Latin American Studies Slavery in Argentina
by
Erika Edwards
  • LAST REVIEWED: 10 February 2017
  • LAST MODIFIED: 27 June 2017
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199766581-0157

Introduction

In 1587 the first slaves arrived in Buenos Aries from Brazil. From 1580 to 1640, the main commercial activity for Buenos Aires was the slave trade. More than 70 percent of the value of all imports arriving in Buenos Aires were enslaved Africans. Slaves came primarily from Brazil via the Portuguese slave trade from Angola and other western states in Africa. Once arriving in Buenos Aires, they could be sent as far as Lima, Peru; slaves were provided to Mendoza, Tucuman, and Salta Jujuy as well as to Chile, Paraguay, and what is today Bolivia and southern Peru. Córdoba functioned primarily as a redistribution center for this slave transfer until 1610. In 1610 the Society of Jesus founded the Coliseum Maximum for students of the order in Córdoba. This would become the precursor to the University of Córdoba. By the mid-17th century, the Jesuits, along with other religious orders, had brought forth a prominent slave population that labored on their ranches, university, and churches. By the end of the 18th century, the Río de la Plata had become a strong economic power because of the location of Buenos Aires’s port and changes in trade routes because of the Bourbon Reforms. The slave trade had increased significantly by the end of the 18th century, reflecting the economic status of Buenos Aires in the Atlantic economy. In 1810 Buenos Aires called for independence and began the wars of independence that would eventually spread across all Latin America. The participation of slaves was crucial to victory. Because of their efforts on the battlefield, gradual abolition was introduced in 1813 with the Free Womb Act, which “freed” all babies born to slave mothers. The first Constitution of Argentina abolished slavery in 1853. This, however, did not apply to Buenos Aires, as it was not a part of the Confederation. Once Buenos Aires joined the Confederation in 1861, slavery was completely abolished in Argentina. Prior to the social history of the 1960s, few if any works focused on the black experience in Argentina. Starting in the 1970s, because of quantitative methods, historians began to grapple with the question of “What happened to the black population?” Since this period, the historiography has expanded to include the cultural and legal experiences involving Afro descendants in Argentina. Since the beginning of the 21st century, there has been an explosion in the production of works concerning slavery and the black experience in Argentina. Led primarily by Argentine scholars, this historiography continues to be focused on the colonial period with the focus on demography, the wars of independence, and the period of blanqueamiento, or the disappearance of the black population.

General History

The general history of slavery in Argentina is dominated by the black experience in Buenos Aires during the 18th and 19th centuries. Andrews has written two books that detail their experiences. The first, Andrews 1980, is the first social history of slavery written in English. He later followed up with a general comparative history of blacks throughout Latin America (Andrews 2004). This book is highly recommended for undergraduates. Andrews has since expanded this book to include the 17th and 18th centuries in his most recent publication Andrews 2016. Within the province of Buenos Aires, Mayo 2004 provides an economic history about labor conditions at the end of the 18th century. Pineau 2011 is an anthology that captures the black experience from the slave trade to today. Outside of Buenos Aires, three works, Becerra 2008, Borucki 2015, and Pistone 1996, explore the black experiences in the provinces of Córdoba, Banda Oriental (modern-day Uruguay) and Santa Fe, respectively. Becerra 2008 provides a historiography of texts produced since the 1960s about Córdoba. Borucki 2015 delves into the social networks created among African descendants from the late colonial to early republican periods. Pistone 1996 provides a general history about slavery in the province of Santa Fe. Most recently, Siegrist and Rosal 2012 and Guzman, et al. 2016 are anthologies that fill a crucial gap in the historiography as they trace the black experience in Argentina and the Rio de la Plata from the 18th through the 21st centuries. In particular Guzman, et al. 2016 goes beyond Buenos Aires and discusses other cities, such as La Rioja, Córdoba, and Santa Fe.

  • Andrews, George Reid. The Afro-Argentines of Buenos Aires, 1800–1900. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1980.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This book is a social, cultural, and military history of the black experience in Buenos Aires during the 19th century. The book tests the myths of black disappearance in Buenos Aires, Argentina. These myths include disease, genocide, and wars. Andrews argues that though they are partly true, the real reason stems from an ideological erasure known as the whitening period and a statistical transfer in the censuses.

    Find this resource:

    • Andrews, George Reid. Afro-Latin America, 1800–2000. New York: Oxford, 2004.

      Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      This is a general book on the black experiences from the beginning of the republics to today. It is divided into periods, including the wars of independence, the modernization/whitening process, the mestizaje period, and today’s black movements. It compares the black experience throughout Latin America.

      Find this resource:

      • Andrews, George Reid. Afro-Latin America: Black Lives, 1600–2000. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2016.

        DOI: 10.4159/9780674545847Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

        This is a general history of the black experience from the 17th century to 2000. It expands on his 2004 book. This book provides additional information on the colonial period.

        Find this resource:

        • Becerra, María José. “Estudios sobre esclavitud en Córdoba: Análisis y perspectivas.” In Los estudios Afroamericanos y Africanos en América Latina: Herencia, presencia y visiones del otro. Edited by Gladys Lechini, 145–163. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Consejo Latinoamericano de Ciencias Sociales, 2008.

          Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

          Becerra provides a historiographical overview of slavery in Córdoba, focusing primarily on Argentine scholars from the 1960s to today. The scholars are framed within various methodologies and schools of thought.

          Find this resource:

          • Borucki, Alex. From Shipmates to Soldiers: Emerging Black Identities in the Río de la Plata. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2015.

            Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

            Borucki focuses on the creation of various social networks—slave ship experiences, religious brotherhoods, soldiers—among African descendants. He sheds light on their experiences in Montevideo, an important slave port in the 18th century and part of the Rio de la Plata until the independence of Uruguay in 1825.

            Find this resource:

            • de la Cerda Donoso de Moreschi, Jeanette C., and Luis J. Villarroel. Los negros esclavos de Alta Gracia: Caso testigo de población de origen africano en la Argentina y América. Córdoba, Argentina: Ediciones del Copista, Biblioteca de la Historia, 1999.

              Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

              The city of Alta Gracia, Argentina, is a small town in which extensive African slavery existed. The authors note that the stories of the slaves in this town have almost been erased from history; thus, they attempt to rescue the memory of this group of human beings that carried the stigma of being black and being slaves.

              Find this resource:

              • Guzman, Florencia, Lea Geler, and Alejandro Frigerio. Cartografías afro latinoamericanos: Perspectivas situadas desde Argentina. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Editorial Biblos, 2016.

                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                Guzman, Geler and Friegerio’s anthology provides a diverse array of essays that examine the black experience in various regions of Argentina from the colonial period through the 20th century; themes include racial labeling, urban slavery, black artisans, abolition, entertainment, and memory.

                Find this resource:

                • Mayo, Carlos. “Gauchos negros: Los esclavos de la estancia colonial.” In Estancia y sociedad en la pampa, 1740–1820. By Carlos Mayo, 135–150. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Editorial Biblos, 2004.

                  Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                  Mayo investigates the economic progression of Argentina’s rural areas in the late colonial era. He acknowledges these rural areas as slave-occupied territories with progressive transformation to agricultural commercialization and economic prosperity. Mayo also addresses how the rural areas were culturally and socially modified.

                  Find this resource:

                  • Pineau, Marisa. La ruta del esclavo en el Río de la Plata: Aportes para el diálogo intercultural. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Editorial de la Universidad Nacional de Tres de Febrero, 2011.

                    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                    This book is a compilation of several chapters stemming from an international seminar organized by the Catedra Unesco de Turismo Cultural, held in Buenos Aires in 2009. The purpose of this book is to promote cultural and artistic dialogue between Latin America and African countries.

                    Find this resource:

                    • Pistone, J. Catalina. La esclavatura negra en Santa Fe. Santa Fe, Argentina: Junta Provincial de Estudios Históricos de Santa Fe, 1996.

                      Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                      Pistone examines the origin and presence of black slavery in the city of Santa Fe, particularly in relation to religion. Pistone thoroughly examines primary municipal and clerical documents to show the development of slave culture in the region and how blacks were incorporated into society through mestizaje, or military service.

                      Find this resource:

                      • Rosal, Miguel. Africanos y afrodescendientes en el Río de la Plata: Siglos XVIII–XIX. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Editorial Dunken, 2009.

                        Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                        Rosal examines black property owners, including both freed people and slaves. He provides a general history of the black experience in Buenos Aires during the late 18th and early 19th centuries. This book’s appendix provides a listing of all blacks, pardos, and mulattos who left wills and their location in the Archivo General Nación.

                        Find this resource:

                        • Siegrist, Nora, and Miguel Rosal, eds. Cuestiones interétnicas: Fuentes, y aportes sobre el componente afromestizo en Hispanoamérica, siglos XVII–XIX. Saarbrucken, Germany: Editorial Académica Española, 2012.

                          Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                          This anthology focuses on various new methodologies surrounding the black experience primarily in Buenos Aires. It focuses on criminal proceedings, racial identity, and social relationships.

                          Find this resource:

                          Primary Source Material

                          These sources are primarily about the black experience in Buenos Aires, with one exception, namely Ferreyra 2005, which examines interracial marriages in Córdoba. In general, these sources focus on the biographies of various black porteños. The only autobiography that exists for a black person prior to 1850 is written by Jacinto Molina. Molina, et al. 2010 provides the original manuscript of his travels. Ford 1982 (Jorge Ford wrote the book in 1879) is one of the first books to include various biographies of black war heroes from the early 19th century; because it was written during the 19th century, it also serves as a primary source. Jackson 2015 provides an English translation of Ford’s book. Rolón 1877, written by a prominent Afro-Argentine, also provides political commentary on the state of the black community. Estrada 1979 provides a listing of various afroporteños from the 19th century. They should be read together. Cirio 2009 and Platero 2004 are books that serve as good sources for the black press that existed at the end of the 19th century. Both divide their subject matter on various themes, such as fiestas, employment, carnivals, and other events, and concerns in the black community. Lewis 1996, Jackson 2010, and Solomianski 2003 provide analysis of the black press that existed at the end of the 19th century. These books should be read together as they provide contrasting conclusions. Lewis 1996 and Jackson 2010 argue for an African diasporic connection, while Solomianski 2003 affirms that the black press, along with other literature by marginalized peoples, represented a larger “plebe” mentality. Finally, Ortiz Oderigo 2007, a dictionary, contains many Argentine words with African origins.

                          • Cirio, Noberto Pablo. Tinta negra en el gris del ayer: Los afroporteños a través de sus periódicos entre 1873 y 1882. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Editorial Teseo, 2009.

                            Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                            Cirio provides various excerpts from the black press that existed in Buenos Aires. His work is divided into various themes that were discussed in the newspapers.

                            Find this resource:

                            • Estrada, Marcos. Argentinos de origen africano: 34 bibliografías. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Editorial Universitaria de Buenos Aires, 1979.

                              Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                              Estrada provides brief biographies of various afroporteños during the 19th century.

                              Find this resource:

                              • Ferreyra, María del Carmen. “Matrimonios de españoles con esclavas durante el siglo XVIII en Córdoba,” In Cuestiones de familia a través de las Fuentes. Edited by Mónica Ghirardi. Córdoba, Argentina: Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, 2005.

                                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                Ferreyra provides twenty-five case studies of interracial marriages between enslaved and freed women of color to white men during the 18th century. These are the only interracial marriages involving white men and black women during the 18th century. This is a rich source as she has traced their lives in drawing on censuses, baptismal records as well as notarial, probate, and death records for the 18th century.

                                Find this resource:

                                • Ford, Jorge Miguel. Beneméritos de mi estirpe: Esbozos sociales. La Plata, Argentina: Tipografía de la Escuela de Artes y Oficios, 1982.

                                  Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                  Ford provides brief biographies of various black war heroes from the wars of independence. Written at the end of the 19th century, Jorge Miguel Ford is also an Afro-Argentine. This can also serve as a primary document. Originally published 1889.

                                  Find this resource:

                                  • Jackson, Edith Moss. Forgotten Texts: Lyrical Constructions of 19th Century Afro-Argentine Poetic Constructions of Self and Community. Bloomington, IN: Xilbris, 2010.

                                    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                    Jackson translated poems written by Afro-Argentines in the 19th century.

                                    Find this resource:

                                    • Jackson, Edith Moss. “The Worthy of My Race”: Social Sketches. Bloomington, IN: Xilbris, 2015.

                                      Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                      Jackson’s book is a translation of Ford 1982, originally written at the end of the 19th century. It provides various biographies on prominent Afro-Argentine intellectuals, primarily from Buenos Aires.

                                      Find this resource:

                                      • Lewis, Marvin A. Afro-Argentine Discourse: Another Dimension of the African Diaspora. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1996.

                                        Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                        Lewis provides a literature analysis of Afro-Argentine poetry. Lewis’s book puts this poetry, found mainly in black newspapers, into the larger context of the African diaspora and various genres of literature during the 19th century.

                                        Find this resource:

                                        • Molina, Jacinto, William G. Acree, and Alex Borucki. Los caminos de la escritura negra en el Río de la Plata. Madrid: Iberoamericana, 2010.

                                          Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                          Jactino Molina is the only person of African ancestry in the Río de la Plata to leave a manuscript detailing black experiences before 1850.

                                          Find this resource:

                                          • Ortiz Oderigo, Néstor. Diccionario de Africanismos en el Castellano del Río de la Plata. Caseros, Argentina: Eduntref, 2007.

                                            Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                            This book is a dictionary of various Argentine words with African origin. Néstor Ortiz Oderigo seeks to give recognition to the cultural influence of the common people and African descendants on various slang words today. The vocabulary is alphabetized in a dictionary format.

                                            Find this resource:

                                            • Platero, Tomas. Piedra Libre para nuestros negros: La Broma y otros periódicos de la comunidad afroargentina, 1873–1882. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Instituto Histórico de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, 2004.

                                              Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                              Platero provides various excerpts from the black press. The book is divided into various themes that are discussed in the newspapers.

                                              Find this resource:

                                              • Rolón, Zenón. Dos palabras a mis hermanos de raza. Florenica, Mexico, 1877.

                                                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                Rolon was a prominent Afro-Argentine at the end of the 19th century. This political essay is about the realities of life for the black community in Buenos Aires.

                                                Find this resource:

                                                • Solomianski, Alejandro. Identidades secretas: La negritud argentina. Rosario, Argentina: Beatriz Viterbo Editora, 2003.

                                                  Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                  Solomianski’s book is a literature analysis of works from the late 19th century. He finds that instead of a black consciousness there is in fact centered on the plebe. All marginalized groups (i.e., Indians, blacks, gauchos) experienced negative results of massive immigration and thus there is more shared identity than previously thought.

                                                  Find this resource:

                                                  Slave Trade

                                                  The slave trade to Argentina began in the 16th century and continued through the 19th century until it was abolished in 1812. Africans continued to arrive in the late 1820s because porteño privateers captured slave trade vessels on route to Brazil during the Argentine-Brazilian war (1825–1828). A common slave route consisted of slaves from west and central Africa via the Portuguese ports of Luanda and Benguela to Rio de Janeiro and Salvador, Brazil, after which they would enter the port of Buenos Aires or Montevideo. Most slaves came as contraband, making it difficult to estimate the exact numbers of slaves that entered the Río de la Plata. Assadourian 1966 examines the slave trade to Córdoba in the 16th century. The author notes that the call for slaves was based on the need for labor in Potosí’s (Upper Peru) mines. It should be read with Lobos 2006, an article that examines the complex negotiation of slave trading in Córdoba, and Celton 2000, which focuses primarily on the 18th century slave trade. Crespi 2000 focuses mainly on the slave trade to Buenos Aires and provides a listing of decrees from the 16th through the 18th centuries. Borucki 2011 reveals via a slave database that more slaves entered the Río de la Plata than previously estimated by Scheuss de Studer 1958, a classic study on the slave trade. Moreover, Borucki argues this happened toward the end of the legal slave trade in 1812. It was during the Atlantic slave trade, Borucki 2013 also argues, that key social networks were formed and continued throughout the Río del a Plata. Free and enslaved blacks served as witnesses for their betrothed friends (a requirement for those who wanted to get married). Goldberg and Mallo 2000 and Dimunzio and Garcia 2007 also examine the late 18th century and slave trade via sickness and epidemics such as smallpox. Slaves were often blamed for bringing various diseases to shore, leading officials to examine and attempt to improve public health. Using judicial, medical, and government statements, the authors demonstrate the need for further research on the high mortality rate among African slaves in the Río de la Plata region, which sheds light on the prejudices against Africans and their medical practices. High mortality rates were often due to social and slave conditions, not “racial” causes, as officials often believed. Crespi 1994 provides an analysis on the reopening of the slave trade from 1825 to 1828, more than ten years after the official end of the slave trade in 1812. The author thus analyzes the legality of their entrance to, and their overall economic value to, the Río de la Plata.

                                                  • Assadourian, Carlos Sempat. “El tráfico de esclavos en Córdoba de Angola a Potosí: Siglos XVI–XVII.” In Cuadernos de Historia 36. Córdoba, Argentina: Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, 1966.

                                                    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                    Assadourian examines the slave trade to Córdoba during the 16th and 17th centuries. He argues that most the slaves came from Brazil via contraband. However, their origins can be traced to Angola. During this period, Assadourian argues that many slaves continued to Potosí, to labor in the mines, and to Córdoba, which served as a center of the slave trade.

                                                    Find this resource:

                                                    • Borucki, Alex. “The Slave Trade to the Río de la Plata, 1777–1812: Trans-imperial Networks and Atlantic Warfare.” Colonial Latin American Review 20.1 (2011): 81–107.

                                                      DOI: 10.1080/10609164.2011.552550Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                      Borucki’s database of slave voyages estimates 70,000 slaves entered the Río de la Plata (Buenos Aires and Montevideo) from 1777 to 1812. Set within the context of the Age of Revolution, this article discusses the context in which the rise of the slave trade took place until its ban in 1812. Borucki discusses the slave trade from Africa and Brazil to the Río de la Plata highlighting four main periods.

                                                      Find this resource:

                                                      • Borucki, Alex. “Shipmate Networks and Black Identities in the Marriage Files of Montevideo, 1768–1803.” Hispanic American Historical Review 93.2 (2013): 205–238.

                                                        DOI: 10.1215/00182168-2077135Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                        Borucki focuses on the social networks and spatial mobility formed between slaves and free blacks across the Río de la Plata (Buenos Aires, Montevideo, Córdoba, Paraguay). He argues that the slave trade heavily influenced both social networks and identities.

                                                        Find this resource:

                                                        • Celton, Dora. “La venta de esclavos en Córdoba, Argentina, entre 1750 y 1850.” Cuadernos de historia 2 (2000): 5–20.

                                                          Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                          Celton provides a demographic analysis of the slave trade in Córdoba from the late 18th to the mid-19th centuries.

                                                          Find this resource:

                                                          • Crespi, Liliana. “Negros apresados en operaciones de corso durante la Guerra con el Brasil, 1825–1828.” Temas de Asia y Africa 2 (1994): 109–122.

                                                            Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                            This article discusses the reopening of the slave trade in Buenos Aires during the war with Brazil. It focuses on the legal jurisdiction and economic value of blacks who entered the Río de la Plata after the official end of the slave trade in 1812.

                                                            Find this resource:

                                                            • Crespi, Liliana. “El comercio de esclavos en el Rio de la Pala: Apuntes para su estudio.” Cuadernos de Historia (2000): 237–252.

                                                              Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                              Crespi’s article traces the history of the slave trade in the Río de la Plata. She focuses mainly on Buenos Aires. She also provides a listing of archival resources and royal decrees that deal with the slave trade from the 16th through the 18th centuries.

                                                              Find this resource:

                                                              • Dimunzio, Karina, and Claudia Garcia. “Indagando en las dolencias de lso esclavos: Una aproximación a las fuentes para su estudio en la Córdoba tardo colonial.” In Historias de enfermedad en Córdoba desde la colonial hasta el siglo XX.” Edited by Adrian Carbonetti, 13–20. Córdoba, Argentina: Centro Estudios Avanzados, 2007.

                                                                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                Dimunzio and Garcia provides a brief analysis on the rate and types of sickness that affected the slave population in Córdoba during the late 18th century and early 19th century.

                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                • Goldberg, Marta, and Silvia Mallo. “Enfermedades y epidemias de los esclavos.” Todo es Historia 393 (2000): 60–69.

                                                                  Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                  The causes for the disappearance of the Afro-mulatto population in the 18th century is significant, as it points to spatial mobility between distinct rural zones and the study of epidemics and diseases within the slave system. The authors in this article argue that the introduction of slaves into the Río de la Plata region at the beginning of the 18th century changed understandings of public health in the area.

                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                  • Lobos, Héctor Ramón. “Acerca del negocio y los comerciantes de esclavos en Córdoba, 1573–1623.” Revista de la junta provincial de historia de Córdoba: Homenaje al señor miembro del numero y fundador de la junta provincial de historia de Córdoba doctor Alfredo N. Velázquez Martínez 23 (2006): 223–254.

                                                                    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                    Lobos examines the Portuguese participation in the market and trade involving black slavery. The slave trade in Córdoba was a complex economic activity. Lobos explores the role of businessmen in the city who took the initiative to trade slaves both legally and illegally, which became a key characteristic of the port of Buenos Aires.

                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                    • Moutoukias, Zacarias. Contrabando y control en el siglo XVII: Buenos Aires, el Atlántico y el espacio peruano. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Centro Editor de America Latina, 1988.

                                                                      Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                      Moutoukias argues the main economic activity for the citizens of Buenos Aires during the period from 1580 to 1640 was the slave trade. More than 70 percent of the value of all imports arriving in Buenos Aires were enslaved Africans.

                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                      • Prado, Fabricio. Edge of Empire: Atlantic Networks and Revolution in Bourbon Rio de la Plata. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2015.

                                                                        Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                        Prado’s monography focuses on the Río de la Plata in the late 18th century. In particular, he delves into the trading and military links between Montevideo and Buenos Aires. He discusses, in particular, the contraband that entered the ports, which largely included slaves.

                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                        • Scheuss de Studer, Elena Fanny. La trata de negros en Río de la Plata durante el siglo XVIII. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Universidad de Buenos Aires, Departamento Editorial, 1958.

                                                                          Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                          This is one of the first studies on the slave trade in the Río de la Plata.

                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                          Slave Labor and the Economy

                                                                          The overall role of the estancias in the market has allowed scholars who focus on economic relations of production to argue that it was largely self-sufficient and capitalistic rather than backward, stagnant, and feudalistic. Its self-sufficiency was promoted due to its connection to the Atlantic economy. The demand from abroad transformed the internal workings of the estancia. One aspect was based on its orientation toward the external market. Most authors of economic relations of the production school argue that due to external forces the estancia became commercialized and focused on external production while the local market was neglected. Another interpretation by Jonathan Brown, of the social relations of production school, has argued the opposite in looking at external demand as a stimulant for the local economy. Both Cushner 1983 and Celton, et al. 2014 note that self-sufficiency, especially on the Jesuit ranches, also created a labor system that was as diversified as the products that they produced. Slave labor and free wage labor coexisted, and the authors seek to understand how these two types of labor affected the productivity of the estancia in the market. The argument that the estancia constituted a form of feudalism comes from a more traditional historiography. The traditional historiography paints the picture of powerful estancieros who were monopolizing the land and livestock and employed the rest of the population as conchabados (day laborers). This population consisted of gauchos. Gauchos hired themselves out as farm laborers only when they needed commodities not supplied by nature, such as wine, tobacco, brandy, and yerba mate. The works listed here can be grouped into two predominant methodologies: those that focus primarily on the economic relations of production and those that focus on the social relations of production. Works in the economic relations of production school include Amaral and Garavalgia 1987, Gelman 1989, and Garavaglia and Gelman 1995. They focus primarily on the market as the determinant of labor relations. Works grouped in the social relations of production school include Salvatore and Brown 1989 and Salvatore 1991. They borrow heavily form social history and argue that the individual was the determinant of labor relations. Most recently, Garavaglia 2013 revisits the effects of the wars of independence and gradual abolition on the decline of slavery. Most recently, slave labor in the Río de la Plata has been placed within an Atlantic context. Both Johnson 2011 and Sluyter 2012 examine the role of Buenos Aires at the end of the 18th century. Johnson 2011 focuses on labor and groups slaves within the larger context of the plebe. Sluyter 2012 provides a more “American” perspective of the ranching economies.

                                                                          • Amaral, Samuel, and Juan Garavalgia. “Rural Production and Labor in Late Colonial Buenos Aires.” Journal of Latin America Studies 19.2 (1987): 235–278.

                                                                            DOI: 10.1017/S0022216X00020071Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                            The nature of the estancia was such that core personnel were always necessary. The authors look at the structure of capital, the pattern of production, the estimate of profit rates, and the use of forced and free labor. Slave labor and peon labor could coexist, but the authors argue slave labor was more dependable and stable and provided oversight for peon workers. Peons were more seasonal workers and less dependable, and estancieros had to pay them. Thus the authors argue slavery was more cost-effective.

                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                            • Celton, Dora, Monica Ghirardi, and Federico Sartori “Comportamientos socio-demográficos de esclavos en una hacienda rural jesuito-franciscana en Córdoba Argentina, 1752–1799.” Mnemosine Revista 5.1 (January–June 2014): 20–33.

                                                                              DOI: 10.21491/2237-3217/mnemosine.v5n1p20-33Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                              Celton, Ghirardi and Sartori examine the social realities of slaves on the Jesuit ranch in Caroya during the second half of the 18th century. This is a demographic study that relies on census and parish registers to determine the labor conditions on the ranch.

                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                              • Cushner, Nicolas. Jesuit Ranchers and the Agrarian Development of Colonial Argentina, 1650–1767. Albany: State of University of New York Press, 1983.

                                                                                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                Cushner’s pioneering study present the importance of Jesuit ranches in the overall economy of the Río de la Plata. It looks at the goods and products produced and how they remained largely self-sufficient. Jesuits relied heavily on slave labor and this study provides both a demographic a social study of their labor conditions.

                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                • Garavaglia, Juan Carlos. “The Economic Role of Slavery in a Non-Slave Society: The River Plate, 1750–1860.” In Slavery and Antislavery in Spain’s Atlantic Empire. Edited by Josep M. Fradera and Christopher Schmidt-Nowara, 74–100. New York: Berghahn, 2013.

                                                                                  Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                  This study focuses on how slavery changed during the long 18th century and deals with the transition from a colony to a republic. It reveals how slavery declined during the wars of independence (1810–1816), which destabilized the institution and promoted gradual abolition.

                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                  • Garavaglia, Juan Carlos, and Jorge D. Gelman. “Rural History of the Río de la Plata, 1600–1850: Results of a Historiographical Renaissance.” Latin American Research Review 30.3 (1995): 75–105.

                                                                                    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                    The disintegration of slave relations of production was a complex process that advanced and regressed. In Buenos Aires as late as 1854 the proportion of “independent producers” to the dependent workforce remained similar to that of 1815. Even though slaves had “disappeared,” employers had to “resign themselves” to hiring unruly peons.

                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                    • Gelman, Jorge. “New Perspectives on an Old Problem and the Same Source: The Gaucho and the Rural History of the Colonial Río de la Plata.” Hispanic American Historical Review 69.4 (1989): 715–731.

                                                                                      DOI: 10.2307/2516098Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                      By using the same source, Gelman disagrees with Salvatore and Brown’s argument that the work habits of gauchos made for an unstable workforce. Based on methodological difference, quarterly labor shifts versus month-to-month labor shifts, Gelman concludes there was a regularity of incoming and outgoing movement of peons every year for five consecutive years.

                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                      • Johnson, Lyman. Workshop of a Revolution: Plebeian Buenos Aires and the Atlantic World, 1776–1810. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2011.

                                                                                        DOI: 10.1215/9780822394006Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                        Johnson provides a nuanced understanding of slave labor during the late colonial period. By studying wages and wealth acquired, Johnson puts forth two arguments that will be of benefit to future studies of the African diaspora. Buenos Aires is unique to other slave-holding regimes because its labor market continued to feature high wages despite the increase in the slave trade. Additionally, Johnson makes slaves an integral part of the plebe population.

                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                        • Salvatore, Ricardo. “Modes of Labor Control Cattle-Ranching Economies: California, Southern Brazil, and Argentina.” Journal of Economic History 51.2 (1991): 441–451.

                                                                                          DOI: 10.1017/S002205070003905XSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                          The ranching economies of California, southern Brazil, and Argentina resorted to different mechanisms of labor control to meet the growing demand for their products. Each area used different combinations of slave and wage labor as well as sharecropping arrangements, and these varied over time. Salvatore argues these combinations cannot be explained solely by their respective political economies; rather, social conflicts, civil strife, and the relationship of ranchers and the state must be considered.

                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                          • Salvatore, Ricardo, and Jonathan Brown. “The Old Problem of Gauchos and Rural Society.” Hispanic American Historical Review 69.4 (1989): 733–745.

                                                                                            DOI: 10.2307/2516099Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                            In response to Gelman 1989, Salvatore and Brown back up their original argument from their article about the Estancia de los vacas. They argue the gaucho’s ability to resist required labor was based on their lifestyle. For that reason slaves, though more expensive, proved to be the most reliable workforce.

                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                            • Sluyter, Andrew. Black Ranching Frontiers: African Cattle Herders of the Atlantic World, 1500–1900. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2012.

                                                                                              DOI: 10.12987/yale/9780300179927.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                              Sluyter provides a comparative book that highlights the role of labor by slaves and freed blacks on cattle ranches throughout the Americas. It is an Atlantic history that traces how cattle came to the Americas and became a profitable venture in Barbuda, Louisiana, New Spain, and the River Plate.

                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                              Church and Slavery

                                                                                              The Church’s involvement in slavery in the Americas has been well documented. As a part of the evangelization process, the Catholic Church played a vital role in the conquest and colonization of Latin America and the Caribbean. In the Río de la Plata, Jesuits played a role in colonization and evangelization beginning in the 16th century in Córdoba and Paraguay. In particular, they became very active in the slave trade. Troisi Melean 2012 provides a history of the Jesuits’ dependency on slave labor. Andrés-Gallego 1996 is a more concentrated study that would complement Troisi Melean 2012. The author focuses on slaves owned by the Jesuits in Tucuman. Peña 1997 focuses on the Church’s evangelization efforts from the founding of the city of Córdoba to the end of the colonial period. The author focuses on racial mixture and the growth of the casta population during this process. An important characteristic of the Church’s holdover from Spain was the presence of cofradías, or religious brotherhoods. They included both freed individuals and slaves and served as mutual aid societies for their black members. The dues paid went toward burials and aid during sickness. Martínez de Sánchez 2005, Otero 2006, and Rosal 2009 focus on the social history of the plebe and slaves’ participation in the cofradías. Martínez de Sánchez 2005 focuses on the black cofradía San Benito in Córdoba during the late 18th century. Otero 2006 explores commercial and familial circles and strategies of accumulation. Rosal 2009 compares the practices of cofradías in Córdoba and Buenos Aires and how they were ultimately used for social control. Cirio 2000 and Axel Roldan 1992 examine music produced by Afro descendants at the end of the colonial period in Buenos Aires. Cirio 2000 focuses on the social realities of Afro descendants and the rhythms of their dances. Axel Roldan 1992 explores various symphonies in the Piriobi Library, investigating the influence of castas on music. Marriage is another topic of interest of historians examining the role of the Church. Ferreyra 1997, Socolow 1989, and Moreno 2014 discuss marriage and family practices among slaves and castas in the colonial and republican periods. Ferreyra 1997 looks at marriages between slave women and Spanish men in Córdoba. Socolow 1989 compares Buenos Aires and Córdoba at the end of the colonial period. The author finds that Córdoba remained conservative and upheld racial divisions while Buenos Aires focused more on economic status. Moreno 2014 delves into marriage and family formation in Catamarca. The author of López Villagra 2010 uses baptismal records to discuss the slave experience in Corrientes.

                                                                                              • Andrés-Gallego, José. “Esclavos de temporalidades. (El Tucumán, 1768): Posibilidades de una fuente documental.” Hispania Sacra 48.97 (1996): 231–260.

                                                                                                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                Andres-Gallego delves into slave experience in Tucuman. He focuses on slaves owned by the Jesuits. The primary source he draws on are registers of the Jesuit’s belongings after their expulsion.

                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                • Axel Roldan, Waldemar. “Los pardos y la sociedad colonial de Buenos Aires hacia finales del siglo XVIII.” Latin American Music Review/Revista de Música Latinoamericana 13.2 (1992): 226–233.

                                                                                                  Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                  Buenos Aires was developing rapidly as a city during the 18th century, particularly due to the creation of the viceroyalty of Río de la Plata. The author traces the development of cultural music that the Church initiated. Due to the high African population, there was a blending of musical cultures.

                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                  • Cirio, Norberto Pablo. “Antecedentes históricos del culto a San Baltazar en la Argentina: La Cofradía de San Baltazar y Ánimas, 1772–1856.” Latin American Music Review 21.2 (2000): 190–214.

                                                                                                    DOI: 10.2307/780452Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                    Cirio, a musicologist, examines the music of the black cofradías of San Baltazar. He is also interested in the dances, such as the charanda and zemba, that were practiced and continue to be danced in Corrientes.

                                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                                    • Colantonio, Sonia, María Del Carmen Ferreyra, and Dora Celton. “Hijos de esclavas en Córdoba (Argentina): Una aproximación al ciclo reproductivo a partir de acatas de bautismo.” Revista Argentina de Antropología Biológica 17.1 (2015): 35–45.

                                                                                                      DOI: 10.17139/raab.2015.0017.01.06Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                      Colantonio, Ferreyra, and Celton examine slave women’s reproductive cycles. Their source material is baptism records from the late colonial and early republican periods. The results show that single and married enslaved women had children, although most were single when they had their first child.

                                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                                      • Ferreyra, María del Carmen. “El matrimonio de las castas en Córdoba, 1700–1779.” In III Jornadas de Historia de Córdoba. 285–327. Córdoba, Argentina: Junta Provincial de Historia de Córdoba, 1997.

                                                                                                        Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                        In Córdoba, Ferreyra argues that matrimony served as a means for social mobility. In general, marriages were homogenous, but in the cases of heterogeneity, slave men sought free women so that their children would be born free and Indians sought slaves to avoid paying tribute. Her sources are based on the casta book of marriages during the 18th century.

                                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                                        • López Villagra, Edgardo Dario. Sociedad y esclavitud en la ciudad de Corrientes, 1760–1801: Partidas de bautismos de negros, mulatos y pardos de su Catedral. Corrientes, Argentina: Moglia Ediciones, 2010.

                                                                                                          Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                          López’s book is based primarily on ecclesiastical records. He focuses on the slave experiences in Corrientes during the colonial period. This is a demographic history during the era of the Bourbon Reforms.

                                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                                          • Martínez de Sánchez, Ana María. “Cofradía de San Benito de Palermo.” Archivum: Revista de la Junta de Historia Eclesiástica Argentina 24 (2005): 85–99.

                                                                                                            Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                            Martínez de Sánchez writes extensively on cofradías in Córdoba. In this article, she focuses on the predominately black cofradía San Benito of the Franciscan order. She provides a broad overview of its foundation and function.

                                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                                            • Moreno, Alicia del Carmen. Afromestizos en Catamarca: Familias en la primera mitad del siglo XIX. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Editorial Dunken, 2014.

                                                                                                              Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                              Moreno explores marriage and family formation among African descendants in Catamarca. She traces this process through the first half of the 19th century during the transition from slavery to freedom. In particular, she focuses on the importance of the Free Womb Act of 1813.

                                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                                              • Otero, Osvaldo. “De esclavos a mercaderes, amos y otros: Contribución al estudio de las redes sociales de la plebe en el Buenos Aires tardocolonial.” In De prácticas, comportamientos y formas de representación social en Buenos Aires (s. XVII–XIX). Edited by Hilda Raquel Zapico, 323–367. Bahía Blanca, Argentina: Editorial de la Universidad Nacional del Sur, 2006.

                                                                                                                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                Otero explores the popular sector of viceroyal Buenos Aires from 1785 to 1805, particularly the subaltern. The author has chosen to study the Cofradia de Naturales o de Menores del Santisimo Rosario del Convento de Santo Domingo in Buenos Aires, one of the least hierarchical religious institutions in Buenos Aires.

                                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                                • Peña, Gabriela Alejandra. La evangelización de indios, negros y gente de castas en Córdoba del Tucumán durante la dominación Española, 1573–1810. Córdoba, Argentina: Facultad de Filosofía y Humanidades Universidad Católica de Córdoba, 1997.

                                                                                                                  Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                  The author of this book examines daily life in Córdoba from 1573 to 1810 to re-create the intimacy of family life, the costumes of familial groups, and the role of evangelizing Indians and blacks. The author demonstrates the distinctive dominion of the Spanish crown through its political and institutional impositions that led to mestizaje in highlighting the homogeneous and complex society of Córdoba.

                                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                                  • Rosal, Miguel Ángel. “Los afrodescendientes de Córdoba y Buenos Aires y su integración en cofradías religiosas, siglos XVIII–XIX.” In Pensar y construir los grupos sociales: Actores, practicas y representaciones; Córdoba y Buenos Aires, siglos XVI–XX. Edited by Silvia C. Mallo and Beatriz I. Moreyra, 217–239. Córdoba, Argentina: CONICET, 2009.

                                                                                                                    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                    This chapter deals with African religions and their distinct manifestations. The author demonstrates that during the colonial period in Buenos Aires, the population of Afro- Americans in religious cofradías, or brotherhoods, could be found throughout Hispanic America. These religious cofradías were used as a social space in which the African American population discovered its identity.

                                                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                                                    • Socolow, Susan. “Acceptable Marriage Partners: Marriage Choice in Colonial Argentina, 1778–1810.” In Sexuality and Marriage in Colonial Latin America. Edited by Ausción Lavrin, 209–251. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1989.

                                                                                                                      Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                      Socolow compares marriage patterns in Córdoba and Buenos Aires at the end of the colonial period. The influence of the Church in Córdoba had more of a conservative effect than did its absence in Buenos Aires.

                                                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                                                      • Troisi Melean, Jorge. El oro de los Jesuitas: La compañía de Jesús y sus esclavos en la Argentina colonial. Saarbrücken, Germany: Editorial Académica Española, 2012.

                                                                                                                        Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                        Troisi Melean provides a history of the Jesuits in the Río de la Plata from 1640. He highlights their role in the slave trade until their expulsion in 1767. This book reveals the dependency of the Jesuits on slave labor; they owned the most slaves in colonial Argentina.

                                                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                                                        Slave Resistance

                                                                                                                        Slave resistance in Argentina is a topic that has grown in interest. Although Argentina has been viewed as a place of benign and humane slavery where slaves experienced little if any harsh conditions, recent scholars in Argentina have challenged this assertion. Based on primarily criminal court proceedings, scholars have noted “everyday forms of resistance” to more extreme cases of killing their owners and an open rebellion. Bragoni 2008 delves into the court proceedings in Cuyo in 1812 in discussing an open rebellion that took place during the wars of independence. This analysis highlights the political and institutional context of plebian society in Cuyo, the problems plebeians faced, as well as the cause of the rebellion and the dilemma posed by the integration of slaves in the military. Moreover, the extent to which freedom applies to the slave population is also discussed. Candioti 2010 continues this discussion within the juridical debate during the wars of independence. For example, the author analyzes the question of what it meant to be a slave in a free country. Rufer 2005 looks at crime as a means of resistance in Córdoba. The author examines power relations, specifically the attempt by the state to exert social control. Vassallo 2012 continues the focus on Córdoba in examining crimes committed by enslaved women at the end of the 18th century. Comparatively, Mallo 2003 uses criminal records to discuss the “color of crime.” At the end of the 18th century, with the rise of the black population, delinquency was equated with blackness. Mallo examines judicial documents to determine participation in delinquency by Afro descendants. Johnson 2007 delves into the power of the public voice by the late 18th century. Slaves brought their masters to court seeking manumission, papel de ventas, or a change in owners. Slaves also appeared in court to declare their impoverished state, which is examined in Rebagliati 2014. Despite losing cases because property rights were protected, slaves secured their revenge in exposing the private lives of their masters. Seoane 2005 examines the role of manumission during the republican period from 1820 to 1853. It is during these years that abolition gradually took place. Johnson 2007 and Seoane 2005 analyze manumission via court proceedings and provide insight into fighting tactics that took place within a legal atmosphere. Dimunzio and García 2012 describes various tactics employed in Córdoba. Based on James Scott’s “everyday forms of resistance,” the authors argue that forms of resistance took place by means of seeking freedom papers to killing their masters. These forms ultimately refute the notion that slaves were docile and were uniformly treated humanely in Argentina.

                                                                                                                        • Bragoni, Beatriz. “Esclavos, libertos y soldados: La cultura política plebeya en Cuyo durante la revolución.” In ¿Y el pueblo dónde está? Contribuciones para una historia popular de la revolución de independencia en el Río de la Plata. Edited by Raúl Fradkin, 107–150. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Prometeo Libros, 2008.

                                                                                                                          Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                          This author draws on primary evidence gathered by the prosecutor in a criminal process initiated in Mendoza with the purpose of uncovering the truth behind the slave rebellion of 2 May 1812 in Cuyo. Slaves rebelled in a patriotic demonstration by blacks and mulattos who inhabited the urban sectors of the city.

                                                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                                                          • Candioti, Magdalena. “Altaneros y libertinos: Transformaciones de la condición jurídica de los afroporteños en la Buenos Aires revolucionaria, 1810–1820.” Desarrollo Económico 50.198 (2010): 271–296.

                                                                                                                            Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                            Candioti examines the afroporteños who sought to defend their rights and expand their liberties by having recourse to the courts. The author notes that most historiography on the revolutionary periods excludes local emancipation efforts in postcolonial society. As such, Candioti questions the changes in the legal status of afroporteños after the revolution and the judicial debates about it.

                                                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                                                            • Dimunzio, Andrea Karina, and Claudia García. Resistencia esclava en Córdoba: Mediados del siglo XVIII a principios del siglo XIX. Madrid: Editorial Académica Española, 2012.

                                                                                                                              Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                              This thesis examines the attempts at rebellion on behalf of slaves in Córdoba. Resistance and rebellion acquired different forms in the Americas, from revolts to actual rebellions and flight. But resistance also was expressed daily routines. The authors of this thesis examine these forms of resistance and the strategic opposition employed by black slaves.

                                                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                                                              • Johnson, Lyman. “‘A Lack of Legitimate Obedience and Respect’: Slaves and Their Masters in the Courts of Late Colonial Buenos Aires.” Hispanic American Historical Review 87.4 (2007): 631–657.

                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1215/00182168-2007-038Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                Johnson examines court proceedings brought forth by slaves. Slaves took their masters to court for various reasons, such as seeking freedom, papel de venta, and abuses. Despite losing many cases, the slaves secured their revenge in being able to expose the private lives of their masters to the public.

                                                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                • Mallo, Silvia C. “El color del delito en Buenos Aires, 1750–1830.” Memoria y Sociedad 7.15 (2003): 111–124.

                                                                                                                                  Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                  This article deals with issues of security and social problems linked to the accelerated growth and transformations in Buenos Aires during the 18th and 19th centuries. The African population is thought to have contributed to disorder and delinquency here as well as in other American cities.

                                                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                  • Rebagliati, Lucas. “Negros y mulatos pobres en Buenos Aires, 1786–1821.” Quinto Sol 18.1 (June 2014): 1–22.

                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.19137/qs.v18i1.834Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                    This article examines afroporteño petitioners who appeal to the Real Audiencia who were decreed to be too poor to pay the court fees. Rebagliati argues this constitutes a means by which to comprehend the further hardships rendered to African descendants during the late 18th and early 19th centuries.

                                                                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                    • Rufer, Mario. Historias negadas: Esclavitud, violencia y relaciones de poder en Córdoba a fines del siglo XVIII. Córdoba, Argentina: Ferreyra Editor, 2005.

                                                                                                                                      Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                      Rufer analyzes the juridical concept of “power relations” via Michel Foucault. He applies this understanding of slavery in Córdoba, Argentina, during the 18th century. He examines attempts at social control exercised by the state and ongoing resistance by slaves.

                                                                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                      • Seoane, María Isabel. “La manumisión voluntaria expresa en la praxis notarial bonaerense durante el periodo federal, 1829–1852.” Revista de Historia del Derecho 33 (2005): 327–390.

                                                                                                                                        Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                        Notaries during the federal period highlight the living conditions of the African population in Buenos Aires from a legal and historical point of view. This is a quantitative and qualitative study of the process of manumission, particularly in relation to Hispanic American law and Argentine norms.

                                                                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                        • Vassallo, Jacqueline. “Esclavas peligrosas en la Córdoba tardo colonial.” Dos Puntos 4.6 (2012): 199–217.

                                                                                                                                          Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                          Vassallo delves into the various crimes committed by enslaved women and their time spent in jail. They were accused of physical injury, bigamy, and witchcraft. She draws predominately on criminal and inquisition records.

                                                                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                          Military

                                                                                                                                          The participation of slaves in the independence movement has been well researched. For many years, scholars have argued that the large number of slave and casta soldiers led to the beginning of the disappearance of the black population. Known as “cannon fodder,” slaves were supposedly put in front of the white troops and killed first. Andrews 1980, however, proves this to be false as more whites than blacks died during the wars of independence. More recent studies have focused on one of two trends: the social mobility allotted because of slave soldiers’ participation in the war effort or the larger plebe experience. Andrews 2005 and Blanchard 2014 argue that slaves were able to prove their equal status on the battlefield and that, having done so, they were able to transfer that fact to their civilian lives. Andrews 2005 specifically focuses on the segregated legions in Argentina and their individual efforts on the battlefield. Individualism was an essential component, as it went along with notions deriving from the Enlightenment and liberalism. Blanchard 2008 focuses on how individual slave efforts influenced revolutionary legislation, such as the end of the slave trade in 1812 and the Free Womb Act in 1813. This, however, did not lead to an abolitionist movement as property rights were protected. Bernand 2003, Di Meglio 2006, and Salvatore 2007 focus on the larger plebian efforts that also included slaves. By including slaves in the larger class of nonelites, these authors attempt to explain complex notions of status and identity. Bernand 2003 treats the political transition that followed the fall of the viceroyalty and the popular debates on this political transition. The author focuses on the pueblo as an ideological and political category based on the documentation of the castas found in the National Archives. Bernand 2010 continues with an examination of black participation during the transition from colony to republic. The author concentrates on the wars leading up to the independence movement. Di Meglio 2006 examines plebian participation in political manifestations during the wars of independence. The author analyzes the propagation of rumors and the circulation of ideas, newspaper articles, and patriotic songs in the streets, marketplaces, and plazas. Salvatore 2007 focuses on the role of blacks in state formation and citizenship in Buenos Aires. The author provides an up-to-date analysis of Rosas’s relationship with Afro-Argentines. The year 2010 marked the bicentennial of the declaration of independence. To honor the participation of slaves and black freedmen, Mallo and Telesca compiled an anthology that focuses on their contribution to the making of the Argentine republic (Mallo and Telesca 2010). Additionally Tur Donatti 2010 provides an analysis on the interaction of blacks and Indians during the fight for independence.

                                                                                                                                          • Andrews, George Reid. The Afro-Argentines of Buenos Aires, 1800–1900. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1980.

                                                                                                                                            Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                            This book is a social, cultural, and military history of the black experience in Buenos Aires during the 19th century. The book tests the myths of black disappearance in Buenos Aires. These myths include that they disappeared due to disease, genocide, and wars. He argues that though this is partly true, the real reason stems from an ideological erasure known as the whitening period and a statistical transfer in the censuses.

                                                                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                            • Andrews, George Reid. “Argentina’s Black Legions.” In Problems in Modern Latin American History: Sources and Interpretations. Edited by John Chasteen and James Wood, 10–14. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2005.

                                                                                                                                              Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                              This chapter explores the fighting power of the nonwhite majority during the period of Latin American independence. Service in the military sometimes allowed men of color to improve their social status and income. This chapter explores the situation in Argentina and the participation of the black population in the fighting in the early 1800s.

                                                                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                              • Bernand, Carmen. “Entre pueblos y plebe: Patriotas, pardos, africanos en Argentina, 1790–1852.” In Blacks, Coloureds and National Identity in Nineteenth-Century Latin America. Edited by Carmen Bernand, 60–80. London: Institute of Latin American Studies, 2003.

                                                                                                                                                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                This chapter primarily examines the development of national identity during the early years of the newly independent states. Part of this examination involves the way in which castas and blacks were integrated or excluded in the new definitions of national identity.

                                                                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                • Bernand, Carmen. “Los olivdados de la revolución: El Rio de la Plata y sus negros.” Nuevo Mundo Mundos Nuevos, Coloquios (2010).

                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.4000/nuevomundo.58416Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                  Bernand’s article traces black participation in wars from the late 18th century through the independence period. In particular, she analyzes the role of black soldiers during the wars with the British in 1806.

                                                                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                  • Blanchard, Peter. Under The Flags of Freedom: Slave Soldiers and the Wars of Independence in Spanish America. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh, 2008.

                                                                                                                                                    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                    This is a book that examines various experiences of black soldiers fighting during the wars of independence throughout Spanish America. Chapter 2, “Fighting for the Patria in the Río de la Plata,” discusses the link between personal freedom and fighting for the nation. In particular, it addresses revolutionary legislation and the end of the slave trade as an act to end colonial rule and not an abolitionist movement.

                                                                                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                    • Blanchard, Peter. “An Institution Defended: Slavery and the English Invasions of Buenos Aires in 1806–1807.” Slavery & Abolition 35.2 (2014): 253–272.

                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1080/0144039X.2013.817721Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                      Blanchard’s latest article discusses the pivotal role slaves played in defending Buenos Aires from the English attacks in 1806 and 1807. He focuses on how this event shaped race relations prior to the wars of independence. Despite heroic efforts, it did not result in an abolitionist movement.

                                                                                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                      • Di Meglio, Gabriel. ¡Viva el bajo pueblo! La plebe urbana de Buenos Aires y la política entre la revolución de Mayo y el rosismo. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Prometeo Libros, 2006.

                                                                                                                                                        Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                        This book sheds light on the participation of African descendants and street vendors in the political process that led to the May Revolution in 1810. The intention of this analysis is to demonstrate the role of the plebian society in politics between 1810 and 1830. This group not only contradicted some of the decisions and actions of the porteños elite, but also contributed to the subsequent development of Buenos Aires.

                                                                                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                        • Mallo, Silvia C., and Ignacio Telesca, eds. “Negros de la Patria”: Los afrodescendientes en las luchas por la independencia en el antiguo Virreinato del Río de la Plata. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Editorial SB, Colección Paradigma Indicial, 2010.

                                                                                                                                                          Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                          This book is an anthology that resulted in new questions regarding different segments of colonial society, particularly the African population, arising on the eve of the bicentennial. Thus this book explores social changes in the local processes leading up to independence in Río de la Plata. It seeks to explore this participation, the methods through which political consciousness was achieved, and the actions that this consciousness provoked.

                                                                                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                          • Salvatore, Ricardo D. “Integral Outsiders: Afro-Argentines in the Era of Juan Manual de Rosas and Beyond.” In Beyond Slavery: The Multilayered Legacy of Africans in Latin America and the Caribbean. Edited by Darien J. Davis, 57–80. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2007.

                                                                                                                                                            Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                            Salvatore provides a chapter on the dealings of Juan Manual Rosas, Argentina’s first dictator and his relationship with the black community. In particular he delves into notions of citizenship and how Rosas cultivated a patron-clientele relationship with the black community.

                                                                                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                            • Tur Donatti, Carlos Mariano. “Afros e indigenas en la crisis de la independencia rioplatense.” In La nueva nao: De Formosa a América Latina; Reflexiones en torno al Bicentenario de las Independencias Latinoamericanas. Edited by Lucia Chen (Hsiao-Chuan Chen) and Alberto Saladino Garcia, 23–30. Taipei: Universidad de Tamkang, 2010.

                                                                                                                                                              Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                              Tur Donatti provides a much need work on Indians and blacks in the Río de la Plata. In particular, he focuses on their role in the fight for independence.

                                                                                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                              Cultural Legacies of Slavery

                                                                                                                                                              The legacies of slavery in Argentina continue to define the nation’s identity. Whether it be via photography, archaeology, newspapers, or poetry, the legacy has been embedded in the fabric of Afro-Argentine culture. During the late 19th century, blanqueamiento took hold and forced many black cultural manifestations to go underground. Dances such as the candombe, originally danced in the streets during carnival, became part of social gatherings at home by the mid-20th century. The works cited here highlight various artistic productions that occurred during the 18th and 19th centuries in Buenos Aires. Araque 2009 is based on linguistic studies. Today in Argentina various vocabularies give evidence of African influences. Araque 2009 notes the origins from the Benguela for those from Patagonia. Alexander 2007 and Schávelzon 2003 provide physical evidence. Alexander 2007 discusses photos of blacks and their larger meaning during the 19th century. Schávelzon 2003 discusses a historical archaeological dig that revealed various artifacts, such as pipes, glass beads, and canes below the streets of Buenos Aires. Castro 2001 and Di Nucci 2002 discuss Afro-Argentine involvement in the arts. Castro 2001 examines dances such as the tango, payador, and milonga. Di Nucci 2002 examines black involvement in music in Santa Fe. Geler 2009 and Chamosa 2003 focus on how blanqueamiento affected black culture and involvement in politics. Chamosa 2003 traces the rise and fall of naciones. These groups served as mutual aids, cultural retainers, and as a means of political clout for the black community in Buenos Aires. By the 1860s, decreasing numbers led to their demise. Geler 2010 treats the black press. The author examines the conflicting relationship that Afro descendants had with state issues, both with respect to the discourse that was created and developed for a national identity and with the social practices that emerged from the idea of a homogeneous nation. Geler 2009 further discusses segregated schools, a little-known occurrence in the Río de la Plata. A recent work, Alberto and Elena 2016 delves into the cultural legacies of slavery and racial identity in the 20th century.

                                                                                                                                                              • Alberto, Paulina, and Eduardo Elena. Rethinking Race in Modern Argentina. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2016.

                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1017/CBO9781316228050Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                Alberto’s and Elena’s anthology analyzes the legacy of racial identity in Argentina in the 20th century. Some articles point to the cultural legacy of Afro-Argentines in music and cuisine. They also delve into the notion of what constitutes “white” in Argentina as well as the disappearance of the Indian population.

                                                                                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                • Alexander, Abel. “Retratos en negro: Afroporteños en la fotografía del siglo XIX.” Historias de la ciudad: Una revista de Buenos Aires 40 (2007): 6–19.

                                                                                                                                                                  Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                  Through an investigation of photography, the author examines the African presence in Argentina in the 19th century. In the southern neighborhoods of Buenos Aires, a unique African enclave was formed. This was registered through royal permits, contracts, loans, letters, news articles of the area, and travelers’ notes of the Plata region.

                                                                                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                  • Araque, Adriana Alejandra. “Sobre la procedencia kikonga del habla de los afrodescendientes de la Patagonia.” In En variedades y elecciones lingüísticas. Edited by Yolanda Hipperdinger, 42–61. Bahía Blanca, Argentina: Editorial de la Universidad Nacional del Sur, 2009.

                                                                                                                                                                    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                    The authors hypothesize that the African population that settled in the Patagonia of Argentina belonged to the Bantu with an emphasis on the bakongos, inhabitants of a kikongo area. The authors examine colonial documents and parochial books, in which the authorities referred to the origin of the African population.

                                                                                                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                    • Castro, Donald. The Afro-Argentine in Argentine Culture: El Negro del Acordeón. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen, 2001.

                                                                                                                                                                      Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                      Donald Castro is interested in providing an examination of history and popular culture. Four chapters look at demography, elitism, creolism, and the representations of the black Other. The focus is on the historical presence of blacks in Argentina from slavery to the present.

                                                                                                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                      • Chamosa, Oscar. “To Honor the Ashes of Their Forebears: The Rise and Crisis of African Nations in the Post-Independence State of Buenos Aires, 1820–1860.” The Americas 59.3 (2003): 347–378.

                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1353/tam.2003.0006Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                        Chamosa analyzes black naciones and their origins and sociocultural realities. In particular he delves into their interaction with government officials, such as Juan Manual de Rosas. He notes that black naciones served as modern notions of sociability for various members of the black community, who created an “African identity” since many were named.

                                                                                                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                        • Di Nucci, Luis. “Música de negros niños y mujeres en Santa Fe (Argentina) colonial.” In Mujeres, negros y niños en la música y sociedad colonial iberoamericana: IV Reunión Científica. Edited by Victor Rondón, 112–123. Santa Cruz, Bolivia: Asociación Pro Arte y Cultura, 2002.

                                                                                                                                                                          Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                          Di Nucci explores the origins of the black population in Santa Fe, Argentina, beginning in 1622. He focuses on the participation of blacks in various forms of music during the colonial period. The majority sang via the church.

                                                                                                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                          • Geler, Lea. “Un colegio para los niños ‘de color’: El dilema de la segregación entre los afro porteño a fines del siglo XIX.” In Dinámicas de poder local en América Latina siglos XIX–XXI. Edited by Pilar Jordan Garcia, 87–108. Barcelona: Universidad de Barcelona, 2009.

                                                                                                                                                                            Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                            Geler focuses on opposition and challenges Afro-Argentines to Argentina’s educational ideals via the black newspapers. This is a good article for those interested in education.

                                                                                                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                            • Geler, Lea. Andares negros, caminos blancos: Afro porteños, Estado y Nación; Argentina a fines del siglo XIX. Rosario, Argentina: Prohistoria Ediciones, 2010.

                                                                                                                                                                              Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                              This work is a result of a dissertation completed at the University of Barcelona that focuses on the disappearance of afroporteños in Argentina. Geler emphasizes the afroporteño community via the black press. She argues they constituted “subaltern intellectuals” during the construction of the Argentine nation-state.

                                                                                                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                              • Schávelzon, Daniel. Buenos Aires negra: Arqueología histórica de una ciudad silenciada. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Emecé, 2003.

                                                                                                                                                                                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                Via archaeological digs, this book demonstrates African pipes, shells, and glass beads provide evidence of a prominent black population in Buenos Aires during the 18th and 19th centuries. It contains many images of the artifacts that testify to the cultural legacy of slavery.

                                                                                                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                Mestizaje

                                                                                                                                                                                Miscegenation has been attributed to the disappearance of the black population in Argentina. Often credited to the arrival of mass immigration in the second half of the 19th century, historians (see Carrizo 2011) argue that this fact accounts for the “disappearance.” Carrizo 2011 focuses on Córdoba, a lesser-known area in the studies of Afro-Argentina. Falasca 2010 provides a unique approach to the blanqueamiento period in the second half of the 19th century. As a literary historian, Falasca uses the novel Fiebre Negra as a means to understanding and analyzing this period in Buenos Aires. She also provides an extensive historiography on the topic of disappearance. More recent works, however, argue that whitening took place earlier, during the colonial period. Endrek 1966, Endrek 1967, Fogelman 2000, Guzmán 2010, and Santamaría 1996 cite various areas throughout the Río de la Plata as evidence of racial mixture and a demographic shift as the reasons for the disappearance. Santamaría 1996 notes that early in the colonial period racial mixture took place in Jujuy. It is an urban history that delves into labor relations. Fogelman 2000, a study of the city of Lujan in the province of Buenos Aires, cites immigration at the end of the 18th century as a reason for the disappearance. Endrek 1966 and Endrek 1967 provide a comparison between Córdoba and Tucuman. Both books discuss the results of mestizaje on the black population. Endrek 1966 argues that mestizaje constituted the first signs of blanqueamiento in Argentina. Linares 2007, Guzmán 2010 and Edwards 2014 note a shift in racial labeling in notarial records, censuses, and parish records. Linares 2007 is a genealogical analysis that shows that over thecourse of four generations a black family can be relabeled mulato, pardo, and quadroon. Guzmán examines Catamarca and notes that it gives evidence of whitening in the 18th century. Edwards examines Córdoba in the 18th and 19th centuries, and the author re-labels the racial changes as “lightening.” Spanish immigration to the area exacerbated the decline of the black population. Siegrist and Ghirardi 2008 provides an anthology on mestizaje in the Río de la Plata. Various works examine the theme of mestizaje via illegitimacy, marriage, census records, and genealogy. Candioti 2015 examines the notion of mestizaje during the first half of the 19th century. The author focuses on citizenship and its applicability to an increase in the free black population. Avena, et al. 2006 provides the most recent study on the topic of mestizaje. Based on today’s population, this study estimates that 4.3 percent of the population in Buenos Aires (based on blood samples) possesses black genes.

                                                                                                                                                                                • Avena, Sergio, Alicia Goicoechea, Jorge Rey, Jean M. Dugoujon, Cristina B. Dejean, and, Francisco R. Carense. “Mezcla Génica en una muestra poblacional de la ciudad de Buenos Aires.” Medicina 66 (2006): 113–118.

                                                                                                                                                                                  Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                  This study aims to estimate the genetic mix and makeup of the population in Buenos Aires according to blood donor samples acquired at the Center for Public Health. The studies were performed on 218 unrelated people who donated blood during 2002. A survey to obtain information on place of birth, present residence, and genealogical data of the donors was conducted. The Amerindian and African contributions were 15.8 percent and 4.3 percent, respectively.

                                                                                                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                  • Candioti, Magadelna. “Citoyonnété, esclavage et ‘race’: Le statut citoyen des afrodescendents à Buenos Aires, 1810–1860.” In Identité et différence: Une approche historique et conceptuelle. Edited by Fatima Sa, Joelle Chassin, and Lucia Matos. Paris: L’Harmattan, 2015.

                                                                                                                                                                                    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                    This article examines the complex understanding of race and citizenship during the first half of the 19th century. The author has two objectives: to examine both the definition of citizen in Buenos Aires shortly after the declaration of independence and its application to the growing free black population.

                                                                                                                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                    • Carrizo, Marcos J. Córdoba morena, 1830–1880. Córdoba, Argentina: Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, 2011.

                                                                                                                                                                                      Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                      The author investigates the whitening process in Córdoba between 1830 and 1880. Documents reveal that the African population disappeared in official records and newspapers, contradicting the actual reality. Through judicial documents, the author comments and hypothesizes on the daily life and analyzes living situations.

                                                                                                                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                      • Edwards, Erika. “Mestizaje Córdoba’s Patria Chica: Beyond the Myth of Black Disappearance in Argentina.” African and Black Diaspora: An International Journal 7.2 (2014): 89–104.

                                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1080/17528631.2014.909120Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                        This article argues racial re-labeling led to the decline of the black population in Córdoba, Argentina. Based on censuses and parish records from 1776 to 1832 the black population was statistically re-labeled pardo.

                                                                                                                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                        • Endrek, Emiliano. El mestizaje en Córdoba: Siglo XVIII y principios del XIX. Córdoba, Argentina: Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, 1966.

                                                                                                                                                                                          Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                          Endrek delves into the mestizaje (racial mixture) in Córdoba during the colonial period. In particular, he argues the pardo class included all races, not just African descendants. He further provides a social history of castas in Córdoba.

                                                                                                                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                          • Endrek, Emiliano. El mestizaje en el Tucumán, siglo XVII demografía comparada. Córdoba, Argentina: Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, 1967.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                            In the social makeup of the Tucuman region, there was significant growth in castas during the 18th century. The author explores the social pressure as well as the political and economic power that the white population exerted over the black population.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                            • Falasca, Mariana. “Fiebre negra: Los afroargentinos y su negación desmentida.” Palara 14 (2010): 5–20.

                                                                                                                                                                                              Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                              This article provides a recent historiography on the myth of black disappearance with various references to the novel Fiebre Negra by Miguel Rosenvit (Buenos Aires: Planeta, 2008). The novel takes place from 1820 to 1871, the period of transition from slavery to freedom for African descendants.

                                                                                                                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                              • Fogelman, Patricia A. “Población de color en una villa en la frontera bonaerense: Luján, 1771–1815.” Signos Históricos 1.2 (2000): 9–34.

                                                                                                                                                                                                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                This is a demographic study of the black population in Lujan during the 18th century. In particular, it focuses on the change over time and the movement of those labeled (pardos, negroes, free, and slaves). Fogelman relies on three parish registers that include marriages, baptisms, and death records.

                                                                                                                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                • Guzmán, Florencia. Los claroscuros del mestizaje: Negros, indios y castas en la Catamarca colonial. Catamarca, Argentina: Encuentro Grupo Editor Universidad Nacional de Catamarca, 2010.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                  This book deals with the African population in Catamarca in the late colonial period as well as the decline of this population with the growth of the Spanish sector in the city and, as such, the growth of the mestizaje. The author examines the social dynamic, as well as social mobility, within the Catamarca region during the colonial period.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Linares, Raul Alfredo “Blanqueamiento y ascenso social de una familia de mulatas en el Buenos Aires del siglo XVIII.” Boletín del Centro de Estudios genealógicos e históricos de Rosario, n 5, Rosario (2007): 59–71.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Linares, delves into blanqueamiento at the end of the 18th century. It is a genealogical study that emphasizes the social mobility of four generations of a family of African descent, going from mulato to quadroon.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Santamaría, Daniel. “Artesanos y esclavos domésticos en el Jujuy colonial.” Población y Sociedad 4 (1996): 225–234.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                      At the end of the 16th century in San Salvador de Jujuy, many Spanish and Portuguese merchants arrived and became important artisans in the region. The author examines the role of slaves from Africa, the Caribbean, and Brazil in tracing their adaptation to the urban environment.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Siegrist, Nora, and Mónica Ghirardi. Mestizaje, sangre y matrimonio en territorios de la actual Argentina y Uruguay, siglos XVII–XX. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Dunken, 2008.

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                        This volume is the result of several papers presented at a conference in Argentina at the Centro de Estudios Avanzados de la Universidad Nacional de Córdoba on social history, genealogy, and law during the period of Spanish rule. Essays by Eduardo Gould, Jovita Novillo, Florencia Guzmán as well as Claudio Küffer and Sonia Colantonio specifically deal with the black experience via mestizaje.

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                        back to top

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Article

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Up

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Down