Philippines Under Spanish Rule, 1571-1898
- LAST REVIEWED: 05 May 2017
- LAST MODIFIED: 30 June 2014
- DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199766581-0164
- LAST REVIEWED: 05 May 2017
- LAST MODIFIED: 30 June 2014
- DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199766581-0164
Miguel López de Legazpi’s (b. 1502–d. 1572) conquest of Manila in 1571 ushered in a 327-year epoch of Castilian rule in the Philippine Islands, but his actions also created unintended historical by-products that made the undertaking dissimilar to any other colony in the Spanish empire. Most notable were that the archipelago was located in Asia, it consisted of many islands inhabited by a variety of Malay and Austronesian peoples, and Chinese cultural and economic influences, which had been developing since at least the Tang dynasty, competed with Castilian/Mexican. Manila became both a battleground and mixing pot for Asian, Malay/Austronesian, and Iberian/Mexican peoples, religious beliefs, political institutions, technologies, and cultivated crops and domesticated animals, to name but a few of the exchanges that occurred over the three centuries of Spanish dominion. Before the word “globalization” became a ubiquitous catchphrase in the late 20th century, the Manila Galleon, Amoy, Malay, and Portuguese trade routes converged on Manila, uniting Europe, the Americas, East/South/Southeast Asia, and Africa through maritime commerce across the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans in the late 16th century. From that time, traditional scholarship on the Philippines tended to be Iberian-centered narratives flowing unidirectionally from Madrid/Cadíz to Mexico City/Acapulco to Manila and presenting nationally biased and commodity-centered analyses, penned by academics in Spain and Mexico. Beginning in the early 20th century, scholars from the United States in various disciplines began writing their own interpretations of the colonial period that preceded the half-century of American occupation. Filipino social scientists have entered the fray since the 1920s, but exponentially more so following independence in 1946, contributing an important indigenous perspective that had been absent from previous erudition. Despite this centuries-old body of literature, the era of Spanish colonialism is, relatively speaking, an understudied field of academic inquiry. This bibliography is an attempt to frame the 1571–1898 era on a more globally comparative canvas, highlighting the cultural exchanges systematically linking the greater Manila region, China, and New Spain/Mexico, and to accentuate recent trends in scholarship while simultaneously acknowledging classic works from earlier periods.
Since the islands of the archipelago were never unified before the Spanish arrived, and even after three centuries many of them still displayed autonomous tendencies (especially the Muslim islands of Mindanao and the Sulus), the geographical scope of broad surveys on this era is essentially limited to the island of Luzon and the Visayas. Centered on Manila, Castilian power in the Philippines can be explained as a series of concentric circles of weakening influence. A common thread running through the books in this section are gratuitous examinations of the initial conquest, various civil and religious administrative practices, the process of Hispanization, indigenous reactions against exploitative policies, the co-optation of local elites into the power structure, financial and economic matters, security concerns (both foreign and domestic), and Chinese immigration and trade. Early works, epitomized in Zúñiga 1966, are simply chronological storytelling from the Spanish point of view. The second phase of general histories is more analytical (benefiting from ethnographic and anthropological approaches), and the overviews are penned by American-educated Filipino intelligentsia. Benitez 1929 and Zaide 1949 exemplify the attempt to add pre-Hispanic indigenous and Asian influences to the discussion, coinciding with a more objectively critical evaluation of Castilian colonialism. The third and present phase builds upon this foundation and re-centers the focus on Filipino experiences and cultural practices that either resisted or blended with Hispanic, Chinese, and American cultural assimilation strategies. Cushner 1977, with its synoptic style, reveals an empathetic understanding of Philippine culture and its history. The multivolume works in Roces 1977 and Punongboyan, et al. 1998 present multifaceted snapshots of Filipino history, with its people on center stage. Abinales and Amoroso 2005, a welcome addition to the genre, contextualizes more recent events into the longue durée of the archipelago’s history.
Abinales, Patricio N., and Donna J. Amoroso. State and Society in the Philippines. New York: Rowman & Littlefield, 2005.
Abinales and Amoroso follow the complicated trajectory of Philippine history from pre-Hispanic times to the turn of the 21st century. Written for both students and scholars, the book blends textbook facts with sophisticated analysis. Although most of the book is dedicated to examining the legacy of US colonial and post-colonial relations on Philippine politics, economics, and society, it provides adequate coverage on a wide range of topics.
Benitez, Conrado. History of the Philippines: Economic, Social, Political. Boston: Ginn, 1929.
The author of this massive (472 page) volume dedicated to Philippine history was the Dean of the College of Liberal Arts at the University of the Philippines. The book contains an enormous amount of information from prehistory, through the Spanish colonial era (the bulk of its contents) to the early period of US occupation. Although rather dated and dry by today’s standards, it is nevertheless an authoritative work for its time.
Cushner, Nicholas P. Spain in the Philippines: From Conquest to Revolution. Quezon City, Philippines: Ateneo de Manila University, 1977.
The best English-language monograph available on the history of Spanish imperialism in the Philippines. Cushner’s book condenses the entire spectrum of Castile’s economic, religious, political, and social program into just over 200 pages of narrative. Especially enlightening are the chapters that discuss the exploitative practices of forced tributes and labor, and colonial trade and finance.
Punongboyan, Raymundo, and Prescillano Zamora, et al. Kasaysayan: The Story of the Philippine People. 10 vols. Manila, Philippines: Asia Publishing, 1998.
A solid Filipino-centered study that in many ways mirrors the structure and organization of Roces 1977 two decades earlier. The result of a Philippine-American joint venture between A–Z Marketing and Readers’ Digest, each volume contains a collection of essays penned by a myriad of respected academics.
Roces, Alfredo R., ed. Filipino Heritage: The Making of a Nation. 10 vols. Manila, Philippines: Lahang Pilipino, 1977.
A very detailed and nationalistic ten-volume work that encompasses the long arc of history from pre-Hispanic times through the Marcos era. The strengths of this encyclopedic approach are the numerous articles written by renowned scholars and an amazing variety of illustrations that include rare documents, paintings, drawings, and maps.
Zaide, Gregorio F. The Philippines since Pre-Spanish Times. Manila, Philippines: R. P. Garcia, 1949.
A hefty tome close to 500 pages in length; the prolific and esteemed Filipino historian Gregorio Zaide organized an excellent survey. Zaide spends the first fifth of his work excavating Asian influences in the archipelago prior to Magellan’s arrival. The remainder of the book evaluates a panorama of Spanish colonial policies, international and regional conflicts, the Galleon trade, and wars with Muslim sultanates in Mindanao and the Sulu Islands.
Zúñiga, Joaquín Martínez de. An Historical Overview of the Philippine Islands. Manila, Philippines: Filipiniana Book Guild, 1966.
Originally published in 1803. The first few chapters (1–6) describe the conquest of the islands, while the next thirty evaluate in chronological order the major achievements and noteworthy events during the administrations of each governor-general. The final chapters cover Britain’s occupation of Manila from 1762 through1764 and the guerilla tactics of Simon de Anday Salazar (1701–1776) that kept the English from conquering Luzon, and ends with the city’s restoration to Spanish control.
Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content on this page. Please subscribe or login.
- Agricultural Technologies
- Ancient Andean Textiles
- Andean Contributions to Rethinking the State and the Natio...
- Andean Music
- Antislavery Narratives
- Arab Diaspora in Brazil, The
- Arab Diaspora in Latin America, The
- Argentina in the Era of Mass Immigration
- Argentina, Slavery in
- Argentine Literature
- Army of Chile in the 19th Century
- Asian Art and Its Impact in the Americas, 1565–1840
- Asian-Peruvian Literature
- Atlantic Creoles
- Baroque and Neo-baroque Literary Tradition
- Bello, Andrés
- Black Experience in Colonial Latin America, The
- Black Experience in Modern Latin America, The
- Borderlands in Latin America, Conquest of
- Bourbon Reforms, The
- Brazilian Northeast, History of the
- Buenos Aires
- Caribbean Philosophical Association, The
- Caribbean, The Archaeology of the
- Cartagena de Indias
- Caste War of Yucatán, The
- Caudillos, 19th Century
- Cádiz Constitution and Liberalism, The
- Chaco War
- Children, History of
- Chile's Struggle for Independence
- Chronicle, The
- Church in Colonial Latin America, The
- Chávez, Hugo, and the Bolivarian Revolution in Venezuela
- Cinema, Contemporary Brazilian
- Cinema, Latin American
- Colonial Central America
- Colonial New Granada
- Colonial Portuguese Amazon Region, from the 17th to 18th C...
- Contemporary Maya, The
- Costa Rica
- Cárdenas and Cardenismo
- Cuban Revolution, The
- Dependency Theory in Latin American History
- Development of Architecture in New Spain, 1500–1810, The
- Development of Painting in Peru, 1520–1820, The
- Drug Trades in Latin America
- Dutch in South America and the Caribbean, The
- Early Colonial Forms of Native Expression in Mexico and Pe...
- Economies from Independence to Industrialization
- Ecuador, La Generación del 30 in
- El Salvador
- Enlightenment and its Visual Manifestations in Spanish Ame...
- Environmental History
- Era of Porfirio Díaz, 1876–1911, The
- Family History
- Film, Science Fiction
- Football (Soccer) in Latin America
- Gaucho Literature
- Gender in Colonial Brazil
- Gender in Postcolonial Latin America
- Guaraní and Their Legacy, The
- Guatemala and Yucatan, Conquest of
- Guatemala City
- Guatemala (Colonial Period)
- Guatemala (Modern & National Period)
- Haitian Revolution, The
- Health and Disease in Modern Latin America, History of
- History, Cultural
- History, Food
- Honor in Latin America to 1900
- Horror in Literature and Film in Latin America
- Human Rights in Latin America
- Immigration in Latin America
- Indigenous Elites in the Colonial Andes
- Indigenous Population and Justice System in Central Mexico...
- Indigenous Voices in Literature
- Japanese Presence in Latin America
- Jewish Presence in Latin America, The
- José María Arguedas and Early 21st Century Cultural and Po...
- Las Casas, Bartolomé de
- Latin American Independence
- Latin American Urbanism, 1850-1950
- Law and Society in Latin America since 1800
- Legal History of New Spain, 16th-17th Centuries
- Legal History of the State and Church in 18th Century New ...
- Literature, Argentinian
- Machado de Assis
- Magical Realism
- Maroon Societies in Latin America
- Martí, José, and Cuba
- Mestizaje and the Legacy of José María Arguedas
- Mexican Nationalism
- Mexican Revolution, 1910–1940, The
- Mexican-US Relations
- Mexico, Conquest of
- Mexico, Education in
- Migration to the United States
- Military and Modern Latin America, The
- Military Government in Latin America, 1959–1990
- Military Institution in Colonial Latin America, The
- Modern Decorative Arts and Design, 1900–2000
- Modern Populism in Latin America
- Modernity and Decoloniality
- Musical Tradition in Latin America, The
- Native Presence in Postconquest Central Peru
- New Conquest History and the New Philology in Colonial Mes...
- New Left in Latin America, The
- Novel, Chronology of the Venezuelan
- Novel of the Mexican Revolution, The
- Novel, 19th Century Haitian
- Novel, The Colombian
- Oaxaca, Conquest and Colonial
- Painting in New Spain, 1521–1820
- Paraguayan War (War of the Triple Alliance)
- Pastoralism in the Andes
- Paz, Octavio
- Perón and Peronism
- Peru, Colonial
- Peru, Conquest of
- Peru, Slavery in
- Philippines Under Spanish Rule, 1571-1898
- Photography in the History of Race and Nation
- Political Exile in Latin America
- Popular Culture and Globalization
- Popular Movements in 19th-Century Latin America
- Post Conquest Aztecs
- Post-Conquest Demographic Collapse
- Poverty in Latin America
- Preconquest Incas
- Pre-conquest Mesoamerican States, The
- Pre-Revolutionary Mexico, State and Nation Formation in
- Printing and the Book
- Prints and the Circulation of Colonial Images
- Protestantism in Latin America
- Religions in Latin America
- Revolution and Reaction in Central America
- Rosas, Juan Manuel de
- Sandinista Revolution and the FSLN, The
- Santo Domingo
- Science and Empire in the Iberian Atlantic
- Sexualities in Latin America and the Caribbean
- Slavery in Brazil
- São Paulo
- Spanish American Arab Literature
- Spanish and Portuguese Trade, 1500–1750
- Spanish Caribbean In The Colonial Period, The
- Spanish Colonial Decorative Arts, 1500-1825
- Spanish Florida
- Spiritual Conquest of Latin America, The
- Telenovelas and Melodrama in Latin America
- Textile Traditions of the Andes
- 16th-Century New Spain
- Transculturation and Literature
- Trujillo, Rafael
- Tupac Amaru Rebellion, The
- United States and Castro's Cuba in the Cold War, The
- United States and the Guatemalan Revolution, The
- United States Invasion of the Dominican Republic, 1961–196...
- Urban History
- Urbanization in the 20th Century, Latin America’s
- U.S.-Latin American Relations During the Cold War
- Vargas, Getúlio
- Venezuelan Literature
- Women and Labor in 20th-Century Latin America
- Women in Colonial Latin American History
- Women in Modern Latin American History
- Zapatista Rebellion in Chiapas