La Generación del 30 is one of the most important Ecuadorian literary movements. For many, the importance of the movement is evidenced in the publication of Aguilera Malta, et al. 1970 (see General Works). As the title expresses, Los que se van (Those that are leaving) magnified the lives of the common man of the coast (e.g., cholos y montuvios) who suffered great forms of social and economic exploitation as well as racial discrimination. This paradigmatic book, and all the other literary contributions by its main representatives, explored the manner in which the Ecuadorian subject, as part of a global capitalist cycle, enabled the developed world (i.e., the United States and Europe) to exploit local production and imposed unequal mercantile exchanges. In many ways, these racialized groups, of cholos, montuvios, and indios, as ex-colonial subjects were being reconstituted in similarly oppressive manners within the new neocolonial forms of global exchange. The movement, therefore, gave voice to these otherwise forgotten subjects who were not even seen or treated like human beings by traditional and upper-class Ecuadorian society. The group’s work, through short stories, novels, and essays, slowly impacted the society at large and the manner in which Ecuadorian (and other Latin American nations) saw and self-represented themselves. The work would impact on social policy but would equally and importantly contribute to perhaps the biggest, and most famous, Latin American literary genre, that of magical realism, although it would be decades (until the 1970s) before other Latin American authors in this article would use the genre to express the contradiction and appalling beauty of the continent. The main representatives of the movement are Joaquín Gallegos Lara, Demetrio Aguilera Malta, and Enrique Gil Gilbert. However, both Alfredo Pareja Diezcanseco and José de la Cuadra would join these original three authors, and together be referred to as the “Grupo de Guayaquil,” which would share many of the initial characteristics of a social realist literary genre and a concern for the racially oppressed communities. But also several writers, such as Pablo Palacio, Adalberto Ortiz, Cesar Davila Andrade, among a few others, were also representative, in more or lesser manners, of the group’s ideological premises and national imaginary introduced into the Latin American artistic mind-set.
The thirty-four stories collected in Aguilera Malta, et al. 1970, Los que se van, very much defined the contours of what decades later would be called La Generación del 30, or the Guayaquil Group (Grupo de Guayaquil). Sacoto 2003 and Sacoto 1990 are instrumental in analyzing and examining the impact of the movement on the future generations of Ecuadorian writers and artists. In a similar vein, Franco 1984 and Valdano Morejón 2002 present the larger continental and national literary histories, providing a context for the work carried out by this generation. In this regard, both Handelsman 2005 and Paez Barrera 2003 analyze Ecuadorian literature in terms of its relationship and impact on globalization at large. Itúrburu 2010 incorporates the work carried out by writers and scholars that, although working in the United States, still contribute enormously to Ecuador’s literary and historical production.
Aguilera Malta, Demetrio, Joaquín Gallegos Lara, and Enrique Gil Gilbert. Los que se van: Cuentos del cholo i del montuvio. Guayaquil, Ecuador: Hispanoamerica, 1970.
The thirty-four short story collection was originally published in 1930. All the stories focus on the daily Ecuadorian subject, and gives life to their existential duress as targets of long-standing forms of historical and social oppression.
Franco, Jean. Historia de la literatura hispanoamericana. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Ariel, 1984.
The book is one of the best histories of Latin American literature.
Handelsman, Michael H. Leyendo la globalización desde la mitad del mundo: Identidad y resistencias en el Ecuador. Quito, Ecuador: Editorial El Conejo, 2005.
The text is unique in its interest in understanding the contribution of Ecuador’s literary tradition to the greater globalization issues of identity and resistance.
Itúrburu, Fernando. El águila bajo el sol: Entrevistas a Ecuatorianistas de Estados Unidos. Guayaquil, Ecuador: Centro Ecuatoriano Norteamericano de Guayaquil, 2010.
The book offers interviews to some of the most iconic scholars working on Ecuador that are currently living in the United States.
Paez Barrera, Oswaldo. La casa de la certidumbre: Critica, arte, globalización. Quito, Ecuador: Abya-Yala, 2003.
The book frames Ecuador’s artistic contribution in terms of the greater issues of globalization, particularly in terms of the relationship of art as a key commodity piece of modernity.
Sacoto, Antonio. Novelas claves de la literatura ecuatoriana. Cuenca, Ecuador: Publicaciones del Departamento de Difusión Cultural de la Universidad de Cuenca, 1990.
Key text in terms of exploring some of the most important Ecuadorian novels of all times.
Sacoto, Antonio. El cuento ecuatoriano: 1970–2002. Quito, Ecuador: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 2003.
The book explores the evolution of the Ecuadorian short story from 1970 to 2002.
Valdano Morejón, Juan. Historia de las literaturas del Ecuador. Quito, Ecuador: Universidad Andina Simón Bolívar, 2002.
A comprehensive history of Ecuadorian literature, with particular emphasis on the differing genres, styles, and focuses that define it.
Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content on this page. Please subscribe or login.
- Agricultural Technologies
- Ancient Andean Textiles
- Andean Contributions to Rethinking the State and the Natio...
- Andean Music
- Antislavery Narratives
- Arab Diaspora in Brazil, The
- Arab Diaspora in Latin America, The
- Argentina in the Era of Mass Immigration
- Argentina, Slavery in
- Argentine Literature
- Army of Chile in the 19th Century
- Asian Art and Its Impact in the Americas, 1565–1840
- Asian-Peruvian Literature
- Atlantic Creoles
- Baroque and Neo-baroque Literary Tradition
- Bello, Andrés
- Black Experience in Colonial Latin America, The
- Black Experience in Modern Latin America, The
- Borderlands in Latin America, Conquest of
- Bourbon Reforms, The
- Brazilian Northeast, History of the
- Buenos Aires
- Caribbean Philosophical Association, The
- Caribbean, The Archaeology of the
- Cartagena de Indias
- Caste War of Yucatán, The
- Caudillos, 19th Century
- Cádiz Constitution and Liberalism, The
- Chaco War
- Children, History of
- Chile's Struggle for Independence
- Chronicle, The
- Church in Colonial Latin America, The
- Chávez, Hugo, and the Bolivarian Revolution in Venezuela
- Cinema, Contemporary Brazilian
- Cinema, Latin American
- Colonial Central America
- Colonial Legal History of Peru
- Colonial New Granada
- Colonial Portuguese Amazon Region, from the 17th to 18th C...
- Contemporary Maya, The
- Cortés, Hernán
- Costa Rica
- Cárdenas and Cardenismo
- Cuban Revolution, The
- Dependency Theory in Latin American History
- Development of Architecture in New Spain, 1500–1810, The
- Development of Painting in Peru, 1520–1820, The
- Drug Trades in Latin America
- Dutch in South America and the Caribbean, The
- Early Colonial Forms of Native Expression in Mexico and Pe...
- Economies from Independence to Industrialization
- Ecuador, La Generación del 30 in
- El Salvador
- Enlightenment and its Visual Manifestations in Spanish Ame...
- Environmental History
- Era of Porfirio Díaz, 1876–1911, The
- Family History
- Film, Science Fiction
- Football (Soccer) in Latin America
- Franciscans in Colonial Latin America
- From "National Culture" to the "National Popular" and the ...
- Gaucho Literature
- Gender in Colonial Brazil
- Gender in Postcolonial Latin America
- Guaraní and Their Legacy, The
- Guatemala and Yucatan, Conquest of
- Guatemala City
- Guatemala (Colonial Period)
- Guatemala (Modern & National Period)
- Haitian Revolution, The
- Health and Disease in Modern Latin America, History of
- History, Cultural
- History, Food
- Honor in Latin America to 1900
- Horror in Literature and Film in Latin America
- Human Rights in Latin America
- Immigration in Latin America
- Indigenous Elites in the Colonial Andes
- Indigenous Population and Justice System in Central Mexico...
- Indigenous Voices in Literature
- Japanese Presence in Latin America
- Jewish Presence in Latin America, The
- José María Arguedas and Early 21st Century Cultural and Po...
- Las Casas, Bartolomé de
- Latin American Independence
- Latin American Theater and Performance
- Latin American Urbanism, 1850-1950
- Law and Society in Latin America since 1800
- Legal History of New Spain, 16th-17th Centuries
- Legal History of the State and Church in 18th Century New ...
- Literature, Argentinian
- Machado de Assis
- Magical Realism
- Maroon Societies in Latin America
- Martí, José, and Cuba
- Mestizaje and the Legacy of José María Arguedas
- Mexican Nationalism
- Mexican Revolution, 1910–1940, The
- Mexican-US Relations
- Mexico, Conquest of
- Mexico, Education in
- Migration to the United States
- Military and Modern Latin America, The
- Military Government in Latin America, 1959–1990
- Military Institution in Colonial Latin America, The
- Modern Decorative Arts and Design, 1900–2000
- Modern Populism in Latin America
- Modernity and Decoloniality
- Musical Tradition in Latin America, The
- Native Presence in Postconquest Central Peru
- New Conquest History and the New Philology in Colonial Mes...
- New Left in Latin America, The
- Novel, Chronology of the Venezuelan
- Novel of the Mexican Revolution, The
- Novel, 19th Century Haitian
- Novel, The Colombian
- Oaxaca, Conquest and Colonial
- Painting in New Spain, 1521–1820
- Paraguayan War (War of the Triple Alliance)
- Pastoralism in the Andes
- Paz, Octavio
- Perón and Peronism
- Peru, Colonial
- Peru, Conquest of
- Peru, Slavery in
- Philippines Under Spanish Rule, 1571-1898
- Photography in the History of Race and Nation
- Political Exile in Latin America
- Ponce de León
- Popular Culture and Globalization
- Popular Movements in 19th-Century Latin America
- Post Conquest Aztecs
- Post-Conquest Demographic Collapse
- Poverty in Latin America
- Preconquest Incas
- Pre-conquest Mesoamerican States, The
- Pre-Revolutionary Mexico, State and Nation Formation in
- Printing and the Book
- Prints and the Circulation of Colonial Images
- Protestantism in Latin America
- Puerto Rican Literature
- Religions in Latin America
- Revolution and Reaction in Central America
- Rosas, Juan Manuel de
- Sandinista Revolution and the FSLN, The
- Santo Domingo
- Science and Empire in the Iberian Atlantic
- Science and Technology in Modern Latin America
- Sexualities in Latin America and the Caribbean
- Slavery in Brazil
- São Paulo
- Spanish American Arab Literature
- Spanish and Portuguese Trade, 1500–1750
- Spanish Caribbean In The Colonial Period, The
- Spanish Colonial Decorative Arts, 1500-1825
- Spanish Florida
- Spiritual Conquest of Latin America, The
- Sports in Latin America and the Caribbean
- Telenovelas and Melodrama in Latin America
- Textile Traditions of the Andes
- 19th Century and Modernismo Poetry in Spanish America
- 16th-Century New Spain
- Transculturation and Literature
- Trujillo, Rafael
- Tupac Amaru Rebellion, The
- United States and Castro's Cuba in the Cold War, The
- United States and the Guatemalan Revolution, The
- United States Invasion of the Dominican Republic, 1961–196...
- Urban History
- Urbanization in the 20th Century, Latin America’s
- U.S.-Latin American Relations During the Cold War
- Vargas, Getúlio
- Venezuelan Literature
- Women and Labor in 20th-Century Latin America
- Women in Colonial Latin American History
- Women in Modern Latin American History
- Women's Property Rights, Asset Ownership, and Wealth in La...
- Zapatista Rebellion in Chiapas