Quebec in these years as well as providing historical context for the songs.

    Find this resource:

  • Chamberland, Roger. La chanson québécoise de La Bolduc à aujourd’hui: Anthologie. Quebec: Nuit blanche, 1994.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    An anthology of lyrics to 181 popular songs from 1930 to 1994. Includes short biographies of lyricists, index to songs, and illustrations. Organized into four periods: 1930–1959, 1960–1968, 1969–1978, and 1979–1994. An invaluable resource for scholars interested in considering these otherwise hard-to-find texts within the social and political environment of these periods.

    Find this resource:

  • Chamberland, Roger. “Rap in Canada: Bilingual and Multicultural.” In Global Noise: Rap and Hip-Hop Outside the USA. Edited by Tony Mitchell, 306–326. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 2001.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    In this study of the intercultural and interethnic representations of English and French expressions of rap and hip-hop in Canada, the author considers activities in the urban centers of Montreal, Toronto, Vancouver, Halifax, and Quebec City. Discusses textual content as distinct from US hip hop and considers multicultural influences on the music.

    Find this resource:

  • Dufour, Christine. Mary Traverse Bolduc: La turluteuse du people. Montréal: XYZ, 2001.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Documents the life and career of one of Quebec’s most beloved singer-songwriters, Madame Bolduc, or La Bolduc (b. 1894–d. 1941). Discusses the satirical and political messages in her songs as expressions of working-class concerns and explores the music scene of the 1930s that questioned her morality. Includes table-format chronology and bibliography.

    Find this resource:

  • Marom, Malka. Joni Mitchell: In Her Own Words. Toronto: ECW, 2014.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Transcripts of interviews with Mitchell, song lyrics, photographs, and other illustrations spanning her nearly forty-year career (1973–2012). Includes descriptions of her personal and professional life, her reflections in and around the music business, and details on her creative process interspersed with excerpts from interviews with her contemporaries.

    Find this resource:

  • Pegley, Kip. Coming to You Wherever You Are: Much Music, MTV and Youth Identities. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 2008.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A cross-cultural comparison of the musical content of Canadian-based MuchMusic and the Canadian affiliate of the US-based MTV. This critical study of actual videos is combined with analysis of type of content to reveal the cultural politics of identity construction.

    Find this resource:

  • Peterson, Oscar, and Richard Palmer. A Jazz Odyssey: The Life of Oscar Peterson. London: Continuum, 2002.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    An autobiography of this renowned Canadian jazz pianist in which he reflects on his career, his concert experiences, and his performing colleagues. Also describes personal reflections on non-musical aspects of his life. Helpful list of professional colleagues, their nicknames, and their instruments is included.

    Find this resource:

  • Wilson, Jason. Soldiers of Song: The Dumbells and Other Canadian Concert Parties in the First World War. Waterloo, ON: Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 2012.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The story of the First World War comedy troupe who served in the trenches and on stage as entertainers to their fellow soldiers. For nearly a decade after the war, the Dumbells enjoyed success in London’s West End, on Broadway (see Atkey 2006, cited under Theatrical and Dramatic Music) and across Canada. Extensive appendices include lists of members, concert programs, touring details, and lists of music and recordings.

    Find this resource:

Song Collections

Folk songs and singers play an important role in both the making and telling of history. There are dozens of volumes of folk songs compiled, transcribed, and published by Canadian ethnomusicologists and anthropologists across the 20th century that narrate the stories and activities of individuals and communities, commemorating their lives, expressing their concerns, and imaging their futures. Included here are published samples of songs, texts, and commentary from several of the most prolific and well-known collectors as well as samples from less-studied regions and individuals; additional collections on other regions and communities by Barbeau, Creighton, Fowke, and Peacock are widely available. Included in this section are materials largely focusing on individuals of French and English heritage, with Arsenault 1998, Béland 1982, and Barbeau and Sapir 1925 reflecting the breadth of folk song culture in French-speaking Canada from the Acadiens in Prince Edward Island (Arsenault 1998), across Quebec (Barbeau and Sapir 1925) to the voyageurs and workers heading west (Béland 1982). Creighton and Senior 1987, Karpeles 1971, and Peacock 1965 offer samples of folk songs of English, Scottish, and Irish heritages in eastern Canada, and Klymasz 1970 brings together a collection of music from western communities of Ukrainian immigrants. The example from Fowke’s many publications (Fowke 1954) is an early attempt to curate Canada’s folk song across the country and incorporates a few examples of transcribed First Nations songs.

  • Arsenault, Georges, ed. Contes, légendes et chansons de l’Île-du-Prince-Éduard. Moncton, NB: Éditions d’Acadie, 1998.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Discusses the uniqueness of the French-Canadian (Acadian) community in Prince Edward Island and the evolution of oral traditions among Mi’kmaq, English, Scottish, and Irish. Relays legends and songs of traditional singers and storytellers in the region, incorporating interviews into biographical backgrounds and including transcriptions of stories, song texts, and melodies. Translated by Sally Ross as Acadian Legends, Folktales, and Songs from Prince Edward Island (Charlottetown, PE: Acorn, 2002).

    Find this resource:

  • Barbeau, Marius, and Edward Sapir, eds. Folk Songs of French Canada. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1925.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A selection of forty-one songs in French, with English translations, and incorporating extended commentary on each song and song type and consideration of their provenance.

    Find this resource:

  • Béland, Madeleine. Chansons de voyageurs, coureurs de boi et forestiers. Quebec: Presses de l’université Laval, 1982.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    An anthology of eighty-four songs indicating their sources and including melodic transcriptions and variant texts. Songs are classified and organized by type and a glossary of distinctly French-Canadian expressions is included. Some analytical commentary and historical, stylistic, and biographical overview of singers included.

    Find this resource:

  • Creighton, Helen, and Doreen H. Senior. Traditional Songs from Nova Scotia. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 1987.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A representation of songs of English and Scottish origins collected in Nova Scotia. Includes texts, melodies, and information on provenance and variants as well as references to additional materials on songs.

    Find this resource:

  • Fowke, Edith. Folk Songs of Canada. Waterloo, ON: Waterloo Music, 1954.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A curated collection of largely French and English songs but including several First Nations examples. Mostly previously published. Important as an early attempt to create a comprehensive collection of songs from across the country for a broader audience. Brief commentary provided for each song regarding its origin or use.

    Find this resource:

  • Karpeles, Maud. Folk Songs from Newfoundland. London: Faber and Faber, 1971.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Approximately 150 melodies and texts and their variants collected 1929–1930, organized by subject matter and style. Extended notes on songs appear at the end with commentary that cross-references other collections.

    Find this resource:

  • Klymasz, Robert B. The Ukrainian Winter Folksong Cycle in Canada. Ottawa, ON: National Museums of Canada, 1970.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Collection of fifty folk songs collected from thirty sources, selected to represent the variety of songs in this seasonal cycle. Author provides introductory commentary for each song, English translations of texts, and melodic transcription as well as a discussion of the origins and evolution of this ritualistic genre.

    Find this resource:

  • Peacock, Kenneth. Songs of the Newfoundland Outports. 3 vols. National Museum of Man Bulletin 197. Anthropological Series 65. Ottawa, ON: Queen’s Printer, 1965.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A three-volume collection of songs arranged by subject. Includes traditional and locally composed songs. Author provides a melodic transcription and text for each song as well as brief notes on origin, comments on structure, and importance and subject matter.

    Find this resource:

Theatrical and Dramatic Music

Staged dramatic music and theatrical productions have existed in Canada since early contact, with documentation of early performances of popular entertainments dating back to Samuel de Champlain’s settlement in New France as early as 1606 (see Keillor 2006 and Vance 2009, both cited under General Overviews). Across Canada’s history, the terminology applied to these works has varied, as has its content and audience. Sources here include critical studies on the creation, production, and reception of staged dramatic music in Canada in both art music and popular genres. In operatic studies, two major centers of opera and musical theater in Canada since the late 1700s, Montreal and Toronto, are considered in a broad historical study by Cooper 1984. Providing a specific focus on the impact and influence of the genre and performance are Barrière 2002 and Zapf 2004 in operatic contexts, while Atkey 2006 looks generally at musical theater and Bozynski 2005 considers film music of the 20th and 21st centuries. Galloway 2010 is an ethnographic study of Schafer’s Patria cycle. Ingraham 2007 provides a preliminary catalogue of staged dramatic music composed in Canada from 1867 to 2006. A range of critical opera studies, genres, and repertoire is considered by authors included in Karantonis and Robinson 2011. See also Nancy Yunhwa Rao, “Chinese Opera in Turn-of-the Century Canada: Local History and Transnational Circulation,” Nineteenth Century Music Review 11.2 (2014): 291–310, and Mary I. Ingraham, Noble Savage/Indigène sauvage: Staging First Nations in Early Canadian Opera,” Nineteenth Century Music Review 11.2 (2014): 255–272.

  • Atkey, Mel. Broadway North: The Dream of a Canadian Musical Theatre. Toronto: National Heritage, 2006.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Based on interviews with entrepreneurs, performers, and creators, Atkey traces a brief history of musical theater in Canada back to Champlain’s arrival in New France in 1606 through to performances up to 2006, focusing on 20th century examples from the Dumbells’ 1920s Broadway hit Biff! Bing! Bang! up to the 2006 Broadway success of The Drowsy Chaperone.

    Find this resource:

  • Barrière, Mireille. L’opéra français de Montréal: L’étonnante historie d’un success éphémère: 1893–1896. Montreal: Fides, 2002.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This historical critique of Montreal Opera reflects an important period in Quebec cultural history, on the cusp of the new century and on the brink of establishing itself as one of the most important cultural metropolises in Canada.

    Find this resource:

  • Bozynski, Michelle Carole. “Music in Canadian Visual Narrative: Musical collaborations in Five Films of Atom Egoyan and Patricia Rozema.” PhD diss., University of Toronto, 2005.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This dissertation represents an important contribution to Canadian film music studies. Five case studies of works by award-winning filmmakers Egoyan and Rozema and their composers Danna, Barber, and Korven are used to underscore the negotiation of individual and national identities in film.

    Find this resource:

  • Cooper, Dorith. “Opera in Montreal and Toronto: A Study of Performance Traditions and Repertoire, 1783–1980.” PhD diss., University of Toronto, 1984.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    An extensive study of productions and people involved in operatic performances across two hundred years in these two major cultural centers—one French and one English. Includes invaluable details and resource materials on early production.

    Find this resource:

  • Galloway, Kate. “‘Sounding Nature, Sounding Place’: Alternative Performance Spaces, Participatory Experience and Ritual Performance in R. Murray Schafer’s Patria Cycle.” PhD diss., University of Toronto, 2010.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    An ethnographic examination of Schafer’s Patria cycle from the author’s positions as production assistant, performer, and collaborative creator in multiple performances of several works in the cycle over several years. Provides in-depth and informative accounts of events and offers critical perspectives on contemporary practices in opera and ritual theater.

    Find this resource:

  • Ingraham, Mary. “Something to Sing About: A Preliminary List of Canadian Staged Dramatic Music since 1867.” Intersections: A Canadian Journal of Music 28.1 (2007): 14–77.

    DOI: 10.7202/019291arSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Includes the first catalogue of operas by composers in Canada between 1867 and 2007. Beginning with Cooper 1984 and supplemented with information provided by composers and arts organizations, this preliminary list includes 379 works that are organized in three formats: alphabetically by composer and by title and chronologically by premiere.

    Find this resource:

  • Karantonis, Pamela, and Dylan Robinson. Opera Indigene: Re/presenting First Nations and Indigenous Cultures. Farnham, UK: Ashgate, 2011.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Interdisciplinary and methodologically diverse. Includes chapters on Canadian operas that engage First Nations communities, including Diamond on the Aboriginal dance opera BONES (2001; pp. 31–56); Ingraham’s overview of the first one hundred years of Canadian opera (pp. 211–230); Dylan Robinson on Pentland’s The Lake (1952; pp. 245–258), Renihan on Somers’s Louis Riel (1967; pp. 259–277), and Elliott on Hui’s Pimooteewin (2008; pp. 279–294).

    Find this resource:

  • Zapf, Donna. “Singing History, Performing Race: An Analysis of Three Canadian Operas: Beatrice Chancy, Elsewhereless, and Louis Riel.” PhD diss., University of Victoria, 2004.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    An analysis of three operas based on Canadian historical narratives, each of which underscores specific issues of racialized practices in Canadian society through their textual and musical materials.

    Find this resource:

Soundscape Studies

Soundscape studies refers to the breadth of scholarship connecting sound and environment, from the recording of sounds to their relationships within an environment and their creative use in sound art projects. Canadian R. Murray Schafer is credited as the originator of the concept of soundscape in the late 1960s. Through the World Soundscape Project (now the World Forum for Acoustic Ecology) that he founded at Simon Fraser University in the early 1970s, this creative practice has expanded internationally and interdisciplinarily (see Grove Music Online article on soundscape; subscription required). Schafer 1977 and Truax 1978 are formative texts on soundscape studies and provide extensive terminology and descriptions of work. Additional selections here illustrate the continuing scholarship of soundscape creators and scholars and include Truax 2001, Westerkamp 2007, and Wrightson 2000. Two journals dedicated to this expanding field of study, Organised Sound and Soundscape—the latter is the journal of the World Forum for Acoustic Ecology—are also noted here as central critical resources.

back to top

Article

Up

Down