Music Mass
by
Anne Schnoebelen
  • LAST MODIFIED: 25 October 2018
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199757824-0244

Introduction

The term “Mass” commonly indicates the Eucharistic service rooted in early Christian and medieval liturgies, and its expansion within Catholicism up to modern times. This article provides bibliographical entries for Latin-texted Masses from plainchant and early polyphony to large-scale modern works. (Masses composed for other liturgies, e.g., Lutheran and other Protestant, are not included here.) The Mass consists of two liturgical parts: the Ordinary (Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Agnus Dei), which remains textually fixed, and the Proper (Introit, Gradual, Alleluia/Tract/Sequence, Offertory, Communion), which changes with each day’s liturgy according to the temporal or sanctoral cycle. Originally, chant Ordinaries were probably sung to simple formulas or tones, but gradually took on new, more elaborate melodies. Mass Propers were a main source for the early development of polyphony as early as c. 900. The 11th-century Winchester Troper contains the earliest extensive repertory of two-voice polyphony for both Proper and Ordinary. In the 12th and 13th centuries, Leoninus and Perotinus at Notre Dame Cathedral composed organa for two to four voices in the solo-voice sections of the Gradual and Alleluia. However, it was only in the 14th century that the so-called cyclic Mass began to appear, at first in pairings of Gloria-Credo movements based on a single chant. In the early 15th century, composers began to unify the Mass Ordinary with a single plainchant cantus firmus tenor in all five movements, sometimes embellishing it in a paraphrase technique. By mid-century the polyphonic Ordinary was the single most important musical form, attracting the talents of the best composers. Later works included secular songs in tenors and other voices. Gradually, wholesale borrowing from a preexisting polyphonic source resulted in the 16th-century “parody Mass” or the now-preferred term “imitation Mass.” In the early 17th century with its emphasis on dramatic works, the Mass gradually gave way to the motet, considered a vehicle more suited to dramatic contrast and varied text expression. However, the incorporation of instruments and virtuosic solo voices in the messa concertata (concerted Mass) revitalized the genre in the 1630s, leading eventually to large-scale orchestral Masses. Eighteenth- and nineteenth-century composers incorporated symphonic and operatic elements, and enlarged the Mass form even more. The liturgical core of the Mass was often overshadowed by purely musical considerations as it moved from church to concert hall. Twentieth-century Masses reveal the growing conflict between tonal and atonal music, and include some non-Western elements and modern compositional techniques such as serial music.

General Overviews

No complete history of the Mass exists in any language. However, surveys of Catholic Church music in general often include discussions of the Mass. The author of Ursprung 1931 discusses Mass development in his chronological survey of Catholic liturgy and musical forms, including the Solesmes rhythmic theory of chant performance. Fellerer 1972 is an excellent survey in German of Catholic Church music including the Mass. Finscher 1989 traces the Mass as a musical artwork from the cyclic Mass through the works of Palestrina. Atlas 2006 is an excellent summary of the Mass from the early 16th century extending well into the 17th century. Leuchtmann and Mauser 1998 covers Masses and motets over several periods. Lipphardt 1950 focuses on a historical survey of polyphonic settings of the Proper. Strohm 1993 treats music in the late Middle Ages and early Renaissance, including Masses.

  • Atlas, Allan. “Music for the Mass.” In European Music 1520–1640. Edited by James Haar, 101–129. New York: Boydell, 2006.

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    Excellent summary article and bibliography of Mass music in the Renaissance and early Baroque. The entire book includes twenty-six essays by leading scholars of each period, country, and genre. Divided into periods and types of Masses in each period, with musical examples and relevant quotes from theorists. Important composers are briefly discussed, and aspects of performance practice are surveyed. Useful bibliography and selective suggested reading list.

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  • Fellerer, Gustav, ed. Geschichte der katholischen Kirchenmusik unter Mitarbeit zahlreicher Forscher des In- und Auslandes. 2 vols. Kassel, Germany: Bärenreiter, 1972.

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    One of the most important surveys of Catholic Church music, with contributions by the best scholars in the field. Volume 1 (Von den Anfangen bis zum Tridentinum) contains articles on Eastern liturgies, the early Roman church, plainchant and its theory, early polyphony, Ars Nova, Franco-Flemish and Netherlands composers, and organ music. Volume 2 (Vom Tridentinum bis zur Gegenwart) covers the Council of Trent to the 20th century, and music from outside Europe. Extensive musical examples and indices; lists of relevant literature. (See also Other Liturgies.)

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  • Finscher, Ludwig. “Die Messe als musikalisches Kunstwerk.” In Neues Handbuch der Musikwissenschaft, 3/1: Die Musik des 15. und 16. Jahrhunderts. By Carl Dalhaus, 193–275. Laaber, Germany: Laaber, 1989.

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    Substantial chapter tracing the development of the Mass as a musical artwork. Traces the path from paired movements through cyclic cantus firmus Masses to parody/imitation Masses, both in Palestrina’s works and those outside Italy. Many illustrations of manuscript sources and musical examples; extensive bibliography.

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  • Leuchtmann, Horst, and Siegfried Mauser, eds. Messe und Motette. Handbuch der musikalischen Gattungen 9. Laaber, Germany: Laaber, 1998.

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    Very useful volume in this series of musical genres. Chapters by individual authors, with separate chapters for Mass and motet in the early periods; later the genres are combined in chronological chapters. Extensive bibliography after each chapter, with strong German emphasis. Especially valuable for discussion of the Requiem in the 19th and 20th centuries. Musical examples throughout.

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  • Lipphardt, Walter. Die Geschichte des mehrstimmigen Proprium Missae. Heidelberg, Germany: F. H. Kerle, 1950.

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    A useful unique survey of the polyphonic Proper of the Mass. After a brief overview of plainchant Propers, the author surveys the Winchester Troper, the Magnus Liber Organi, the Trent Codices and Jena manuscripts, Isaac’s Choralis Constantinus, the Lyon “Contrapunctus,” the Proper collections of Georg Rhaw, and other works up to the 19th century. Indices of composers and individual movements.

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  • Strohm, Reinhard. The Rise of European Music, 1380–1500. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1993.

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    A detailed comprehensive survey of music in the late Middle Ages and early Renaissance. Parts 1, 2, and 4 treat the development of polyphony from Machaut to Josquin and his contemporaries. Part 3 discusses music in sacred and secular institutions, and private music-making both vocal and instrumental. Some substantial discussions of important Masses. Extensive bibliography, musical examples, list of manuscripts organized by country.

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  • Ursprung, Otto. Die katholische Kirchenmusik. Handbuch der Musikwissenschaft 9. New York: Musurgia, 1931.

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    Chronological survey of Catholic liturgy and musical forms from early Christian era to the 19th-century Caecilian movement and the Solesmes rhythmic theory of chant performance. Illustrations and musical examples throughout. Discusses the development of both the Ordinary and Proper of the Mass in each period, including notation, theoretical treatises, important composers and their works.

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Textbooks

Listed here are textbooks that include substantial discussion and references to the Mass. These are mostly from the medieval through Baroque periods, when the main developments of the Mass occurred. Atlas 2011 has significant chapters on the Mass in its cultural context. In the series Western Music in Context, Fassler 2014 and Freedman 2013 offer concise, contextual approaches to medieval and Renaissance music respectively. Perkins 1999 is an expansive treatment of music in Renaissance culture. Fuller 2006 is an anthology including several Mass movements. Buelow 2004 is a general survey of music from 1580 to 1740, strong on German music. Hill 2005 discusses Mass, Office, motet, and other genres in the 17th century.

  • Atlas, Allan W. Renaissance Music: Music in Western Europe, 1400–1600. Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols, 2011.

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    A superb survey in a recent sumptuous edition of two centuries of Western European music, with significant chapters on the Mass set in the cultural context of each period. Bibliographical notes at the end of each chapter. Index has many Mass entries. Excellent background for further study. Accompanying anthology.

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  • Buelow, George J. A History of Baroque Music. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2004.

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    An excellent survey of music from 1580 to 1740, strong on German music. Chapters on music in various European countries and regions, as well as Latin America. Well indexed, extensive bibliography.

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  • Fassler, Margot. Music in the Medieval West. Western Music in Context. New York: Norton, 2014.

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    A contextual approach to medieval music in a recent textbook with accompanying anthology. Chronologically ordered, it provides a thoughtful starting point for further study of the period. Chapter on Mass and Office music includes a discussion of troping. An appendix offers a basic discussion of medieval notation, music theory and practice, and a table of the Roman Catholic liturgy for Mass and Office.

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  • Freedman, Richard. Music in the Renaissance. Western Music in Context. New York: Norton, 2013.

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    Recent textbook with a concise, contextual approach to the period, with accompanying anthology. Mass references are indexed; several Mass excerpts appear in an anthology. Suggestions for further reading after each chapter. A thoughtful beginning cultural study of the period.

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  • Fuller, Sarah. The European Musical Heritage, 800–1750. Rev. ed. Boston: McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2006.

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    To be used as a supplemental music history text, this anthology offers a brief commentary on each work. Mass movements are generously distributed in the period 1200 to 1600. CDs are available for performances of selected works.

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  • Hill, John Walter. Baroque Music: Music in Western Europe, 1580–1750. New York: Norton, 2005.

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    An excellent survey of the period, with accompanying anthology. Chapters or sections on church music discuss the Mass, Office, motet, and other genres. Hill’s discussion of music and rhetoric is especially interesting. Useful bibliographies at the end of each chapter. Index includes Masses in various countries. In addition to the published anthology, forty-six scores are available as PDF files.

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  • Perkins, Leeman L. Music in the Age of the Renaissance. New York: Norton, 1999.

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    Excellent source for understanding the culture of the Renaissance, including chapters on liturgical polyphony for the Mass in the 15th and 16th centuries. Chronological treatment of genres, regions and institutions, musical thought and theory. Significant musical examples, with appendices on mode, notation, and other theoretical matters. Extensive bibliography.

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Reference Works

Major articles in Grove Music Online (and its original print version, New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians) and Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart (MGG) give current comprehensive overviews. Both sources include significant general articles on the Mass, including biographical information and lists of compositions for the most significant composers and those less well known. Boorman, et al. 2007–2014 lists manuscript sources containing Masses. Grove Music Online can be searched for the most important individual works of those composers who have works listed. Sherr 2013 includes articles on the Mass and its subspecies. Garland Composer Resource Manuals is a useful starting point for important Mass composers.

  • Boorman, Stanley, Ernest M. Sanders, Peter M. Lefferts, et al. “Sources, MS.” In Grove Music Online. Edited by Deane Root, 2007–2014.

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    Subdivided into periods, this extensive article gives frequent mention of the Mass in extant manuscript sources. Searching for “Mass” yields 532 results.

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  • Garland Composer Resource Manuals. New York: Garland, 1981–.

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    Series provides biographical details for selected individual composers, details of original music prints and manuscript sources, secondary bibliographies, modern editions. Useful starting point for important composers of Masses, e.g., Josquin, Victoria.

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  • Göllner, Theodor, Maricarmen Gómez, Lewis Lockwood, Andres Kirkman, Denis Arnold, and John Harper. “Mass.” In Grove Music Online. Edited by Deane Root, 2001.

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    Comprehensive overview of the Mass, organized by time period and some geographical subdivisions. Large sections on liturgy and chant, the polyphonic Mass to 1600, and 1600–2000. Authoritative articles on each period with extensive bibliographies after each topic. Links to many related articles.

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  • Schlager, Karlheinz, Charles M. Atkinson, Jerko Bezić, et al. “Messe.” In MGG Sachteil 6. Edited by Ludwig Finscher, 174–227. Kassel, Germany: Bärenreiter, 1994.

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    MGG is the most authoritative music encyclopedia in German. Substantial article on the Mass (“Messe”) divided into various categories and periods, written by different experts. Excellent bibliography, including many German dissertations and journal articles.

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  • Sherr, Richard. “Mass.” In The Harvard Dictionary of Music. 5th ed. Edited by Don M. Randel, 489–494. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2013.

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    Succinct articles on the Mass and various related topics: Gregorian chant, organum, etc. Useful as a start to research.

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Catalogues

Catalogues are essential tools, guiding the researcher to specific items and categories. Included here are several useful printed and online catalogues for genres and geographical regions. DeVenney 1990 describes American Masses. Kurtzman and Schnoebelen 2014 is a catalogue of printed Italian sacred music. Wegman, et al. 2004– catalogues some 150 Mass settings from the Renaissance.

Databases and Online Editions

Recent database projects have simplified research in sacred music. Listed here are useful databases for medieval music (Digital Image Archive of Medieval Music (DIAMM), Medieval Music Database (MMD)); 16th-century music (CMME: Computerized Mensural Music Editing); Josquin (Josquin Research Project); Masses and printed sacred music (Mass Database, and Printed Sacred Music Database); a database containing useful general music resources (DRM) is also mentioned in the annotations. The Web Library of Seventeenth-Century Music offers editions of 17th-century compositions not heretofore available commercially.

Anthologies and Series

Anthologies allow the researcher to survey Masses and other sacred music genres from many periods. Das Chorwerk (1929–1990, with a 1970 index by Michael Ochs) and Chor-Archiv (1932–) contain choral music for the Mass. Denkmäler der Tonkunst im Bayern (1967–) and Denkmäler der Tonkunst in Österreich (1894–) are multivolume series with regional representations of Bavaria and Austria, respectively. A-R Editions’ series of Recent Researches in the Music of the Renaissance (1964–) contains scholarly performing editions for every musical period. Corpus Mensurabilis Musicae (1948–) includes hundreds of volumes of 14th–16th-century polyphony including many Mass editions. Schmidt-Görg 1967 is a survey volume of Mass movement scores.

  • Chor-Archiv. Kassel, Germany: Bärenreiter, 1932–.

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    Individual volumes include Masses by Dufay, Lasso, Hassler, Lechner, Praetorius, Michael Haydn, and others.

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  • Corpus Mensurabilis Musicae. Rome: American Institute of Musicology, 1948–.

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    Venerable series of scholarly editions of 14th–16th-century polyphony, including Masses. Relevant volumes include Opera Omnia of individual composers (Dufay, Isaac). Other volumes contain individual manuscript sources (Trent Codices, Old Hall Manuscript) or larger repertories (Florentine Renaissance, Early 16th-Century Music from the Papal Chapel, Gonzaga Masses from Mantua).

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  • Das Chorwerk. Edited by Friedrich Blume and Kurt Gudewill. Wolfenbüttel, Germany: Möseler, 1929–1990.

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    Individual volumes containing modern editions of a single Mass, with brief introductions. Masses by master composers—Josquin, Ockeghem, Isaac—as well as by lesser-known composers. Index by Michael Ochs, An Index to Das Chorwerk, Volumes 1–110 (Ann Arbor, MI: Music Library Association, 1970). Series currently goes to Volume 144.

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  • Denkmäler der Tonkunst im Bayern. Wiesbaden, Germany: Breitkopf & Härtel, 1967–.

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    Individual volumes of music from Bavaria include Masses from the 16th–18th centuries by Lasso (Volume 4), Georg Arnold (Volume 10), Georg Joseph Vogler (Volume 18), and a Requiem by Peter von Winter (Volume 20). Especially useful for 17th- and 18th-century scores.

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  • Denkmäler der Tonkunst in Österreich. Vienna: Artaria, 1894–1919.

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    Individual volumes include Masses by composers having Austrian connections from the 16th–18th centuries, such as Michael Haydn, Antonio Draghi, Heinrich Biber, Christoph Strauss, Jacob Handl, Florian Gassmann, Georg Ruetter, F. X. Süssmayer, and others. Also includes important repertories such as the 15th-century Trent Codices. Published in Vienna from 1920 to 1938 by Universal; published in Graz, Austria from 1960 onward by Akademische Druck- und Verlagsanstalt.

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  • Recent Researches in the Music of the Renaissance. Middleton, WI: A-R Editions, 1964–.

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    Exemplifies A-R’s series of scholarly performing editions, some with performance parts, for every musical period, comprising hundreds of volumes. Each volume contains a substantial introduction, critical notes, and a brief bibliography. Several volumes contain Masses by individual composers, or in repertories (e.g., Festive Troped Masses from the 11th Century; Missae Caput.) Masses by Johannes Martini, Ruffo, Kerll, Anerio, Colonna, Gilles, Comes, Biber, Rovetta, A. Scarlatti, Gasparini, M. Haydn, Reicha, Salieri.

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  • Schmidt-Görg, Joseph. Geschichte der Messe. Das Musikwerk: Eine Beispielsammlung zur Musikgeschichte 30. Cologne: Arno Volk Verlag, 1967.

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    A survey volume of Mass movement scores from Hildegard of Bingen through Machaut, Dunstable, Dufay, Ockeghem, Josquin, Senfl, Palestrina, Lasso, Kerll, Fux, Caldara, Haydn, and others. Scores are preceded by an essay on the historical development of the Mass with references to the included works. Useful for hard-to-find examples, especially of later works.

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Context and Culture

Cultural studies on music vary from broad-ranging studies to the discussion of cultural influences on specific genres. Lang 1997 places music in the broad context of Western civilization. Hughes 1989 is a wide-ranging summary of medieval music, its culture and craft. Fenlon 1989 discusses the Mass in various Renaissance cultures. Strohm 1990 offers a musical and cultural history of 15th-century Bruges. Kendrick 2002 includes chapters on churches, monasteries, and palaces in 17th-century Milan. Bloxam 2004 sets the chanson Mass in its cultural context. Kirkman 2010 analyzes the culture of the polyphonic Mass from medieval to modern times. Kirkman 2015 discusses the cantus firmus Mass in the light of musical symbolism in the 15th century.

  • Bloxam, M. Jennifer. “A Cultural Context for the Chanson Mass.” In Early Musical Borrowing. Edited by Honey Meconi, 7–36. New York: Routledge, 2004.

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    Explores the cultural reasons for the popularity of the chanson Mass in the 15th and 16th centuries, based on the Old Testament Song of Songs and its direct association with the Blessed Virgin. Discusses various art works that associate courtly ladies with Mary, and the writings of mystical theologians who use courtly language in the context of religious writings. Cites the poet Jean Molinet, who addresses a poem to “either the Virgin Mary or by a lover to his lady.”

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  • Fenlon, Iain, ed. The Renaissance: From the 1470s to the End of the 16th Century. Music and Society. London: Macmillan, 1989.

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    The valuable series Music and Society (also known as Man and Music; edited by Stanley Sadie) consists of volumes of essays by various experts on the important musical centers of each period. In this volume, Fenlon provides discussions of both Mass and motet in their various Renaissance cultures, with bibliographic notes at the end of each essay. Masses are indexed, and a useful chronology/timeline places them in the context of politics, literature, science, and other arts. Excellent starting point for cultural research.

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  • Hughes, Andrew. Style and Symbol: Medieval Music: 800–1453. Ottawa, ON: Institute of Mediaeval Music, 1989.

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    Wide-ranging summary including cultural background, compositional craft, and distinct repertories of sacred and secular music. Touches on Old Roman chant. Tables and descriptions of the Mass and its sections, genres (tropes, melismas, organum, etc.), performance practice, institutions, major composers, and important manuscript sources. Three chapters devoted to church music give useful summaries, numerous musical examples. Bibliography and index.

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  • Kendrick, Robert L. The Sounds of Milan, 1585–1650. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002.

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    A cultural study of music in Milan in the late 16th–early 17th centuries, with chapters on churches, monasteries and palaces, the Milan Cathedral, rites and rituals, and the profession of musico (musician). Discusses selected works, with emphasis on sacred music. Many musical examples and documents; extensive bibliography.

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  • Kirkman, Andrew. The Cultural Life of the Early Polyphonic Mass: Medieval Context to Modern Revival. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2010.

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    Interesting cultural study of the polyphonic Mass in the different societies where it has been cultivated. Chapters on modern scholarship and contemporaneous views of the Mass and the function of the cantus firmus, especially the Masses on Caput and L’homme armé. Discusses the various ways in which the Mass Ordinary was shaped, and the confluences of images and sounds that contributed to the listener’s experience. Related documents, extensive notes, and bibliography.

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  • Kirkman, Andrew. “The Polyphonic Mass in the Fifteenth Century.” In The Cambridge History of Fifteenth-Century Music. Edited by Anna Maria Busse Berger and Jesse Rodin, 665–700. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2015.

    DOI: 10.1017/CHO9781139057813.048Save Citation »Export Citation »

    A penetrating discussion of the cantus firmus Mass in the light of musical symbolism and style in the 15th century. By carefully selected significant examples, Kirkman traces its stylistic development and its relationship to devotional elements, eschatological concerns, church buildings, and iconography. Contrapuntal interactions and resulting fabrics are shown to express cultural meanings.

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  • Lang, Paul Henry. Music in Western Civilization. New York: Norton, 1997.

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    Originally published in 1941, this excellent cultural narrative places music in context with other arts, political and social life. Though somewhat outdated, it is still useful for Lang’s broad perspective on Western civilization, culture, other arts, and their effect on musical composition through the ages.

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  • Strohm, Reinhard. Music in Late Medieval Bruges. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1990.

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    A musical and cultural history of Bruges in the 15th century. Covers the most important churches, composers (especially Jacob Obrecht), religious institutions and repertory. Includes an inventory of the Lucca Choirbook, an important, though fragmentary, manuscript source of seventeen Masses and several motets from Bruges. Musical examples include Masses, motets and secular music.

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Liturgical Studies

Because the Mass is the central liturgical event, many liturgical studies focus on its early history, including Christian rites other than the Roman. Barrett 2011 summarizes both liturgical and musical development of the Mass, its documents, ritual gesture, and ceremonial grandeur. Fortescue 1955 details its liturgical history, including early Christian rites. King 1957 includes chapters on primitive forms and liturgical books. Willis 1994 surveys the earliest history of the Roman Mass up to the 7th century. McKinnon 1987a provides excerpts from writings of the early Church Fathers on music and liturgy. Other studies delve into more specific areas of Mass Propers. McKinnon 2000 details a 7th-century project to provide settings of Propers for every Sunday and feast. Cavanaugh 1976 discusses liturgical reforms and cycles of 16th-century Propers. McKinnon 1987b analyzes Jewish ritual influences on Christian psalmody, especially the Gradual psalm. (See also Plainchant.)

  • Barrett, Sam. “Music and Liturgy.” In The Cambridge Companion to Medieval Music. Edited by Mark Evarist, 185–204. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2011.

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    Excellent summary of liturgical/musical development of the Mass, from music as an optional decoration of the word to its becoming an essential element in the liturgy. Cites important documents for Roman Mass ceremonies, the gradual development of important feasts, the expansion of ritual gesture, and the ceremonial grandeur of polyphony. Touches briefly on the Salisbury (Sarum) Rite and compares it with the papal chapel solemn Mass.

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  • Cavanaugh, Philip. “Early Sixteenth-Century Cycles of Polyphonic Mass Propers—An Evolutionary Process of the Result of Liturgical Reforms?” Acta Musicologica 48.2 (1976): 151–165.

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    Cavanaugh suggests that the appearance of polyphonic Mass Propers in the Trent 88 Codex may stem from a new religious feeling from the Council of Constance, when the Western Church was united under one pope. Says Isaac’s Choralis Constantinus and other South German cycles may have answered a need for liturgical reform.

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  • Fortescue, Adrian. The Mass: A Study of the Roman Liturgy. Rev. ed. London: Longmans, Green, 1955.

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    A detailed history of the Roman Mass from a liturgical standpoint. Useful for its discussion of early Christian rites, as well as the development of the Roman rite. Part 2 traces the order of the Mass up to the mid-20th century, with frequent allusions to the Church Fathers and other early writings.

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  • King, Archdale A. The Liturgy of the Roman Church. London: Longmans, Green, 1957.

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    Classic history of the Roman Catholic liturgy, including chapters on primitive forms, nomenclature, liturgical books, liturgical year (now somewhat out of date but still useful), and the Mass itself. Appendices include Holy Week and Easter liturgies, and Byzantine influences.

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  • McKinnon, James. Music in Early Christian Literature. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1987a.

    DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511620089Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Chronologically ordered excerpts from patristic writings on music and liturgy from the New Testament to about 450 CE. Each chapter covers a specific time and place, with its writers listed in chronological order and introduced by a brief discussion of basic background material.

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  • McKinnon, James. “The Fourth-Century Origin of the Gradual.” Early Music History 7 (1987b): 91–106.

    DOI: 10.1017/S0261127900000553Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Discussion of Jewish ritual influences on Christian psalmody, especially the origin of the Gradual psalm, tracing it back to pre-Eucharistic services in the late 4th century. Psalmody in the early church was associated with evening meals, such as the hymn sung after the Last Supper.

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  • McKinnon, James. The Advent Project: The Later Seventh-Century Creation of the Roman Mass Proper. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000.

    DOI: 10.1525/california/9780520221987.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Earlier thought to be from the time of Gregory the Great, this ambitious project was probably carried out in the late 7th century. Intended to provide a set of Proper chants for every day of the church year, beginning with Advent. Prehistory of this revision and discussion of each part of the Proper as it unfolded in the (sometimes partial) completion of the temporal and sanctoral cycles. Substantial notes, bibliography, and index.

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  • Willis, Geoffrey Grimshaw. A History of Early Roman Liturgy to the Death of Pope Gregory the Great. Rochester, NY: Boydell, 1994.

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    Written in the 1980s by a liturgical scholar, this book traces the development of the Roman Mass from its origins to the early 7th century. Chapters on each element of the Mass, the calendar and lectionary, baptism and ordination of priests, with frequent references to the Church Fathers.

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Other Liturgies

Several other liturgies besides the Roman coexisted through several centuries. Fellerer 1972 (see also General Overviews) contains several articles noted here on these other liturgies. Adrio 1963 gives an overview of the Mass Ordinary in the evangelical church in the 20th century. Kelly 1989 is a study of Beneventan chant and its relationship to other liturgies. Cutter 1979 inventories sources of the Old-Roman Mass. Benham 1980 examines polyphonic music for the Sarum rite in Salisbury Cathedral. Weakland 1966 discusses literature of the Ambrosian rite from 12th-century sources.

  • Adrio, A. “Die Compositions des Ordinarium Missae in der evangelisches Kirchenmusik der Gegenwart—Ein Überblick.” In Festschrift Friedrich Blume zum 70. Geburtstag. Edited by Anna Amalie Abert. Kassel, Germany: Bärenreiter, 1963.

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    A brief overview and descriptions of 20th-century compositions of the Latin Mass Ordinary as it is used in Protestant liturgy, mostly by German and Swiss composers.

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  • Benham, Hugh. Latin Church Music in England, c. 1460–1575. 2d ed. London: Barrie & Jenkins, 1980.

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    Examination of the large-scale polyphonic music written for the Sarum Rite in Salisbury Cathedral. Considers polyphony in post-Reformation services, performance problems, and formal analysis. Works by Browne, Davy, Fayrfax, Ludford, Taverner, Tallis, Sheppard, Tye, and Byrd are discussed. (See also English Masses from the 13th Century to the 16th.)

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  • Cutter, Paul F. Musical Sources of the Old-Roman Mass. An Inventory of MS Rome, St. Cecilia Gradual 1071: MS Rome, Vaticanum Latinum 5319 MSS Rome, San Pietro F22 and F11. Florence: American Institute of Musicology, 1979.

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    Complete inventory of three important manuscript sources of the Old-Roman Mass, arranged in parallel columns for comparison. An appendix lists the chants according to the section of the Proper.

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  • Fellerer, Gustav, ed. Geschichte der katholischen Kirchenmusik. Vol. 1, Von den Anfängen bis zum Tridentinum. Kassel, Germany: Bärenreiter, 1972.

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    Volume 1 of this general history of Catholic Church music contains substantial articles by Higino Anglés on “Spanische-mozarabisch Liturgie,” Giacomo Baroffio on “Ambrosianische Liturgie,” Gustav Fellerer on “Altrömische Liturgie,” and Heinrich Husmann on “Die östkirchlichen Liturgien und ihre Kultmusik.” All articles are well documented and are important sources for information and additional literature. (See also General Overviews.)

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  • Kelly, Thomas Forrest. The Beneventan Chant. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1989.

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    A thorough study of Beneventan chant, its manuscript sources, historical context, liturgy, calendar, including a section on the Beneventan Mass and its music. Traces the relationship of Beneventan chant to other liturgies: Gregorian, Old Roman, Ambrosian, and Byzantine.

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  • Weakland, Rembert G. “The Performance of Ambrosian Chant in the 12th Century.” In Aspects of Medieval and Renaissance Music: A Birthday Offering to Gustave Reese. Edited by Jan LaRue, 856–866. New York: Norton, 1966.

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    Discusses the various 12th-century ceremonial sources that describe the Ambrosian liturgy: accounts, chronicles, and annotations in music manuscripts. Describes the pontifical Ambrosian Mass and Vespers as recorded by Beroldus in his Ordo.

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Treatises and Commentaries

Treatises from various periods provide contemporary thoughts about the Mass, its notational systems and compositional techniques. They appear in original languages and/or facsimiles and in translation or in modern commentaries. Williams, et al. 2007 is an essential bibliography of music theorists from the Middle Ages and Renaissance. Sanders 1980 focuses on elements of organum in treatises by Moravia and Garlandia. Treitler 1998 provides translations of essential treatises from all early periods. Kirkman 2001 discusses writings on modern views of the cyclic Mass. Miller 1970 offers a possible origin of the motetti missales in a treatise by Gaffurius. Bellini 1995 examines Berardi’s theoretical work from the late 16th century to the early 17th. Woodley 2013– presents an overview of Tinctoris’ writings, along with the original Latin and translations into English. Damschroder and Williams 1990 is a bibliography of theoretical writings from the Renaissance to modern times.

  • Bellini, Pierpaolo. “Angelo Berardi, rapporti tra teoria e composizione nella seconda metà del Seicento.” Rivista Internationale di Musica Sacra 6.1 (1995): 269–430.

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    Examination of the most important theoretical treatises from the late 16th century to the early 17th, including Berardi’s entire theoretical work. Centers on the use of dissonance and questions of style. Article continues in Rivista Internationale di Musica Sacra 6.2 (1995) 5–120.

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  • Damschroder, David, and David Russell Williams, eds. Music Theory from Zarlino to Schenker: A Bibliography and Guide. Harmonologia 4. Stuyvesant, NY: Pendragon Press, 1990.

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    An essential bibliography to some 250 music theorists from the Renaissance to the 20th century. Organized alphabetically by theorist. Each entry gives a brief description of the treatise, location of manuscript sources, available translations, and related secondary sources. Literature supplement, topical and chronological indices, title and name indices.

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  • Hill, John Walter. Joseph Riepel’s Theory of Metric and Tonal Order, Phrase and Form: A Translation of His Anfangsgründe zur musikalischen Setzkunst, Chapters 1 and 2 (1752/54, 1755) with Commentary. Hilldale, NY: Pendragon Press, 2014.

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    An English translation of this 18th-century theorist’s treatise with extensive commentary. Illustrates the beginning of a post-Baroque approach to musical form. Commentary centers on Riepel’s musical examples, and shows a possible influence on Mozart. Includes translations of several contemporaneous reviews and articles.

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  • Kirkman, Andrew. “The Invention of the Cyclic Mass.” Journal of the American Musicological Society 54.1 (2001): 1–47.

    DOI: 10.1525/jams.2001.54.1.1Save Citation »Export Citation »

    In this substantial article, Kirkman argues that the prestige and historical importance of the cyclic Mass is due to ideologies from the Enlightenment, later embodied in the writings of August Wilhelm Ambros. He examines materials from the 15th century by Tinctoris and others, which do not reveal any desire for a musically unified Mass. Reviews writings from the 18th century through the early 20th that provide the basis for a modern view of the cyclic Mass.

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  • Miller, Clement. “Early Gaffuriana: New Answers to Old Questions.” Musical Quarterly 56 (1970): 367–388.

    DOI: 10.1093/mq/LVI.3.367Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Miller discusses five treatises by Gaffurius; one of them (Tractatus praticabilium proportionum) may provide a clue to the origin of the motetti missales, motets that were substituted for parts of the Ordinary and Proper. Miller suggests they were written at the request of the Milanese Sforza family, and connected to Gaspar von Weerbecke.

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  • Sanders, Ernest H. “French and English Polyphony of the 13th and 14th Centuries: Style and Notation.” Journal of the American Musicological Society 33.2 (1980): 264–286.

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    Sanders discusses five treatises by De-La-Fage Anonymous, Jerome of Moravia, and Johannes Garlandia, and their application to rhythm and consonance in the Magnus liber organi. Garlandia’s discussion of rhythmic modes, rests, and copula represents a last stage before Franconian notation. His classification of music into mensurable polyphony and non-mensurable monophony is a significant turning point.

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  • Treitler, Leo, ed. Strunk’s Source Readings in Music History. Rev. ed. New York: Norton, 1998.

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    In this revised edition, Oliver Strunk’s source readings, originally published in one volume, are divided into small books, one for each historical period. Essential source for translations of important documents.

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  • Williams, David Russell, and C. Matthew Balensuela, eds. Music Theory from Boethius to Zarlino: A Bibliography and Guide. Harmonologia 4. Hillsdale, NY: Pendragon Press, 2007.

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    An essential bibliography of medieval and Renaissance music theorists, their treatises and translations, and related secondary sources. Organized alphabetically by theorist. Extensive literature supplement, topical and chronological indices, title and name indices.

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  • Woodley, Ronald, ed. The Complete Theoretical Works of Johannes Tinctoris. 2013–.

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    An ongoing open-access resource containing biography and an overview of Tinctoris’ writings, principal manuscript sources, and descriptions of his music. Each treatise is presented in the original Latin along with translation into English. References to related articles.

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The Mass in the Middle Ages

In the Middle Ages music for the Mass developed from the earliest plainchant repertory to the cyclic polyphonic Masses of the 14th century. Early chants were collected into groups called “kyriales,” usually organized according to parts of the Ordinary. Sections of both Proper and Ordinary were added to, both textually and musically, producing new music and texts in the forms of tropes, proses, and sequences. Other voices were gradually added to the plainchant, resulting in two-, three-, and four-part organa for parts of the Proper, especially in the works of Leoninus and Perotinus in Paris. Parts of the Ordinary, especially the Gloria and Credo, began to appear in chant-related pairs, leading to the creation of the cyclic Mass in the 14th century in which all parts of the Ordinary were based on a single cantus firmus tenor.

Sources and Editions

Facsimiles and modern editions of important manuscript sources include those for plainchant, organum, and polyphony. Roederer 1989 is an edition of plainchant sources for festive troped Masses. Rankin 2007 provides a facsimile edition of one of the Winchester Troper manuscripts containing organum. Roesner 1993–2009 presents a definitive edition of the Magnus liber organi. Lütolf 1970 describes manuscript sources for polyphonic works based on Mass chants, from the 11th century to the early 14th. Von Fischer and Bent 1956– is an important source of transcriptions for English and French sacred music of the 13th and 14th centuries.

  • Lütolf, Max. Die mehrstimmigen Ordinarium Missae-Sätze vom ausgehenden 11. bis zur Wende des 13. zum 14. Jahrhundert. Bern, Switzerland: Komm. Paul Haupt, 1970.

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    Volume 1 contains detailed descriptions of manuscript sources for polyphonic works based on Mass Ordinary chants from the 11th through the late 13th and early 14th centuries. Photographic illustrations of selected pages appear in the appendix. Volume 2 offers transcriptions of selected works, arranged according to the five parts of the Ordinary, with critical notes.

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  • Rankin, Susan. The Winchester Troper: Facsimile Edition and Introduction. Early English Church Music 50. Edited by John Caldwell. London: Stainer and Bell, 2007.

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    Splendid new facsimile edition of Cambridge University manuscript 473, the earlier of two manuscripts known as the Winchester Troper. Contains organal parts from the Winchester repertory not found elsewhere, as well as tropes, sequences, and prosas. Substantial introduction includes scribal hands and problems of notation. Bibliography, inventory of the manuscript, and index of chants.

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  • Roederer, Charlotte, ed. Festive Troped Masses from the Eleventh Century: Christmas and Easter in the Aquitaine. Madison, WI: A-R Editions, 1989.

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    Edition of a valuable collection of plainchant for the most important feasts of the liturgical year from Aquitainian sources of the 11th century. Processional antiphons and Masses, including tropes and sequence for Easter.

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  • Roesner, Edward H., ed. Le Magnus liber organi de Notre-Dame de Paris. 7 vols. Monaco: Éditions de l’Oiseau-Lyre, 1993–2009.

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    Splendid definitive edition in seven volumes of this important repertory of organa from Paris in the 12th and 13th centuries. Provides transcriptions of the organa dupla, tripla, and quadrupla sung for the Proper of the Mass and Office, liturgical calendars, descriptions of sources. Extensive bibliography, including previous editions of this repertory.

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  • von Fischer, Kurt, and Ian Bent, eds. Polyphonic Music of the 14th Century. Monaco: Éditions de l’Oiseau-Lyre, 1956–.

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    Important source for transcriptions of this music, including settings of both Ordinary and Proper of the Mass, as well as music for the Office. Volume 14 contains English music of the 13th and 14th centuries; Volumes 16–17 contain English music for Mass and Offices; Volume 23 contains French sacred music. Critical notes, texts, and translations in appendices.

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Plainchant

Several general articles on plainchant are helpful in understanding the role of the Mass in early plainchant liturgies. (See also Liturgical Studies and Other Liturgies.) Boynton 2011 contains a brief summary of chant in the Mass. Hiley 2009 is designed to guide students through various aspects of Gregorian chant. More technical studies include Wagner 1986, a classic survey of Gregorian chant melodies used in the Mass. Hiley 1993 is a comprehensive reference work, both an introduction and a guide to specialist literature. Kelly 2009 offers several essays on the early history of chant, including Roman and Frankish chant. Dyer 1982 is an example of a specialized discussion of the Offertory chant, its music and liturgy.

  • Boynton, Susan. “Plainsong.” In The Cambridge Companion to Medieval Music. Edited by Mark Evarist, 9–25. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2011.

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    General article on plainsong contains a brief summary of chant in the Mass, and an outline of its various parts, history, and functions of the Proper and Ordinary. This volume also contains general articles on sequences and tropes, early treatises on organum and its development, 13th-century Parisian organum, the 14th-century cyclic Mass cycles, and the votive Marian Mass in England. Excellent summary studies.

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  • Dyer, J. “The Offertory Chant of the Roman Liturgy and Its Musical Form.” Studi Musicali 11 (1982): 3–30.

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    A specialized discussion of the Offertory rite, its music and liturgy. The author makes the claim that the Offertory antiphon was not sung antiphonally but rather responsorially. Cites medieval liturgical and archaeological evidence to support this claim.

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  • Hiley, David. Western Plainchant: A Handbook. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993.

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    Comprehensive reference work intended both as an introduction to chant and as a guide to specialist literature. Covers liturgy, genres, liturgical books, notation, early music theory, historical development. Facsimiles of chant books and extensive bibliography.

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  • Hiley, David. Gregorian Chant. Cambridge Introduction to Music. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2009.

    DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511807848Save Citation »Export Citation »

    A volume in the Cambridge University Press series Cambridge Introduction to Music, designed to guide students about the function of chant, its history, other rites, and various forms, notation, and aspects of performance.

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  • Kelly, Thomas Forrest, ed. Chant and Its Origins. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 2009.

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    A collection of essays by leading scholars on the early history of chant, editions and repertories, analytical studies, Roman and Frankish chant, and other chant traditions. Excellent source of important studies on all aspects of chant.

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  • Wagner, Peter. Introduction to the Gregorian Melodies. Vol. 1, Origin and Development of the Forms of Liturgical Chant up to the End of the Middle Ages. 2d rev. and enlarged ed. New York: Da Capo Press, 1986.

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    Originally published in 1901, this book is a classic survey of Gregorian chant melodies. Chapters 4–7 discuss the development of Mass forms and chants; later chapters treat other liturgies, sequences, and tropes. An appendix shows a table of Mass antiphons for the liturgical year, taken from the manuscript St. Gall 339.

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Tropes, Proses, and Sequences

The literature on these additions of text and music to the liturgy is plentiful, since they eventually formed an important source for polyphony in the Mass. Fassler 2014 provides a useful summary of musical glossing or troping, which produced new music for the Mass. Planchart 2009 offers a collection of essays on tropes in general and their important centers of composition. Crocker 1958 is one of the earliest explorations of the 10th-century proses from the monastery of St. Martial. Evans 1961 is also an early study of the St. Martial tropes, and makes a case for the origins of troping at this monastery. Evans 1970 is a study and transcription of one of the most important troping manuscripts there. Kelly 2007 discusses trope manuscripts from the Sens Cathedral. Planchart 1977 discusses the several manuscripts containing tropes from the Winchester Cathedral.

  • Crocker, Richard L. “The Repertory of Proses at Saint Martial de Limoges in the 10th Century.” Journal of the American Musicological Society 11.2–3 (1958): 149–164.

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    An important early exploration of the St. Martial proses (sequences). Traces discussions of terminology in previous literature. Describes the sixteen manuscripts from the Paris Bibliothèque Nationale that contain 10th-century proses from this monastery. Suggests that paired phrases in the sequence have their origin in Latin literature that served as models for the liturgical prose or prosa.

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  • Evans, Paul. “Some Reflections on the Origin of the Trope.” Journal of the American Musicological Society 14 (1961): 119–130.

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    Important early study of the St. Martial tropes, the earliest sources from which accurate transcriptions of trope melodies can be made. “Tropus” here applies to additions of both text and music in the Mass Introit, Offertory, and Communion, as well as to the Gloria, Sanctus, and Agnus Dei. Evans makes a case for the origins of troping at St. Martial rather than at St. Gall.

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  • Evans, Paul. The Early Trope Repertory of Saint Martial de Limoges. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1970.

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    Study and transcription of one of the most important St. Martial trope manuscripts, containing additions to the Proper and Ordinary of the Mass from the manuscript Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale fonds latin 1121. Includes chapters on the manuscripts (tropers), texts, and musical structure of the tropes.

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  • Fassler, Margot. “The Office, the Mass Ordinary, and Practices of Troping.” In Music in the Medieval West. By Margot Fassler, 56–78. New York: Norton, 2014.

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    Useful summary of chant settings of the Ordinary, emphasizing historical and spiritual meanings of musical glossing or troping, a favored practice that produced new music for the Mass. Includes discussion of the Alleluia of the Proper and the development from it of the sequence. Good starting point for an understanding of the medieval religious mind.

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  • Kelly, Thomas Forrest. “Sequences at Sens.” In Studies in Medieval Chant and Liturgy in Honour of David Hiley. Edited by Terence Bailey and László Dobszay, 341–367. Budapest: Institute for Musicology, 2007.

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    The Cathedral at Sens was the seat of an important archdiocese in the Middle Ages, and its manuscript collection contains sequences from the late 12th to the mid-17th century. Kelly describes and tabulates the repertory, most of which appears to have been imported from Paris.

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  • Planchart, Alejandro Enrique. The Repertory of Tropes at Winchester. 2 vols. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1977.

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    Planchart brings together the repertories of the several manuscripts containing tropes from Winchester Cathedral. Includes tropes of the Proper and Ordinary of the Mass and provides editions of selected tropes. Volume 2 contains detailed inventories and catalogues of the manuscripts.

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  • Planchart, Alejandro Enrique, ed. Embellishing the Liturgy: Tropes and Polyphony. Farnham, UK: Ashgate, 2009.

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    An important collection of essays by leading scholars on tropes in general, some of the important centers of composition and the role of tropes in the Ordinary of the Mass and Office. Essays by Crocker, Hiley, Huglo, Planchart, Atkinson, Evans, David Hughes, and Kelly are culled from previously printed sources.

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Ars Antiqua

Much of the scholarly literature on the 12th and 13th centuries, the Ars Antiqua, centers on organum from the Cathedral of Notre-Dame in Paris and the works of two great composers there, Leoninus and Perotinus. Fuller 2011 gives a summary of organum development and describes early treatises. Roesner 2009 is a collection of essays on organum and its source, the Magnus liber organi. Wright 1989 is a study of music at Notre Dame, its liturgies, composers, and music, including the Magnus liber organi.

  • Fuller, Sarah. “Early Polyphony to circa 1200.” In The Cambridge Companion to Medieval Music. Edited by Mark Evarist, 46–66. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2011.

    DOI: 10.1017/CCOL9780521846196.005Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Fuller describes early treatises on diaphony and organum, and collections such as the Winchester Cathedral repertory for the core chants of Mass and Office. Article concludes with a useful summary of organum development.

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  • Roesner, Edward H., ed. Ars Antiqua: Organum, Conductus, Motet. Farnham, UK: Ashgate, 2009.

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    Essays by leading scholars on Notre Dame organum, and the non-liturgical forms of conductus and motet. Contains several articles on the Magnus liber organi and its chants for the Proper of the Mass. Useful collection of contributions reprinted from earlier publications.

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  • Wright, Craig. Music and Ceremony at Notre Dame of Paris 500–1500. Edited by John Stevens and Peter Le Huray. Cambridge Studies in Music. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1989.

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    A complete study of music at Notre Dame, including earliest liturgies, early Parisian manuscript sources, personnel, repertoire, composers, and performance traditions. Includes a discussion of the Magnus liber organi. Appendices include relevant Latin documents and an extensive bibliography.

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Ars Nova and Trecento

The 14th century, known as Ars Nova in French sources and Trecento in Italian sources, saw the gradual development of the polyphonic Mass as a cyclic form, from early pairings of movements to the earliest cyclic Masses. Hamm 1965 offers the Reson Mass as one of the earliest complete settings of the Ordinary. Huglo 1991 discusses the Masses of Tournai and Toulouse, considered as early groupings of Mass movements. Gradually, several or all movements were related musically, often around a single cantus firmus found in the tenor voice. Isorhythm appeared as a frequent compositional technique. Bent 2008, a critical survey of isorhythm, reminds us that the term is often misapplied. Ludwig 1925 is an early summary of 14th-century manuscript sources. Stäblein-Harder 1962 provides both music and critical text for all known French sources of the polyphonic Mass. Kügel 1997 analyzes the manuscript Ivrea, Biblioteca capitolare 115, a key source of Ars Nova repertory in France. Demoulin 1988 provides a transcription and study of the Mass of Tournai. Von Fischer 1979 describes five Mass movements in a Trecento source and relates them to the Italian madrigal style.

  • Bent, Margaret. “What Is Isorhythm?” In Quomodo cantabimus canticum: Studies in Honor of Edward H. Roesner. Edited by David B. Cannata, G. I. Currie, R. C. Mueller, and John L. Nádas, 121–143. Middleton, WI: American Institute of Musicology, 2008.

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    An important critical survey of isorhythm and its related terms, concluding that the term has been often misapplied. In examining the repertory of motets and Masses, Bent notes that many called isorhythmic are not necessarily so, resulting in historiographical distortions for both the 14th and 15th centuries.

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  • Demoulin, Jean. La Messe de Tournai: Une Messe polyphonique en l’honneur de Notre-Dame à la Cathédral de Tournai au XIVe siècle—Étude et nouvelle transcription. Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium: Université Catholique de Louvain, Institut Supérieur d’Archéologie et d’Histoire de l’Art, 1988.

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    A recent transcription and study of the Mass of Tournai, one of the earliest Mass cycles written in honor of the Blessed Virgin Mary.

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  • Hamm, Charles. “The Reson Mass.” Journal of the American Musicological Society 18.1 (1965): 5–21.

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    Hamm attributes five Mass sections in the MS Bologna Universitaria MS 2216 to Johannes Reson from the early 15th century. Surveys other Mass pairings in the MS, and shows attempts to patch together composite Masses from sections already written, or to compose additional sections to supplement existing pairs. By manuscript structure and stylistic analysis, he offers Reson’s Mass as one of the earliest complete settings of the Ordinary.

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  • Huglo, Michel. “La Messe de Tournai e la Messe de Toulouse.” In Aspects de la musique liturgique au Moyen Age: Actes des colloques de Royaumont de 1986, 1987 et 1988. Edited by Christian Meyer, Michel Huglo, and Marcel Pérès, 221–228. Paris: Créaphis, 1991.

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    Discusses the custom of grouping individual polyphonic Mass movements into “masses” in 14th-century Avignon under the papacy of Clement IV. The Mass of Tournai was intended for votive Masses of the Virgin at the Tournai cathedral; the Mass of Toulouse, copied on leaves of an Avignonese missal, was probably composed during the papacy of Innocent VI.

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  • Kügel, Karl. The Manuscript Ivrea, Biblioteca capitolare 115: Studies in the Transmission and Composition of Ars Nova Polyphony. Ottawa, ON: Institute of Mediaeval Music, 1997.

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    A key source of the Ars Nova repertory in France, this manuscript is important for the development of sacred music in late medieval France. Kügel’s study explores its origins and repertory. Though motet repertory predominates, the Mass settings include plainchant, a setting of the Mass Proper, and twenty-five troped and untroped monophonic and polyphonic compositions for the Ordinary. Inventory, selected transcriptions of music, and archival documents.

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  • Ludwig, Friedrich. “Die mehrstimmige Messe des 14. Jahrhunderts.” Archiv für Musikwissenschaft 7.4 (1925): 417–435.

    DOI: 10.2307/929913Save Citation »Export Citation »

    An early summary of manuscript sources for the 14th-century polyphonic Mass. Includes Machaut’s Mass, the Mass of Tournai, and the most important sources from England and Italy.

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  • Stäblein-Harder, Hanna. Fourteenth-Century Mass Music in France. Musicological Studies and Documents 7, Corpus Mensurabilis Musicae 29. Rome: American Institute of Musicology, 1962.

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    In two volumes, the critical text appears in Musicological Studies and Documents 7; the music transcriptions are in CMM 29. Both volumes are arranged by sections of the Proper. Includes transcriptions and discussions of all the known 14th-century Mass movements in French sources with critical notes for each, as well as an evaluation of earlier studies and publications.

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  • von Fischer, Kurt. “The Mass Cycle of the Trecento Manuscript F-Pn 568 (Pit).” In Essays on Music for Charles Warren Fox. Edited by Jerald C. Graue, 1–13. Rochester, NY: Eastman School of Music Press, 1979.

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    Describes five Mass movements in an otherwise secular Trecento manuscript, and relates them to the Italian madrigal style. Gherardello’s Gloria and Agnus are similar and may have been conceived as two pieces of a single cycle, of which the Credo has been lost. In other movements there are similarities to madrigal techniques used by Jacopo da Bologna. Concludes that liturgical polyphony in Florence was a combination of sacred and secular elements.

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Machaut’s Mass

Guillaume de Machaut’s Messe de Nostre Dame, probably written for the Reims cathedral, is the most important single work in the early development of the cyclic Mass. Whether or not it was intended as a cyclic work is a matter of some controversy. Robertson 2002 places Machaut’s sacred and secular music in a cultural context in the city of Reims. Earp 1995 provides an important research tool for Machaut as both poet and composer. Gombosi 1950 discusses early editions of the Mass and suggests a formal structure. Imbes 1982 is a collection of Machaut conference proceedings on wide-ranging topics including the Mass. Leech-Wilkinson 1992 is a detailed study and edition of the Mass with analytical chapters. Bent 2003 challenges some of Leech-Wilkinson’s analysis of Machaut’s compositional technique. Keitel 1982 proposes that Machaut wrote the movements separately, then later assembled them for a specific occasion.

  • Bent, Margaret. “The ‘Harmony’ of the Machaut Mass.” In Machaut’s Music: New Interpretations. Edited by Elizabeth Eva Leach, 75–94. Studies in Medieval and Renaissance Music. Woodbridge, UK: Boydell Press, 2003.

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    Bent proposes an alternative conception of the Gloria and Credo of Machaut’s Mass to that presented by Leech-Wilkinson 1992, where he claims an underlying harmonic conception, only later separated into four parts in the non-isorhythmic portions of the Mass. Bent’s thesis is rather that Machaut depended on traditional two-voice contrapuntal rules governing tenor/triplum and motetus/tenor.

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  • Earp, Lawrence. Guillaume de Machaut: A Guide to Research. New York: Garland, 1995.

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    Important research tool for Machaut research. Comprehensive coverage of his biography, literary and musical legacy, manuscripts, poetry, and music; includes a discography. Annotated bibliography on the Messe de Nostre Dame, with many references to it in the index.

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  • Gombosi, Otto. “Machaut’s Messe Notre Dame.” Musical Quarterly 36.2 (1950): 204–224.

    DOI: 10.1093/mq/XXXVI.2.204Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Discusses and compares early editions of Machaut’s Mass, including editorial practices. Analyzes the isorhythmic features and suggests a unique strophic structure and a symmetric arrangement beneath the surface. Musical examples.

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  • Imbes, Paul, ed. Guillaume de Machaut: Actes et colloques, No. 23. Paris: Klincksieck, 1982.

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    Conference proceedings from 1978, including twenty-four essays by distinguished international Machaut scholars. Wide-ranging topics include history, poetry, biography, genres, and specific works. Articles on the composition of the Mass by Jacques Chailley, and on problems of dating the Mass by Elizabeth Keitel.

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  • Keitel, Elizabeth. “The So-Called Cyclic Mass of Guillaume de Machaut.” Musical Quarterly 68.3 (1982): 307–323.

    DOI: 10.1093/mq/LXVIII.3.307Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Keitel cites manuscript and liturgical evidence that Machaut’s Mass may have existed in separately written movements, then assembled for a specific reason, rather than providing a model for a unified Mass cycle. She suggests that it was compiled for a Marian feast commemorating the dedication of the Basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore in Rome.

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  • Leech-Wilkinson, Daniel. Machaut’s Mass: An Introduction. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1992.

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    A detailed study and edition of the Machaut Mass. Chapters on biography, form, and technique. Some of his concepts of Machaut’s compositional technique are challenged by Margaret Bent in Bent 2003.

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  • Robertson, Anne Walters. Guillaume de Machaut and Reims: Context and Meaning in His Musical Works. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2002.

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    In this masterful study of Machaut’s sacred and secular music, Robertson places him in the context of his life in the cathedral city of Reims. Discusses the probable purpose of the Mass, its place in the liturgy and in music of the cathedral; presents related documents. Suggests it was written as a Marian Mass for a side altar in Reims cathedral. Extensive notes and bibliography.

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The Mass in the Renaissance

The Renaissance was a period of intense development for the Mass as a musical form and as an artistic and liturgical entity. Scholarly writings listed here exemplify both general and specific writings spanning both early and late Renaissance. Reese 1959 is a classic overview of Renaissance music from 1360 to 1600. While most studies focus on Europe, Kreitner 2004 shows the spread of Latin sacred music to Spain. Composers in this period expanded the unifying sources of the cyclic Mass from chant cantus firmi to polyphonic models, both sacred and secular. Weaver 2004 discusses borrowing techniques in polyphonic ferial Masses. Brothers 1991 traces vestiges of earlier isorhythm. Feldmann 1954 relates certain melodic ideas in Gloria and Credo movements to classical rhetorical devices. Robertson 2006 considers the Christ-centered symbolism in three Caput Masses. Reynolds 1992 examines hidden allusions to chansons and motets in cantus firmus Masses. Sullivan 1994 studies Masses based on polyphonic chansons and their varied approaches to polyphonic borrowing.

  • Brothers, Thomas. “Vestiges of the Isorhythmic Tradition in Mass and Motet, ca. 1450–1475.” Journal of the American Musicological Society 44.1 (1991): 1–56.

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    Explores Masses by Du Fay, Busnois, Regis, and Josquin that preserve traces of isorhythm. Based on compositional similarities and mensural techniques, Du Fay’s Missa Se la face ay pale may have influenced Busnoys’ Missa L’homme armé and in turn, two of Josquin’s Masses. Also discusses various motets by Josquin that contain unusual isorhythmic traces.

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  • Feldmann, Fritz. “Untersuchungen zum Wort-Ton-Verhältnis in den Gloria-Credo-Sätzen von Dufay bis Josquin.” Musica Disciplina 8 (1954): 141–171.

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    Feldmann relates various melodic ideas in the Gloria and Credo movements of 15th-century Masses to traditional rhetorical devices based on Quintilian and others.

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  • Kreitner, Kenneth. The Church Music of Fifteenth-Century Spain. Woodbridge, UK: Boydell Press, 2004.

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    Discussion of over sixty pieces of Latin sacred music written in Spain between 1400 and 1500, their manuscript sources and styles. The works contain one three-movement Mass Ordinary, a Requiem Mass, a variety of isolated Mass movements, and some settings of the Propers. Appendix lists these works, composers, and references in the text.

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  • Reese, Gustave. Music in the Renaissance. New York: Norton, 1959.

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    Originally published in 1954, this classic overview of the Renaissance briefly covers nearly every aspect of music from about 1360 to the early 17th century. Beginning with the development of the central musical language in France, the Low Countries, and Italy, he covers its diffusion in Spain, Germany, eastern Europe, and England. Extensive footnotes, sources, and individual works, often with musical examples. Masses are listed individually in the index.

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  • Reynolds, Christopher. “The Counterpoint of Allusion in 15th-Century Masses.” Journal of the American Musicological Society 45.2 (1992): 228–260.

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    Examines the importance of the plentiful allusions to chansons and motets in contrapuntal voices of 15th-century cantus firmus Masses. Unrelated to the tenor melody, they interpret or elaborate the textual idea of the tenor. Suggests that this practice was intended to humanize the religious mysteries, even to entertain, mingling the sacred and secular and paralleling Italian-humanist rhetorical modes of expression.

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  • Robertson, Anne Walters. “The Savior, the Woman, and the Head of the Dragon in the Caput Masses and Motet.” Journal of the American Musicological Society 59.3 (2006): 537–630.

    DOI: 10.1525/jams.2006.59.3.537Save Citation »Export Citation »

    A brilliant consideration of the three Caput Masses and a motet by Hygons that sets the Marian text Salve Regina to the Caput melody, revealing the Masses as Christ-focused, the Savior suppressing the devil’s head (“caput”). Hygons’ motet emphasizes the contrast between Mary’s spotlessness and Eve’s corruption. Biblical and theological exegesis, paintings and illuminations, treatises, and analysis of the Caput symbolism in the music. Richly illustrated, with extensive bibliographical information.

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  • Sullivan, Todd. “Chanson to Mass: Polyphonic Borrowing Procedures in Italian and Austro-Italian Sources, c. 1460–1480.” PhD diss., Northwestern University, 1994.

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    A study of Masses based on polyphonic chansons revealing varied approaches to polyphonic borrowing, incorporating paraphrase techniques, use of head motives, enlargement of borrowed points of imitation, and techniques of adapting pitch and rhythm of the chanson melody.

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  • Weaver, Andrew. “Aspects of Musical Borrowing in the Polyphonic Missa de feria of the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries.” In Early Music Borrowing. Edited by Honey Meconi, 125–148. New York: Routledge, 2004.

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    A survey of polyphonic ferial Masses, focusing on those by Pierre de la Rue and Antoine de Févin, both employed at rival courts, and those of the papal chapel in Rome by Palestrina and Johannes Martini. Proposes that borrowing from polyphonic models formed the impetus for these works, and that polyphony was practiced in the papal chapel more than has recently been suggested.

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Fifteenth-Century Source Studies and Facsimiles

Studies of Renaissance manuscript sources and their publication in facsimile editions provide the scholar with the opportunity to understand the essence of these works, almost at first hand. Bent 2008 is an introductory study and edition of an essential source of Latin polyphony from the early 15th century, Bologna Q15. Bent and Nádas 1995– is a facsimile series in high-resolution black-and-white photography of sources from the late 14th and early 15th centuries. Brown, et al. 1968–1988 presents a series of handsome facsimile editions of Renaissance music, several containing Masses. From this series, Kellman 1987 contains a crucial source for Masses of the Ockeghem generation, Chigi C.VIII 234. Just 1975 contains late-15th-century Masses from a German source. Schrade 1942 discusses German manuscript sources of the organ Mass, one of the subspecies of the Mass.

  • Bent, Margaret. Bologna Q15: The Making and Remaking of a Musical Manuscript. Introductory Study and Facsimile Edition. 2 vols. Ars Nova. Nuova serie 2. Lucca, Italy: Libreria Musicale Italiana, 2008.

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    A masterful edition of this essential source for Latin polyphony from the early 15th century. Volume 1 contains codicological analysis of the manuscript, its modern history, recopyings, and repertory, among which are Mass cycles, groupings, and pairs. The manuscript is an important source for Dufay’s Missa Sancti Jacobi. Volume 2 is a color facsimile in splendid digital photography. A model for manuscript study.

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  • Bent, Margaret, and John L. Nádas, eds. Late Medieval and Early Renaissance Music in Facsimile. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995–.

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    Facsimile series with high-resolution b/w photographs of manuscript sources from the late medieval period and early Renaissance. Each volume has an excellent introduction discussing provenance, codicological characteristics, dating, and contents. Series includes David Fallows’ 1995 edition of Oxford, Bodleian Library, MS. Canon. Misc. 213 and Reinhard Strohm’s 2008 edition of the Lucca choirbook.

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  • Brown, Howard Mayer, Frank A. D’Accone, and Jessie Ann Owens, eds. Renaissance Music in Facsimile. 59 vols. New York: Garland, 1968–1988.

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    This facsimile series of fifty-nine volumes contains some of the most important manuscript sources of 15th- and 16th-century music. Each editor provides commentary on both source and contents. Several volumes contain Masses: Volumes 1, 13, 15, 17, 18, 20, 22, and 23.

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  • Just, Martin. Der Mensuralkodex Mus. Ms. 40021 der Staatsbibliothek Preussischer Kulturbesitz Berlin. Tutzing, Germany: Hans Schneider, 1975.

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    This late-15th-century German manuscript source contains works by Agricola, Compère, Isaac, Josquin, Obrecht, and others. Seventeen Masses, Mass fragments, and settings of the Proper. Description of the source, inventory, and list of composers. Volume 2 contains detailed analysis of the codex, musical incipits, and several facsimile pages.

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  • Kellman, Herbert, ed. Vatican City, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, MS Chigi C.VIII 234. Renaissance Music in Facsimile 22. New York: Garland, 1987.

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    This crucial source for the Masses and other sacred music of Ockeghem and his contemporaries is presented in facsimile, complemented by Kellman’s introduction discussing compilation, provenance, and repertory. Several color plates illustrate particularly beautiful pages of the manuscript. 240 pp.

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  • Schrade, L. “The Organ in the Mass of the 15th Century.” Musical Quarterly 28.3–4 (1942): 329–336.

    DOI: 10.1093/mq/XXVIII.3.329Save Citation »Export Citation »

    This is the first part of a two-part article discussing the German manuscript sources of the organ Mass including the Buxheimer Orgelbuch. Schrade finds its stylistic source in the earlier organa of St. Martial and Notre Dame, though adaptations were made for an instrumental style, thus losing in the duplum some of the elasticity and fantasy of the source. Article continues in Musical Quarterly 28.3–4 (1942): 467–487.

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Editions

Works by important composers of Renaissance Masses are found in several modern editions, transcribed in score from original manuscripts. Besseler 1951–1966 presents Dufay’s complete works. Elders 1987– is a somewhat controversial new edition of Josquin’s complete works. Van Berchum, et al. 2011– offers editions of works not included in Elders 1987–. Lerner 1974 presents all of Isaac’s Masses in a modern edition. Sherr 2009 is an important edited source for Masses by Du Fay, Busnois, Ockeghem, and others, written for the Sistine Chapel. Taruskin 1990 is an edition of Busnoys’ Masses and motets. For the complete works of Dunstable, see Bukofzer 1953 under Dunstable (Dunstaple). For a series of English church music including Masses, see Harrison 1963– under English Masses from the 13th Century to the 16th.

  • Besseler, Heinrich, ed. Dufay, Guillaume. Opera Omnia. Corpus Mensurabilis Musicae 1–6. Rome: American Institute of Musicology, 1951–1966.

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    As the most important composer of Masses in his generation, Dufay’s works continue to be the touchstone of Renaissance Mass study. Volumes 2–3 (2, pp. 1–123; 3, pp. 1–121) contain complete Masses; Mass fragments are in Volume 4 (pp. 1–94); sequences and Benedicamus Domino settings in Volume 5 (pp. 1–36). Includes lists of sources, texts, extensive critical notes, discussions of opera dubia (doubtful works), and a few facsimiles of manuscript sources.

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  • Elders, Willem, ed. New Josquin Edition. Utrecht, The Netherlands: Vereniging voor Nederlandse Muziekgeschiedenis, 1987–.

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    Controversial edition regarding attributions to Josquin. All volumes appear in original note values with extensive commentaries by leading experts, presented in separate volumes from the music to facilitate comparative study. See van Berchem 2011–.

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  • Lerner, Edward R. Henrici Isaac, Opera Omnia. Vols. 1–8. Corpus Mensurabilis Musicae 65. Rome: American Institute of Musicology, 1974.

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    In Volumes 1–8 of Isaac’s collected works, projected to be sixteen volumes, Lerner has edited all the Masses along with a discussion of sources, critical notes, and a brief introduction. In the case of the “alternation Masses” in Volume 1, the appendix provides the missing plainsong chants from a 16th-century collection.

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  • Sherr, Richard, ed. Masses for the Sistine Chapel: Vatican City, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Cappella Sistina, MS 14. Monuments of Renaissance Music 13. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2009.

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    An edition of this important manuscript source for Masses by Du Fay, Busnois, Ockeghem, and others from the late 15th century, written for the Sistine Chapel. Introduction includes physical description of the manuscript, composers, date, provenance, and commentaries on individual works.

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  • Taruskin, Richard. “Antoine Busnoys Collected Works: Part 2, The Latin-Texted Works.” In Masters and Monuments of the Renaissance. Vol. 5. Edited by Leeman L. Perkins, 1–193, 208–258. New York: Broude, 1990.

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    Edition of Busnoys’ Masses and motets with transcriptions, and a separate volume with commentary. Contains Missa L’homme armé, Missa O crux lignum triumphale, and Missa Quant ce viendra, as well as spurious works. Also see Part 3 (pp. 1–51, 95–99), it contains commentary, lost and doubtful works.

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  • Van Berchum, Marnix, Theodore Dumitrescu, Jesse Rodin, and Reinier de Valk, eds. “The Other Josquin: Music Excluded from the New Josquin Edition.” 2011–.

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    The controversial New Josquin Edition (Elders 1987–) omitted several Josquin works, for which this website provides scholarly online editions. It also offers a blog discussing works under study, including the Missa Mi Mi, recently attributed to Josquin.

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The Mass in the Early 15th Century

The development of the cyclic Mass in the late 14th and early 15th centuries brought the Mass to its peak as an art form. Masses based either on a chant cantus firmus or on a polyphonic model using one or more of its voices were written by the greatest composers. Preexisting sources from both motets and chansons provided unifying elements in these cyclic works. Endo 2011 suggests a connection between a composite cycle by Lantins/Ciconia and the earlier Machaut Mass. The controversial history of the early cyclic Mass in the Turin MS J.II.9 is discussed in several articles. Hoppin 1964 emphasizes the importance of the plainchant Cypriot Mass cycles. Burstyn 1995 sees the Cypriot cyclic Mass as stylistically transitional in this early attempt at unification. Kügel 2012 posits that this Turin codex had its origin in northern Italy rather than Cyprus.

  • Burstyn, Shai. “Compositional Technique in the Mass Cycle of Manuscript Torino J.II.9.” In The Cypriot-French Repertory of the Manuscript Torino J.II.9. Proceedings of an international congress, Paphos, 20–25 March 1992. Edited by Ursula Günther, Ludwig Finscher, Cyprus. Hypourgeio Paideias, et al., 303–326. Musicological Studies and Documents 45. Neuhausen-Stuttgart: Hänssler-Verlag, 1995.

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    Burstyn sees the Cypriot cyclic Mass as a stylistically transitional work for this early attempt to unify the Mass Ordinary. Progressive attitudes such as the emphasis on cantus firmus and head motives are contrasted with the unrelieved three-voice texture, the reuse of previously heard material, and variation techniques, all seen as traditional features.

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  • Endo, Kinuho. “A Reconsideration of the Mass Cycle by Arnold de Lantins and Ciconia in Bologna Q15.” In Essays on Renaissance Music in Honour of David Fallows: Bon jour, bon mois et bonne estrenne. Edited by Fabrice Fitch and Jacobijn Kiel, 138–145. Woodbridge, UK: Boydell, 2011.

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    A brief article suggesting a connection between the composite Lantins/Ciconia Mass cycle and Machaut’s Mass from half a century earlier, based on the Marian association, a bimodal focus, and the function of the “Amen” as a link between movements. Suggests that Lantins was the assembler of the cycle.

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  • Hoppin, Richard. “Reflections on the Origin of the Cyclic Mass.” In Liber amicorum Charles van den Borren. Edited by Albert van der Linden, 85–92. Antwerp, Belgium: Imprimerie Lloyd Anversois, 1964.

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    Hoppin emphasizes the importance of the plainchant Cypriot Mass cycles, found in a manuscript primarily devoted to polyphonic music. He assumes that these cycles were written during the first fifteen years of the 15th century, thus antedating polyphonic Mass cycles.

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  • Kügel, Karl. “Glorious Sounds for a Holy Warrior: New Light on Codex Turin J.II.9.” Journal of the American Musicological Society 65 (2012): 637–690.

    DOI: 10.1525/jams.2012.65.3.637Save Citation »Export Citation »

    A contribution to the contested history of this early-15th-century manuscript, which contains one of the earliest polyphonic Mass cycles, plainchant Masses, motets, and songs. Considered by several earlier scholars as originating in Cyprus, Kügel rather posits a northern Italian origin, its repertory part of the ars subtilior. Possibly copied by the singer Jean Hanelle, chapel master to the King of Cyprus, and taken by him from Brescia to Savoy.

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Dufay (Du Fay)

The vast amount of recent scholarship on Guillaume Du Fay includes newly found biographical data, new dating of sources, and new analytical information. Fallows 1988 is the standard biography of Du Fay, with three chapters on Masses. Planchart 1988 offers a new birthdate and links the Proper cycles in Trent 88 to Du Fay. Planchart 1976 discusses manuscript sources for six Du Fay Masses. Planchart 2009 examines liturgical sources from the cathedral at Cambrai, emphasizing Du Fay’s Mass Propers for St. Maurice. Nitschke 1968 analyzes Du Fay’s four Mass cycles based on a tenor cantus firmus. Robertson 2010 offers a Christ-centered interpretation of Du Fay’s Missa Se la face ay pale. Wegman 1995 discusses four sources for Du Fay’s Missa Ave regina celorum. Planchart 1995 offers a compositional date for this Mass, related to Du Fay’s wish to have it performed after his death.

  • Fallows, David. Du Fay. New York: Vintage Books, 1988.

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    The standard biography of Du Fay, written in an appealing style with a useful work list, chronology, and list of personages connected to the composer. Contains three important chapters on Masses, and in the classified list of works, a helpful list of music for the Mass. Bibliography is listed in chronological order up to 1836, then in alphabetical order.

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  • Planchart, Alejandro Enrique. “Guillaume Dufay’s Masses: A View of the Manuscript Traditions.” In Papers Read at the Dufay Quincentenary Conference. An international conference at Brooklyn College, CUNY, 6–7 December 1975. Edited by Allan W. Atlas, 26–60. New York: Department of Music, School of Music, School of Performing Arts, Brooklyn College of the City University of New York, 1976.

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    From the first conference on Du Fay in 1974, Planchart presents a study of manuscript sources for six Masses and the historical circumstances surrounding their creation.

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  • Planchart, Alejandro Enrique. “Guillaume Du Fay’s Benefices and His Relationship to the Court of Burgundy.” Early Music History 8 (1988): 117–171.

    DOI: 10.1017/S0261127900000917Save Citation »Export Citation »

    In this important addition to Du Fay scholarship, Planchart proposes a new birthdate of 5 August 1397. Citing liturgical and documentary evidence, he attributes five anonymous Proper cycles in Trent 88 to Du Fay, linking them to the Order of the Golden Fleece in Dijon. Proposes that Du Fay intended a cycle of polyphonic Propers for the entire year at Cambrai, of which five survive in Trent 88.

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  • Planchart, Alejandro Enrique. “Notes on Guillaume Du Fay’s Last Works.” Journal of Musicology 13.1 (1995): 55–72.

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    A coda to Wegman’s study (Wegman 1995) of Du Fay’s Missa Ave Regina Celorum and motet. Planchart offers documentary evidence from the Cathedral at Cambrai that the Mass was part of Du Fay’s obituary foundation, consisting of works intended to be sung there after his death. Proposes its compositional date as 1472–1473.

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  • Planchart, Alejando Enrique. “Connecting the Dots: Guillaume Du Fay and Savoy during the Schism.” Plainchant and Medieval Music 18 (2009): 11–32.

    DOI: 10.1017/S0961137109000941Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Planchart examines liturgical sources from the Cambrai cathedral focusing on Du Fay’s polyphonic settings of Mass Propers for St. Maurice. He suggests that the cycle may have been commissioned from Savoy, where Du Fay had continued contacts after he left there during the papal schism.

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  • Nitschke, Wolfgang. Studien zu den Cantus-Firmus-Messen Guillaume Dufays. 2 vols. Berliner Studien zur Musikwissenschaft. Berlin: Merseburger, 1968.

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    Nitschke presents a detailed analysis of Dufay’s four Mass cycles with tenor cantus firmus, and two cycles no longer attributed to him. While he focuses largely on their cantus firmus treatment, he also discusses isorhythm, meter, modes, head motives, the linking of movements by the cantus firmus, and the penetration of the cantus firmus into other voices. Musical examples in Volume 2.

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  • Robertson, Anne Walters. “The Man with the Pale Face, the Shroud, and Du Fay’s Missa Se la face ay pale.” Journal of Musicology 27.4 (2010): 377–434.

    DOI: 10.1525/jm.2010.27.4.377Save Citation »Export Citation »

    In a new Christ-centered interpretation of the symbolism in the Missa Se la face ay pale, Robertson draws on mystical treatises on the Passion and French sacred poetry to link the pale-faced man to Christ. The Holy Shroud depicting a pallid Christ, recently acquired by Du Fay’s patron, lies at the center of the work. Theological symbols embedded in the Mass associate it with this relic, now in Turin. Religious paintings reproduced in the article support this idea.

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  • Wegman, Rob C. “Miserere supplicant Dufay: The Creation and Transmission of Guillaume Dufay’s Missa Ave regina celorum.” Journal of Musicology 13.1 (1995): 18–54.

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    Wegman discusses the four sources for Dufay’s Missa Ave regina celorum, scribal variants and corruptions in text and accidentals, and their role in the Mass’s early reception history. Emphasizes the importance of textual criticism versus scholarly editing in understanding the original source. Offers possible liturgical occasions for its composition and reasons for scribal changes.

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Trent Codices

The Trent Codices, Codex Tridentinus, Castello di Buon Consiglio, Trento, 87–93, are the most important manuscript sources for Masses by Dufay, and the central source for his music in the early 15th century. At least two facsimile editions are available, including the unedited facsimiles in Codex Tridentinus, Castello di Buon Consiglio, Trento, 87–93 (1979). Gerber 2007, is the definitive edition of Trent 88, containing transcriptions of Mass Ordinaries and Propers. Curti-Feininger and Gozzi 2013 is the most recent resource for editions and electronic resources. Von Ficker 1924 studies the early Masses in the codices by Binchois, Dufay, Dunstable, and other English composers. Fallows 1986 offers evidence for attributing several anonymous Mass Proper cycles in Trent 88 to Du Fay. (See also Planchart 1988 under Dufay (Du Fay).) Gerber 1996 continues the authenticity discussion of these anonymous cycles. Leverett 1995 studies six anonymous Masses based on German Tenorlieder from codices 89 and 91.

  • Codex Tridentinus, Castello di Buon Consiglio, Trento, 87–93. 7 vols. New York: OMI-Old Manuscripts & Incunabula Specialists in Facsimile Editions, 1979.

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    In seven volumes, this collection presents the original, unedited facsimiles of the seven Trent Codices. Blank pages are omitted, and original handwritten numbers are maintained.

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  • Curti-Feininger, Danilo, and Marco Gozzi, eds. Codici musicali trentini del Quattrocento. Proceedings from a conference on the Trent Codices, Trento, 28–29 November 2009. Trento, Italy: Provincia Autonima di Trento, 2013.

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    Important recent resource for latest findings, editions, and electronic resources, including color photographs searchable online.

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  • Fallows, David. “Dufay and the Mass Proper Cycles of Trent 88.” In I codici musicali trentini a cento anni dalla loro riscoperta. Edited by Nino Pirrotta and Danilo Curti, 46–59. Trento, Italy: Provincia Autonoma di Trento, Servizio Bene Culturali, Museo Provinciale d’Arte, 1986.

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    An important contribution to Dufay studies, offering stylistic and codicological evidence for attributing several Mass Proper cycles to Dufay, an idea originally proposed by Laurence Feininger. Fallows’ conclusions are preceded by a summary of studies since Feininger’s work that lead to this attribution.

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  • Gerber, Rebecca L. “Dufay’s Style and the Question of Cyclic Unity in the Trent 88 Mass Proper Cycles.” In I codici musicali trentini: Nuove scoperte e nuovi orientamenti della ricerca. Edited by Peter Wright, 107–119. Trento, Italy: Provincia Autonoma di Trento, 1996.

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    Continues the authenticity discussion of the anonymous Mass Proper cycles in Trent 88, attributed to Dufay by Laurence Feininger. Gerber shows by analysis which sections are likely to be by Dufay and those foreign to his style. The four-voice setting of the Offertory of St. Anthony of Padua seems the best candidate for Dufay’s authorship, which Gerber suggests may have been written for the dedication of Donatello’s altar in the Paduan basilica.

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  • Gerber, Rebecca L., ed. Sacred Music from the Cathedral at Trent: Trent, Museo Provinciale d’Arte, Codex 1375 (olim 88). Monuments of Renaissance Music 12. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007.

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    The central source for Du Fay’s music of the 1440s, containing Mass Ordinaries, Propers, sequences, motets, antiphons, hymns, and Magnificats. Presented in one monumental volume, it is the definitive new edition of Trent 88. Contains transcriptions of twenty-one Mass cycles with an introduction, paleographical description of the manuscript, watermarks, scribes, and notation. List of sources, bibliography, and commentaries on individual compositions.

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  • Leverett, Adelyn. “Song Masses in the Trent Codices: The Austrian Connection.” Early Music History 14 (1995): 205–256.

    DOI: 10.1017/S0261127900001479Save Citation »Export Citation »

    A study of six anonymous Masses in the latest layer of Trent Codices based on German Tenorlieder, suggesting connections with the Holy Roman Empire, of which Trent was the southernmost extension. Four Masses use polyphonic arrangements of German-texted melodies from south Germany and Silesia for their cyclic frameworks; two others whose models are not known use similar dispositions of songs. Points to an Austrian polyphonic style.

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  • von Ficker, Rudolf. “Die frühen Messenkompositionen der Trienter Codices.” Studien zur Musikwissenschaft 11 (1924): 3–58.

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    In this early study of the Trent Codices, von Ficker surveys previous works from the late 14th century and discusses the early Masses in the codices by Binchois, Dufay, Dunstable, and other English composers: Damett, Benet, Forest, Anglicanus, Leonellus, Ricardus Markham, and Bedingham.

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The Mass in the Late 15th Century

Composers in the late 15th century continued to develop cyclic Masses, using ever more creative ways to incorporate previously written materials. One of the favorite, widespread unifying devices through the century was the tenor of the chanson L’homme armé, on which a number of Masses were based. Various opinions center around which is the earliest. Planchart 2003 traces the origins and history of the tune and its relation to Masses. Van der Heide 2005 suggests Johannes Regis as the first to use the tune in a Mass. Cohen 1968 studies six anonymous L’homme armé Masses in a Naples manuscript from the late 15th century. Feininger 1948–1974 provides an edition of ten Missae L’homme armé. Perkins 1984 links the two Masses by Busnois and Okeghem, both compositionally and personally. Sargent 2011 discusses links between two pairs of L’homme armé Masses by Morales and Josquin. Taruskin 1986 analyzes Busnois’s Mass through its mensural proportions and claims it as the earliest work based on this chanson.

  • Cohen, Judith. The Six Anonymous L’homme armé Masses in Naples, Biblioteca nazionale, MS.VI E 40. Musicological Studies and Documents 21. Rome: American Institute of Musicology, 1968.

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    A study of this important manuscript containing six anonymous Masses based on the chanson (critical edition in Corpus Mensurabilis Musicae 85; Neuhausen-Stuttgart: American Institute of Musicology, 1981). Their notation and style point to the Franco-Flemish circle of the late 15th century, combined into a cycle by a unique comprehensive plan. Cohen provides individual studies of each Mass and its relation to the cycle, postulating its origin between 1465 and 1470. In her opinion an attribution to Busnois seems unlikely.

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  • Feininger, Laurence, ed. Monumenta polyphoniae liturgicae Sanctae Ecclesiae Romanae. Series I. 4 vols. Rome: Societas Universalis Sanctae Ceciliae, 1948–1974.

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    Utilizing original clefs and note values, Feininger’s excellent editions show the mensural complexities of the music. Volume 1 contains ten Missae L’homme armé; Volume 2 contains Dufay Masses, including the Missa Caput once attributed to him.

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  • Perkins, Leeman. “In Memoriam Dragan Plamenac: The L’homme armé Masses of Busnoys and Ockeghem: A Comparison.” Journal of Musicology 3.4 (1984): 363–396.

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    Perkins cites evidence that Busnois and Ockeghem met in person and shared compositional preferences, especially in their L’homme armé Masses. Several features link the two works, such as the falling fanfare figure passed from voice to voice in close imitation, and the proportional use of major prolation with other mensurations. Such details provide a persuasive body of evidence for connections between the two works.

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  • Planchart, Alejandro Enrique. “The Origins and Early History of L’homme armé.” Journal of Musicology 20.3 (2003): 305–357.

    DOI: 10.1525/jm.2003.20.3.305Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Traces the history of the tune and its relation to Masses. Discounts several earlier theories, especially that it was originally a folk song. Musical and number symbolism point to Dufay as the composer of the chanson Il sera par vous/L’homme armé, the basis for several Masses. Examines Dufay’s Mass in terms of its Christological program, and the relationship between the Masses of Dufay and Ockeghem. Chronology of the earliest L’homme armé Masses.

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  • Sargent, Joseph. “Morales, Josquin and the L’Homme armé Tradition.” Early Music History 30.1 (2011): 177–212.

    DOI: 10.1017/S0261127911000040Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Discusses the links between two pairs of L’homme armé Masses by Morales and Josquin. Compares various parameters including treatment of the tune, modal issues, and the use of motivic and structural repetition, and analyzes the overall styles of each. Concludes that Morales adapts many of Josquin’s features, creates from them his own musical voice, and reanimates what even then was a venerable tradition.

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  • Taruskin, Richard. “Antoine Busnoys and the L’homme armé Tradition.” Journal of the American Musicological Society 39.2 (1986): 255–293.

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    Taruskin analyzes Busnois’s Missa L’homme armé through its mensural proportions and claims it as the earliest of the many works based on this chanson. Links it to the Order of the Golden Fleece, and notes parallels to the six Naples anonymous L’homme armé Masses, which he attributes to Busnois. Also suggests Busnois (rather than Dufay) as the author of the chanson “Il sera pour vous/L’homme armé,” the earliest setting of the tune.

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  • Van der Heide, Klass. “New Claims for a Burgundian Origin of the L’homme armé Tradition, and a Different View on the Relative Positions of the Earliest Masses in the Tradition.” Tijdschrift van de Koninklijke Vereniging voor Nederlandse Muziekgeschiedenis 55.1 (2005): 3–33.

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    Suggests Johannes Regis as the first to use the tune in a Mass, and posits later dates for those by Ockeghem and Busnoys, even Caron and Dufay. Reveals connections between the Burgundian court, the Crusades, the fall of Constantinople in 1453, the Order of the Golden Fleece, and the tableaux vivants (living scenes) for Philip the Good. He finds the six anonymous Masses in the Naples manuscript comparable in their interweaving of classic and religious elements, offering support for Taruskin’s controversial attribution to Busnoys.

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Individual Composers

Research into various individual composers of the late 15th century has recently focused on the relationship between Masses and local liturgies. Ackermann 1995 analyzes Costanzo Festa’s Missa de Domina nostra according to a Marian tradition in the Cappella Sistina. Bloxam 1991 provides a penetrating study on the intersection of liturgy and music, inspired by a recent discovery of a rhymed chant Office in honor of a local saint. Other studies have brought to the fore the work of little-known composers: Gallagher 2011 discusses Johannes Regis’ technique combining multiple cantus firmi. Various articles discuss borrowing, imitation, structure, and chronology. Steib 1996 analyzes diverse uses of borrowed polyphonic material in Masses by Johannes Martini, Isaac, and Josquin. Kreider 1974 cites Pierre de la Rue as a master of canonic imitation, especially in his Missa Ave Sanctissima Maria. Meconi 2003 discusses the structure and chronology of La Rue’s Masses.

  • Ackermann, Peter. “Zyklische Formbildung im Polyphonen Choralordinarium.” In Studien zur Musikgeschichte: Eine Festschrift für Ludwig Finscher. Edited by Annegrit Laubenthal and Kara Kusan-Windweh, 133–152. Kassel, Germany: Bärenreiter, 1995.

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    Discusses Costanzo Festa’s Missa de Domina nostra, a Marian Mass in the tradition of Pierre de la Rue, Josquin, Brumel, Morales, and Arcadelt, coming from a Marian tradition of chant Ordinaries in the Cappella Sistina. Analyzes this polyphonic work according to the finals and modes of the chants chosen, and suggests that the Mass is thus unified into a cyclic form.

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  • Bloxam, M. Jennifer. “In Praise of Spurious Saints: The Missae Floruit egregiis by Pipelare and La Rue.” Journal of the American Musicological Society 44 (1991): 163–220.

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    A penetrating essay on the intersection of liturgy, chant, and polyphony inspired by the recent discovery of a rhymed chant Office in honor of a local Ghent saint, Livinus. Pipelare included sixteen of these chants as cantus firmi in his Missa Floruit egregiis infans Livinus. Only Obrecht’s Missa de Sancto Martino is similar in its use of multiple cantus firmi. Explores La Rue’s connection between Pipelare’s remarkable work and his Missa de Sancto Job.

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  • Gallagher, Sean. Johannes Regis. Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols, 2011.

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    An important study of a heretofore little-known composer from the generation between Dufay and Josquin. Chapters on the Missa L’homme armé and two other Masses speak to the art of combining multiple cantus firmi, a technique that became common only in the Ockeghem generation. Extensive musical examples, appendices containing texts and translations, bibliography, and a CD of Regis’ complete works.

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  • Kreider, J. Evan. “The Masses for Five and Six Voices by Pierre de la Rue.” PhD diss., Indiana University, 1974.

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    La Rue was recognized by his contemporaries as a master of canonic imitation, of which the finest example of triple canon is the six-part Missa Ave Sanctissima Maria. He excludes homophonic writing in his Masses, thus differentiating them from his motets. His parody/imitation Masses include extensive and direct quotations from their models, laying the groundwork for works by Josquin and others.

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  • Meconi, Honey. Pierre de la Rue and Musical Life at the Habsburg-Burgundian Court. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003.

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    In chapter 3 of this biographical study of La Rue, “Aspects of the Sacred Music,” Meconi discusses structures and chronology of La Rue’s Masses, provides examples of his musical borrowings, and surveys the liturgical functions of his sacred music. Useful tables of Masses and canonic works.

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  • Steib, Murray. “A Composer Looks at His Model: Polyphonic Borrowing in Masses from the Late Fifteenth Century.” Tijdschrift van da Koninklijke Vereniging voor Nederlandse Muziekgeschiedenis 46.1 (1996): 5–41.

    DOI: 10.2307/939130Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Diverse uses of borrowed polyphonic material are analyzed in Masses by Martini, Isaac, Josquin, and an anonymous composer. Martini used literal quotations, Isaac paraphrased the model, and Josquin varied his approach using literal, lightly ornamented, and paraphrased quotations. Since the quotations in the anonymous Missa O rosa bella, attributed to Martini, are paraphrased rather than literal, Steib suggests he is probably not the composer.

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Josquin Des Prez

As the most important composer of his generation, Josquin is the subject of many biographical and analytical studies. Recent scholarship has resulted in revisions to his biography and revised dating of particular works. Lowinsky 1976 presents conference proceedings containing articles by distinguished Josquin scholars. Sherr 2000 is a collection of essays by important scholars, including four chapters on Masses. Perkins 1973 emphasizes that melodic or “modal” rather than contrapuntal or “tonal” principles determine both melodic design and cadential articulation points in Josquin’s Masses. Reese 1976 defines the polyphonic Missa de Beata Virgine as one based on plainsong melodies, the six Marian tropes included before the Council of Trent. Fallows 2009 summarizes new discoveries in this life-and-works study. Rodin 2008 examines Josquin’s time in Rome and connections with De Orto. Reynolds 2004 suggests 1503 as the date of the Missa Hercules dux ferrariae. Long 1989 links the sacred and secular in a study of the Missa Di Dadi.

  • Fallows, David. Josquin. Centre d’Études Supérieures de la Renaissance. Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols, 2009.

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    An essential life and works study of Josquin, integrating recent scholarship on biography, dating, and spurious works. Analytical commentary on many Masses, illustrations, maps, musical examples, and useful appendices of documents, personalia, etc.

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  • Long, Michael. “Symbol and Ritual in Josquin’s ‘Missa Di Dadi.’” Journal of the American Musicological Society 42.1 (1989): 1–22.

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    An interesting article linking the sacred and secular in Josquin’s Missa Di Dadi, based on Robert Morton’s rondeau and featuring images of dice (dadi) that appear in the tenor part of several sections. Josquin’s choice of cantus firmus and its treatment in the Mass are placed in context of a dice-game allegory, offering opportunity for devotional meditation on the Blessed Sacrament. Links to the later Missa Pange lingua show Josquin’s evolution over forty years.

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  • Lowinsky, Edward, ed. Josquin des Prez. Conference proceedings from the Josquin Festival-Conference, New York City, 21–25 June 1971. London: Oxford University Press, 1976.

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    Conference proceedings containing articles by distinguished Josquin scholars, including several essays on Masses by Rubsamen, Haar, Reese, and Lenaerts. Includes transcription of a workshop on the performance of Josquin’s Masses.

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  • Perkins, Leeman. “Mode and Structure in the Masses of Josquin.” Journal of the American Musicological Society 26.2 (1973): 189–239.

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    Emphasizes that the determining principles of Josquin’s Masses are melodic or “modal” rather than contrapuntal or “tonal.” Examines the Masses to discover how the eight ecclesiastical modes govern both melodic design and cadential articulation points. Unification is achieved by a common final for most of the main divisions of the Ordinary. Reciting tones and difference tones also contribute to coherency. Extensive tables and musical examples.

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  • Reese, Gustave. “The Polyphonic Missa de Beata Virgine as a Genre: The Background of Josquin’s Lady Mass.” In Josquin des Pres. Conference proceedings of the Josquin Festival-Conference, New York City, 21–25 June 1971. Edited by Edward Lowinsky and Bonnie J. Blackburn, 589–598. London and New York: Oxford University Press, 1976.

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    Reese defines the polyphonic Missa de Beata Virgine as one based on plainsong melodies, the six Marian tropes included before the Council of Trent. The composer may use cantus firmus, paraphrase, or both techniques. Josquin’s splendid Mass belongs within this tradition. Discusses Masses by Isaac, Brumel, Pierre de La Rue, and others that may also qualify.

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  • Reynolds, Christopher. “Interpreting and Dating Josquin’s Missa Hercules dux ferrariae.” In Early Music Borrowing. Edited by Honey Meconi, 91–110. New York: Routledge, 2004.

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    A recent contribution to the dating of Josquin’s Mass. Reynolds suggests that he may have adapted the famous subject from a Mass by Walter Frye and/or an anonymous motet. Cites structural and motivic similarities with the Missa Faisant regrets, and suggests that Josquin’s celebrated motive alludes to Frye’s countertenor rather than the tenor. Josquin intended to symbolize Ercole’s piety, relating it to Mary’s beauty. Suggests a date of 1503.

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  • Rodin, Jesse. “’When in Rome  . .  ’: What Josquin Learned in the Sistine Chapel.” Journal of the American Musicological Society 61.2 (2008): 307–372.

    DOI: 10.1525/jams.2008.61.2.307Save Citation »Export Citation »

    With recent biographical information giving new insight into Josquin’s career and influences, Rodin finds musical connections with Marbrianus de Orto while both were at the Papal chapel. Analysis of the cantus firmus treatment in Josquin’s Missa L’homme armé super voces musicale shows dependence on Orto’s Mass based on the same chanson. Connections in other devices suggest that Josquin absorbed musical ideas from all around him.

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  • Sherr, Richard, ed. The Josquin Companion. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.

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    Essays by distinguished scholars including four chapters on Josquin’s Masses by Blackburn, Planchart, Bloxam, and Sherr. Recommended as an extended overview of Josquin’s music. A CD is included in the volume.

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Ockeghem and Obrecht

In the generation after Josquin, Johannes Ockeghem and Jacob Obrecht continued the creative expansion of unifying devices for the Mass with hexachords, prolations, and modes. Dating of works is a focus of recent research, especially for Ockeghem. Vendrix 1998 contains several papers on the Masses from an Ockeghem conference. Fitch 1997 offers essays tracing Ockeghem’s stylistic development from strict cantus firmus treatment to a more freely distributed use among all voices. Sherr 2010 analyzes the Missa De plus en plus as an early work. Wexler 2001 proposes that the missing movements of Ockeghem’s Requiem were improvised, probably in three-voice fauxbourdon. Wegman 1994 offers a discussion of Obrecht’s Masses in the context of biographical studies and offers dates for several. Bloxam 1992 discusses two Masses by Obrecht and their relationship to local liturgical traditions. Todd 1978 focuses on several sophisticated contrapuntal techniques in Obrecht’s Masses.

  • Bloxam, M. Jennifer. “Sacred Polyphony and Local Traditions of Liturgy and Plainsong: Reflections on Music by Jacob Obrecht.” In Plainsong in the Age of Polyphony. Edited by Thomas Forrest Kelly, 140–177. Cambridge Studies in Performance Practice 2. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1992.

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    Bloxam discusses two Masses by Obrecht and their relationship to local liturgical traditions. Missa de Sancto Donatiano includes three cantus firmi from the liturgy for St. Donation in Bruges; Missa de Sancto Martino may also be connected to Bruges or Antwerp. Suggests that the notation of these plainsong cantus firmi in long note values is a remnant of late medieval performance of chant.

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  • Fitch, Fabrice. Johannes Ockeghem, Masses and Models. Paris: H. Champion, 1997.

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    A multifaceted series of essays on Ockeghem’s Masses, including codicological analyses and a discussion of chronology as a means of tracing Ockeghem’s stylistic development. Suggests that he moved from strict cantus firmus treatment in the tenor to a more freely distributed use among all voices. Chapters on the early Masses, models for Masses, the five-voice works, and the Requiem Mass. List of sources and bibliography.

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  • Sherr, Richard. “Thoughts on Ockeghem’s Missa De plus en plus: Anxiety and Proportion in the Late 15th Century.” Early Music 38.3 (2010): 335–346.

    DOI: 10.1093/em/caq053Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Consider’s Ockeghem’s Missa De plus en plus an early work, based on his analysis of number and proportion. Discusses Ockeghem’s anxieties regarding his relationships to Binchois and Dufay as motivation for his seemingly obsessive departures from their styles in this Mass.

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  • Todd, R. Lawrence. “Retrograde, Inversion, Retrograde-Inversion and Related Techniques in the Masses of Obrecht.” Musical Quarterly 64.1 (1978): 50–78.

    DOI: 10.1093/mq/LXIV.1.50Save Citation »Export Citation »

    After a brief review of earlier composers’ use of these contrapuntal techniques, Todd analyzes six Masses by Obrecht based on such devices. Suggests that Obrecht used a pre-calculated plan, organizing them with or without verbal instructions for canons. Detailed analysis shows Obrecht’s concern for formal unity in the cyclic Mass, and at the same time his flexibility in paraphrasing the original chant.

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  • Vendrix, Philippe, ed. Johannes Ockeghem: Actes du XLe Colloque International d’Études Humanistes. Collection “Épitome musical.” Paris: Klincksieck, 1998.

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    Papers given at this Ockeghem conference include those on Masses by Martin Picker, Michael Freibel, Michael Eckert, and Andrew Kirkman.

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  • Wegman, Rob C. Born for the Muses: The Life and Masses of Jacob Obrecht. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1994.

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    A penetrating discussion of Obrecht’s Masses in the context of biographical studies. Sees Obrecht as a “man of his time” and attempts to shed some Romantic notions in early musicology regarding the composer and his music. Offers approximate dates for some Masses. An essential contribution to the history of the cyclic Mass. Extensive bibliography, appendices containing documents, and a study of rhythmic density in the Masses.

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  • Wexler, Richard. “In Search of the Missing Movements of Ockeghem’s Requiem.” In Essays on Music and Culture in Honor of Herbert Kellman. Edited by Barbara Haggh, 59–88. Paris and Tours, France: Centre d’Études Supérieures de la Renaissance, Minerve, 2001.

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    Ockeghem’s Requiem consists of only Introit, Kyrie, Gradual, Tract, and Offertory. Wexler proposes that the remaining movements were sung in quasi-improvised polyphony, probably in three-voice fauxbourdon. Concludes that it was originally intended for the obsequies of Charles VII in 1461, with a possible revision of the Offertory for Louis XI’s funeral in 1483 to make a smooth transition to the fauxbourdon of the Sanctus, Agnus Dei, and Communion.

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Isaac

Heinrich Isaac wrote settings of the Mass Ordinary and one of the most important complete cycles for the Proper of the Mass, the Choralis Constantinus. Staehelin 1977 is a comprehensive study of the Masses, including questions of authenticity and performance practice problems. Zanovello 2005 studies Isaac’s Missa Misericordias Domini in the context of late-15th-century Florentine patronage. Feldmann 1956 analyzes Isaac’s word-tone relationships in Petrucci’s printed collection from 1506. Mahrt 1969 discusses the alternatim (alternation) Masses, proposing an alternation between plainsong melodies and organ. Isaac’s cycle of Propers has been the focus of much research, starting with Cuyler 1950; she traces the sequences used in the cycle. Burn and Gasch 2011 is an authoritative series of essays on the Choralis Constantinus, and also includes studies of Propers by William Byrd. Gossett 1974 reviews the several editions and cites their problems with Isaac’s mensural system. Karp 1990 urges the necessity to discover the chant sources Isaac would have known for this cycle.

  • Burn, David J., and Stefan Gasch, eds. Heinrich Isaac and Polyphony for the Proper of the Mass in the Late Middle Ages and Renaissance. Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols, 2011.

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    An authoritative series of essays on Isaac’s Choralis Constantinus and related topics by important scholars: William Mahrt, Anthony Cummings, and others. In addition to substantial studies on Isaac, the volume includes studies of Propers by German and Portuguese composers and William Byrd. List of sources cited, and abstracts of each essay in appendix.

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  • Cuyler, Louise. “The Sequences of Isaac’s Choralis Constantinus.” Journal of the American Musicological Society 3.1 (1950): 3–16.

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    Still an important reference source. Cuyler studies the sequences in this important cycle of Propers. The most frequent text types: unrhymed or casually rhymed texts, rhymed French proses, and later miscellaneous sequence types.

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  • Feldmann, Fritz. “Divergierende Überlieferungen in Isaacs ‘Petrucci-Messen.’” In Collectanea Historiae Musicae. Vol. 2. 203–225. Historiae Musicae Cultores 6. Florence: Olschki, 1956.

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    Presents an analysis of Isaac’s word-tone relationships in Petrucci’s printed collection of Isaac’s Masses from 1506. Special emphasis on numerical symbolism and rhetorical figures, especially in the Credo of “Missa Quant j’ay au cor.” Contains analytical charts to substantiate the text.

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  • Gossett, Philip. “The Mensural System and the Choralis Constantinus.” In Studies in Renaissance and Baroque Music in Honor of Arthur Mendel. Edited by Robert L. Marshall, 71–107. Kassel, Germany, and Hackensack, NJ: Bärenreiter, 1974.

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    Gossett reviews the various editions of this work and their problems with Isaac’s mensural system. By studying both the manuscript sources and the Formschneider edition, he analyzes both simultaneous and successive signatures in detail, and proposes that uncut signatures demand a significant slowing of tempo.

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  • Karp, Theodore. “Some Chant Models for Isaac’s Choralis Constantinus.” In Beyond the Moon: Festschrift Luther Dittmer. Edited by Bryan Gillingham and Paul Merkley, 322–349. Ottawa, ON: Institute of Mediaeval Music, 1990.

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    Karp studies a handful of chants, five Communions, and an Introit. He argues the necessity of discovering the chant models that would have been available to Isaac, and compares various possible sources. Suggests that Formschneider’s text underlay is occasionally unreliable, omitting an occasional word, though such omissions would have been easily remedied by 16th-century singers.

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  • Mahrt, William P. “The Missae ad organum of Heinrich Isaac.” PhD diss., Stanford University, 1969.

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    A detailed study of Isaac’s alternation plainsong Masses and their sources. These works consist of plainsong melodies customarily sung monophonically in alternation with the organ, along with polyphonic music. The organ begins and ends the piece with polyphonic music. Proposes that missing plainsong melodies would have been known to the clerical congregation, even though Isaac did not write them down.

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  • Staehelin, Martin. Die Messen Heinrich Isaacs: Quellenstudien zu Heinrich Isaac und seinem Messen-Oeuvre. 3 vols. Bern, Switzerland, and Stuttgart: Paul Haupt, 1977.

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    Exhaustive, comprehensive study of Isaac’s Masses. Volume 1 is an overview of literature, biography, and catalogue of Masses. Volume 2 provides documents and information on datable compositions and critical commentary. Volume 3 discusses the sacred or secular melodies that serve as basis for the Masses, various compositional problems, questions of authenticity, and performance practice problems.

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  • Zanovello, Giovanni. “Heinrich Isaac, the Mass Misericordias Domini, and Music in Late-Fifteenth-Century Florence.” PhD diss., Princeton University, 2005.

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    In the context of late-15th-century Florentine patronage, Zanovello discusses Isaac’s Missa Misericordias Domini, including newly discovered documents, a revision of Isaac’s biography from his Florentine years, transmission of the work and its relationship to an Italian frottola “In focho in fochi la mia vita passa.” Includes an edition of the Mass.

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The Mass in the 16th and Early 17th Centuries

In the 16th century, while some of the cyclic techniques such as paraphrasing the cantus firmus were still being used, the parody or imitation Mass became the dominant means of unifying the Mass. Its sources included both motet and chanson, sometimes using all voices of the model and not just the tenor, resulting in elaborate polyphonic settings of the Mass by Palestrina, Lassus, Victoria, and others. Composers of Masses were now faced with the reforms of the Council of Trent. summarized by Lockwood 1970, with emphasis on the Masses of Vincenzo Ruffo. (See also Lockwood 1975 under Palestrina.) Monson 2002 challenges the traditional emphasis on intelligibility of Mass texts resulting from the Council. Karp 2005 is a study of printed Graduals containing post-Tridentine settings of the Proper. Elias 2004 explores mid-century uses of both new and borrowed materials, focusing on chanson Masses. Cannon 1968 studies the organ Mass, alternation practices, and cantus firmus settings. Ward 1986 challenges accepted notions of the motetti missales (mass-motets), motet cycles intended to substitute for Proper and Ordinary sections. Stevenson 1976 is a classic study of sacred music by Spanish composers of this period.

  • Cannon, Clawson. “The 16th- and 17th-century Organ Mass: A Study in Musical Style.” PhD diss., New York University, 1968.

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    After an introduction and discussion of sources, this study looks at alternation practices and analyzes melody, rhythm, and harmony. Sees a gradual progression from cantus firmus settings with long flowing melodies to those consisting of short, related phrases and arpeggiated chords. By the late 17th century, versets were in a homophonic style with dynamic rhythmic patterns. Transcriptions in appendix.

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  • Elias, Cathy Ann. “Mid-Sixteenth-Century Chanson Masses: A Kaleidoscopic Process.” In Early Musical Borrowing. Edited by Honey Meconi, 149–178. New York: Routledge, 2004.

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    Explores the manner in which mid-16th-century Mass composers used both new and borrowed material to develop a personal style. Focusing on chanson Masses, she finds that all the borrowing techniques occurring in the imitation Mass over the entire 16th century are found in the chanson Mass from mid-century. Suggests the study of text settings to determine composers’ stylistic decisions. Musical examples.

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  • Karp, Theodore. An Introduction to the Post-Tridentine Mass Proper. 2 vols. Musicological Studies and Documents 54. Middleton, WI: American Institute of Musicology, 2005.

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    A study of selected printed Graduals from 1580 and 1583, containing post-Tridentine settings of the Proper. Includes a checklist of printed Graduals from 1590 to 1890. Discusses Neo-Gallican Propers as well as developments in the 18th and 19th centuries. Volume 2 contains multiple readings of selected chants.

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  • Lockwood, Lewis. The Counter-Reformation and the Masses of Vincenzo Ruffo. Studi di Musica Veneta 2. Venice: Stamperia di Venezia, 1970.

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    A richly documented seminal study on the relationship between Ruffo’s Masses and the Counter-Reformation under the aegis of Cardinal Borromeo. After a detailed biographical chapter, Lockwood discusses music and the Council of Trent, the Ruffo-Borromeo connection, and the Council’s ideal of intelligibility. Analysis of the Masses, Ruffo’s development of the “intelligible style,” extensive bibliography, and musical examples.

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  • Monson, Craig A. “The Council of Trent Revisited.” Journal of the American Musicological Society 55 (2002): 1–37.

    DOI: 10.1525/jams.2002.55.1.1Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Monson challenges the traditional emphasis on textual intelligibility in the Council of Trent’s reforms. He cites a largely unrecognized attack on church polyphony regarding the elaborate music in female monasteries, which, though not accepted at the Council, was nevertheless revived and pursued by local authorities, especially Cardinal Borromeo.

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  • Stevenson, Robert M. Spanish Cathedral Music in the Golden Age. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1976.

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    A classic study by one of the pioneer scholars of Spanish sacred music, focusing on the Masses of Morales, Guerrero, and Victoria as well as lesser-known composers. Extensive documentation, musical examples, and bibliography. Essential reading for this area of sacred music. Originally published in 1961.

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  • Ward, Lynn Halpern. “The motetti missales Repertory Reconsidered.” Journal of the American Musicological Society 39.3 (1986): 491–523.

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    Motetti missales are motet cycles intended to substitute for Mass Proper and Ordinary sections. A partially burnt Milanese choirbook adds sixteen cycles to this repertoire. Grouping, textual and thematic relations suggest they were created as cycles. Offers evidence that at least half were used as substitution Masses, challenging accepted notions of the genre.

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Parody or Imitation Masses

Among several devices used to unify cyclic Masses, the technique of using several or all voices from a polyphonic motet or chanson was widespread in the late 16th century. Palestrina, Lasso, and other composers refined this technique in ever more creative ways. Lockwood 1966 discusses the term Missa parodia (parody Mass), offering the term imitatio (imitation), now widely accepted, in its place. Burkholder 1985 examines the works of Johannes Martini as the first to explore the idea of using several voices from a polyphonic model. Klassen 1954 is part of a basic early study on the parody/imitation Masses of Palestrina. Quereau 1982 is an important synthesis of the author’s dissertation on Palestrina’s fourteen parody Masses and their motet models. Orlich 1985 presents a comprehensive study of Lasso’s parody/imitation Masses based on motets and a comparison of two works based on a chanson and a frottola. Franke 1998 is an important study of Masses based on polyphonic models in which sonorities are more homophonic and the model is used more freely. De Gandarías 2000 expands the study of parody Masses to 16th-century Guatemala. Tomiczek-Gernez 1993 offers a general study of the parody Mass and the works of Manchicourt, Hellinck, Créquillon, and Clemens non Papa. (See also Brill 1995 under Individual Composers; Leuchtmann 1980 under Lassus.)

  • Burkholder, J. Peter. “Johannes Martini and the Imitation Mass of the Late Fifteenth Century.” Journal of the American Musicological Society 38.3 (1985): 470–523.

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    Johannes Martini’s cantus firmus Masses contain a variety of techniques adapting borrowed material from diverse models. He may have been the first to incorporate several voices from a polyphonic model. His works possibly influenced the parody/imitation Masses by Josquin, Obrecht, and Isaac. Extensive musical examples.

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  • De Gandarías, Igor. “La misa de parodia en Guatemala: Aporte al studio de la música en Guatemala durante el siglo XVI.” Pauta: Cuadernos de Teoría y Crítica Musical 75–76 (2000): 166–180.

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    Indicative of recent interest in the music of Latin America, this study examines the melodic, harmonic, and formal characteristics in the Kyrie of the Missa de Bomba by a 16th-century Guatemalan composer, Pedro Bermúdez. After a biographical introduction, the author discusses the model, La Bomba, one of the Ensaladas by the Spanish composer Mateo Flecha, and shows how Bermúdez uses its themes in the Kyrie.

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  • Franke, Veronica. “Borrowing Procedures in the Late 16th-Century Imitation Masses and Their Implications for Our View of ‘Parody’ or ‘Imitation.’” Studien zur Musikwissenschaft 46 (1998): 7–33.

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    An important study of late-16th-century Masses based on models for five and more voices, in which organized contrapuntal elaboration is abandoned, sonorities are more homophonic, and the model is used more freely. Passages from the model appear in a new order, outer voices are borrowed more extensively, and sonorities are more vertical, forming a new type of imitation technique. Examples from Palestrina, De Monte, Lassus, and Costanzo Porta. (See also Franke 2007 under Palestrina.)

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  • Klassen, Johannes. “Untersuchungen zur Parodiemesse Palestrinas.” Kirchenmusikalisches Jahrbuch 37 (1954): 53–63.

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    First in an important series of three articles by Klassen on the parody/imitation Masses of Palestrina. Provides indices of Masses with their models, and analyzes the manner in which the models are used. A basic early discussion of parody technique in Palestrina. Series continues with “Das Parodievergahren in der Messe Palestrinas,” Kirchenmusikalisches Jahrbuch 38 (1954): 24–54; and “Zur Modellbehandlung in Palestrina Parodiemessen,” Kirchenmusikalisches Jahrbuch 39 (1955): 41–55.

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  • Lockwood, Lewis. “On Parody as Term and Concept on 16th-Century Music.” In Aspects of Medieval and Renaissance Music: A Birthday Offering to Gustave Reese. Edited by Jan LaRue, 560–575. New York: Norton, 1966.

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    Discusses the history of terminology for Missa parodia, its puzzling international currency, and whether the term was actually used in the 16th century. The term parodia was unknown to the theorists of the time, e.g., Vicentino, Zarlino, Ponzio, and Cerone. The operative term should be imitatio to describe the practice of using motets as the basis of Masses.

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  • Orlich, Rufina. Die Parodiemessen von Orlando di Lasso. Munich: Wilhelm Fink Verlag, 1985.

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    A comprehensive study of Lasso’s parody/imitation Masses. The first section compares Masses by Lasso, Palestrina, and Gombert based on the chanson “Je suis disheritée,” and those by Lasso and Palestrina on the frottola “Io son ferito.” Remainder of volume analyzes works based on motets according to style, parody technique, and relation to models. Substantial musical examples.

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  • Quereau, Quentin. “Aspects of Palestrina’s Parody Procedure.” Journal of Musicology 1.2 (1982): 198–216.

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    A synthesis of the author’s dissertation on Palestrina’s fourteen parody/imitation Masses and their motet models. Offers reasons for Palestrina’s choices of motives, particularly in his Missa Salvum me fac and Missa Nigra sum, then provides a detailed analysis of his compositional procedures in transforming the selected motives into a contrapuntal texture.

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  • Tomiczek-Gernez, Roza. Pierre de Manchicourt und die Missa ad imitationem modularum. Brussels: Editions Musica Antiqua, 1993.

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    A general study of the parody/imitation Mass and a detailed analysis of such Masses by Pierre de Manchicourt, Lupus Hellincki, Thomas Créquillon, and Clemens non Papa. Links the Masses to their motet models and shows relationships in musical examples and diagrams.

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Individual Composers

Studies from varied points of view examine Masses by other composers from the 16th and early 17th centuries: Willaert, Striggio, Animuccia, Victoria, and Morales. Moroney 2008 discusses a recent discovery of Striggio’s polychoral Mass. Kidger 1998 studies Willaert’s Masses and offers possible connections to earlier musical traditions. Nagoaka 2004 looks at Animuccia’s attempt to reconcile musically interesting works with Tridentine requirements. Cramer 2001 is a collection of essays on the music of Tomás Luis de Victoria, including a chapter on his Missae . . . Liber secundus. Brill 1995 discusses Victoria’s parody or imitation Masses. Filippi 2008 synthesizes Victoria’s twenty Masses. Machella 1995–2005 is a new edition of Victoria’s complete works. Rees and Nelson 2007 presents two essays on borrowing techniques used by Cristóbal de Morales in his Masses.

  • Brill, Patrick J. “The Parody Masses of Tómas Luis de Victoria.” PhD diss., University of Kansas, 1995.

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    Detailed analytical study of Victoria’s fifteen parody/imitation Masses and a history of the parody practice. Identifies three categories in the use of parody technique: direct, rearranged, and remote. Victoria favors rearranged parody, likely related to the artistic goals of the Council of Trent.

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  • Cramer, Eugene Casjen. Studies in the Music of Tomás Luis de Victoria. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 2001.

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    Seven essays on various aspects of Victoria’s music, including a chapter on his application of parody/imitation in the Missae . . . Liber secundus of 1592. Concludes with an overview of his life and work.

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  • Filippi, Daniele. Tomás Luis de Victoria. Palermo, Italy: L’Epos, 2008.

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    In this volume on Victoria’s works, written in Italian, a useful chapter (pp. 119–138) synthesizes the twenty Masses published by this important composer. After summarizing common formal aspects, the author discusses the so-called parody Masses and their sources in motets by Victoria and other composers. Recent researches have revealed sources for the Missa Quarti Toni and the Missa Pro Victoria, the latter seemingly based on Jannequin’s chanson “La bataille.”

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  • Kidger, David. “The Masses of Adrian Willaert: A Critical Study of Sources, Style and Context.” PhD diss., Harvard University, 1998.

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    This study of Willaert’s Masses includes manuscript sources and concordances, the historical context of the printed source of 1536, stylistic analysis, and possible connections to the earlier musical traditions of northern Italy and Josquin.

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  • Machella, Maurizio, ed. Opera Omnia, Tomás Luis de Victoria: Nuova editione pratica in chiavi moderne. Vols. 3–4. Padova, Italy: Armelin Musica: Edizioni Musicali Euganea, 1995–2005.

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    A new ongoing complete works edition of Victoria’s Masses and motets, transcribed into modern clefs. Volume 3: Masses in four voices; Volume 4: Masses in five voices.

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  • Moroney, Davitt. “Alessandro Striggio’s Mass in Forty and Sixty Parts.” Journal of the American Musicological Society 60.1 (2008): 1–69.

    DOI: 10.1525/jams.2007.60.1.1Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Discusses the recent discovery of this Florentine composer’s polychoral Mass from the 1560s. Entitled Missa sopra Ecco si beato giorno, it indicates the influence of Florence and the Medici court on the development of massive polychoral writing. The Mass was apparently used as a political tool by the Medici. Relates the work to Striggio’s forty-part motet, and speculates on the reasons it remained unknown until now.

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  • Nagoaka, Megumi. “The Masses of Giovanni Animuccia: Context and Style.” PhD diss., Brandeis University, 2004.

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    Animuccia’s Masses reveal his attempt to reconcile the textual intelligibility requirements of the Council of Trent with musically interesting works. In the six Masses from his print of 1567 he combined seemingly incompatible compositional techniques, such as harmonizing selected voices within polyphony, and using both chordal and polyphonic textures but relying exclusively on neither.

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  • Rees, Owen, and Bernadette Nelson, eds. Cristóbal de Morales: Sources, Influences, and Reception. Woodbridge, UK: Boydell and Brewer, 2007.

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    This collection of essays on the music of Morales includes essays by Alison McFarland and Cristle Collins Judd on two alternative interpretations of borrowing techniques in his Masses, as well as ideas on chronology.

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Palestrina

As the most important and prolific composer of Masses in the late 16th century, Palestrina is the focus of many analytic studies. His many prints of Masses were widely distributed all over Europe, even in the next century. Roche 1971 is an excellent introduction to his music, including a chapter on the Masses. Lockwood 1975 summarizes documents relating to the Missa Papae Marcelli and debunks the myth that Palestrina “saved” church music. Bianchi 1995 describes each book of Masses along with schematic diagrams for each Mass. Marshall 1963 analyzes the nine paraphrase Masses based on plainchant hymns. Cairns 1993 is a study of the paraphrase Masses based on Office and Marian antiphons. Franke 2007 explores fifteen parody/imitation Masses based on motets. Franke 2006 discusses Palestrina’s ability to manipulate integral textures of a model rather than just individual motives. Haar 1996 shows Palestrina’s sense of history as evident in his two L’homme armé Masses, a tradition long gone by the late 15th century. Luisi 2002 is a new edition of Palestrina’s complete works.

  • Bianchi, Lino. Palestrina nella vita, nelle opere, nel suo tempo. Palestrina, Italy: Fondazione Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina, 1995.

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    Within this large study of Palestrina’s works, Bianchi analyzes his one hundred Masses, organized into the Mass prints published during his lifetime and several posthumous publications. After an introduction on some of Palestrina’s predecessors, each book of Masses is described with selected movements that illustrate Palestrina’s progression as a Mass composer. Schematic diagrams show musical incipits, voice parts, sections of the Ordinary, number of measures, metric signs, and modes at the cadences for each Mass. See pp. 281–605.

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  • Cairns, Debra Margaret. “G.P. da Palestrina: A Study of his Paraphrase Masses Based on Antiphons.” D.M.A. diss., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1993.

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    Discusses the nine paraphrase Masses based on Office and Marian antiphons, the latter being much longer and more elaborate. The author finds some parallel characteristics with the paraphrase Masses based on hymns.

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  • Franke, Veronica M. “Borrowing & Transformation Procedures in Palestrina’s Masses.” In Atti del III Convegno Internazionale di Studi: Palestrina e l’Europa, ottobre 1994. Edited by Giancarlo Rostirolla, Stefania Soldati, and Elena Zomparelli, 169–217. Palestrina, Italy: Fondazione Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina, 2006.

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    A substantial and important article, well documented with extended musical examples. Focuses on the manipulation and refashioning of integral textures derived from a model, rather than just borrowing and transformation of individual motives. Early Masses show Palestrina’s contrapuntal skill, whereas the late works are more concerned with harmonic entities and sonority.

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  • Franke, Veronica M. Palestrina’s Fifteen-Part Imitation Masses Modelled upon Motets: A Study of Compositional Procedures. Palestrina, Italy: Fondazione Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina, 2007.

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    Using an innovative method proposed by Quentin Quereau, this technical study explores fifteen parody/imitation Masses based on motets, focusing on vertical dispositions, texture, and sonority. Diagrams and overlays articulate the structures of large-scale polyphonic compositions. A useful and penetrating study of Palestrina’s overall stylistic development.

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  • Haar, James. “Palestrina as Historicist: The Two L’Homme armé Masses.” Journal of the Royal Musical Association 121.2 (1996): 191–206.

    DOI: 10.1093/jrma/121.2.191Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Palestrina’s L’homme armé Masses were written in 1570, long after this tradition had virtually disappeared. Haar suggests that Palestrina wrote them as a contribution to a venerable tradition in the Cappella Sistina. He had to know the mensural practice of the early 16th century and something of the L’homme armé tradition, evidencing a sense both of history and of emulation.

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  • Lockwood, Lewis. “Introduction.” In Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina, Pope Marcellus Mass: An Authoritative Score, Background and Sources, History and Analysis, View and Comments. Edited by Lewis Lockwood. Norton Critical Scores. New York: Norton, 1975.

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    Useful summary by an eminent scholar of documents relating to Palestrina’s Missa Papae Marcelli, the Council of Trent, and its subsequent influence on church music in Rome and Milan. Debunks the myth of Palestrina having “saved” church music with this work. Analyzes the Mass and provides an authoritative score.

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  • Luisi, Francesco, ed. Edizione nazionale delle opere di Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina (1525–1594). Comitato per l’Edizione nazionale delle opere di Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina. Rome: Editalia, 2002–.

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    A new, ongoing edition of the complete works of Palestrina. Only one volume of Masses is currently available: Missarum Liber Primus.

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  • Marshall, Robert. “The Paraphrase Technique of Palestrina in His Masses Based on Hymns.” Journal of the American Musicological Society 16.3 (1963): 347–372.

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    Discussion and analysis of Palestrina’s nine Masses based on plainchant hymns. Focusing on the paraphrase Masses, he analyzes the various types of Gregorian models used and problems of rhythmic interpretation, arguing that Palestrina assumed their rhythmic neutrality in his own settings of hymns. Discusses thematic treatment, formal design, and the achievement of variety in Palestrina’s style.

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  • Roche, Jerome. “Palestrina.” In Oxford Studies of Composers. Vol. 7. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1971.

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    A slim and useful introduction to the works of Palestrina, including a chapter on his Masses. Discussion of a cross-section of works in each genre, emphasizing the Mass as the height of his greatness.

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Lassus

After Palestrina, Lassus is the most prolific composer of Masses, seventy in all. Huschke 1940 is an important early study of his Masses, organized chronologically within categories. Bluteau 1995 discusses ten Masses that include long cantus firmus sections. Mahrt 2006 discusses the Missa Sesquialtera, suggesting that Lasso’s use of proportions is part of a mannerist style based on expressive tempo changes. Haar 1999 also discusses this Mass, suggesting that it is a wedding Mass possibly based on a German Lied. Leuchtmann 1980 describes a newly found parody/imitation Mass by Lassus, along with works by Morales and Lechner. Hermelink 1962–1975 contains ten volumes of Masses by Lassus.

  • Bluteau, Olga. “Le cantus firmus dans les Messes de Roland de Lassus.” In Itineraires du cantus firmus. Vol. 2, De l’Orient a l’Occident. Edited by Édith Weber. Paris: Presses de l’Université de Paris-Sorbonne, 1995.

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    Bluteau shows that in his ten Masses that include long cantus firmus sections, Lassus was able to heed the Council of Trent’s restrictions and at the same time compose paraphrase and parody Masses.

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  • Haar, James. “A Wedding Mass by Lasso.” Journal of Musicology 17.1 (1999): 112–135.

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    Haar suggests that the Missa Sesquialtera, in spite of its title hinting at Franco-Flemish mensural puzzles, is a wedding Mass from the Augsburg Fugger family in 1579. Almost certainly a parody Mass based on a German Lied, as yet unidentified.

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  • Hermelink, Siegfried, ed. Orlando di Lasso sämtliche Werke. Kassel, Germany: Bärenreiter, 1962–1975.

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    An edition of selected works by Lassus, of which Volumes 3–12 contain Masses.

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  • Huschke, Joachim. “Orlando di Lassos Messen.” Archiv für Musikwissenschaft 5 (1940): 84–103.

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    An important early study of Lassus’ Masses. Huschke organizes the works chronologically according to those based on chant; parody or “transcription” Masses based on motets or chansons; those that show characteristics of Venetian composers; and those of his late style, which relate to the works of older masters. Analysis of melody, harmony, rhythm, and text of late works, with musical examples and bibliography.

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  • Leuchtmann, Horst. “Drei bisher unbekannte Parodiemessen von Morales, Lechner und Lasso: Neufund in einer Neresheimer Handschrift von 1578.” Musik in Bayern 20 (1980): 15–37.

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    Describes a newly found parody-imitation Mass by Lassus based on his chanson De tout mon Coeur, of which only the Tenor Secundus voice is preserved. Facsimiles and edition of this voice.

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  • Mahrt, William. “On the Style of Lasso’s Missa Sesquialtera.” In Die Münchener Hofkapelle des 16. Jahrhunderts im europäischen Kontext. Papers from an international symposium in Munich, 2–4 August 2004. Edited by Theodor Göllner and Bernhold Schmid, 415–433. Munich: C. H. Beck, 2006.

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    Mahrt suggests that Lasso’s use of proportions in this Mass is part of a distinctive mannerist style based on expressive tempo changes rather than on word-painting or chromaticism. Related to a rhetorical way of singing, it embraces a new aesthetic of expressive tempo gradation. Musical examples.

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English Masses from the 13th Century to the 16th

From Dunstable to William Byrd, English composers contributed in important, unique ways to the development of the polyphonic Mass, both Ordinary and Proper. The standard edition of English sacred music is Harrison 1963–. Lefferts 2011 describes the “Lady Mass” in the 13th century as the source for most surviving polyphonic settings of the Mass in England. Benham 1980 surveys English sacred music with Latin texts for the Sarum Rite from c. 1460 to 1575. Bray 1988 traces Mass settings from Power and Dunstable to Frye and the early Tudor composers. Caldwell 1991 includes frequent references to English Masses with their sources and context. Curtis 1982–1983 categorizes early-15th-century English Masses based on mensural practice.

  • Benham, Hugh. Latin Church Music in England, ca. 1460–1575. New York: Da Capo Press, 1980.

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    A survey of English sacred music with Latin texts for the Sarum (Salisbury) rite, from the Pepys manuscript (c. 1460) to the Byrd “Cantiones” of 1575. Chapters on performance problems, form, and structure precede a discussion of the Eton choirbook, its composers, and other manuscript sources up to the Reformation. Descriptions of Masses, along with other forms of sacred music (see also Other Liturgies). Originally printed in 1975.

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  • Bray, Roger, ed. Music in Britain: The Sixteenth Century. The Blackwell History of Music in Britain 2. Oxford: Blackwell, 1988.

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    Chapter 2, “Sacred Music to Latin Texts,” traces Mass settings from Power and Dunstable in the early 15th century to Frye and the early Tudor composers. Discusses the York and Ritson manuscripts; analyzes in detail Masses by Fayrfax, Ashton, Taverner, and Tallis. Brief discussion of the clandestine Catholic works of Byrd. Useful listing of individual Masses and manuscript sources in index; extensive bibliography.

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  • Caldwell, John. Oxford History of English Music. Vol. 1, From the Beginnings to c. 1715. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1991.

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    Volume 1 of this two-volume survey of English music includes frequent references to English Masses with sources, analysis, and context. Index includes “Mass” as a topic. Excellent bibliography, frequent musical examples, and illustrative plates.

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  • Curtis, Gareth R. K. “Stylistic Layers in the English Mass Repertory c. 1400–1450.” Proceedings of the Royal Musical Association 109 (1982–1983): 23–38.

    DOI: 10.1093/jrma/109.1.23Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Curtis places early-15th-century English Masses in three categories based on their mensural practices, and discusses related stylistic traits in each category.

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  • Harrison, Frank Llewellyn. Early English Church Music. London: Stainer and Bell, 1963–.

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    Large ongoing series devoted entirely to English sacred music. Includes volumes of music from early Tudor Masses to recent editions of Masses by Nicholas Ludford and Robert Fayrfax. Introductions, critical notes, and discussions of manuscript sources.

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  • Lefferts, Peter M. “England.” In The Cambridge Companion to Medieval Music. Edited by Mark Evarist, 107–120. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2011.

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    Lefferts describes the daily votive Marian Mass (Lady Mass), which was nearly universal in English churches by the early 13th century, and served as source for most of the surviving polyphonic settings of the Mass Ordinary in England.

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Sources and Editions

Source studies and editions of English sacred music include fragments from the Worcester Cathedral, the Winchester Troper, the Old Hall manuscript, and several newly found sources. Harrison, et al. 1983–1986 offers transcriptions of the English Lady Mass from medieval times through the 14th century. Hughes 1971 presents fragments from bindings of old account books from the Worcester Cathedral, which contain 13th- and 14th-century settings of both Ordinary and Proper of the Mass. Rankin 2007 is a new facsimile edition of Cambridge 473, the earlier of two manuscripts known as the Winchester Troper, containing organal parts and plainchants. Hughes and Bent 1969–1973 is the definitive edition of the Old Hall manuscript, containing hundreds of Mass movements. Lefferts and Bent 1982 is the first of three articles describing seventeen newly found sources of English polyphony from the 13th century to the 16th. Hamm 1968 discusses Continental sources of anonymous Mass movements that may be English. Shand 2007 describes a newly found source of an English Mass from the 15th century.

  • Hamm, Charles. “A Catalogue of Anonymous English Music in Fifteenth-Century Continental Manuscripts.” Musica Disciplina 22 (1968): 47–76.

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    Discusses Continental sources of anonymous Mass movements and suggests the means to identify them as particularly English, including choice of cantus firmus, particular melodic figures, and mensural practices. Describes stylistic features of the music and provides a catalogue of the sources.

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  • Harrison, Frank Lloyd, Ernest H. Sanders, and Peter Lefferts, eds. Polyphonic Music of the Fourteenth Century. Vols. 16–17, English Music for Mass and Offices I–II. Monaco: Éditions de l’Oiseau-Lyre, 1983–1986.

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    Important transcriptions of the English Lady Mass in honor of the Virgin Mary from medieval times. Organized by Mass movements, Volume 16 also contains a few settings of the Proper. Volume 17 includes votive antiphons, sequences, motets, and other ceremonial music. Introduction, table of votive Masses in Salisbury and Franciscan liturgies, notes on performance.

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  • Hughes, Anselm, ed. Worcester Medieval Harmony of the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries. New York and Hildesheim, Germany: G. Olms Verlag, 1971.

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    Anselm Hughes has assembled fragments from 15th-century bindings of old account books from Worcester Cathedral archives, and flyleaves of books from the Bodleian, British Library, and other sources. Contains 13th- and 14th-century polyphonic settings of the Ordinary and Proper of the Mass, tropes, conductus, and rondelli. Says Worcester was a principal center of English musical culture in the 14th century. Facsimiles and transcriptions. First published 1928 (Burnham, UK: n.p.).

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  • Hughes, Andrew, and Margaret Bent, eds. The Old Hall Manuscript. Corpus Mensurabilis Musicae 46. 4 vols. Rome: American Institute of Musicology, 1969–1973.

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    The definitive edition of this important manuscript representing some two generations of English composers, 1350–1430. Contains hundreds of Mass movements in three volumes of transcriptions and one of commentary. Includes detailed entries for each work, plus extracted plainsongs, “squares,” and tenors. Special care taken with accidentals and their transcription. Inventory of the manuscript in an informative table.

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  • Lefferts, Peter M., and Margaret Bent. “New Sources of English Thirteenth- and Fourteenth-Century Polyphony.” Early Music History: Studies in Medieval and Early Modern Music 2 (1982): 273–362.

    DOI: 10.1017/S0261127900002138Save Citation »Export Citation »

    First in a series of three articles by Bowers, Rankin, Wathey, Lefferts, and Bent containing detailed descriptions of seventeen newly found sources of English polyphony from the 13th century to the 16th. All include important concordances to the Old Hall manuscript, and other sources contemporary to the Worcester fragments. Articles contain facsimiles, selected transcriptions, and commentaries on genres, notations, and musical style. Part 2: Roger Bowers and Andrew Wathey, “New Sources of English Fourteenth- and Fifteenth-Century Polyphony.” EMH 3 (1983): 123–173; Part 3: Roger Bowers and Andrew Wathey, “New Sources of English Fifteenth- and Sixteenth-Century Polyphony.” EMH 4 (1984): 297–346.

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  • Rankin, Susan. The Winchester Troper: Facsimile Edition and Introduction. Early English Church Music 50. Edited by John Caldwell. Dorchester, UK: Stainer and Bell, 2007.

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    Splendid new facsimile edition of Cambridge University MS 473, the earlier of two manuscripts known as the Winchester Troper. Contains organal parts to plainchants from the Winchester repertory not found elsewhere, as well as tropes, sequences, and proses. Substantial introduction includes scribal hands and problems of notation. Bibliography, inventory of the manuscript, and index of chants.

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  • Shand, Fiona. “A New Continental Source of a Fifteenth-Century English Mass.” Music and Letters 88.3 (2007): 405–419.

    DOI: 10.1093/ml/gcm005Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Description of a newly found source of an English 15th-century Mass, F-LYm MS 6632, containing a three-voice Mass with a fourth voice added apparently by a later composer. An unusually late and rare example of a large sacred work that adapts and transforms an existing composition with a new voice, a practice normally found in the chanson.

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Interpretative Studies

From articles on the Old Hall manuscript to the works of Thomas Tallis, various authors have contributed important studies on the English Mass. Hughes 1965 confirms the pairing of Mass movements in the Old Hall manuscript, and adds three more pairs to those already identified. Hughes and Bent 1967 adds new information on musical styles, dates, and compilation of this manuscript. Bent 1974 is an important study of Old Hall, citing several unsolved provenance problems and the identity of the composer “Roy Henry.” Bent 1969 describes an English fragment containing two Mass movements by John Plummer, and the Kyrie of Dufay’s Missa caput. Baillie and Oboussier 1954 describes the reconstruction of the York choirbook with its unique Mass settings from the Sarum Rite. Evans 1998 identifies the cantus firmus in an anonymous 15th-century Credo and attributes it to Dunstable. Gerber 2009 suggests that a canonic Mass by the unknown English composer Standley may be an early example of a wedding Mass. Kerman 1994 discusses Tallis’ seven-voice Missa Puer natus est, especially the canonic Agnus Dei II. (See also von Ficker 1924 under Trent Codices for works by English composers.)

  • Baillie, Hugh, and Philippe Oboussier. “The York Masses.” Music and Letters 35.1 (1954): 19–30.

    DOI: 10.1093/ml/XXXV.1.19Save Citation »Export Citation »

    A detailed description of the York choirbook from the late 15th century to the early 16th, containing unique Mass settings evidently from the Sarum Rite. Composers named are William Horwood and Johannes Cuk (John Cook), the latter otherwise unknown. Describes its reconstruction and analyzes individual Kyrie settings, Gloria-Credo pairs, and incomplete Masses, some of which are in a rare choral alternatim (alternation) setting.

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  • Bent, Margaret. “Dufay, Dunstable, Plummer—A New Source.” Journal of the American Musicological Society 22.3 (1969): 394–424.

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    Describes a newly found fragment containing two Mass movements by John Plummer, a motet by Dunstable, and the Kyrie of Dufay’s “Caput” Mass in an English source. Suggests that Dufay’s Kyrie may have been modeled on English Kyrie design.

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  • Bent, Margaret. “The Old Hall Manuscript.” Early Music 2.1 (1974): 2–14.

    DOI: 10.1093/earlyj/2.1.2Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Important substantial study of this revered manuscript, the only repertory of Mass music surviving in England before 1500 and the first English body of music where composers’ names are given. Leonel Power is the composer most frequently represented. Clearly planned as a collection of polyphony for the Mass. Cites unsolved problems, including provenance and dating, and identifies Henry IV or V as the composer “Roy Henry.” Facsimile pages and musical examples.

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  • Evans, Jean-Marc. “A Unique Cantus Firmus Usage in a 15th-Century Mass Movement.” Early Music 26.3 (1998): 469–477.

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    Evans identifies the cantus firmus in an anonymous 15th-century Credo as the respond Jacet granum for the feast of St. Thomas of Canterbury, and cautiously attributes it to Dunstable.

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  • Gerber, Rebecca. “A Fifteenth-Century Pellegrina and Standley’s ‘Harmony of the Spheres’ Mass.” In Uno Gentile et Subtile Ingenio: Studies in Renaissance Music in Honour of Bonnie J. Blackburn. Edited by M. Jennifer Bloxam, Gioia Filocamo, and Leofranc Holford-Strevens, 359–368. Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols, 2009.

    DOI: 10.1484/M.EM-EB.3.2703Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Suggests that a canonic Mass by the unknown English composer Standley is connected to an anonymous motet Que est ista, attributed to Standley by Feininger. The work also reflects the textual message of a 15th-century ballade, O pellegrina, O luce. May be an early example of a wedding Mass with its textual connections to Dante, Giustinian, and traditional wedding symbolism.

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  • Hughes, Andrew. “Mass Pairs in the Old Hall and Other English Manuscripts.” Revue Belge de Musicologie 19 (1965): 15–27.

    DOI: 10.2307/3686594Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Confirms the pairing of Mass movements in the Old Hall MS and adds three more pairs of works by Leonel Power, Cooke, and Damett to those identified by Bukofzer and Hamm. Briefly discusses other Mass pairs in the English repertory of this period.

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  • Hughes, Andrew, and Margaret Bent. “The Old Hall Manuscript: A Re-appraisal.” Musica Disciplina 21 (1967): 97–147.

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    In addition to summarizing previous knowledge about this important MS, the article adds new information on musical styles, dates of composition, places where it may have been compiled and/or used. Describes the manuscript as a mixture of Italian and French influences, both sacred and secular.

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  • Kerman, Joseph. “The Missa Puer natus est by Thomas Tallis.” In Write All These Down: Essays on Music. By Joseph Kerman, 125–138. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994.

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    Kerman discusses Tallis’s seven-voice Missa Puer natus est, its manuscript sources, mensuration, alphanumerical cantus firmus puzzle, and musical style, especially the impressive canonic Agnus Dei II. A penetrating essay on this most unusual Tallis work.

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Dunstable (Dunstaple)

Dunstable was among the first English composers, along with Leonel Power, to pair Gloria-Credo movements, an early contribution to the cyclic Mass unified by a single tenor. Recent research has focused on problems of attribution, pairing, and scribal intervention. Dunstable’s complete works are available in Bukofzer 1953, though more recent scholars differ on some attributions. Bent 1981 is an excellent survey of his musical style, including Masses. Bent 1996 reports on a canonic Gloria in an English source. Kovarik 1968 discusses the discovery of fragments of a missing Gloria.

  • Bent, Margaret. Dunstaple. Oxford Studies of Composers. London: Oxford University Press, 1981.

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    In the series Oxford Studies of Composers, this is an excellent survey of Dunstaple’s musical style in general and Masses in particular. Chapter 5 is devoted to compositions for the Ordinary of the Mass.

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  • Bent, Margaret. “A New Canonic Gloria and the Changing Profile of Dunstaple.” Plainsong and Medieval Music 5.1 (1996): 45–67.

    DOI: 10.1017/S0961137100001066Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Bent reports on a canonic Gloria in an English source recently discovered in an Estonian library. Suggests the 1420s as a date for this work, which is unlike anything else Dunstaple wrote. Extends our awareness of his multi-voice compositions. Transcription and facsimile.

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  • Bukofzer, Manfred. Dunstable, John: Complete Works. Musica Britannica 8. London: Stainer and Bell, 1953.

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    A complete edition of Masses, motets, and secular works by Dunstable. Masses are organized into single movements, paired movements, isorhythmic Masses, and the cyclic Mass Missa Rex seculorum. Critical notes, list of liturgical sources.

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  • Kovarik, Edward. “A Newly Discovered Dunstable Fragment.” Journal of the American Musicological Society 21.1 (1968): 21–33.

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    Reports on a discovery in the Harvard University Library of fragments of the missing Gloria Da gaudiorum premia by Dunstable.

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Byrd

William Byrd wrote for both Catholic and Anglican liturgies, and was the most significant composer of English music for the Mass, both Ordinary and Proper, in the late 16th and early 17th centuries. Brett 2007 analyzes his “Gradualia,” consisting of 109 motets based on Mass Proper texts. McCarthy 2007 discusses the collection from a devotional point of view. Kerman 1981 gives a comprehensive treatment of both Masses and motets and discusses Byrd’s creative development. Mahrt 2009 briefly discusses Byrd’s three Masses. (See also Burn and Gasch 2011 under Isaac for a discussion of Byrd’s “Gradualia.”)

  • Brett, Philip. “Prefaces to Gradualia.” In William Byrd and His Contemporaries: Essays and a Monograph. Edited by Joseph Kerman and Davitt Moroney, 128–230. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007.

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    Adapted into an essay from the relevant Byrd Edition volumes of the Gradualia. Arranged by liturgical feast, this important study offers penetrating analyses of these motets based on parts of the Mass Proper. Sections on Byrd’s patrons and publications, ideas on performance practice.

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  • Kerman, Joseph. The Masses and Motets of William Byrd. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1981.

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    A comprehensive treatment of Byrd’s Latin-texted music, including a discussion of Byrd’s creative development. Chapter on the three Masses offers detailed, insightful analysis of each movement. Discussion of the Gradualia motets based on Propers of the Mass is divided into chapters on the liturgical feasts for which they are intended. Important, well-written study.

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  • Mahrt, William Peter. “The Masses of William Byrd.” Sacred Music 136.4 (2009): 42–48.

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    Brief article on Byrd’s Masses written for a small community of Catholics in Elizabethan England. Eschewing the use of borrowed material, Byrd focused on a direct and simple expression, its declamation always connected to the rhythm of the text. Imitation is used in varied and often concentrated ways, but always in service of the text.

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  • McCarthy, Kerry. Liturgy and Contemplation in Byrd’s “Gradualia.” New York: Routledge, 2007.

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    Byrd’s Gradualia consists of 109 motets based on Mass Proper texts, mostly for votive Masses or Lady Masses, a staple of English choral music. McCarthy discusses the cycle from a devotional point of view, both that of Byrd himself and that of the English Catholic of the 16th century. Insightful analysis of liturgical practice, text types, and chronology.

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The Mass in the 17th Century

Though the traditional cyclic treatments of the Mass declined in the 17th century, and the techniques used in previous eras began to disappear, Mass composition received new life in the messa concertata (concerted Mass). With the advent of the basso continuo and the use of instruments and virtuosic voices, the Mass expanded in both form and texture. Sonorities ranged from works for single voices and continuo to large choral works with orchestra. Carter 1992 contains chapters on sacred polyphony from the mid-16th century through the early 17th. Carter and Butt 2005 is a collaborative volume containing a chapter on music in the liturgy. Weaver 2011 studies sacred music in the Habsburg court, and its rich cultural, political, and religious context. Sander 1933 is an early descriptive survey of 17th-century Masses from the Stadtbibliothek in Breslau, an important collection of Italian sacred music. O’Regan 2005 discusses the ecclesiastical style in Rome, large-scale Masses in Rome and Spain, and other forms of the Mass and Vespers. Launay 1993 surveys French religious music from the Council of Trent to 1804, especially Masses printed by Ballard, and manuscript sources of more elaborate orchestral Masses.

  • Carter, Tim. Music in Late Renaissance & Early Baroque Italy. London: B. T. Batsford, 1992.

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    Contains perceptive chapters on sacred polyphony from the mid-16th century through the early 17th, and is especially valuable for differentiating the styles of Venice and Rome. Stresses the importance of studying sacred music for a more complete understanding of the period.

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  • Carter, Tim, and John Butt, eds. The Cambridge History of Seventeenth-Century Music. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2005.

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    An interesting collaborative volume with selective perspectives on the 17th century and its music. Chapter on music in the liturgy touches on places and forms of service, polychoral music, small- and large-scale concertato (concerted) styles in Italian and French sacred music. Each chapter closes with a bibliography.

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  • Launay, Denise. La musique religieuse en France du Concile de Trente à 1804. Paris: Publications de la Société de Musicologie, Éditions Klincksieck, 1993.

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    An excellent survey of French religious music from the Council of Trent to the coronation of Napoleon. Includes music with Latin and French texts, liturgical and paraliturgical, and some Protestant music. Frequent references to the Mass in France during the Counter-Reformation and subsequent periods of liturgical change. Parts 6 and 7 discuss Masses printed by Ballard, which conformed to Tridentine stipulations, and manuscript sources of more elaborate orchestral Masses. Extensive bibliography, illustrations, and musical examples.

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  • O’Regan, Noel. “The Church Triumphant: Music in the Liturgy.” In The Cambridge History of Seventeenth-Century Music. Edited by Tim Carter and John Butt, 283–323. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2005.

    DOI: 10.1017/CHOL9780521792738.011Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Excellent essay divided into discussion of Mass and Vespers, Lutheran, Anglican, and Protestant liturgies from Italy, France, and England. Describes the stylus ecclesiasticus (ecclesiastical style) and its variants in Rome; large-scale Masses in Rome and Spain; small-scale concertato (concerted) works that originated in Italy and quickly spread all over Europe; and large-scale concertato settings with instrumental participation.

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  • Sander, H. A. “Beiträge zur Geschichte der Barockmesse.” Kirchenmusikalisches Jahrbuch 28 (1933): 77–129.

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    Brief descriptive early survey of 17th-century Masses in the Stadtbibliothek Breslau, an important collection of Italian sacred music. Discussion is divided into three groups: concerted Masses with basso continuo only; Masses with instruments; eight-voice and polychoral Masses. Composers are mostly Italian, with a few German works included.

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  • Weaver, Andrew H. Sacred Music as Public Image for Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand: Representing the Counter-Reformation Monarch at the End of the Thirty Years’ War. Farnsworth, UK: Ashgate, 2011.

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    Excellent background study of sacred music in the Habsburg court of Emperor Ferdinand III. Places sacred music in the rich cultural, political, and religious contexts of Central Europe. Focuses on the Latin Masses and motets; also includes opera and oratorio.

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Sources and Editions

Modern editions of Masses by 17th-century French and Italian composers are increasingly available, along with studies, often in dissertations, of both manuscript and printed sources. Lionnet 1992– is a series dedicated to French sacred music from the Baroque, including volumes of individual Masses. Cessac 1997–2002 is an edition of the eleven Masses by Charpentier in four volumes. Duron 1994 offers an edition of the last Mass by Charpentier, the Missa Assumpta est Maria. Gilbert and Moroney 1982 contains an edition of Couperin’s organ Masses. Baker 1984 discusses sources of Campra’s church music in its cultural context. Schnoebelen 1995–1999 presents a ten-volume edition of 17th-century printed Masses by Italian composers. Schnoebelen 2002 discusses printed sources of 17th-century Masses from northern Italy.

  • Baker, Anne. “The Church Music of André Campra: A Reconsideration of the Sources.” Recherches sur la Musique Française Classique 22 (1984): 89–130.

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    Stylistic analysis of Campra’s Masses and motets in their cultural context. Shows his mingling of theater and sacred styles, especially Italian influences. Discussion of sources with musical examples and illustrations. Transcription of Campra’s Messe de mort.

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  • Cessac, Catherine, ed. M.-A. Charpentier, Messes À 4 Voix et Orchestre. Versailles, France: Éditions du Centre de Musique Baroque de Versailles, 1997–2002.

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    In this series of French sacred music, Cessac presents an edition of the eleven Masses by Charpentier in four volumes. Extensive introductions in French and English, critical notes, facsimiles.

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  • Duron, Jean. M.-A. Charpentier, Missa “Assumpta est Maria”: (H.11). Versailles, France: Éditions du Centre de Musique Baroque de Versailles, 1994.

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    In the same series as Cessac 1997–2002, Duron presents a single Mass by Charpentier, the last and most complex of his Masses. The work is a messe concertante (concerted Mass) for soloists, choir, and orchestra, a style totally neglected by the Parisian publisher Ballard. Extensive introduction in French and English, critical notes, and facsimiles.

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  • Gilbert, Kenneth, and Davitt Moroney. Oeuvres completes de François Couperin. Vol. 3, Pièces d’orgue. Rev. ed. Monaco: Éditions de l’Oiseau-Lyre, 1982.

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    Volume 3 of Couperin’s complete works contains his organ Masses, along with an important preface, revised since the discovery of the Versailles manuscript. Offers a detailed comparison of that manuscript with the previously known Carpentras manuscript, resulting in some 250 changes in ornaments, notes, accidentals, etc.

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  • Lionnet, Jean, ed. Éditions du Centre de Musique Baroque de Versailles. Versailles, France: Centre de Musique Baroque de Versailles, 1992–.

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    An ongoing series dedicated to French sacred music from the Baroque. Contains individual volumes of Masses by Fonces, Desvignes, Geoffroy, DuPuy, Menault, Marchant, Charpentier, Campra, and others.

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  • Schnoebelen, Anne. “Printed Settings of the Mass Available to North Italian capelle musicali in the 17th Century.” In Barocco Padano II. Proceedings from a conference in Como, 16–18 July 1999. Edited by Alberto Colzani, Andrea Luppi, and Maurizio Padoan, 109–120. Como, Italy: Antiquae Musicae Italicae Studiosi, 2002.

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    The more than 600 extant publications of Masses printed in Italy from the 17th century include imitation Masses, examples of missa brevis (short Mass), sine nomine (without name), and messa concertata (concerted Mass), Masses based on cantus firmus and hexachords, church modes, and some including elaborate canons. Mid-century Masses included virtuosic vocal passages, and optional ripieno groups offering flexibility of performance possibilities.

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  • Schnoebelen, Anne. Masses. Vols. 1–10 of Seventeenth-Century Italian Sacred Music. Edited by Anne Schnoebelen and Jeffrey Kurtzman. 25 vols. New York: Garland, 1995–1999.

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    Modern editions of 17th-century Masses by Italian composers: Villani, Grandi, Lappi, Levà, Capello, Freddi, E. Porta, Donati, Milanuzzi, Gallerano, Chinelli, Merula, Rigatti Polidori, Rovetta, Tarditi, Finatti, Cazzati, Arresti, Grossi, Legrenzi, Florimi, Mognossa, Foggia, Graziani, Scorpione, Duponchel, Penna, Colonna, Passarini, Degli Antonii, G. B. Bassani. Brief historical and analytical introduction to each Mass, critical notes.

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France

These essays include studies on the formats in which French Masses appeared, the liturgical life at the court of Louis XIV, the French classical organ Mass, works illustrative of French reforms of the liturgy, and music manuscript studies. Léon 2000 analyzes French Masses in their various formats: choirbook, scores, and separate printed partbooks. Maral 2001 describes daily and yearly musical life at Louis XIV’s court including daily Mass. Higginbottom 1976–1977 studies the French classical organ’s role in the liturgy including alternatim (alternation) usage in the Mass. Hameline 1992 shows how Henry Du Mont’s Masses illustrate liturgical and musical reforms in 17th-century France. Burke 1981 describes two music manuscripts from a convent founded by Louis XIII containing concertato (concerted) Mass movements and motets. Heyer 2007 reports on a newly discovered Mass by Jean Gilles showing progressive Italian practices. Ponsford 2010 discusses an unusual Mass by Charpentier, an instrumental version of an organ Mass. Davy-Rigaux 2011 discusses “plain-chant musical,” newly composed or modified Gregorian chants performed with organ.

  • Burke, James R. “Sacred Music at Notre-Dame-des-Victoires under Mazarin and Louis XIV.” Recherches sur la Musique Française Classique 20 (1981): 19–44.

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    Discusses some concertato (concerted) Mass movements, petits (small) motets, and Vesper psalms in two manuscripts from this Parisian convent church. Analysis of the collection, including problems of dating, watermarks, and attribution.

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  • Davy-Rigaux, Cécile. “Les messes en plain-chant musical en France à l’époque modern.” In Actes du colloque 1000 Ans de chant Grégorien. Sablé-sur-Sarthe: 2011. 201–231. Solesmes, France: Editions de Solesmes, 2011.

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    The term “plain-chant musical” in 17th-century France indicates newly composed or modified Gregorian chants performed with organ continuo. In addition to works by Henry Du Mont, a vast repertoire of such Masses appeared in mid-century, often in liturgical publications of specific religious communities. Article surveys both print and manuscript sources and offers facsimile reproductions from liturgical books.

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  • Hameline, Jean-Yves. “Les messes d’Henry Du Mont.” In Le concert des muses: Promenade musicale dans le baroque française. Edited by Jean Lionnet, 221–231. Versailles, France: Klincksieck, 1992.

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    Du Mont’s five cantus firmus Masses, written in 1669, illustrate the liturgical and musical reforms introduced in France in the 17th century. His syllabic settings, carefully reproduced by the publisher Ballard, ensured the desired clarity of the text. Also surveys their various subsequent editions from the 18th and 19th centuries.

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  • Heyer, John Hajdu. “A Newly Discovered French Baroque Mass by Jean Gilles: Reconsidering the Concerted Mass in France c. 1700.” In L’esprit français und die Musik Europas: Entstehung Einfluss und Grenzen einer ästhetischen Doktrin—Festschrift für Herbert Schneider. Edited by Michelle Biget-Mainfroy, Rainer Schmusch, and Herbert Schneider. Hildesheim, Germany: Olms, 2007.

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    Heyer uses Jean Gilles’ newly discovered Messe in si bémol to reevaluate his significance as a composer of concerted Masses in the reign of Louis XIV. His analysis shows progressive Italian practices such as the use of expressive text painting and concerted fugal choruses. Provides authentication of the Mass, and proposes Gilles’ Masses to be unique among French Masses in this period.

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  • Higginbottom, Edward. “The French Classical Organ Music and the Liturgy.” Proceedings of the Royal Musical Association 103 (1976–1977): 19–40.

    DOI: 10.1093/jrma/103.1.19Save Citation »Export Citation »

    This important study examines the French classical organ’s role in the liturgy, primarily from ecclesiastical documents in twenty-six ceremonials. Details the liturgical items in which the organ might participate, including alternation usage for all Ordinary parts except the Credo, and for Graduals, Sequences, Alleluias and Communions of the Proper. Demonstrates various schemes for the alternation of polyphony and organ music.

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  • Léon, Jean-Charles. “L’Art du maître de musique: Essai sur la function des sources musicales de la messe polyphonique en France aux XVIIème et XVIIIème siècles.” Revue de Musicologie 86.2 (2000): 193–216.

    DOI: 10.2307/947401Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Discusses the various formats in which French polyphonic music is preserved in the 17th and 18th centuries: choirbooks, scores, and separate printed partbooks. The same Mass can appear in different formats, each showing a particular feature of the work. Distinguishes three levels of musical sources: those used for composition, conservation, and reutilization or diffusion. Suggests implications for the performance of French Baroque Masses.

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  • Maral, Alexander. La Chapelle royale de Versailles sous Louis XIV: Cèrémonial, liturgie et musique. Études du Centre de Musique Baroque de Versailles. Sprimont, Belgium: Mardaga, 2001.

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    After a description of the five chapels built in Versailles by Louis XIV, the book details daily and yearly musical life: music for royal ceremonies, liturgical cycles, daily morning Mass, and other choral music. Documents, illustrations, manuscript sources, and a useful glossary in the substantial appendices.

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  • Ponsford, David. “A Question of Genre: Charpentier’s Messe pour plusieurs instruments au lieu des orgues (H513).” In New Perspectives on Marc-Antoine Charpentier. Edited by Shirley Thompson, 105–132. Farnham, UK: Ashgate, 2010.

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    Ponsford discusses this unusual Mass, an instrumental version of an alternatim (alternation) organ Mass, an important genre in 17th-century French sacred music. This is the only example of a French Baroque liturgical Mass scored only for orchestral instruments.

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Austria

Studies on the role of sacred music in Vienna and in Franciscan convents show the influence of Italian styles in Austria and Germany. Saunders 1995 is a richly documented study of sacred music at the court of Ferdinand II, including chapters on Masses by Priuli and Valentini. Giebler 1956 analyzes Johann Caspar Kerll’s sixteen Masses, written mostly in Vienna. Grasemann 1966 is a collection of studies on Masses by Franciscan composers in lower Austria.

  • Giebler, Albert. “The Masses of Johann Caspar Kerll.” PhD diss., University of Michigan, 1956.

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    A study of Kerll’s sixteen Masses, all but one in the concertato (concerted) style, the exception being a Requiem Mass in traditional style for voices only. Most were composed during his mature years in Vienna. Stylistic analysis shows usages of solo voices, instruments, dissonance treatment, frequent meter changes, and word-painting, all influenced by Italian stylistic traits. Volume 2 contains transcriptions of two Masses.

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  • Grasemann, Friederike. “Die Franziskanermesse des 17. und 18. Jahrhundert.” Studien zur Musikwissenschaft 27 (1966): 72–124.

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    A collection of studies on Masses by Franciscan composers from cloister archives in lower Austria. Some are in the newer messa concertata (concerted Mass) style; others in a contrapuntal tradition, or based on German hymns, some containing canons and fugues. Includes studies on Requiem Masses and a large number of works with only soprano and figured bass from the late 17th and early 18th centuries.

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  • Saunders, Steven. Cross, Sword, and Lyre: Sacred Music at the Imperial Court of Ferdinand II of Habsburg (1619–1637). Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995.

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    A fascinating discussion of the imperial musical chapel and court under Ferdinand II in Vienna. The richly documented background illustrates the transmission of Italian style across the Alps. Chapters on Masses by Giovanni Priuli and Giovanni Valentini, both influenced by Giovanni Gabrieli in Venice. Extensive musical examples, appendices giving personnel lists of the Imperial Musical Chapel, lists of works, and an anthology.

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Italy

Varied studies of Masses by individual Italian composers reveal influences from the Council of Trent, the extension of Palestrina’s influence in the 17th century and the preservation of traditional techniques in Roman Masses, the misattribution to Carissimi of a five-voice Mass, and the development of the Bolognese orchestral Mass. Wilbert 1969 analyzes the polyphonic Masses and alternatim (alternation) organ Masses of Banchieri, finding a rare form of basso continuo. Madock 1996 focuses on the stile antico (old style) in the Masses of Antonio Lotti in Venice. Williams 1971 studies the Masses by Giovani Francesco Anerio, an important Roman composer in the late 16th and early 17th centuries. Miller 1999 shows how composers pursued the polyphonic style of Palestrina in the 17th century. Witzenmann 1982 corrects the misattribution of a Mass to Carissimi as a fraudulent claim by a publisher. Schnoebelen 1966 presents an archival and analytic study of the Bolognese concerted Mass. Schnoebelen 1990 discusses the role of the violin in the revitalization of the 17th-century Mass in northern Italy. Sanders 2012 explores music at the court in Mantua 1585–1650.

  • Madock, David Carter. “A Study of the Stile Antico in the Masses and Motets of Antonio Lotti as Contained in the ‘Codice Marciano Italiano IV’, Venice.” PhD diss., Catholic University of America, 1996.

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    This dissertation focuses on the stile antico (old style) as interpreted by Antonio Lotti in his Masses and motets. After discussing papal legislation on music beginning with the Council of Trent and the Church’s attempts to deal with abuses, Madock provides transcriptions and analyses of Lotti’s adaptation of a quasi-Palestrina style based on Baroque models.

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  • Miller, Stephen R. “Palestrina and the Seventeenth-Century Mass at Rome: Re-use, Reference, and Synthesis.” In La recenzione di Palestrina in Europa: Fino dell’Ottocento. Edited by Rodobaldo Tibaldi, 67–104. Lucca, Italy: Libreria Musicale Italiana, 1999.

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    Composers pursued the polyphonic stile pieno (full style) of Palestrina in various ways in Roman Masses during the 17th century. Miller distinguishes three levels of adaptation: reuse (the greatest borrowing of Palestrina’s materials); reference (perhaps the least); and synthesis (establishing a rapprochement between Palestrina and 17th-century works).

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  • Sanders, Donald C. Music at the Gonzaga Court in Mantua. Plymouth, UK: Lexington Books, 2012.

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    Discussion of music in this important Mantuan court in the mid-16th and early 17th centuries during the reigns of Isabella d’Este, Duke Guglielmo, and Vincenzo I. Several references to Masses written for the Basilica of Santa Barbara, built within the confines of the palace. Contains a chapter on the Counter-Reformation and its effect on sacred music in Mantua.

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  • Schnoebelen, M. N. (Anne). “The Concerted Mass at San Petronio in Bologna: A Documentary and Analytical Study.” PhD diss., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1966.

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    A study of the Bolognese concerted Mass in the 17th and early 18th centuries based on archival documents from the Basilica of San Petronio. Analysis of orchestral Masses by Cazzati, Colonna, and Perti. Discusses instrumental style, solo vocal and choral music, operatic influences, use of instruments in the Mass, and performance practices. Transcriptions of documents and selected movements.

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  • Schnoebelen, Anne. “The Role of the Violin in the Resurgence of the Mass in the 17th Century.” Early Music 18 (1990): 538–542.

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    The modern Italian messa concertata (concerted Mass) began its development around 1614 with the addition of basso continuo, violin, and cornett. In festive Masses from 1630 the violin doubled tutti sections, gave harmonic and ornamental support at cadences, and provided sinfonias as structural elements. Evidence suggests instrumental music substituted for parts of the Ordinary and Proper.

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  • Wilbert, Harmann-Joseph. “Die Messen des Adriano Banchiari.” PhD diss., Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, Mainz, 1969.

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    A formal analysis of Banchieri’s polyphonic Masses, including the influence of the Council of Trent on word-tone relationships. In his alternatim (alternation) organ Masses, a rare form of continuo appears based on a Gregorian melody recast as a bass melody, and realized in a motet-like improvisatory verset. Discusses alternatim practice in both Mass and Office.

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  • Williams, Nyal. “The Masses of Giovanni Francesco Anerio: A Historical and Analytical Study with a Supplementary Critical Edition.” PhD diss., University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1971.

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    G. F. Anerio was an important Roman composer of Masses in the late 16th and early 17th centuries. This study covers printed and manuscript sources, their Roman context, and stylistic analysis of Anerio’s parody technique, traditional contrapuntal style, chordal and polychoral styles. A second volume contains a critical edition of all the Masses.

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  • Witzenmann, Wolfgang. “Una messa non di Carissimi, un’altra sì.” Studi Musicali 11.1 (1982): 61–89.

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    Witzenmann proves that, due to a fraudulent claim by the publisher or delusion by a copyist, the 1666 Mass attributed to Carissimi was not composed by him. Suggests that an anonymous manuscript that contains a Messa a cinque voci ‘Sciolto havean dall’alte sponde’ was written by Carissimi.

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Monteverdi

As the greatest composer of the early 17th century, Monteverdi is the focus of many studies on his Masses, several involving dating. His three Masses come from different periods of his life. Lockwood 1993 discusses the Mass of 1610 and its basis in Gombert’s motet. Newcomb 1995 suggests that a work by Tiburtio Massaino may well be a significant predecessor to Monteverdi’s 1610 Mass. Borin 1998 is a highly technical study of the 1610 Missa In illo tempore. Kurtzman 2014 provides a critical commentary on the 1610 Missa In illo tempore. Kurtzman 2013 refutes claims that Monteverdi’s Mass in the Selva Morale was associated with thanksgiving for Venice being saved from the plague in 1631. Besutti 2003 proposes a date of 1624 for this work and offers a Magnificat by Rodiano Barere as its model. Smith-Brindle 1968 reveals Monteverdi’s constant search for novelty in his 1651 Mass for four voices.

  • Besutti, Paola. “Tra Cremona e Venezia: Nuovi elementi sulla Messa a 4 della Selva morale di Claudio Monteverdi.” In Et facciam dolci canti: Studi in onore di Agostino Ziino in occasione del suo compleanno. Vol. 1. Edited by Bianca Maria Antolini, Teresa M. Gialdroni, and Annunziato Pugliese, 613–628. Lucca, Italy: Libreria Musicale Italiana, 2003.

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    Besutti questions Denis Stevens’ theory that this Mass is a parody of the madrigal “La vaga pastorella.” Even though there is a motto relationship between the works, this is not sufficient to attribute the date of 1637 in Cremona to this work. She proposes the date of 1624 for this Mass, a bit earlier than Kurtzman’s proposed date of 1627. Offers a Magnificat by Rodiano Barere published in 1622 as the model for Monteverdi’s Mass.

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  • Borin, Alessandro. “Relazioni motiviche e procedure parodistiche nel Kyrie della ‘Missa In illo tempore’ di Claudio Monteverdi: Un approccio analitico comparator.” In Claudio Monteverdi: studi e prospettive. Conference proceedings, Mantua, October 1993. Edited by Paola Besutti, 31–40. Florence: Olschki, 1998.

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    This highly technical article, based on Quentin Quereau’s analysis of Palestrina’s parody Masses, offers a particular analytical tool, the “score segmenter” developed at the University of Milan to identify and analyze all recurrences of the ten fugue segments and their transformations in Monteverdi’s Mass of 1610.

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  • Kurtzman, Jeffrey. “Monteverdi’s Mass of Thanksgiving: Da Capo.” In Approaches to Monteverdi: Aesthetic, Psychological, Analytical and Historical Studies. By Jeffrey Kurtzman, 95–128. Farnham, UK: Ashgate, 2013.

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    Refutes claims by Denis Stevens, James H. Moore, and others that the Missa a Quattro voci and Gloria a 7 were intended for the civic ceremony in 1631 to mark the end of the plague in Venice and offers a date of 1627. Cites documents and recent opinions that the collection was rather associated with the Viennese court and Eleanora Gonzaga, and discusses performance practice issues. Originally published in 2010.

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  • Kurtzman, Jeffrey. “A Critical Commentary on Monteverdi’s Missa in illo tempore.” In Studies in Sixteenth- and Seventeenth-Century Italian Sacred Music. By Jeffrey Kurtzman, 47–68. Farnham, UK: Ashgate, 2014.

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    An analytical and critical commentary on the 1610 Mass. Monteverdi’s first known Mass uses systematic imitation, never again attempted by the composer in such dense textures. In future works his desire for large sound would take the form of choral sonorities; imitation would be used mostly in duets in the concertato (concerted) style. Originally published in 1979.

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  • Lockwood, Lewis. “Monteverdi and Gombert: The Missa In illo tempore of 1610.” In De musica et cantu: Studien zur Geschichte der Kirchenmusik und der Oper—Helmut Hucke zum 60. Geburtstag. Edited by Peter Cahn and Ann-Katrin Heimer, 457–469. Hildesheim, Germany: G. Olms, 1993.

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    Monteverdi’s choice of a motet by Gombert as a basis for this Mass shows his preference for density of textures and interplay of motives in all voices, characteristics of Gombert’s compositions. However, grouping of rhythms and use of melodic sequences betray his 17th-century roots. In offering to Pope Paul V a Marian Mass derived from a motet associated with the Virgin Mary, he was aware of 16th-century traditions.

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  • Newcomb, Anthony. “A New Context for Monteverdi’s Mass of 1610.” In Studien zur Musikgeschichte: Eine Festschrift für Ludwig Finscher. Edited by Annegrit Laubenthal and Kara Kusan-Windweh, 163–174. Kassel, Germany: Bärenreiter, 1995.

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    Newcomb suggests that a work by the Cremonese Tiburtio Massaino may well be a significant predecessor to the Mass of 1610, and that Monteverdi conceived his work in response to the Mantuan taste for polyphonic parody Masses. Monteverdi may have imported sophisticated contrapuntal techniques into the Mass from the instrumental ricercar to impress his critic Artusi.

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  • Smith-Brindle, Reginald. “Monteverdi’s G Minor Mass: An Experiment in Construction.” Musical Quarterly 54.3 (1968): 352–360.

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    Monteverdi’s 1651 Missa a 4 voci da Cappella, in spite of its appearance as stile antico (old style) music, reveals his constant search for novelty. The harmonic depth and structure of this Mass are drawn from only a few notes, providing a complex relationship of themes not readily apparent to the listener.

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Spain and Latin America

Recent scholarly interest has focused on Spain and colonial Latin America as centers of Mass composition. Essential to this research is the RISM volume Urchueguía 2005, a catalogue of polyphonic Masses from Spain, Portugal, and Latin America. Laird 2009 is a general discussion of Catholic Church music in these countries with many references to Masses. Béhague 1979 is an authoritative treatment of both sacred and secular music of the colonial period. Brothers 2002 surveys the various styles of sacred polyphony in 17th-century Mexico, focusing on the composer Francisco López-Capillas. Brothers 2012 studies a canonic Mass by López-Capillas based on a Palestrina motet. Noone 1998 gives a general overview of sacred music in Habsburg Spain. Olson 1985 studies the Masses of the Spanish composer Juan Bautista Comes.

  • Béhague, Geraldo. Music in Latin America: An Introduction. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1979.

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    An introductory and authoritative discussion of both sacred and secular music from colonial Latin America. Chapter 1 covers both Mission music and Cathedral music. Illuminating music examples; helpful bibliographical notes at the close of the chapter.

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  • Brothers, Lester D. “Renaissance, Post-Renaissance, and Progressive: Some Issues of Style in Sacred Polyphony of Seventeenth-Century Mexico.” In Encomium Musicae: Essays in Memory of Robert J. Snow. Edited by David Crawford and G. Grayson Wagstaff, 75–89. Hillsdale, NY: Pendragon Press, 2002.

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    Focusing on the Mexican composer Francisco López-Capillas, this article distinguishes among Renaissance, post-Renaissance, and “progressive” styles in Mexican polyphony, the latter a more vital and fluid style in the Hispanic orbit than the older European style. López-Capillas wrote mostly in a “post-Renaissance” style common to the mature Roman school. Suggests scribal corrections can determine compositional choices by the composer.

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  • Brothers, Lester D. “A Master, an Icon, and a Cause in Mid-Seventeenth-Century Mexico.” In Treasures of the Golden Age: Essays on Music of the Iberian and Latin American Renaissance in Honor of Robert M. Stevenson. Edited by Michael B. O’Connor and Walter Aaron Clark, 237–264. Hillsdale, NY: Pendragon Press, 2012.

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    An interesting study of a canonic Mass based on a Palestrina motet, written by the Mexican composer Francisco López-Capillas, chapelmaster of the Mexico City Cathedral. Suggests that the Missa Quam pulchri sunt gressus tui was written for the devotion to Our Lady of Guadalupe, and that it was a significant contribution to a movement seeking to elevate the Creole population within the Mexican caste system.

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  • Laird, Paul R. “Catholic Church Music in Italy, and the Spanish and Portuguese Empires.” In The Cambridge History of Eighteenth-Century Music. Edited by Simon P. Keefe, 29–58. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2009.

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    A general discussion of Catholic Church music in the major cities of Italy, Spain, and Portugal, with many references to Mass composition. Section on Latin liturgical music in the Spanish Empire cites several Masses, including Requiem Masses by Spanish and Italian composers in the Real Capilla of Madrid. Brief discussion of sacred music at the royal court of King João V of Portugal.

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  • Noone, Michael. Music and Musicians in the Escorial Liturgy under the Habsburgs, 1563–1700. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press, 1998.

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    General overview, including some discussion of sacred music in Habsburg Spain from Philip II to Charles II. Appendices include list of manuscript polyphonic choirbooks, transcriptions of documents, and musical transcriptions.

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  • Olson, Greta Jean. “The Masses of Juan Bautista Comes (1582?-1643).” PhD diss., University of Southern California, 1985.

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    Presents an analysis of five Masses by Comes, priest/composer at the courts of Philip III and IV and Valencian churches. Offers a general historical context, biographical data, and contemporaneous performance practices in Spain. Transcriptions, translations, and analysis of relevant documents in appendices.

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  • Urchueguía, Cristina. Mehrstimmige Messen in Quellen aus Spanien, Portugal und Lateinamerika, ca. 1490–1630: Drucke, Handschriften und verlorene Quellen. Répertoire international des sources musicales, series B. Vol. 15. Munich: Henle, 2005.

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    Catalogue of prints, manuscripts, and lost sources of polyphonic Masses from Spain, Portugal, and Latin America. Organized by sources and their countries of origin and by authors, with separate categories of prints and manuscripts. Appendices contain text incipits, musical and rhythmic incipits, and concordances. Essential for research on these countries.

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The Mass in the 18th Century

Eighteenth-century Masses often included orchestral and symphonic elements and an operatic vocal style. Buelow 1993 contains essays on important musical centers and cultural context in the late Baroque, 1680–1740. Chen 2009 and Montagnier 2009 offer studies on Austrian and French sacred music, respectively. Montagnier 2005 discusses the polyphonic Mass in France and its adaptation to musical taste of the period. Mac Intyre 1986 gives a contextual and stylistic study of Viennese Masses from the 18th century.

  • Buelow, George J., ed. The Late Baroque Era. Music and Society. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1993.

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    Like other volumes in the series Music and Society (also called Man and Music), this is a collaborative volume of essays on important musical centers in the late Baroque, spanning developments from 1680 to 1740. The term “Mass” is not indexed, though Masses are mentioned in relevant chapters. Excellent for cultural context.

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  • Chen, Jen-Yen. “Catholic Sacred Music in Austria.” In The Cambridge History of Eighteenth-Century Music. Edited by Simon P. Keefe, 59–112. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2009.

    DOI: 10.1017/CHOL9780521663199.004Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Substantial general article on Austrian sacred music, with discussion of Masses by Fux, Caldara, Wagenseil, Joseph Haydn, Michael Haydn, and Mozart.

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  • Mac Intyre, Bruce C. The Viennese Concerted Mass of the Early Classic Period. Studies in Musicology 89. Edited by George Buelow. Ann Arbor: UMI Research Press, 1986.

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    In this revision of his PhD dissertation, Mac Intyre offers a contextual and stylistic study of Masses by twenty-eight composers who worked in Vienna 1741–1783. Chapters on instrumentation, general form of the Mass, and each part of the Ordinary. Concludes that Viennese Masses retained many Baroque traits until well into the 1770s, when elements from the sonata, symphony, opera, and chamber music entered in. Thematic catalogue of the seventy-two selected Masses.

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  • Montagnier, Jean-Paul. “La messe polyphonique imprimée en France au xviii siècle: Survivance et decadence d’une tradition séculaire.” Acta Musicologica 77.1 (2005): 47–69.

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    Montagnier discusses the survival of the polyphonic Mass in France during the 18th century and its adaptation to musical taste of the period. Polyphonic works printed in Paris by the Ballards in choirbook format were used not only for performance but for the training of choirboys. Surveys composers, performance practice, and compositional styles, with musical examples.

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  • Montagnier, Jean-Paul. “Catholic Church Music in France.” In The Cambridge History of Eighteenth-Century Music. Edited by Simon P. Keefe, 113–126. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2009.

    DOI: 10.1017/CHOL9780521663199.005Save Citation »Export Citation »

    In this general discussion of 18th-century French sacred music, a brief essay on Masses and Requiems by Charpentier, Gilles, Gossec, and Campra. Select bibliography.

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Italy

Much of the published research on the 18th-century Italian Mass focuses on works by Pergolesi and Vivaldi. Degrada 1966 summarizes the many misattributions and forgeries of Pergolesi’s works and provides a chronology of his Masses. Hucke 1985 discusses one of Pergolesi’s two authentic works, his Mass in F major. Talbot 1995 provides a thorough study of Vivaldi’s sacred music with an overview chapter on his Masses. Studies of other composers include Pitarresi 2004, who discusses a Mass attributed to both Leonardo Vinci and Nicola Porpora. Carlson 1974 describes four Masses by Jommelli including the Requiem Mass. Walter 1973 considers fifteen Masses by Caldara, seeing them as a blend of traditional counterpoint and Neapolitan style. Bacciagaluppi 2006 discusses Neapolitan Mass composition from 1720 to 1740.

  • Bacciagaluppi, Claudio. “‘Con quegli ‘Gloria, gloria’ non la finiscono mai’: The Neapolitan Concerted Mass and Its Reception History.” Recercar 18 (2006): 113–155.

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    In this thorough discussion of Neapolitan Mass composition from 1720 to 1740, the author shows when concerted Masses were performed and which parts of the Ordinary were set. Sections follow on scoring and form, transmission and reception history, and a comparison of the Neapolitan Mass to other Italian regional types.

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  • Carlson, Jon Olaf. “Selected Masses of Niccolò Jommelli.” PhD diss., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1974.

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    Description and discussion of sources for four Masses by Jommelli. Discusses performance problems in the Requiem of 1756, and Jommelli’s evolution of style and form from Baroque to Classical, especially evident in an increasing importance of the orchestra.

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  • Degrada, Francesco. “Le messe di Giovanni Battista Pergolesi.” Analecta Musicologica 3 (1966): 65–79.

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    After summarizing attempts to sort misattributions and forgeries from authentic works, Degrada provides a summary study of Pergolesi’s Masses. Nine are attributed to him, of which five appear in the Opera Omnia, but only two are secure attributions. Based on documents that have survived, Degrada suggests possible dates for the two works and a second version of one of them.

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  • Hucke, Helmut. “Pergolesi’s Missa S. Emidio.” In Music in the Classic Period: Essays in Honor of Barry S. Brook. Edited by Allan W. Atlas, 99–116. New York: Pendragon Press, 1985.

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    The two Masses securely attributed to Pergolesi consist of only Kyrie and Gloria in large dimensions. Discusses the Mass in F major, composed for a Neapolitan church to invoke the protection of its patron saint after an earthquake in 1732. Good description of a typical large-scale work for choruses, strings, and winds, as well as Pergolesi’s rearrangements of the work for subsequent occasions.

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  • Pitarresi, Gaetano. “Una Messa di Leonardo Vinci e una di Nicola Porpora?” In Florilegium Musicae: Studi in onore di Carolyn Gianturco. II. Edited by Patrizia Radicchi e Michael Burden, 789–811. Pisa, Italy: Editioni ETS, 2004.

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    Discusses a previously unstudied Mass with attribution to both Vinci and Porpora for five voices, chorus, and instruments. Consists only of Kyrie and Gloria in the “cantata Mass” style. Based on stylistic analysis, the author provisionally attributes a copy in Münster to Vinci, and a Neapolitan copy to Porpora.

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  • Talbot, Michael. The Sacred Vocal Music of Antonio Vivaldi. Florence: Olschki, 1995.

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    A thorough study of Vivaldi’s sacred music with discussion of sources, including the works by his contemporaries found in the main manuscript sources. Overview chapter and a section on parts of the Mass set in concerted style. Appendices contain a catalogue of sources and index to musical works cited.

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  • Walter, Elaine R. “Selected Masses of Antonio Caldara (1670–1736).” PhD diss., Catholic University of America, 1973.

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    Considers Caldara as a product of the cosmopolitan centers of Venice and Vienna, resulting in a composite style. Analysis of fifteen Masses with discussion of manuscript sources. Caldara’s sacred music style blends traditional counterpoint from Venetian and Roman composers, and melodic and harmonic styles from the Neapolitans.

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Germany and Austria

Studies of Masses by individual composers in 18th-century Germany and Austria discuss orchestral Masses, canonic works, and pastoral traditions. Bush 1982 considers the orchestral Masses by Ignaz Holzbauer in Mannheim and their possible influence on Mozart. Chen 2008 analyzes the canonic Masses of Fux and Caldara. Hilscher 2002 describes two contrapuntal Masses by an Italian composer, dedicated to Emperor Charles VI. White 2002 discusses Fux’s ecclesiastical style and influences from Italy. Mac Intyre 1996 discusses Johann Baptist Vanhal’s Missa Pastoralis, a work in the traditional style for Christmas. Nafziger 1970 proposes the years 1750–1900 as a single aesthetic period in examining Masses by Haydn and Schubert.

  • Bush, Deanna. “The Orchestral Masses of Ignaz Holzbauer (1711–1783): Authenticity, Chronology, and Style, with Thematic Catalogue and Selected Transcriptions.” PhD diss., University of Rochester, 1982.

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    A study of Holzbauer’s pre-classical orchestral Masses written for the Mannheim court, which provide a link between Mozart’s Salzburg Masses and his “Coronation” Mass, K. 317, written after his sojourn in Mannheim. Discusses relevant documents and provides transcriptions of two Masses and an aria from a third.

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  • Chen, Jen-Yen. “Fux, Caldara, and Their Canonic Masses.” In Fux-Forschung: Standpunkte und Perspektiven. Symposium proceedings, Schloss Seggau, 14–16 October 2005. Edited by Thomas Hochradner and Susanne James, 77–88. Tutzing, Germany: Hans Schneider, 2008.

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    Chen compares Fux’s Messa di San Carlo of 1718 and Caldara’s Missa a 5. Da capella con canoni diversi of 1720. Suggests that Caldara wrote his canonic Mass in response to the canonic work by Fux, given the conspicuous similarity of contrapuntal technique, in spite of the sharp divergence of harmonic idiom between the two works.

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  • Hilscher, Elizabeth. “Kontrapunkt für den Kaiser: Angelo Ragazzi’s Messen für Karl VI.” Studien zur Musikwissenschaft 49 (2002): 173–183.

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    Description of two Masses from 1736 and 1737, written by the Italian composer Antonio Ragazzi at the Imperial Court in Vienna, and dedicated to the Emperor Charles VI. The first Missa Carolus Sextus uses a “soggetto cavato” motto as the basis for contrapuntal texture, based on words from the dedication. The same motto is used in the Missa Secunda Carolus Sextus, though less strictly. A third Mass exists from 1739, much enlarged to thirty-three voices.

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  • Mac Intyre, Bruce C. “Johann Baptist Vanhal and the Pastoral Mass Tradition.” In Music in Eighteenth-Century Austria. Edited by David Wyn Jones, 112–132. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

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    Vanhal composed around fifty Masses, among which was a Missa Pastoralis from 1782. This genre, usually intended for Christmas Eve services, features limited harmonic vocabulary, lyrical melodies, and folk-like dance rhythms. Vanhal draws on these traditional pastoral devices and combines them into a unified and attractive work.

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  • Nafziger, Kenneth. “The Masses of Haydn and Schubert: A Study in the Rise of Romanticism.” PhD diss., University of Oregon, 1970.

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    Proposes considering the years 1750–1900 as a single aesthetic period in the conflict between classic and romantic characteristics. Examines the Masses of Haydn and Schubert from this point of view regarding form, harmonic practice, and their orchestral, vocal, and poetical aspects.

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  • White, Harry. “De stylo ecclesiastico: Sacred Music at the Imperial Court Chapel in Vienna c. 1700–1730 and the Influence of Northern Italy.” In Barocco Padano 2. Papers from an international conference on sacred music in the 17th–18th centuries, Como, 16–18 July 1999. Edited by Alberto Colzani, Andrea Luppi, and Maurizio Padoan, 265–284. Como, Italy: Antiquae Musicae Italicae Studiosi, 2002.

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    Johann Joseph Fux composed some ninety Masses for the Viennese court under Charles VI. His Masses reflect both Venetian and Neapolitan influences. White examines two settings of the Benedictus that show Fux’s understanding of contemporary idioms as a natural outgrowth of counterpoint. Musical examples.

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Mozart

Studies of Mozart’s Masses include both comprehensive studies and more detailed essays on individual works, especially the Requiem Mass. Geiringer 1969 is a good summary introduction to Mozart’s Masses. Fellerer 1985 is an exhaustive study of all Mozart’s church music. Reichert 1955 discusses Mozart’s Credo-Masses and their predecessors. Robbins Landon 1990 enumerates problems with Mozart’s unfinished Mass in C minor. Several essays detail the controversy regarding Süssmayer’s completion of the Requiem. Schuler 1995 traces the Salzburg tradition Mozart followed in writing his Requiem. Blume and Broder 1961 surveys various early assertions regarding its completion. McConnell 2002 investigates problems with Süssmayer’s claim to have written parts entirely on his own. Keefe 2008 offers new light on Süssmayer, showing his coherent engagement with the entire Requiem.

  • Blume, Friedrich, and Nathan Broder. “Requiem but No Peace.” Musical Quarterly 47.2 (1961): 147–169.

    DOI: 10.1093/mq/XLVII.2.147Save Citation »Export Citation »

    In this early essay on Mozart’s Requiem, the authors discuss problems of authenticity, instrumentation, and dating. The article surveys the various assertions by Weber, Stadler, and others. Challenges Alfred Einstein’s opinion that Süssmayer is the author of the parts Mozart did not complete. Emphasizes that problems remain unsolved.

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  • Fellerer, Karl Gustav. Die Kirchenmusik W. A. Mozarts. Laaber, Germany: Laaber-Verlag, 1985.

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    Exhaustive study of all Mozart’s church music, with a substantial section on Masses, both Ordinary and Proper settings. Includes discussion of music for the Office, Litanies, German and Latin songs for the church, and instrumental music for the services. Interesting chapter on Mozart and the church music reforms of the 19th century. Bibliographical notes follow each chapter. Extensive bibliography of mostly German sources.

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  • Geiringer, Karl. “The Church Music.” In The Mozart Companion. Edited by H. D. Robbins Landon and Donald Mitchell, 361–376. New York: W. W. Norton, 1969.

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    In this serviceable description of Mozart’s Masses, each is briefly described and placed within his biography. A good introduction.

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  • Keefe, Simon P. “‘Die Ochsen am Berge’: Franz Xaver Süssmayer and the Orchestration of Mozart’s Requiem K. 626.” Journal of the American Musicological Society 61.1 (2008): 1–65.

    DOI: 10.1525/jams.2008.61.1.1Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Keefe offers new light on Süssmayer’s contribution to Mozart’s Requiem, proposing that he pursued his own aesthetic vision of the work. His musical decisions, lauded by many at the time, often reflected Mozart’s own in many details. By examining the orchestration of the Sequence and the completion of the Sanctus and Benedictus, Keefe shows Süssmayer’s coherent engagement with the entire work and urges acceptance on its own terms.

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  • McConnell, David Allen. “The ‘Requiem’ Controversy: An Examination of the Six Completions of Mozart’s Final Work.” PhD diss., University of Cincinnati, 2002.

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    After describing the commissioning and completion of the work, McConnell investigates Süssmayer’s claim to have written parts entirely on his own. A fragment found in 1961 is believed by many scholars to have been intended by Mozart for the final fugue. Mozart’s compositional technique and five modern completions are discussed in detail. Discography and bibliography.

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  • Reichert, Georg. “Mozarts ‘Credo-Messen’ und ihre Vorläufer.” Mozart-Jahrbuch (1955): 117–144.

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    Discusses Mozart’s Masses in which the word “Credo” is repeated out of its normal place in the liturgical text. Finds predecessors in Masses by Reinhardt, Ziani, Paumon, Conti, Donberger, Fux, Holzbauer, and others. Substantial musical examples.

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  • Robbins Landon, H. C. “Mozart’s Mass in C Minor, K. 427.” In Studies in Musical Sources and Style: Essays in Honor of Jan LaRue. Edited by Eugene K. Wolf and Edward H. Roesner, 419–424. Madison, WI: A-R Editions, 1990.

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    Dates this unfinished Mass to a performance in Salzburg in October 1783 at St. Peter’s Abbey church. Performance materials recently found include only Kyrie, Gloria, Sanctus, and Benedictus. Proposes that the Credo was omitted, and the Agnus could have been sung to Kyrie music. Cites the Neue Mozart-Ausgabe, which incorporates these new findings, but says there is still a mystery regarding how some parts were performed.

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  • Schuler, Manfred. “Mozarts Requiem in der Tradition gattungsgeschichtlicher Topoi.” In Studien zur Musikgeschichte: Eine Festschrift für Ludwig Finscher. Edited by Annegrit Laubenthal and Kara Kusan-Windweh, 317–327. Kassel, Germany: Bärenreiter, 1995.

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    Traces the Salzburgian tradition Mozart followed in writing his Requiem in the works of Eberlin, Adlgasser, Leopold Mozart, Michael Haydn, and others. Discusses his use of the trombone, choice of keys, use of traditional chant melodies, choice of fugue and meters for certain sections, traditional in Salzburg at the time.

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Michael Haydn

Michael Haydn was a once-eminent church composer, long overshadowed by his elder brother Joseph and by Mozart. He wrote nearly two dozen missae solemnae (solemn Masses) with trumpets and timpani. Arenas 2013 describes these works in their cultural context. Sherman 1967 offers a critical survey of sources for the Masses, correcting inaccuracies in an earlier catalogue. Killian 2000 studies his Missa Sancti Josephi and provides an edition created from manuscript parts. Pauly 1956 discusses his Proprium Missae, a series of motets used at the Offertory and Gradual based on the Proper of the day. Miller 1998 discusses Haydn’s settings of the Gradual and provides a performance edition of three of them.

  • Arenas, Erick. “Johann Michael Haydn and the Orchestral Solemn Mass in Eighteenth-Century Vienna and Salzburg.” PhD diss., Stanford University, 2013.

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    A study of missae solemnae (solemn Masses) by Michael Haydn, whose nearly two dozen were well known throughout central Europe in the late 18th and 19th centuries. Rooted in compositional principles of the late Baroque, they also incorporate new musical ideas prevalent in Austria. Works are placed in the context of Austrian political-liturgical requirements. Extensive musical examples, including heretofore unpublished music.

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  • Killian, George W., Jr. “Johann Michael Haydn’s ‘Missa Sancti Josephi’: Edition and Analysis.” PhD diss., Arizona State University, 2000.

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    An edition of this Mass created from manuscript parts. The Missa Sancti Josephi is placed in historical context and in the context of the composer’s works, and analyzed stylistically by investigating the compositional techniques employed.

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  • Miller, Robert Dale. “The Graduals of Johann Michael Haydn: Performance Editions and Studies of Selected Works.” PhD diss., Texas Tech University, 1998.

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    Discussion of Michael Haydn’s settings of the Graduals for the Mass written for choir, solo voices, and instruments. Intended for Salzburg in the 1780s, they were written in response to a papal edict prohibiting purely instrumental music in the Mass. Miller chooses three settings from the more than one hundred such works for formal, melodic, textural, and textual analyses, and provides a performance edition.

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  • Pauly, Reinhard. “Michael Haydn’s Latin Proprium Missae Compositions.” PhD diss., Yale University, 1956.

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    The Proprium Missae (Propers of the Mass) are motets used at the Offertory and Gradual of the Mass, based on the Proper of the day—a Salzburg tradition in the 18th century. Offertories were florid, soloistic works in the Italian style, whereas the Graduals were chordal and homophonic with song-like vocal lines. Works are analyzed in the light of ecclesiastical reforms instigated by Emperor Joseph II.

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  • Sherman, Charles H. “The Masses of Johann Michael Haydn: A Critical Survey of Sources.” PhD diss., University of Michigan, 1967.

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    Sherman corrects the many inaccuracies in Anton Klafsky’s 1925 thematic catalogue of Haydn’s liturgical compositions, published in DTÖ 62. Research has found thirty-nine autograph copies of nineteen Masses, four heretofore unknown. Sherman discusses criteria for determining their authenticity and offers a possible chronology.

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Joseph Haydn

Studies on the Masses of Joseph Haydn cover both early and late works, symphonic, and a cappella styles. Demaree and Moses 2008 is the first comprehensive, detailed work to be published in English. Ickstadt 2009 discusses the thirteen concerted Masses and includes comparisons with other composers’ works. Larsen 1982 is a brief survey of Haydn’s early Masses. Chusid 1970 investigates the late orchestral Masses, seeing them as symphonies for voices and orchestra. Papanikolaou 2009 details the symphonic principles in the late Masses. Clark 2009 examines circumstances surrounding Haydn’s polytextual Mass, and offers it as a work appealing to converts to Catholicism. Jones 1996 sees Haydn’s only a cappella (without instruments) Mass as a link between Palestrina and Bruckner.

  • Chusid, Martin. “Some Observations on Liturgy, Text and Structure in Haydn’s Late Masses.” In Studies in Eighteenth-Century Music: A Tribute to Karl Geiringer on His Seventieth Birthday. Edited by H. Robbins Landon, 125–135. New York: Oxford University Press, 1970.

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    Based on H. Robbins Landon’s statement that the late orchestral Masses of Haydn were symphonies for voices and orchestra using the Mass text, Chusid investigates their positioning within the service and Haydn’s balancing of tempos, meters, and keys. The late Masses show the imprint of a masterful writer of symphonies. Appendix has diagrams of the late Masses according to movements.

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  • Clark, Caryl. “Haydn’s Conversion Masses.” Journal of Musicological Research 28.2–3 (2009): 189–211.

    DOI: 10.1080/01411890902913107Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Examines the circumstances for Haydn’s polytextual Mass, the Missa brevis Sancti Joannis de Deo, composed for the Barmherzige Brüder with three sets of listeners in mind: clergy, believers, and catechumens. Sensitive to their transitioning needs, he omits a crucial article of faith in the Credo, covering it by telescoping different lines of text simultaneously. Suggests other works by Haydn that may have been conversion Masses.

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  • Demaree, Robert William, Jr., and Don V. Moses. The Masses of Joseph Haydn: History, Style, Performance. Rochester Hills, MI: Classical Heritage, 2008.

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    An essential study of Haydn’s Masses, the first comprehensive, detailed work to be published in English. Chronological survey, analysis, description of sources, historical context, and performance practices. Extensive musical examples, diagrams, illustrations, and bibliography.

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  • Ickstadt, Peter. Die Messen Joseph Haydns: Studien zu Form und Verhältnis von Text und Musik. Hildesheim, Germany: Georg Olms Verlag, 2009.

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    Analytical discussion of Haydn’s thirteen concerted Masses, emphasizing their form and especially their text-music relationships. Includes comparisons with other composers, both predecessors and contemporaries. Musical examples, extensive bibliography.

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  • Jones, David Wyn. “Haydn’s Missa sunt bona mixta malis and the a cappella Tradition.” In Music in Eighteenth-Century Austria. Edited by David Wyn Jones, 89–111. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

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    Possibly the only a cappella (without instruments) Mass by Haydn, this partial work is part of the continuous performing tradition that links Palestrina with similar Masses by Bruckner. The author traces similar works from Georg Reutter to Antonio Salieri. Haydn was perhaps attempting to find common ground between his normal style and this earlier tradition.

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  • Larsen, Jens Peter. “Haydn’s Early Masses: Evolution of a Genre.” American Choral Review 24 (1982): 48–60.

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    In this brief survey of Haydn’s early Masses, Larsen groups five of the six into either Haydn’s symphonic, official style or his more personal, relaxed style. The early Missa brevis (short Mass) seems a forerunner of both styles, which Haydn eventually merged in his late Masses.

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  • Papanikolaou, Eftychia. “Between Tradition and Innovation: Sacred Intersections and the Symphonic Impulse in Haydn’s Late Masses.” Sacred Music 136.4 (2009): 6–16.

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    Haydn’s last six Masses helped usher in the musical language of the romantic symphonic Mass, blurring boundaries between church and concert hall. Published between 1802 and 1808, they were frequently performed in Viennese churches, except in the Hofkapelle, which still endorsed the limitations on church music imposed by Franz Joseph II. Consistent use of symphonic principles: recurrence of thematic ideas, symphonic forms, thematic development, etc.

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Bach’s Mass in B Minor

Studies on Bach’s B Minor Mass center on a recent controversy regarding performance practice and number of performers. Butt 1991 is an important, thorough study of this work that includes details of this controversy. Parrott 2010 reviews key arguments of this controversy and contributes additional ideas regarding the number of performers in the chorus. Marshall 1989 studies Bach’s compositional process as revealed in autograph scores. Tomita 2013 offers fourteen penetrating essays on this work by international scholars: historical contexts, formal design, editing, etc.

  • Butt, John. Bach: Mass in B Minor. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1991.

    DOI: 10.1017/CBO9781139166379Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Important and thorough study of Bach’s setting of the Ordinary of the Mass from 1733. Includes chapters on its genesis and purpose, reception history. Details various controversies regarding performance practice, including Joshua Rifkin’s conclusion that nearly all the music was sung by single voices. Other chapters discuss text and music, ritornello and dance structures, counterpoint, and large-scale structures.

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  • Marshall, Robert. “The Mass in B Minor: Autograph Scores and the Compositional Process.” In The Music of Johann Sebastian Bach: The Sources, the Style, the Significance. By Robert Marshall, 175–189. New York: Schirmer, 1989.

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    Marshall studies Bach’s compositional process as revealed in the autograph scores, written at several stages and times. Concludes that the Kyrie and much of the Gloria are parodies of lost originals. The Credo autograph reveals Bach’s preoccupation with large-scale formal design. Suggests that Bach may have intended completely different music for the “Dona nobis pacem” than what appears in the autograph score.

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  • Parrott, Andrew. “Vocal Ripienists and J.S. Bach’s Mass in B Minor.” Eighteenth-Century Music 7.1 (2010): 9–34.

    DOI: 10.1017/S1478570609990431Save Citation »Export Citation »

    A recent contribution to the controversy about the number of performers in Bach’s chorus. Parrott explores each movement of the Mass to understand how 18th-century vocal concertists and ripienists traditionally functioned. Key arguments are reviewed in an appendix, along with newly introduced items of evidence.

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  • Tomita, Yō, ed. Exploring Bach’s B-Minor Mass. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2013.

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    Fourteen excellent essays stemming from an international symposium “Understanding Bach’s B-Minor Mass.” Experts on Bach scholarship contributed essays on historical background and contexts in Dresden and Vienna; on formal design, proportions, and numerical structures; problems in editing, sources and editions; and reception in the 18th and 19th centuries.

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The Mass in the 19th Century

Following trends set in the previous century, the Mass in the 19th century became ever more symphonic and operatic, moving from church to concert hall, from private to public. Hutchings 1967 gives a brief overview with emphasis on English music, both Protestant and Catholic. Unverricht 1989 surveys the orchestral Mass from Baroque concerted works through the 18th and 19th centuries. Hettrick 1980 analyzes Salieri’s orchestral Mass from 1809. Mongrédien 1966 offers a substantial chapter on French sacred music, especially in the Tuileries Chapel under Napoleon. Holoman 2012 surveys several important Masses and Requiems from the 19th century. Riedel 1999 is a collection of essays on Masses with organ in south Germany and Austria.

  • Hettrick, Jane. “Antonio Salieri’s Mass in B flat (1809).” Studien zur Musikwissenschaft 30 (1980): 141–157.

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    After a biographical sketch of Salieri, a key figure in the history of Viennese church music, the author analyzes his orchestral Mass from 1809, citing a lyric vocal style with instruments usually playing an accompanimental role, and no writing in the “strict style.” Musical organization is governed by line-by-line progression of the text. Recurrent instrumental motives provide some unity to thematically unrelated sections.

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  • Holoman, D. Kern. “Masses and Requiems.” In Nineteenth-Century Choral Music. Edited by Donna M. Di Grazia, 41–75. New York: Routledge, 2012.

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    A useful survey of several important choral works from the 19th century. Essays include brief histories, performance notes, structural analysis, descriptions with musical examples, and information on editions. Includes Masses by Beethoven, Berlioz, and Verdi.

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  • Hutchings, Arthur. Church Music in the Nineteenth Century. Studies in Church Music. London: Jenkins, 1967.

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    A brief overview of English and Continental church music, both Protestant and Catholic. Written in a conversational style, with musical examples.

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  • Mongrédien, Jean. French Music from the Enlightenment to Romanticism, 1789–1830. Translated by Sylvain Frémaux. Portland, OR: Amadeus Press, 1966.

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    Substantial discussion of the repertoire of the Tuileries Chapel under Napoleon. Reveals a total break with the great French motets and Masses of the 18th century. Italian composers, including Paisiello and Cherubini, contributed Masses to this repertory. Shows a merging of operatic and sacred styles, without much counterpoint and with pleasing melodies.

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  • Riedel, Friedrich, ed. Kirchenmusik mit obligater Orgel: Untersuchungen zum süddeutsch-österreichischen Repertoire im 18. und 19. Jahrhundert. Kirchenmusikalisches Studien 4. Sinzig, Germany: Studio-Verlag, 1999.

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    Essays on the essential role of the organ in south German and Austrian Masses in the 18th and 19th centuries. Discussion of Mass collections in the Breslau Cathedral and in the convents of Franciscans, Masses by Greith and Rheinberger, Antonín Dvořak and César Franck from the viewpoint of organ participation.

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  • Schnerich, Alfred. Messe und Requiem seit Haydn und Mozart. Wien: Stern, 1909

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    After introductory chapters, this brief survey discusses Masses and Requiems by Joseph and Michael Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, Schubert, Liszt, Bruckner and others. Thematic index of selected works.

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  • Unverricht, Hubert. “Die Orchestermesse.” In Kirchenmusikalisches Erbe und Liturgie. Proceedings of an international symposium, Catholic University of Eichstatt, Germany, September 1989. 93–98. Tutzing, Germany: Schneider, 1989.

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    Surveys the orchestral Mass from Baroque concerted works and those from the 18th and 19th centuries, including those written for the Caecelian reform. Mentions the role of the orchestral Mass after Vatican II and concludes that the reception of such Masses varies according to musical practices and tastes of different regions.

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Beethoven

Beethoven’s majestic Missa Solemnis is the focus of substantial articles on its musical rhetoric, sources, and works that influenced it. Kirkendale 1970 is a seminal article on musical rhetoric and symbolism in this work. Winter 1984 evaluates the sources Beethoven used: sketchbooks, conversation books, and pocket sketches. Lodes 2001 compares Beethoven’s work with a Mass by Cherubini and its possible influence on Beethoven. Knapp 1984 discusses Beethoven’s other Mass setting, the Mass in C Major.

  • Kirkendale, Warren. “New Roads to Old Ideas in Beethoven’s Missa Solemnis.” Musical Quarterly 56 (1970): 666–701.

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    A fascinating seminal article on musical rhetoric in Beethoven’s Missa Solemnis, including liturgical gestures, the symbolic use of instruments and harmonies, modal considerations, patristic writings, etc. Suggests that Beethoven was advised on these things by his friend Kanne, the author of a history of the Mass.

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  • Knapp, J. Merrill. “Beethoven’s Mass in C Major, Op. 86.” In Beethoven Essays: Studies in Honor of Elliot Forbes. Edited by Lewis Lockwood and Phyllis Benjamin, 199–216. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1984.

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    Knapp traces the genesis and publication history of Beethoven’s “other” setting of the Mass and its possible models, and offers a brief analysis of the movements.

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  • Lodes, Birgit. “Messen-Kompositionen im Ausgang der Wiener Klassik: Konnte Beethoven von Cherubini lernen?” In Anton Bruckner: Tradition und Fortschritt in der Kirchenmusik des 19. Jahrhunderts. Edited by Friedrich Wilhelm Riedel, 207–236. Kirchenmusikalische Studien 7. Sinzing, Germany: Studio-Verlag, 2001.

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    Comparison of Beethoven’s Missa Solemnis with Cherubini’s Messe solennelle in F from 1809, and Cherubini’s possible influence on Beethoven’s work.

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  • Winter, Robert. “Reconstructing Riddles: The Sources for Beethoven’s Missa Solemnis.” In Beethoven Essays: Studies in Honor of Elliot Forbes. Edited by Lewis Lockwood and Phyllis Benjamin, 217–250. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1984.

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    An important discussion and evaluation of manuscript sources for the Missa Solemnis, including sketchbooks, conversation books, pocket sketches, and a possible dating for various sections.

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Schubert

Schubert’s Masses reflect his compositional models, especially Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven, as well as the early Romanticism of symphony and Lied. Several studies of his late Masses show his independence as a sacred music composer. Stanley 1997 shows how early Masses conformed to the Austro-Viennese church style, while later ones express his personal religious convictions. Stringham 1964 places Schubert’s Masses in the context of his spiritual and religious beliefs, and analyzes the six Masses. Jaskulsky 1980 focuses on two late Masses marking Schubert’s shift from liturgical music to the concert Mass.

  • Jaskulsky, Hans. “Die lateinischen Messen Franz Schuberts.” PhD diss., Frankfurt: Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität, 1980.

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    A discussion of Schubert’s late Masses, D.678 and D.950. Shows how Schubert integrates polyphony, the polychoral idiom, a cappella (without instruments) passages and Baroque rhetoric, marking his shift from liturgical music in his earlier Masses to the concert Mass. Increasing omissions of parts of the Mass text show his independent use of musical form, his personal theological opinions, and the more liberal atmosphere of post-Josephine Vienna.

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  • Stanley, Glenn. “Schubert’s Religious and Choral Music.” In The Cambridge Companion to Schubert. Edited by Christopher Howard Gibbs, 207–223. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1997.

    DOI: 10.1017/CCOL9780521482295.013Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Stanley shows that Schubert in his late Masses is more interested in text-musical relationships than in distancing himself from orthodoxy. Early Masses required conformity to the Austro-Viennese church style, while in his maturity Schubert felt free to express his personal religious convictions.

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  • Stringham, Ronald. “The Masses of Franz Schubert.” PhD diss., Cornell University, 1964.

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    Places Schubert’s Mass in the context of his spiritual and religious beliefs, delineates sources and discusses his models: Michael and Joseph Haydn, Mozart, and Salieri. Analysis of the three Kyries and the six Masses. Musical examples, bibliography.

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Bruckner, Liszt, and the Caecilian Movement

Both of these composers were part of the Caecilian Movement in the late 19th century, a reform movement that sought to reinstate certain features of Palestrina’s church music. Liebergen 1981 gives a brief summary of this movement, focusing on the works of Bruckner and Liszt. Riedel 2001 is a collection of essays on church music in Austria, including five essays on Masses by Bruckner and others. Mathews 1974 offers a comparative analysis of Bruckner’s two Masses from 1854 and 1864. Hawkshaw 1997 studies Bruckner’s revisions to the Mass in F minor, begun soon after he completed the score. White 1973 traces Liszt’s personal art in his Masses and his role in 19th-century church music reform.

  • Hawkshaw, Paul. “An Anatomy of Change: Anton Bruckner’s Revisions to the Mass in F Minor.” In Bruckner Studies. Edited by Timothy L. Jackson and Paul Hawkshaw, 1–33. Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press, 1997.

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    Bruckner’s revisions to the F minor Mass began soon after he completed the score and continued almost until the end of his life. They usually coincided with performances in Vienna’s Hofkapelle and Musikverein. Changes included solving performance difficulties, harmonic or metrical problems, or voice-leading. Alterations in Schalk’s first print should not be confused with the composer’s own revisions.

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  • Liebergen, Patrick M. “The Cecelian Movement in the Nineteenth Century: Summary of the Movement.” The Choral Journal 21.9 (1981): 13–16.

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    Useful brief summary of this reform movement featuring a return to certain features of Palestrina’s church music. Article focuses in the Cecilian works of Bruckner and Liszt, who made these elements appealing in their own time.

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  • Mathews, Theodore K. “The Masses of Anton Bruckner: A Comparative Analysis.” PhD diss., University of Michigan, 1974.

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    A substantial study of Bruckner’s Masses. Covers his personal traits, education, and relevant currents of church music including Caecelianism. Discussion of early Masses, the Requiem, Missa Solemnis, three late Masses, and Bruckner’s compositional evolution. Structural and tonal analysis, music examples, and bibliography.

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  • Riedel, William Friedrich, ed. Anton Bruckner: Tradition und Fortschritt in der Kirchenmusik des 19. Jahrhunderts. Sinzing, Germany: Studio-Verlag, 2001.

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    A collection of essays on church music in Austria and nearby countries, including five essays on Masses by Bruckner and others, and several essays on 19th-century church music style in general.

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  • White, Charles Willis. “The Masses of Franz Liszt.” PhD diss., Bryn Mawr College, 1973.

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    Traces Liszt’s personal art in his Masses, in which he applied a wide variety of techniques, some traditional and others progressive, including theatrical and nationalistic themes. Even with very personal and original techniques, Liszt always remained faithful to the text. Chapters on religion in his life and his role in 19th-century reforms. Analytical chapters on each of the five Masses, including the Requiem.

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French and English Composers

Published research on Masses in France during the 19th century includes a study of Berlioz’s monumental Messe Solennelle and its recent rediscovery. Macdonald 1993 traces the history of this manuscript and analyzes its various styles and influences. An essay on cathedral music, Temperley 1988 offers a brief section on 19th-century Roman Catholic music in England. Muir 2008 is an excellent summary of Roman Catholic music in England 1791–1914, including the revival of Renaissance polyphony.

  • Macdonald, Hugh. “Berlioz’s Messe Solennelle.” 19th-Century Music 16.3 (1993): 267–285.

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    Though Berlioz insisted that he had destroyed this monumental work, it was rediscovered in Antwerp in 1991. Macdonald traces the history of the manuscript, its survival and early performances. Analyzes its variety of musical styles and influences, especially from Cherubini and LeSueur, as well as passages Berlioz reused in later works.

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  • Muir, T. E. Roman Catholic Church Music in England, 1791–1914: A Handmaid of the Liturgy? Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 2008.

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    A substantial study of this somewhat neglected area of church music in 19th-century England. Excellent summary of historical background and liturgical framework. Discussion of the Solesmes style of plainchant in England and the revival of Renaissance polyphony by Sir Richard Terry. Substantial bibliography, musical examples.

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  • Temperley, Nicholas. “Cathedral Music.” In Music in Britain: The Romantic Age 1800–1914. Edited by Harry D. Johnstone, Ian Spink, Roger Bray, and Stephen Banfield, 210–213. The Blackwell History of Music in Britain 5. Oxford: Blackwell, 1988–.

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    While most of this chapter is devoted to Anglican cathedral music, a brief section describes the music for the Roman Catholic Church in 19th-century England, its composers and selected works.

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The Mass in the 20th Century

Mass styles in the 20th century ranged from late-19th-century Romanticism to reflections of tonality versus atonality, from the liturgical to the theatrical. Wolff 1957 offers a brief description of several 20th-century Masses, including those by Stravinsky and Janáĉek, categorizing them into the purely liturgical or the subjective. Vantine 1982 analyzes works by Frank Martin, Stravinsky, Poulenc, and Hindemith. Agawu 1989 provides a Schenkerian analysis of Stravinsky’s Mass. Lundergan 2005 discusses tonal areas and intervallic structures in the Credo of Stravinsky’s Mass. Wingfield 1992 is a discussion and analysis of Janáĉek’s Glagolitic Mass in the Slavonic language. Hillier 1997 studies two Masses by Arvo Pärt, analyzed as part of his tintinnabuli (bell-like notes in a triad) works. Winkler 2000 discusses Hindemith’s last work in the light of his interest in historical models.

  • Agawu, V. Kofi. “Stravinsky’s Mass and Stravinsky Analysis.” Music Theory Spectrum 11.2 (1989): 139–163.

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    In this theoretical study, a modified Schenkerian analysis of Stravinsky’s Mass, the author also considers other analytic techniques for this complex work. Notes Stravinsky’s cadential practices, his frequent use of diminutions, neighbor notes, prolongation of sonorities, and how he achieves structural coherence. Musical examples.

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  • Hillier, Paul. Arvo Pärt. Oxford Studies of Composers. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.

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    In this biography and study of Pärt’s music, the Missa Sillabica and the Berlin Mass are analyzed as part of a survey of his tintinnabuli (bell-like notes in a triad) works. The book discusses Pärt’s interest in composers of the Middle Ages and Renaissance and his study of plainchant. List of works, bibliography, and discography.

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  • Lundergan, Edward. “Modal Symmetry and Textural Symbolism in the Credo of the Stravinsky Mass.” Choral Journal 45.8 (2005): 8–15.

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    Discusses Stravinsky’s balance of tonal areas and intervallic structures in the Credo of his Mass, where he uses nine of the twelve chromatic pitch-classes in mirror-image modal structures, and saves the remaining three for expressive purposes. Thus he gives powerful emphasis to crucial textual elements in the Mass.

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  • Vantine, Bruce Lynn. “Four Twentieth-Century Masses: An Analytical Comparison of Style and Compositional Technique.” DMA diss., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1982.

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    Analysis and comparison of styles and compositional techniques of four 20th-century Masses by composers who were reacting to late-19th-century Romanticism, and facing the growing conflict between functional tonality and atonality: Frank Martin, Stravinsky, Poulenc, and Hindemith. Brief historical backgrounds, summary, and comparison of the four Masses.

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  • Wingfield, Paul. Janáĉek: Glagolitic Mass. Cambridge Music Handbooks. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1992.

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    One in a series of Cambridge Music Handbooks, edited by Julian Rushton. Discussion and analysis of this important 20th-century Mass set in the Church Slavonic language. Discusses score revisions, and includes textual and musical analysis.

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  • Winkler, Heinz-Jürgen. “Zur Konzeption der Messen Hindemiths.” Hindemith Jahrbuch 31 (2000): 68–82.

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    A discussion of Hindemith’s Messe a cappella für gemischten Chor (1963), the composer’s final work. After presenting related documents the author discusses the sketches for this work, among which are sketches for a second, incomplete Mass with instrumental accompaniment. Comparisons are made between the two works, with an evaluation in the light of Hindemith’s interest in historical models and the aesthetic of the 20th century.

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  • Wolff, Hellmuth C. “Einige modern Kompositionen des Ordinarium Missae/Quelques compositions moderns de l’Ordinarium missae.” In La musique sacrée, proceedings of an international congress on sacred music. 205–208. Paris: Éditions Richard-Masse, 1957.

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    Brief descriptions of several 20th-century settings of the Mass, which Wolff divides into two categories: those purely liturgical, and those with a subjective expression of the Mass text. Cites the Stravinsky Mass in the first, the Janáĉek Glagolitic Mass in the second. Briefly mentions works by Lemacher, Schroeder, Amman, Pepping, and Distler. In a separate category of purely instrumental settings of the Ordinary are works by Schroeder and the author himself.

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Requiem Masses

The Mass for the Dead or Requiem Mass holds a special place in the history of the Mass, from plainchant to the Renaissance and Baroque as well as more recent times. Following are studies that encapsulate its history, and special studies of the Requiem from several different eras. Chase 2003, meant for general use, contains brief descriptions of Requiems over the centuries. Robertson 1976 is an extensive survey, written in a personal, descriptive style. Westerhaus 2003 is a recent study of six Requiem Masses written for the Imperial Habsburg court from 1621 to 1720. Cooksey 2009 studies Fauré’s famous Requiem, its evolution and influence on future composers. Rosen 1995 investigates Verdi’s monumental Requiem. Cooke 1996 discusses Britten’s unique setting, the War Requiem. (For studies of Mozart’s Requiem, see also Mozart.) Westerhaus 2014 shows the shift in Italian sacred music from the operatic style to a neo-Renaissance style in Pizzetti’s Requiem Mass. (See also Wexler 2001 under Ockeghem and Obrecht; Grasemann 1966 under Mass in the 17th Century: Austria; Laird 2009 under Mass in the 17th Century: Spain and Latin America; Carlson 1974 under Mass in the 18th Century: Italy; Schnerich 1909 under Mass in the 19th Century; Mathews 1974 and White 1973 under Bruckner, Liszt, and the Caecilian Movement.)

  • Chase, Robert. Dies Irae: A Guide to Requiem Music. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, 2003.

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    Meant for general use, this volume contains brief descriptions of the Gregorian Requiem and Renaissance and Baroque works, as well as more recent ones. Touches on Requiems in other liturgies. Each entry contains brief information about the composer and the work, modern editions, discography where possible, duration, voicing, and an outline of the movements. Appendix contains list of existing Requiems not described in main part of volume.

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  • Cooke, Mervyn. Britten: War Requiem. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

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    In Britten’s unique elegiac setting, the traditional Latin text of the Requiem Mass is interspersed with Wilfrid Owen’s moving poetry. An opening chapter on Owen, Britten, and pacifism precedes an essay by Philip Reed on Britten’s progress in writing this iconic work. Chapters follow on the musical language, idiom, and structure, and its critical reception.

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  • Cooksey, Karen. “Fauré’s ‘Requiem’ Re-examined: A Study of the Work’s Genesis, Influences, and Influence.” PhD diss., University of Southern California, 2009.

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    A study of Fauré’s famous Requiem and the coexistence of traditions from both church and concert hall found within. Discusses the evolution of the work from sketches and its influence on future composers, especially in the choice of texts.

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  • Robertson, Alec. Requiem: Music of Mourning and Consolation. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1976.

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    Extensive survey of the Requiem Mass from its origins in the late 10th century to modern times, written in a personal, descriptive style. Treats of plainsong Masses and major polyphonic works from Dufay through Fauré, Duruflé, and Pizzetti. Analysis of non-liturgical works such as Liszt’s Via Crucis, and German Requiems by Schütz and Brahms. Chapters on memorial music and laments, and on elegiac works such as Britten’s War Requiem.

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  • Roeckle, Charles A. “Eighteenth-Century Neapolitan Settings of the Requiem Mass: Structure and Style.” PhD diss., University of Texas at Austin, 1978.

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    A study of the structural and stylistic tendencies in Requiem Masses by ten Neapolitan composers from the 18th century: Sarri, Feo, Jommelli, Paisiello, Cimarosa, Durante, and others. Focuses on the relationships between textual and musical structures for disparate settings from Sarri’s stile antico (old style) to the grandiose Paisiello setting. Musical examples, bibliography.

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  • Rosen, David. Verdi: Requiem. Cambridge Music Handbooks. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995.

    DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511620157Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Descriptive study of Verdi’s monumental Requiem, its genesis, revisions and performance practice problems, religious and secular elements. Investigates the extent of its operatic style and problems of genre classification.

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  • Westerhaus, Timothy Paul. “The Baroque Requiem Mass at the Imperial Habsburg Court in Vienna: Musical and Historical Context, Rhetoric, and Signification.” PhD diss., Boston University, 2003.

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    Set in the Viennese court of the Habsburgs, Requiem Masses by Sances, Schmeltzer, Kerll, C. Straus, and Fux are analyzed according to performing forces, motivic characteristics, counterpoint, text setting, and musical context. Focuses on musical rhetoric and oratory based on contemporary treatises by Kircher and Mattheson. Relates the music to possible meanings in the court regarding death and relationships with the living.

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  • Westerhaus, Timothy Paul. “Ildebrando Pizzetti’s Messa da Requiem: Conservatively Neo-Renaissance yet Distinctly Dramatic.” The Choral Scholar 4 (2014): 1–19.

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    Pizzetti’s Requiem from 1922–1923 exemplifies the shift in Italian sacred music from the operatic style of the 19th century to a neo-Renaissance style in the early 20th. The work reflects Pizzetti’s blend of historical and contemporary influences, including chant quotations, unaccompanied passages, and church modes, along with dramatic elements and expressive markings. Arch structures and repeated motives unify the work, while a variety of choral textures from unison to twelve voices provides contrast.

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Performance Practice in the Mass

Reconstructing how Masses were performed and heard in past eras is an important part of understanding the music. Wide-ranging representative essays from several periods include the performance of organum in Paris, including settings of parts of the Proper (Roesner 2011); several important performance issues in Renaissance sacred music (Reynolds 1990); the performance of Palestrina’s Masses (Dixon 1994); 17th-century performance practice in Roman and Bolognese churches (Lionnet 1987, Schnoebelen 2011); the use of instruments in Spanish cathedrals in the 16th and 17th centuries (Kreitner 1992); the use of the organ in Germany and Austria in the 18th and 19th centuries (Riedel 1999); and the performance of chant in the Solesmes revival in the 19th century (Brunner 2011).

  • Brunner, Lance W. “The Performance of Plainchant: Some Preliminary Observations of the New Era.” In Medieval Music. Edited by Honey Meconi, 3–14. Farnham, UK: Ashgate, 2011.

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    The method of chant performance advocated by Dom Mocquereau of Solesmes is re-examined in the areas of rhythm, ornamental neumes, and voice production. A later Solesmes monk, Dom Cardine, refutes a purely mensural interpretation of chant rhythm but allows some slight variations in duration of notes, based on his study of 10th- and 11th-century manuscripts. Originally published in 1982.

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  • Dixon, Graham. “The Performance of Palestrina; Some Questions, but Fewer Answers.” Early Music 22.4 (1994): 666–675.

    DOI: 10.1093/earlyj/XXII.4.666Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Dixon discusses issues of pitch, ornamentation, number of singers, and the use of instruments, especially the organ, in the performance of Palestrina’s music by the papal choir.

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  • Kreitner, Kenneth. “Minstrels in Spanish Churches.” Early Music 20 (1992): 533–546.

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    Part of an ongoing discussion of the use of instruments in some Spanish cathedrals in the 16th and 17th centuries. A few scattered documents appear to support the possibility of instrumental accompaniment of singers during Mass. Instrumental improvisation was expected. Suggests modern performances of these works should try using shawms and sackbuts.

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  • Lionnet, Jean. “Performance Practice in the Papal Chapel during the 17th Century.” Early Music 15 (1987): 4–15.

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    From documents in the Vatican Library regarding the papal chapel, Lionnet offers the possibility that polyphonic Masses were performed with one singer to a part in the 17th century.

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  • Reynolds, Christopher. “Sacred Polyphony.” In Performance Practice: Music before 1600. Edited by Howard Mayer Brown and Stanley Sadie, 185–200. Norton/Grove Handbooks in Music. New York: Norton, 1990.

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    Useful survey of performance issues in 15th- and 16th-century sacred music, including the number of singers per part, the role of the organ and other instruments, alternatim (alternation) performance, voice ranges, ornamentation of polyphony, choral improvisation on plainchant, and problems of modern editing.

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  • Riedel, Friedrich, ed. Kirchenmusik mit obligater Orgel: Untursuchungen zum süddeutsch-österreichischen Repertoire im 18. und 19. Jahrhundert. Kirchenmusikalisches Studien 4. Sinzig, Germany: Studio-Verlag. 1999.

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    Essays on the essential role of the organ in south German and Austrian Masses in the 18th and 19th centuries. Discussion of Masses in the Breslau Cathedral, in the convents of Franciscans, Masses by Greith and Rheinberger, Antonín Dvořak and César Franck from the viewpoint of organ participation.

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  • Roesner, Edward. “The Performance of Parisian Organum.” In Medieval Music. Edited by Honey Meconi, 149–164. Farnham, UK: Ashgate, 2011.

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    Discusses the number of singers, ornamentation as determined by theorists, length of notes. Says a flexible treatment of rhythm is a major feature of organum performance, and that theorists’ descriptions of the rhythmic modes are only theoretical constructs. Performance practices outlined by theorists should be considered hints at things performers might have done. Originally appeared in 1989.

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  • Schnoebelen, Anne. “Performance Practices at San Petronio in the Baroque.” In Baroque Music. Edited by Peter Walls, 437–456. Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2011.

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    From archival documents in San Petronio in Bologna, the author reconstructs the size and scope of performances for the annual patronal feast in October. Gives vocal and instrumental forces, and discusses the preoccupation with bass sonority in the basilica, and the careful distinction of basso continuo groups in the Masses of Perti. The use of the tromba, a particular characteristic of Bolognese music, is discussed. Originally published in 1969.

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