Chronology of the Venezuelan Novel
- LAST REVIEWED: 05 May 2017
- LAST MODIFIED: 30 July 2014
- DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199766581-0143
- LAST REVIEWED: 05 May 2017
- LAST MODIFIED: 30 July 2014
- DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199766581-0143
This article covers some of the main authors, trends, and themes of the Venezuelan novel from the 19th to the 21st century. In general, Venezuelan literature has been underread and understudied with only a handful of authors translated into other languages. Authors such as Rómulo Gallegos, Arturo Uslar Pietri, Teresa de la Parra, Salvador Garmendia, and Miguel Otero Silva, among others, have created invaluable contributions to the Latin American literary world, and are well known beyond the country’s borders. Also, a good number of novelists including the aforementioned Gallegos, Uslar Pietri, and Otero Silva, but also Meneses, Britto García, González León, Romero, and more recently, Massiani, Torres, and Barrera Tyszka, to name a few, have won national and international literary awards and recognitions. Reading national literature is slowly sparking the interest of the general Venezuelan population as well as international audiences with the use of online platforms, social media, e-book publishers, and other web-based and virtual technologies. Most categorizations found in anthologies or literary histories take into account broader literary movements and trends such as romanticism, realism, naturalism, criollismo, modernism, and the vanguards. A great majority of these works discuss narrative in general (novel, short story, and some include essays and theater as well) and only a few focus solely on the novel; on particular authors such as de la Parra, Gallegos, or Otero Silva; or overarching themes. The latter include the regional and ethnic focus of the vanguards rather than the cosmopolitan perspective present in other Latin American authors; the transition of an agrarian economy to an oil-dependent one; guerrilla narratives during the 1960s; the disenchantment brought about by the “crash” of the economy in the late 1980s; and more recently, the political polarization during the late Hugo Chávez’s regime, issues related to urban violence, exile, racism, and gender. Several studies—journal articles or anthologies—focus on a specific author, time period, or region, rather than give a panoramic history of the novel.
As mentioned in the introduction, most works do not focus on the novel, but on literature in general—with separate sections for fiction, poetry, essays, and, in some cases, theater—or address specific authors, themes, or tendencies. This section includes the most complete overviews published between the 1990s and 2000s. Márquez Rodríguez 1991 and Rivas 2004 explore the historical novel and analyze the fictionalization of history in the works of some of the most representative male and female authors, connecting them to a broader Latin American context as well as to authors from Cuba, Mexico, Argentina, and Chile, among other countries. Barrera Linares, et al. 2006 provides a wide variety of essays on Venezuelan literature and culture from colonial times to the early 21st century, offering a recent and very up-to-date perspective of literary and cultural critique in the country. Kohut 2004 compiles a series of essays, formerly presented at a conference, that address various issues in Venezuelan literature, including publishers and literature’s relation to politics and market trends. Medina and Becco 1993 establishes continuity between themes and aesthetic tendencies in different authors, constructing a historiography of Venezuelan literature, while Delprat 2002 focuses on specific authors and themes that connect Venezuelan literature to the rest of Latin America. Hidalgo de Jesús 1996, on the other hand, explores the notion of modernity and underlines the importance of de la Parra in the construction of a female perspective in Venezuelan literature. Pantin and Torres 2003 deals with literature written by women, establishing a chronology of different works that challenge the status quo and reaffirm the need to include many of these women in other anthologies as well as in the Venezuelan literary canon.
Barrera Linares, Luis, Beatriz González Stephan, and Carlos Pacheco, eds. Nación y Literatura: Itinerarios de la palabra escrita en la cultura venezolana. Caracas, Venezuela: Fundación Bigott, Banesco and Equinoccio, 2006.
A comprehensive anthology that compiles a wide array of essays by well-known and emerging scholars and writers that explore in depth the richness of Venezuelan culture from colonial times to the early 21st century. It Includes several sections on literature that cover narrative, essay, and poetry, and also film, political discourse, and technology.
Delprat, Francois. Venezuela narrada. Mérida, Venezuela: El Otro, el Mismo, 2002.
A compilation of essays by established scholars on different aspects of Venezuelan literature (narrative, essay, and poetry), including the work of Uslar Pietri, de la Parra, and Trejo. Some of the themes include mestizo identity and race, literature from the 1960s, and modernism, to name a few.
Hidalgo de Jesús, Amarilis. La novela moderna en Venezuela. New York, Berlin, Frankfurt, and Paris: Peter Lang, 1996.
A detailed study of the works of some of the main Venezuelan novelists (Otero Silva, Gallegos, Palacios, de la Parra), as well as trends up to the 1980s and 1990s. The author discusses the evolution of literature written by women, which started with de la Parra and became stronger toward the end of the 20th century.
Kohut, Karl, ed. Literatura venezolana hoy: Historia nacional y presente urbano. Caracas, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2004.
A compilation of essays by renowned scholars who approach the topic of Venezuelan literature from diverse historical, critical, and theoretical perspectives. There is one section dedicated to narrative, which explores the works of writers such as Guillermo Meneses, Salvador Garmendia, and Gabriel Jiménez Emán, among others.
Márquez Rodríguez, Alexis. Historia y ficción en la novela venezolana. Caracas, Venezuela: Monte Ávila Editores, 1991.
The author discusses and contextualizes the historical novel in Venezuela, addressing some of the main authors and their works and underlining the relationship between history and literature, as well as the space that Venezuelan literature occupies in a broader Latin American context.
Medina, José Ramón, and Horacio Jorge Becco. Noventa años de literatura venezolana (1900–1990). Caracas, Venezuela: Monte Ávila Editores, 1993.
One of the most comprehensive and informative histories of Venezuelan literature, which includes a chronology and a very complete bibliography, as well as an author index. The book was published for the first time in 1969 and subsequently edited and republished with new facts and analytical perspectives about Venezuelan literary developments.
Pantin, Yolanda, and Ana Teresa Torres, eds. El hilo de la voz: Antología de escritoras venezolanas del siglo XX. Caracas, Venezuela: Fundación Polar, 2003.
A most necessary compilation on the topic of Venezuelan female writers of the 20th century. Included essays cover poetry, fiction, and nonfiction, as well as an outstanding introduction where the editors underline the relatively little visibility of female Venezuelan writers and connect their works to some of the main literary trends.
Rivas, Luz Marina. La novela intrahistórica: Tres miradas femeninas de la historia venezolana. Mérida, Venezuela: El Otro, el Mismo, 2004.
A detailed analysis of the works of three of the main female narrators in the country: Ana Teresa Torres, Laura Antillano, and Milagros Mata Gil. The author discusses the difference between official history and history told from the perspective of underrepresented groups—women in this case—explaining how this perspective is represented in the works of the aforementioned authors.
Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content on this page. Please subscribe or login.
- Agricultural Technologies
- Ancient Andean Textiles
- Andean Contributions to Rethinking the State and the Natio...
- Andean Music
- Antislavery Narratives
- Arab Diaspora in Brazil, The
- Arab Diaspora in Latin America, The
- Argentina in the Era of Mass Immigration
- Argentina, Slavery in
- Argentine Literature
- Army of Chile in the 19th Century
- Asian Art and Its Impact in the Americas, 1565–1840
- Asian-Peruvian Literature
- Atlantic Creoles
- Baroque and Neo-baroque Literary Tradition
- Beauty in Latin America
- Bello, Andrés
- Black Experience in Colonial Latin America, The
- Black Experience in Modern Latin America, The
- Borderlands in Latin America, Conquest of
- Bourbon Reforms, The
- Brazilian Northeast, History of the
- Buenos Aires
- California Missions, The
- Caribbean Philosophical Association, The
- Caribbean, The Archaeology of the
- Cartagena de Indias
- Caste War of Yucatán, The
- Caudillos, 19th Century
- Cádiz Constitution and Liberalism, The
- Chaco War
- Children, History of
- Chile's Struggle for Independence
- Chronicle, The
- Church in Colonial Latin America, The
- Chávez, Hugo, and the Bolivarian Revolution in Venezuela
- Cinema, Contemporary Brazilian
- Cinema, Latin American
- Colonial Central America
- Colonial Latin America, Crime and Punishment in
- Colonial Latin America, Pilgrimage in
- Colonial Legal History of Peru
- Colonial New Granada
- Colonial Portuguese Amazon Region, from the 17th to 18th C...
- Contemporary Maya, The
- Cortés, Hernán
- Costa Rica
- Cárdenas and Cardenismo
- Cuban Revolution, The
- de Alva Ixtlilxochitl, Fernando
- Dependency Theory in Latin American History
- Development of Architecture in New Spain, 1500–1810, The
- Development of Painting in Peru, 1520–1820, The
- Drug Trades in Latin America
- Dutch in South America and the Caribbean, The
- Early Colonial Forms of Native Expression in Mexico and Pe...
- Economies from Independence to Industrialization
- Ecuador, La Generación del 30 in
- Education in New Spain
- El Salvador
- Enlightenment and its Visual Manifestations in Spanish Ame...
- Environmental History
- Era of Porfirio Díaz, 1876–1911, The
- Family History
- Film, Science Fiction
- Football (Soccer) in Latin America
- Franciscans in Colonial Latin America
- From "National Culture" to the "National Popular" and the ...
- Gaucho Literature
- Gender in Colonial Brazil
- Gender in Postcolonial Latin America
- Guaraní and Their Legacy, The
- Guatemala and Yucatan, Conquest of
- Guatemala City
- Guatemala (Colonial Period)
- Guatemala (Modern & National Period)
- Haitian Revolution, The
- Health and Disease in Modern Latin America, History of
- History, Cultural
- History, Food
- Honor in Latin America to 1900
- Horror in Literature and Film in Latin America
- Human Rights in Latin America
- Immigration in Latin America
- Indigenous Elites in the Colonial Andes
- Indigenous Population and Justice System in Central Mexico...
- Indigenous Voices in Literature
- Japanese Presence in Latin America
- Jewish Presence in Latin America, The
- José María Arguedas and Early 21st Century Cultural and Po...
- Las Casas, Bartolomé de
- Latin American Independence
- Latin American Theater and Performance
- Latin American Urbanism, 1850-1950
- Law and Society in Latin America since 1800
- Legal History of New Spain, 16th-17th Centuries
- Legal History of the State and Church in 18th Century New ...
- Literature, Argentinian
- Machado de Assis
- Magical Realism
- Maroon Societies in Latin America
- Martí, José, and Cuba
- Mestizaje and the Legacy of José María Arguedas
- Mexican Nationalism
- Mexican Revolution, 1910–1940, The
- Mexican-US Relations
- Mexico, Conquest of
- Mexico, Education in
- Migration to the United States
- Military and Modern Latin America, The
- Military Government in Latin America, 1959–1990
- Military Institution in Colonial Latin America, The
- Modern Decorative Arts and Design, 1900–2000
- Modern Populism in Latin America
- Modernity and Decoloniality
- Musical Tradition in Latin America, The
- Native Presence in Postconquest Central Peru
- New Conquest History and the New Philology in Colonial Mes...
- New Left in Latin America, The
- Novel, Chronology of the Venezuelan
- Novel of the Mexican Revolution, The
- Novel, 19th Century Haitian
- Novel, The Colombian
- Oaxaca, Conquest and Colonial
- Painting in New Spain, 1521–1820
- Paraguayan War (War of the Triple Alliance)
- Pastoralism in the Andes
- Paz, Octavio
- Perón and Peronism
- Peru, Colonial
- Peru, Conquest of
- Peru, Slavery in
- Philippines Under Spanish Rule, 1571-1898
- Photography in the History of Race and Nation
- Political Exile in Latin America
- Ponce de León
- Popular Culture and Globalization
- Popular Movements in 19th-Century Latin America
- Post Conquest Aztecs
- Post-Conquest Demographic Collapse
- Poverty in Latin America
- Preconquest Incas
- Pre-conquest Mesoamerican States, The
- Pre-Revolutionary Mexico, State and Nation Formation in
- Printing and the Book
- Prints and the Circulation of Colonial Images
- Protestantism in Latin America
- Puerto Rican Literature
- Religions in Latin America
- Revolution and Reaction in Central America
- Rosas, Juan Manuel de
- Sandinista Revolution and the FSLN, The
- Santo Domingo
- Science and Empire in the Iberian Atlantic
- Science and Technology in Modern Latin America
- Sexualities in Latin America and the Caribbean
- Slavery in Brazil
- São Paulo
- South American Missions
- Spanish American Arab Literature
- Spanish and Portuguese Trade, 1500–1750
- Spanish Caribbean In The Colonial Period, The
- Spanish Colonial Decorative Arts, 1500-1825
- Spanish Florida
- Spiritual Conquest of Latin America, The
- Sports in Latin America and the Caribbean
- Telenovelas and Melodrama in Latin America
- Textile Traditions of the Andes
- 19th Century and Modernismo Poetry in Spanish America
- 16th-Century New Spain
- Transculturation and Literature
- Trujillo, Rafael
- Tupac Amaru Rebellion, The
- United States and Castro's Cuba in the Cold War, The
- United States and the Guatemalan Revolution, The
- United States Invasion of the Dominican Republic, 1961–196...
- Urban History
- Urbanization in the 20th Century, Latin America’s
- U.S.-Latin American Relations During the Cold War
- Vargas, Getúlio
- Venezuelan Literature
- Women and Labor in 20th-Century Latin America
- Women in Colonial Latin American History
- Women in Modern Latin American History
- Women's Property Rights, Asset Ownership, and Wealth in La...
- Zapatista Rebellion in Chiapas