In Andean academia, a highly conservative environment, gender as a category of analysis has been an elusive and poorly understood concept. Despite the fact that in many countries of the Northern Hemisphere (where Euro-American knowledge is constructed), as well as South American countries, historians and anthropologists working from feminist perspectives have used gender theory since the 1980s, it is only in the 2010s that Andeanist scholars have begun to fully acknowledge that almost all historical narratives (from the Pre-Hispanic, Colonial, Republican and Contemporary Periods) excluded women as actors in all-important historical processes. As many Andean countries reevaluate their national republican discourses while celebrating the bicentennial of their independence, this flaw has become more evident. Hegemonic and historical accounts of South American independence movements, which highlight critical events and important historical figures, have focused on male figures and republican ideals mostly based on masculine values. Disseminating history from a masculine viewpoint, these narratives ignore women and other marginalized social groups, including indigenous and Afro-descendant communities, and fail to recognize their role as agents of political change. Consequently, using these narratives in the construction of national identities and citizenship has created social inequalities. The exclusion of women and nonbinary gender identities from the narrative has been noticed and acknowledged not only by academics, but also by society in general. Therefore, academic institutions and nonprofit organizations have promoted the publication and investigation of gender topics in history. However, archaeology, an isolated discipline immersed in its own discussions and dynamics, has developed in its own way. In general, opportunistic discoveries of “great and powerful women” have positioned archaeologists (mostly men) and their interpretations of the Andean past and power in an uncomfortable position. How to interpret these contexts using societal models that envision female bodies and feminine collectivities in a perpetually subordinated role? How to understand them without the tools of feminism and decolonial and anthropological theory? How to construct complex roles for Andean women in the past from a place in the present where that seems impossible and unimaginable (or even subversive)? From an Andean political awakening that takes a deep historical perspective, gender theory is under (de)construction. The topic of gender and history in the Andes is not about placing some female figures and mixing them up in an already hegemonic history; it is about creating innovative visions of the past, where multiple historical voices from the past and present appear.
General Overview of Gender and History in the Andes
This section includes compilations of gender topics and women in different historical processes and situations in Andean history. Among these are some that focus on gender and women’s stories in the Andes from ancient times to contemporary historical periods. Interestingly, most likely due to the rich archaeological past and the early presence of feminist research identifying Andean women as social and historical agents in Peru, some studies have incorporated pre-Hispanic women into their stories. This section contains general overviews that had a longue durée perspective. Among them are García y García 1924–1925, which represents the first and therefore a very valuable text that placed women in the national historical narrative; Meza and Hampe 2007; García and Guardia 2002; Guardia 2013; and, more recently, Rosas Lauro 2019 (it is important to mention that this last work includes an article on the topic of masculinity, a theme almost absent in gender and history in the Andes). Other compilations have focused on the history of women from the Colonial to more recent periods. These types of compilations are common in various Andean countries, such as Lavrin 1995 for Argentina, Chile, and Uruguay; Zegarra 1999 for Peru; Romo-Lereoux 1983 and Moscoso Carvallo 2009 for Ecuador; and Stuven and Fermandois 2011 for Chile.
García, Juan Andreo, and Sara Beatriz Guardia, eds. Historia de las mujeres en América Latina. Murcia, Spain: Universidad de Murcia, CEMHAL, Fundación SENECA, 2002.
This is an edited volume with nine chapters from the Inca to the Colonial and Republican Periods. It also includes other topics such as the beginnings of feminism in Peru, politics and women citizenship, writing practices of women during the 19th and 20th centuries, and historiographic revisions of the history of women in Latin America.
García y García, Elvira. La mujer peruana a través de los siglos: Serie historiada de estudios y observaciones. Vols. 1 and 2. Lima, Peru: Imprenta Americana, 1924–1925.
This work includes two volumes on biographies of Peruvian woman (from the pre-Hispanic to the first two decades of the 20th century) to understand their importance in the construction of Peruvian history. It includes engravings and paintings, and a chapter that focuses on women in art.
Guardia, Beatriz. Mujeres peruanas: El otro lado de la historia. 5th ed. Lima, Peru: CEMHAL, 2013.
This book takes a longue durée perspective regarding the history of women, from ancient Andean societies (1200 BCE) to the mid-20th century (1960). It has twenty-two chapters and provides a perspective on gender throughout Peruvian history.
Lavrin, Asuncion. Women, Feminism and Social Change, Argentina, Chile and Uruguay 1890–1940. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1995.
This book looks at the beginnings of feminism and women’s struggle for equal rights in Argentina, Chile, and Uruguay during two different generations (1890 to 1940). Some of the topics covered include women’s labor rights, fair wages, equal participation in politics, and women’s suffrage. The book also contains other topics related to women such as childcare, public health, maternity, sexuality, reproduction, abortion laws, and divorce.
Meza, Carmen, and Teodoro Hampe, eds. La mujer en la historia del Perú (siglos XV y XX). Lima: Fondo Editorial del Congreso del Perú, 2007.
This book contains fifteen articles, including two about the pre-Hispanic Andes, seven about the Colonial Period, and six from the Republican Period. One of the two articles about the Pre-Hispanic Period is by distinguished Peruvian historian María Rostworowski. Other articles that are important to mention because of their perspective on gender are Vergara, Mannarelli, and Zegarra, on the Colonial and Republican Periods.
Moscoso Carvallo, Martha, ed. Historia de mujeres e historia de género en el Ecuador. 2d ed. Quito, Ecuador: Edición IPANC-CAB, 2009.
This book is about the history of women and gender in Ecuador. It has three chapters: 1. “Women and Ethnic Identities”; 2. “Women in History”; and 3. “Women and Writing.”
Romo-Lereoux, Ketty. La mujer, dura lucha por la igualdad. Guayaquil, Ecuador: Universidad de Guayaquil, 1983.
This text was published to commemorate the celebration of the bicentennial of Ecuadorian independence. It focuses on women in Inca history and the Colonial and Republican Periods in Ecuador.
Rosas Lauro, Claudia, ed. Género y mujeres en la historia del Perú: Del hogar al espacio público. Lima: Fondo Editorial de la Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, 2019.
This work contains two articles about the pre-Hispanic past, five articles about gender during the Colonial Period, seven articles about femininity, masculinity, and homosexuality during the 18th and 19th centuries, eight articles about Peruvian feminism in the 19th and 20th centuries, and five articles on gender, ethnicity, work, and honor during the 19th to 21st centuries. Articles in this volume are articulated through a multidisciplinary gender perspective.
Stuven, Ana María, and Joaquin Fermandois, eds. Historia de las mujeres en Chile. Vol. 1. Santiago, Chile: Editorial Taurus, 2011.
This edited volume consists of ten articles focusing on women during the Colonial Period, indigenous women’s experiences (Mapuche, Rapanui, and Aymara), women’s daily life during the 18th and 19th centuries, the role of women during the “War of the Pacific” among Chile, Bolivia, and Peru, and the role of Chilean women in an urban environment during the 19th century.
Zegarra, F. Margarita, ed. Mujeres y género en la historia del Perú. Lima, Peru: Cendoc Mujer, 1999.
This edited volume contains twenty-seven articles, and it is based on contributions at a conference about “Gender and Peruvian History” held in 1966 in Lima. This book includes articles from the Colonial to Modern Historical Periods and takes a multidisciplinary perspective, including history, anthropology, sociology, and literature and incorporating topics from different parts of Peru as well as one from Chile.
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- Abortion and Infanticide
- Agricultural Technologies
- Ancient Andean Textiles
- Andean Contributions to Rethinking the State and the Natio...
- Andean Music
- Antislavery Narratives
- Arab Diaspora in Brazil, The
- Arab Diaspora in Latin America, The
- Argentina in the Era of Mass Immigration
- Argentina, Slavery in
- Argentine Literature
- Army of Chile in the 19th Century
- Asian Art and Its Impact in the Americas, 1565–1840
- Asian-Peruvian Literature
- Atlantic Creoles
- Baroque and Neo-baroque Literary Tradition
- Beauty in Latin America
- Bello, Andrés
- Black Experience in Colonial Latin America, The
- Black Experience in Modern Latin America, The
- Bolaño, Roberto
- Borderlands in Latin America, Conquest of
- Bourbon Reforms, The
- Brazilian Northeast, History of the
- Buenos Aires
- California Missions, The
- Caribbean Philosophical Association, The
- Caribbean, The Archaeology of the
- Cartagena de Indias
- Caste War of Yucatán, The
- Caudillos, 19th Century
- Cádiz Constitution and Liberalism, The
- Chaco War
- Children, History of
- Chile's Struggle for Independence
- Chronicle, The
- Church in Colonial Latin America, The
- Chávez, Hugo, and the Bolivarian Revolution in Venezuela
- Cinema, Contemporary Brazilian
- Cinema, Latin American
- Colonial Central America
- Colonial Latin America, Crime and Punishment in
- Colonial Latin America, Pilgrimage in
- Colonial Legal History of Peru
- Colonial New Granada
- Colonial Portuguese Amazon Region, from the 17th to 18th C...
- Contemporary Indigenous Social and Political Thought
- Contemporary Maya, The
- Cortés, Hernán
- Costa Rica
- Cárdenas and Cardenismo
- Cuban Revolution, The
- de Alva Ixtlilxochitl, Fernando
- Dependency Theory in Latin American History
- Development of Architecture in New Spain, 1500–1810, The
- Development of Painting in Peru, 1520–1820, The
- Drug Trades in Latin America
- Dutch in South America and the Caribbean, The
- Early Colonial Forms of Native Expression in Mexico and Pe...
- Economies from Independence to Industrialization
- Ecuador, La Generación del 30 in
- Education in New Spain
- El Salvador
- Enlightenment and its Visual Manifestations in Spanish Ame...
- Environmental History
- Era of Porfirio Díaz, 1876–1911, The
- Family History
- Film, Science Fiction
- Football (Soccer) in Latin America
- Franciscans in Colonial Latin America
- From "National Culture" to the "National Popular" and the ...
- Gaucho Literature
- Gender and History in the Andes
- Gender in Colonial Brazil
- Gender in Postcolonial Latin America
- Guaraní and Their Legacy, The
- Guatemala and Yucatan, Conquest of
- Guatemala City
- Guatemala (Colonial Period)
- Guatemala (Modern & National Period)
- Haitian Revolution, The
- Health and Disease in Modern Latin America, History of
- History, Cultural
- History, Food
- Honor in Latin America to 1900
- Horror in Literature and Film in Latin America
- Human Rights in Latin America
- Immigration in Latin America
- Indigenous Elites in the Colonial Andes
- Indigenous Population and Justice System in Central Mexico...
- Indigenous Voices in Literature
- Japanese Presence in Latin America
- Jesuits in Colonial Latin America
- Jewish Presence in Latin America, The
- José María Arguedas and Early 21st Century Cultural and Po...
- Las Casas, Bartolomé de
- Latin American Independence
- Latin American Theater and Performance
- Latin American Urbanism, 1850-1950
- Law and Society in Latin America since 1800
- Legal History of New Spain, 16th-17th Centuries
- Legal History of the State and Church in 18th Century New ...
- Literature, Argentinian
- Machado de Assis
- Magical Realism
- Maroon Societies in Latin America
- Martí, José, and Cuba
- Mestizaje and the Legacy of José María Arguedas
- Mexican Nationalism
- Mexican Revolution, 1910–1940, The
- Mexican-US Relations
- Mexico, Conquest of
- Mexico, Education in
- Migration to the United States
- Military and Modern Latin America, The
- Military Government in Latin America, 1959–1990
- Military Institution in Colonial Latin America, The
- Modern Decorative Arts and Design, 1900–2000
- Modern Populism in Latin America
- Modernity and Decoloniality
- Musical Tradition in Latin America, The
- Native Presence in Postconquest Central Peru
- New Conquest History and the New Philology in Colonial Mes...
- New Left in Latin America, The
- Novel, Chronology of the Venezuelan
- Novel of the Mexican Revolution, The
- Novel, 19th Century Haitian
- Novel, The Colombian
- Nuns and Convents in Colonial Latin America
- Oaxaca, Conquest and Colonial
- Painting in New Spain, 1521–1820
- Paraguayan War (War of the Triple Alliance)
- Pastoralism in the Andes
- Paz, Octavio
- Perón and Peronism
- Peru, Colonial
- Peru, Conquest of
- Peru, Slavery in
- Philippines Under Spanish Rule, 1571-1898
- Photography in the History of Race and Nation
- Political Exile in Latin America
- Ponce de León
- Popular Culture and Globalization
- Popular Movements in 19th-Century Latin America
- Post Conquest Aztecs
- Post-Conquest Demographic Collapse
- Poverty in Latin America
- Preconquest Incas
- Pre-conquest Mesoamerican States, The
- Pre-Revolutionary Mexico, State and Nation Formation in
- Printing and the Book
- Prints and the Circulation of Colonial Images
- Protestantism in Latin America
- Puerto Rican Literature
- Religions in Latin America
- Revolution and Reaction in Central America
- Rosas, Juan Manuel de
- Sandinista Revolution and the FSLN, The
- Santo Domingo
- Science and Empire in the Iberian Atlantic
- Science and Technology in Modern Latin America
- Sexualities in Latin America and the Caribbean
- Slavery in Brazil
- São Paulo
- South American Missions
- Spanish American Arab Literature
- Spanish and Portuguese Trade, 1500–1750
- Spanish Caribbean In The Colonial Period, The
- Spanish Colonial Decorative Arts, 1500-1825
- Spanish Florida
- Spiritual Conquest of Latin America, The
- Sports in Latin America and the Caribbean
- Telenovelas and Melodrama in Latin America
- Textile Traditions of the Andes
- 19th Century and Modernismo Poetry in Spanish America
- 16th-Century New Spain
- Transculturation and Literature
- Trujillo, Rafael
- Tupac Amaru Rebellion, The
- United States and Castro's Cuba in the Cold War, The
- United States and the Guatemalan Revolution, The
- United States Invasion of the Dominican Republic, 1961–196...
- Urban History
- Urbanization in the 20th Century, Latin America’s
- U.S.-Latin American Relations During the Cold War
- Vargas, Getúlio
- Venezuelan Literature
- Women and Labor in 20th-Century Latin America
- Women in Colonial Latin American History
- Women in Modern Latin American History
- Women's Property Rights, Asset Ownership, and Wealth in La...
- World War I in Latin America
- Zapatista Rebellion in Chiapas