The capital of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela is located at the north of the country, separated from the Caribbean Sea by the Coast Range. Decades after Columbus encountered Venezuela’s mainland in 1498, the Caracas valley’s favorable location made it a military outpost along the Spanish conquerors’ eastward penetration. Diego de Losada allegedly founded the city in 1567, named Santiago de León de Caracas, the latter after the Indians who inhabited the region where the Caracas plant grew. Having been a second-rate capital of the Spanish empire, Caracas did not undergo significant change during the colonial era that ended in 1821. The 1812 earthquake and the independence and civil wars made the population stagnate from about 30,000 inhabitants in 1830 to almost 50,000 in 1873, when the first national census took place. Post-colonial sluggishness slightly changed with the governments of Antonio Guzmán Blanco (1870–1888), who Europeanized the architectural vocabulary and cultural traditions of the up to then Spain-oriented city. As the capital of an unattractive republic that exported coffee and cocoa, Caracas remained a commercial and bureaucratic outpost until the emergence of the oil economy in the 1920s. Thereafter demographic recovery manifested, with population jumping to 135,253 by 1926; meanwhile, the center crowded with commerce and tenant houses, prompting the bourgeoisie’s immigration to eastern suburbs. When Juan Vicente Gómez’s 27-year dictatorship ended with his death in 1935, the capital showed the urban effects of the petroleum boom: with a population of 203,342 and an extension of 542 hectares by 1936, rural-urban migration boosted the 45 percent demographic increase. Effects of the oil revolution were accentuated in the 1950s, when international migration flooded the sprawling metropolis, modernized by Pérez Jiménez’s public works. The main demographic increase occurred between 1961 and 1981, when population in the metropolitan area passed from 1,336,464 to 2,879,468; thousands of immigrants from southern and central Europe came to the cosmopolitan capital—also a democratic refuge for exiles from Latin American dictatorships. This attraction changed after the financial crisis started in 1983, and especially after the Caracazo—the 1989 revolts against neoliberal measures implemented at the beginning of Carlos Andrés Pérez’s second presidency. This episode unleashed political and economic instability in Caracas, especially during the Bolivarian Revolution launched by Hugo Chávez in 1999; the violent metropolis has been torn by tensions between remaining capitalism, emerging socialism, and anti-global reactions.
The fourth centenary of the city, commemorated in 1967, was a distinctive year for initiating overviews such as the multi-volume Estudio de Caracas (Universidad Central de Venezuela 1967) published by several specialists of the Central University on the city’s demography, environment, history, economics, government, and social and cultural aspects. Less comprehensive yet covering the city’s entire history from colonial times, other overviews ranged from the plans and graphic information compiled by De-Sola Ricardo 1967, to the narrative Meneses 1966, followed by Gasparini and Posani 1969 on urban growth and architecture. The increasingly specialized literature on the city made it difficult to offer further general overviews, as the bibliographic compendium Carrero 1979 evinced. Perhaps as a reaction to this bibliographic dispersion, an attempt, coordinated by Arráiz and Niño 2004, emulated the classic architectural review Gasparini and Posani 1969, but now including scenarios about the city’s urban growth and planning proposals. Also as an attempt to put a growing bibliography in perspective, Waale 2010 offers a selection of the most significant books about the city’s history, environment, and literature. In the domain of radio and online resources, a multifaceted overview of the current metropolis in relation to its past and from the perspectives of different disciplines and arts—sociology, economics, urban planning, literature, architecture, among others—is available through the series of interviews compiled in La ciudad deseada.
Arráiz, Rafael, and William Niño, eds. Santiago de León de Caracas 1567–2030. Caracas: Exxon Mobil de Venezuela, Editorial Arte, 2004.
The first part of the large-format volume provides historical chapters on the city’s evolution since colonial times, elaborated by period specialists who combine primary sources with excellent illustrations. The second part features the city’s plans and scenarios of urban growth drawn from interviews with experts.
Carrero, María, ed. Aportes para una Bibliografía sobre Caracas. Caracas, Venezuela: Instituto Autónomo Biblioteca Nacional y de Servicios de Bibliotecas, Gobernación del Distrito Federal, 1979.
Despite its remote date of publication, this guide remains a useful reference work, especially for including hemerografía—i.e., newspaper and journal articles—that was difficult to put together in the pre-digital era. It also includes a corpus of early-20th-century chroniclers that are long since out of print.
De-Sola Ricardo, Irma. Contribución al estudio de los planos de Caracas. Caracas, Venezuela: Ediciones del Cuatricentenario de Caracas, 1967.
In an extensive oblong format, this compilation features 135 plans of the city from Pimentel’s 1578 sketch through 1960s subdivisions of the metropolitan area. The collection is completed by thirty-five maps of the Caracas “province” and “state” that successively integrated Venezuelan territory in colonial and republican times.
Gasparini, Graziano, and Juan Pedro Posani. Caracas a través de su arquitectura. Caracas, Venezuela: Fundación Fina Gómez, 1969.
This was the first academic approach to the city’s urban and architectural history since colonial times, distinguishing the morphological and stylistic renewal of Guzmán Blanco’s capital, followed by the modernistic image that emerged from the oil boom and Pérez Juménez’s public works.
Resulting from the radio program hosted by William Niño and Federico Vegas since the 1990s, this blog compiles penetrating interviews with artists and specialists on Caracas. Since the program is no longer on the air, the much-visited website has become a useful source on urban topics, especially for students.
Meneses, Guillermo. Caracas en la novela venezolana. Caracas, Venezuela: Fundación Eugenio Mendoza, 1966.
Though nowadays insufficient—given its early date of publication—this essay remains the first attempt to sample the narrative imagery about the city since the late 19th century through the 1950s, with excerpts from the chronicles and novels.
Universidad Central de Venezuela. Estudio de Caracas. 8 vols. Caracas, Venezuela: Ediciones de la Biblioteca, 1967.
Volumes deal with the physical environment and population; historical framework, technology, and economy; ecology; family organization and social stratification; religious, cultural, and intellectual life; personality, education, and linguistics; health and social problems; and government and politics. Most of those subjects refer to the metropolitan structure of the 1960s.
Waale, Ricardo. Libros de Caracas: Apreciaciones sobre algunos libros significativos de la ciudad. Caracas, Venezuela: Fundación Bancaribe, 2010.
Resulting from an exhibition organized in 2007, on the 440th anniversary of Caracas, this catalogue provides a debatable yet substantial selection of sixty-six books focused on the city. They include architecture and urbanism, natural environment, history and chronicle, photography, gastronomy, literature, and music.
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- Agricultural Technologies
- Ancient Andean Textiles
- Andean Contributions to Rethinking the State and the Natio...
- Andean Music
- Antislavery Narratives
- Arab Diaspora in Brazil, The
- Arab Diaspora in Latin America, The
- Argentina in the Era of Mass Immigration
- Argentina, Slavery in
- Argentine Literature
- Army of Chile in the 19th Century
- Asian Art and Its Impact in the Americas, 1565–1840
- Asian-Peruvian Literature
- Atlantic Creoles
- Baroque and Neo-baroque Literary Tradition
- Bello, Andrés
- Black Experience in Colonial Latin America, The
- Black Experience in Modern Latin America, The
- Borderlands in Latin America, Conquest of
- Bourbon Reforms, The
- Brazilian Northeast, History of the
- Buenos Aires
- Caribbean Philosophical Association, The
- Caribbean, The Archaeology of the
- Cartagena de Indias
- Caste War of Yucatán, The
- Caudillos, 19th Century
- Cádiz Constitution and Liberalism, The
- Chaco War
- Children, History of
- Chile's Struggle for Independence
- Chronicle, The
- Church in Colonial Latin America, The
- Chávez, Hugo, and the Bolivarian Revolution in Venezuela
- Cinema, Contemporary Brazilian
- Cinema, Latin American
- Colonial Central America
- Colonial Legal History of Peru
- Colonial New Granada
- Colonial Portuguese Amazon Region, from the 17th to 18th C...
- Contemporary Maya, The
- Costa Rica
- Cárdenas and Cardenismo
- Cuban Revolution, The
- Dependency Theory in Latin American History
- Development of Architecture in New Spain, 1500–1810, The
- Development of Painting in Peru, 1520–1820, The
- Drug Trades in Latin America
- Dutch in South America and the Caribbean, The
- Early Colonial Forms of Native Expression in Mexico and Pe...
- Economies from Independence to Industrialization
- Ecuador, La Generación del 30 in
- El Salvador
- Enlightenment and its Visual Manifestations in Spanish Ame...
- Environmental History
- Era of Porfirio Díaz, 1876–1911, The
- Family History
- Film, Science Fiction
- Football (Soccer) in Latin America
- From "National Culture" to the "National Popular" and the ...
- Gaucho Literature
- Gender in Colonial Brazil
- Gender in Postcolonial Latin America
- Guaraní and Their Legacy, The
- Guatemala and Yucatan, Conquest of
- Guatemala City
- Guatemala (Colonial Period)
- Guatemala (Modern & National Period)
- Haitian Revolution, The
- Health and Disease in Modern Latin America, History of
- History, Cultural
- History, Food
- Honor in Latin America to 1900
- Horror in Literature and Film in Latin America
- Human Rights in Latin America
- Immigration in Latin America
- Indigenous Elites in the Colonial Andes
- Indigenous Population and Justice System in Central Mexico...
- Indigenous Voices in Literature
- Japanese Presence in Latin America
- Jewish Presence in Latin America, The
- José María Arguedas and Early 21st Century Cultural and Po...
- Las Casas, Bartolomé de
- Latin American Independence
- Latin American Urbanism, 1850-1950
- Law and Society in Latin America since 1800
- Legal History of New Spain, 16th-17th Centuries
- Legal History of the State and Church in 18th Century New ...
- Literature, Argentinian
- Machado de Assis
- Magical Realism
- Maroon Societies in Latin America
- Martí, José, and Cuba
- Mestizaje and the Legacy of José María Arguedas
- Mexican Nationalism
- Mexican Revolution, 1910–1940, The
- Mexican-US Relations
- Mexico, Conquest of
- Mexico, Education in
- Migration to the United States
- Military and Modern Latin America, The
- Military Government in Latin America, 1959–1990
- Military Institution in Colonial Latin America, The
- Modern Decorative Arts and Design, 1900–2000
- Modern Populism in Latin America
- Modernity and Decoloniality
- Musical Tradition in Latin America, The
- Native Presence in Postconquest Central Peru
- New Conquest History and the New Philology in Colonial Mes...
- New Left in Latin America, The
- Novel, Chronology of the Venezuelan
- Novel of the Mexican Revolution, The
- Novel, 19th Century Haitian
- Novel, The Colombian
- Oaxaca, Conquest and Colonial
- Painting in New Spain, 1521–1820
- Paraguayan War (War of the Triple Alliance)
- Pastoralism in the Andes
- Paz, Octavio
- Perón and Peronism
- Peru, Colonial
- Peru, Conquest of
- Peru, Slavery in
- Philippines Under Spanish Rule, 1571-1898
- Photography in the History of Race and Nation
- Political Exile in Latin America
- Ponce de León
- Popular Culture and Globalization
- Popular Movements in 19th-Century Latin America
- Post Conquest Aztecs
- Post-Conquest Demographic Collapse
- Poverty in Latin America
- Preconquest Incas
- Pre-conquest Mesoamerican States, The
- Pre-Revolutionary Mexico, State and Nation Formation in
- Printing and the Book
- Prints and the Circulation of Colonial Images
- Protestantism in Latin America
- Puerto Rican Literature
- Religions in Latin America
- Revolution and Reaction in Central America
- Rosas, Juan Manuel de
- Sandinista Revolution and the FSLN, The
- Santo Domingo
- Science and Empire in the Iberian Atlantic
- Science and Technology in Modern Latin America
- Sexualities in Latin America and the Caribbean
- Slavery in Brazil
- São Paulo
- Spanish American Arab Literature
- Spanish and Portuguese Trade, 1500–1750
- Spanish Caribbean In The Colonial Period, The
- Spanish Colonial Decorative Arts, 1500-1825
- Spanish Florida
- Spiritual Conquest of Latin America, The
- Telenovelas and Melodrama in Latin America
- Textile Traditions of the Andes
- 19th Century and Modernismo Poetry in Spanish America
- 16th-Century New Spain
- Transculturation and Literature
- Trujillo, Rafael
- Tupac Amaru Rebellion, The
- United States and Castro's Cuba in the Cold War, The
- United States and the Guatemalan Revolution, The
- United States Invasion of the Dominican Republic, 1961–196...
- Urban History
- Urbanization in the 20th Century, Latin America’s
- U.S.-Latin American Relations During the Cold War
- Vargas, Getúlio
- Venezuelan Literature
- Women and Labor in 20th-Century Latin America
- Women in Colonial Latin American History
- Women in Modern Latin American History
- Zapatista Rebellion in Chiapas