José Martí and Cuba
- LAST REVIEWED: 05 May 2017
- LAST MODIFIED: 27 June 2018
- DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199766581-0118
- LAST REVIEWED: 05 May 2017
- LAST MODIFIED: 27 June 2018
- DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199766581-0118
José Martí (b. 1853–d. 1895) was born in Havana, Cuba, and lived much of his life in exile: in Spain, Mexico, Guatemala, Venezuela, and the United States. In New York, where he lived nearly fifteen years, he supported himself by writing chronicles for US and Latin American newspapers such as The Hour and The Sun of New York, La Opinión Nacional of Caracas, and La Nación of Buenos Aires. He also served for a brief period of time as a foreign representative of several governments (Argentina, Uruguay, and Paraguay). He was the main organizer of Cuba’s last war of independence and although he was immensely popular among the émigré community in the United States, he was little known in Cuba, until the establishment of the Cuban Republic in 1902. During this period, Martí reached a political and literary prominence that few other men could aspire to or claim. He was praised for being not only a hero, but also one of Latin American’s leading thinkers and literary figures. His work went through numerous editions (Quesada y Aróstegui). His thoughts and life were praised in every major political speech, and his image was reproduced in multiple forms. Given Martí’s importance in Cuba, it comes as no surprise that there are so many biographies about his life and a vast bibliography on his work. This article covers Martí’s life and influential writings on Cuba, the United States, and Latin America. Due to the numerous citations and references to his work, this is only a survey of the most representative work that has been produced on his life and writings. I will concentrate on key aspects of his legacy, his biographies, his literary work, his political thought, and special topics that critics have explored.
Martí’s first biographical notes appeared in American newspapers during the last war of independence and immediately after his death in Cuba. They emphasized his heroism and his plans for a new nation (Reno 1899). They were written in English for an audience that wanted to know more about the present war and its leaders. They generally praised Martí’s organizational skills, his intellectual abilities, and his plan to free his country. During the Republic, however, Martí’s biographies became highly hagiographical, with some using religious motifs to exalt his image. He was regarded as the “apostle” of Cuba (Mañach 1933), the “saint of America” (Rodríguez-Embil 1941), and a “myth” (Hernández Catá 1970). They also explore the “intimate” side of Martí in an effort to humanize him after so much mythologization (Zacharie de Baralt 1945, Quesada y Miranda 1939). After the triumph of the Cuban Revolution in 1959, on the other hand, his biographers spoke of his “revolutionary” life, his commitment to Cuba’s independence, and his anti-imperialist thought (Martínez Estrada 1967, Toledo Sande 1996). They left out any reference to religion.
Hernández Catá, Alfonso. Mitología de Martí. Miami, FL: Mnemosyne, 1970.
This is a well-written but hagiographical account of Martí’s life, written by one of Cuba’s most important writers. The book originally appeared in 1929, and it traces Martí’s life from birth to death. It incorporates some of his thoughts, especially on religion and self-sacrifice, to better convey the idea of his “myth.”
Mañach, Jorge. Martí: El apóstol. Madrid: Espasa-Calpe, 1933.
This is still José Martí’s most popular biography. It was written by one of Cuba’s leading intellectuals.
Martínez Estrada, Ezequiel. Martí: Revolucionario. Havana, Cuba: Casa de Las Américas, 1967.
Estrada, an Argentinian critic in favor of the Cuban Revolution, dedicated the last years of his life to writing this two-volume biography of Martí, where he emphasized his “revolutionary” commitment to his nation as well as characteristics of his personality.
Quesada y Miranda, Gonzalo de. Facetas de Martí. Havana, Cuba: Editorial Trópico, 1939.
In this book, Gonzalo de Quesada, the son of Martí’s inseparable friend, Gonzalo de Quesada y Aróstegui, speaks of Martí’s passion for women, books, palmistry, music, and other things that were previously overlooked by his biographers.
Reno, George. “José Martí, ‘The Master.’” In True Stories of Heroic Lives: Stirring Tales of Courage and Devotion of Men and Women of the Nineteenth Century. By George Reno, 311–320. New York: Funk & Wagnalls, 1899.
Reno’s articles focus on Martí’s life and his political ideals, his popularity among the émigré community in the United States, and his death in Cuba. Reno refers to Martí as “the Master,” which is the nickname Cubans in the United States gave Martí before he died.
Rodríguez-Embil, Luis. José Martí, el santo de América: Estudio crítico-biográfico. Havana, Cuba: Comisión Central Pro-Monumento a Martí, 1941.
Rodríguez-Embil’s biography of Martí received the first prize in the celebrations that predated the inauguration of Martí’s monument in Havana. It is a mixture of factual events and literary imagination. It follows Martí through his numerous trips to Spain, Mexico, Guatemala, Venezuela, Cuba, and the United States, and it gives considerable importance to religion, eroticism, his literary work, and his revolutionary activities.
Toledo Sande, Luis. Cesto de llamas: Biografía de José Martí. Havana, Cuba: Editorial de Ciencias Sociales, 1996.
Sande’s biography of Martí starts with Martí’s childhood in Cuba and finishes with his death in Dos Rios. It focuses on his political career. It is divided into several chapters and it follows Martí’s pilgrimage from Spain, to Mexico, Guatemala, Venezuela, the United States, and Cuba.
Zacharie de Baralt, Blanche. El Martí que yo conocí. Havana, Cuba: Editorial Trópico, 1945.
This is Zacharie de Baralt’s personal recounting of Martí’s life in the United States. Zacharie de Baralt was one of Martí’s best friends in New York and a woman closely connected with the émigré community. She gives intimate details about his life.
Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content on this page. Please subscribe or login.
- Agricultural Technologies
- Andean Contributions to Rethinking the State and the Natio...
- Antislavery Narratives
- Arab Diaspora in Latin America, The
- Argentina in the Era of Mass Immigration
- Argentina, Slavery in
- Argentine Literature
- Army of Chile in the 19th Century
- Asian Art and Its Impact in the Americas, 1565–1840
- Asian-Peruvian Literature
- Baroque and Neo-baroque Literary Tradition
- Bello, Andrés
- Black Experience in Colonial Latin America, The
- Black Experience in Modern Latin America, The
- Borderlands in Latin America, Conquest of
- Bourbon Reforms, The
- Brazilian Northeast, History of the
- Buenos Aires
- Caribbean Philosophical Association, The
- Caribbean, The Archaeology of the
- Cartagena de Indias
- Caste War of Yucatán, The
- Caudillos, 19th Century
- Cádiz Constitution and Liberalism, The
- Chaco War
- Children, History of
- Chile's Struggle for Independence
- Chronicle, The
- Church in Colonial Latin America, The
- Chávez, Hugo, and the Bolivarian Revolution in Venezuela
- Cinema, Contemporary Brazilian
- Cinema, Latin American
- Colonial Central America
- Colonial New Granada
- Colonial Portuguese Amazon Region, from the 17th to 18th C...
- Contemporary Maya, The
- Costa Rica
- Cárdenas and Cardenismo
- Cuban Revolution, The
- Dependency Theory in Latin American History
- Development of Architecture in New Spain, 1500–1810, The
- Development of Painting in Peru, 1520–1820, The
- Drug Trades in Latin America
- Dutch in South America and the Caribbean, The
- Early Colonial Forms of Native Expression in Mexico and Pe...
- Economies from Independence to Industrialization
- Ecuador, La Generación del 30 in
- El Salvador
- Enlightenment and its Visual Manifestations in Spanish Ame...
- Environmental History
- Era of Porfirio Díaz, 1876–1911, The
- Family History
- Film, Science Fiction
- Football (Soccer) in Latin America
- Gaucho Literature
- Gender in Colonial Brazil
- Gender in Postcolonial Latin America
- Guatemala and Yucatan, Conquest of
- Guatemala City
- Guatemala (Colonial Period)
- Guatemala (Modern & National Period)
- Haitian Revolution, The
- Health and Disease in Modern Latin America, History of
- History, Cultural
- History, Food
- Honor in Latin America to 1900
- Horror in Literature and Film in Latin America
- Human Rights in Latin America
- Immigration in Latin America
- Indigenous Elites in the Colonial Andes
- Indigenous Population and Justice System in Central Mexico...
- Indigenous Voices in Literature
- Japanese Presence in Latin America
- Jewish Presence in Latin America, The
- Las Casas, Bartolomé de
- Latin American Independence
- Latin American Urbanism, 1850-1950
- Law and Society in Latin America since 1800
- Legal History of New Spain, 16th-17th Centuries
- Legal History of the State and Church in 18th Century New ...
- Literature, Argentinian
- Machado de Assis
- Magical Realism
- Maroon Societies in Latin America
- Martí, José, and Cuba
- Mestizaje and the Legacy of José María Arguedas
- Mexican Nationalism
- Mexican Revolution, 1910–1940, The
- Mexican-US Relations
- Mexico, Conquest of
- Mexico, Education in
- Migration to the United States
- Military and Modern Latin America, The
- Military Government in Latin America, 1959–1990
- Military Institution in Colonial Latin America, The
- Modern Decorative Arts and Design, 1900–2000
- Modern Populism in Latin America
- Modernity and Decoloniality
- Musical Tradition in Latin America, The
- Native Presence in Postconquest Central Peru
- New Conquest History and the New Philology in Colonial Mes...
- New Left in Latin America, The
- Novel, Chronology of the Venezuelan
- Novel of the Mexican Revolution, The
- Novel, 19th Century Haitian
- Novel, The Colombian
- Oaxaca, Conquest and Colonial
- Painting in New Spain, 1521–1820
- Paraguayan War (War of the Triple Alliance)
- Pastoralism in the Andes
- Paz, Octavio
- Perón and Peronism
- Peru, Colonial
- Peru, Conquest of
- Peru, Slavery in
- Philippines Under Spanish Rule, 1571-1898
- Photography in the History of Race and Nation
- Political Exile in Latin America
- Popular Culture and Globalization
- Popular Movements in 19th-Century Latin America
- Post Conquest Aztecs
- Post-Conquest Demographic Collapse
- Poverty in Latin America
- Preconquest Incas
- Pre-conquest Mesoamerican States, The
- Pre-Revolutionary Mexico, State and Nation Formation in
- Printing and the Book
- Prints and the Circulation of Colonial Images
- Protestantism in Latin America
- Religions in Latin America
- Revolution and Reaction in Central America
- Rosas, Juan Manuel de
- Sandinista Revolution and the FSLN, The
- Santo Domingo
- Science and Empire in the Iberian Atlantic
- Sexualities in Latin America and the Caribbean
- Slavery in Brazil
- São Paulo
- Spanish and Portuguese Trade, 1500–1750
- Spanish Caribbean In The Colonial Period, The
- Spanish Colonial Decorative Arts, 1500-1825
- Spanish Florida
- Telenovelas and Melodrama in Latin America
- Textile Traditions of the Andes
- 16th-Century New Spain
- Transculturation and Literature
- Trujillo, Rafael
- Tupac Amaru Rebellion, The
- United States and Castro's Cuba in the Cold War, The
- United States and the Guatemalan Revolution, The
- United States Invasion of the Dominican Republic, 1961–196...
- Urban History
- Urbanization in the 20th Century, Latin America’s
- U.S.-Latin American Relations During the Cold War
- Vargas, Getúlio
- Women and Labor in 20th-Century Latin America
- Women in Colonial Latin American History
- Women in Modern Latin American History
- Zapatista Rebellion in Chiapas