Linguistics Minority Languages
by
Lenore Grenoble, Adam Roth Singerman
  • LAST REVIEWED: 10 May 2017
  • LAST MODIFIED: 25 February 2014
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199772810-0176

Introduction

The term “minority language” enjoys a natural, but problematic, definition. In the most straightforward sense, a minority language is simply one spoken by less than 50 percent of a population in a given region, state or country. The key criterion here is the size of the speaker population within a specific geographic context: an individual language may be a minority language in one region or state but a majority language in another. Such is the case with many immigrant languages, whose speakers may continue to be a majority in the homeland but have smaller speaker bases elsewhere. Furthermore, a single language may have different degrees of minority status within a given country. To cite one of the most obvious examples, Spanish is a majority language in a number of countries but a minority language in the United States overall. At the same time, in US states, counties, or regions with large Latino populations it is much more prevalent and even valued, and is indeed spoken by a majority of the population in some counties in Texas and New Mexico. This example highlights the most problematic part of the definition given above; namely, that it makes no claim about the economic, social, or political prestige of a minority language. In many of France’s former colonies, French is a minority language, as is Ainu in Japan, but the former is frequently associated with education and economic advancement, whereas the latter is stigmatized and subject to discrimination. Given such differences, it may make good sense to distinguish between indigenous, immigrant, and ethnic linguistic minorities, and to characterize minority languages in terms of their social and economic functions. Doing so follows the precedent set by landmark documents such as the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, adopted in 1992 by the Council of Europe. The charter defines minority languages based on two criteria: a numerically smaller speaker population and a lack of official status. Accordingly, languages (such as Irish) that have official status but are spoken by smaller segments of a given population do not count as minority languages. But at the same time, the charter excludes dialects and migrant languages, even though the classification of a language variety as a dialect is as much a sociopolitical judgment as a linguistic one. In assembling this annotated bibliography, the authors have sought to keep in mind the various, sometimes conflicting ideas of what minority languages are or should be. The sources cited have been grouped under headings related both to geographical regions (North America, Africa, Australia, and so on) and to issues of broader import.

General Overviews

For readers who would like a broad take on minority languages and on the issues concerning their maintenance and revitalization, the following works are recommended. Note that the overlap with resources on language endangerment is largely unavoidable, given that so many minority languages are losing speakers due to language shift and, as a result, face significant challenges for long-term vitality. Readers should keep in mind that while there are major global trends and typologies, the specific issues can vary from country to country, and even from region to region within countries. Several of the works here are introductions to theoretical considerations. Ricento 2006 is an excellent, textbook-like overview of the field; Edwards 2010 and Fase, et al. 1992 present introductions to the topic from the standpoint of minority-language settings. Fishman 2001 is a foundational text that should prove useful for those interested in the process of language maintenance and of documentation. Spolsky 2009 provides a crucial discussion of language management, through which various players and institutions (e.g., churches, families, governments) seek to shape speakers’ choices about language use. Case studies are to be found in Gorter, et al. 2012, situating minority language issues within the larger context of linguistic ecologies. The articles in King, et al. 2008 engage with the topic from a variety of stances, providing an introduction to different theoretical approaches.

  • Edwards, John R. 2010. Minority languages and group identity: Cases and categories. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

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    Excellent overview of issues of minority languages, with a survey of existing typologies of minority-language settings. Particularly valuable for its discussion of theoretical issues of language ecologies and contact, policy implications, and conflict. Includes case studies on Irish, Gaelic in Scotland and Nova Scotia, and Esperanto.

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    • Fase, Willem, Koen Jaspaert, and Sjaak Kroon, eds. 1992. Maintenance and loss of minority languages. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

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      Each of the sections of this anthology includes chapters on larger issues, such as contact, language shift and loss versus maintenance, policy implications, and misunderstandings in bilingual settings.

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      • Fishman, Joshua A., ed. 2001. Can threatened languages be saved?: Reversing language shift, revisited; A 21st century perspective. Multilingual Matters 116. Clevendon, UK: Multilingual Matters.

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        This is a classic study of how to revitalize and maintain a language undergoing shift.

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        • Gorter, Durk, Heiko F. Marten, and Luk van Mensel, eds. 2012. Minority languages in the linguistic landscape. Basingstoke, UK, and New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

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          This collection of essays examines the position of minority languages through linguistic landscapes, using empirical data and innovative theoretical approaches. Case studies cover a range of areas, including the Baltic countries, Italy, Spain, and a number of other regions.

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          • King, Kendall A., Natalie Schilling-Estes, Lyn Fogle, Jia Jackie Lou, and Barbara Soukup, eds. 2008. Sustaining linguistic diversity: Endangered and minority languages and language varieties. Washington, DC: Georgetown Univ. Press.

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            The essays in this collection represent a range of views. In particular, the contribution by William Labov challenges several widely held notions concerning language endangerment and linguistic diversity.

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            • Ricento, Thomas, ed. 2006. An introduction to language policy: Theory and methodology. Malden, MA: Blackwell.

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              Provides a broad view of the issues involved in language policy; seven chapters in Part III are directly concerned with language policy and minority languages, national identity, education and basic human rights of minorities, and language policy and language shift.

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              • Spolsky, Bernard. 2009. Language management. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

                DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511626470Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                Excellent overview of language policy issues from the level of the family to that of the nation. Language management is defined as explicit efforts made by language managers to control the choices speakers make about which language they use.

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                Minority Language Policies

                Minority language policies are found at multiple levels: global, transnational, national, and local. Global policies, as advocated by institutions such as the United Nations and UNESCO, are intended to be applied broadly, in all countries. The texts of these can be found in the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples and UNESCO Convention for the Safeguarding of Tangible Heritage. These instruments are sometimes invoked by minority peoples in dialogue with their national governments in order to protect their rights to minority language use. Other international declarations are more limited in geographic scope; an example of this type is the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages; the primary document is referenced here. It applies to the member states of the Council of Europe only, but it can serve as a model for other areas. A more local language policy document is the Native American Languages Act of 1990; this US legislation guarantees some rights to the speakers of Native American languages. More updated information on laws and policies affecting Native American languages can be found in McCoy 2003. Albaugh 2012 is a similar reference for policies affecting language use in Africa. Readers interested in this topic should bear in mind that there will exist, probably invariably, a discrepancy between policy and implementation. A particular governing body may say that linguistic minorities should enjoy the right to mother-tongue education and nondiscrimination in the workplace, but that does not mean that those minorities do so. Thus, we suggest that readers approach broad declarations with appropriate caution, and that they pay due attention to critical questions surrounding practical implementation. This section includes some of the current major language policies; see the section Evaluation of Minority Language Policies for policy analysis. Note that there may be a mismatch between the policies advocated at an international level by institutions like the United Nations and those of national governments. Educational policies may still have a major impact on minority languages without being part of an explicit language policy, especially in those cases where they regulate the language of instruction or determine testing standards.

                Evaluation of Minority Language Policies

                Language policies can be positive, negative, or neutral. The existence of a language policy does not necessarily mean that it is enforced, or that it is evenly enforced throughout different regions. Policies sometimes lack the supporting means (financial, legal, or other) for enforcement, and sometimes they have unexpected consequences. In this section we provide some references that analyze the impact of different key policies. The entries in this section take different countries and continents as their points of departure. For example, Grin, et al. 2003 and Guliyeva 2013 focus on Europe, as does Council of Europe 2010, a report on the implementation and effects of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (cited under Minority Language Policies). Of course, the connection between educational policies and linguistic minorities is not limited to the “Old World”; Wise and García 2001 discusses federal policy in the United States concerning bilingual education, and Duff and Duanduan 2009 discusses Canadian policy regarding several kinds of linguistic minorities. Just as inclusive educational practices and institutions may contribute to a language’s vitality, exclusive or negative ones may do the opposite. To offer just one example, the system of boarding schools in the United States not only exposed Native American youth to Western education but also precipitated a massive process of language shift. This shift has since affected all of the country’s indigenous languages, driving many to extinction or extreme levels of endangerment. (See the section on Native American Minority Languages in North America for more resources and discussion.) For works that present case studies from other parts of the world, see Judge 2007 for Britain and France, and Zhou and Sun 2004 for China.

                • Council of Europe. 2010. Minority language protection in Europe: Into a new decade. Strasbourg, France: Council of Europe Publishing.

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                  A retrospective look at the implementation and practice of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (cited under Minority Language Policies) from 1998–2008 and from 2008 forward. Valuable information on the ratification process, issues of monitoring and legal challenges, with focused case studies. Important reading for understanding European minority languages and the measures undertaken to support them.

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                  • Duff, Patricia A., and Li Duanduan. 2009. Indigenous, minority, and heritage language education in Canada: Policies, contexts and issues. In Special issue: Indigenous, minority, and heritage language education in Canada. Edited by Patricia A. Duff and Li Duanduan. Canadian Modern Language Review/La revue canadienne 66.1: 1–8.

                    DOI: 10.3138/cmlr.66.1.001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                    Introduction to a special issue of the journal on the rights of indigenous, minority, and heritage language learners, presented in the broader context of Canadian bilingual language policies, along with the challenges for Francophone speakers in English-dominant settings. See also other articles in this issue for deeper discussion.

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                    • Grin, François, Regina Jensdóttir, and Dónal Ó. Riagáin. 2003. Language policy evaluation and the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.

                      DOI: 10.1057/9780230502666Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                      Discussion of the European language policy and its implementation in the member states of the Council of Europe, with chapters on the legal text and language education policy; this volume also provides a quantitative analysis of the effects of the European Charter.

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                      • Guliyeva, Gulara. 2013. Education, languages and linguistic minorities in the EU: Challenges and perspectives. European Law Journal 19.2: 219–236.

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                        Based on an analysis of existing EU provisions, the author concludes that EU law does not and cannot promote or protect minority education rights. To do so would require specific formulation of explicit minority policies.

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                        • Judge, Anne. 2007. Linguistic policies and the survival of regional languages in France and Britain. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

                          DOI: 10.1057/9780230286177Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                          Analysis of the status of regional languages recognized by the European Charter: Welsh, Gaelic, Irish, Scots, and Ulster Scots in the United Kingdom, and Alsatian, Basque, Breton, Catalan, Flemish, Occitan, Provençal and langues d’oïl in France, with respect to the rise of national languages and urbanization.

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                          • Wise, Ann-Marie, and Eugene E. García. 2001. The Bilingual Education Act: Language minority students and US federal educational policy. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism 4.4: 229–248.

                            DOI: 10.1080/13670050108667730Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                            Signed into law in 1968 and reauthorized in 1994, the Bilingual Education Act is the main US legislation to provide equal educational opportunities for minority language speakers. This article discusses the overall development of the Act and the tensions between attempts to support multiculturalism and the pressures for assimilation.

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                            • Zhou, Minglang, and Hongkai Sun. eds. 2004. Language policy in the People’s Republic of China: Theory and practice since 1949. Boston: Kluwer Academic.

                              DOI: 10.1007/1-4020-8039-5Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                              Nineteen chapters by specialists from China and abroad provide different perspectives on the development of the majority language in China, the policies and planning for language minorities, and the realities of how these policies have affected language use. Several chapters discuss the development of minority vernacular writing systems.

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                              Journals

                              There are a number of journals that regularly address issues and research related to minority languages. Such research is often interdisciplinary and involves scholarly collaboration across multiple fields. The list of relevant journals thus includes not only linguistic journals but also ones in applied linguistics, language policy, and education. One of the most important journals for the study of minority languages is the Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, which publishes articles on a broad range of related topics, approaching minority languages from different disciplinary perspectives. The Journal of Applied Linguistics and the International Journal of Applied Linguistics both include articles about the study of acquisition of majority and minority languages. The International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism frequently publishes articles of relevance to minority languages and education policy, and the journal Language Problems and Language Planning similarly includes many articles devoted to the challenges of minority languages. Readers should consult these publications to gain a better sense of just how interdisciplinary (and complex) research into minority languages and linguistic minorities can be.

                              Ethnic Identity and Minority Languages

                              Understanding the issues of ethnicity and identity are integral to understanding why minority languages often have great importance for their speakers. For many ethnic groups, language may rank among the most important badges (if it is not the most important badge) that provide a distinct sense of identity, tradition, and history. For this reason, the status and vitality of a given minority language can be of extreme, even life-or-death importance for the ethnic group that speaks it. Excellent introductions to the many issues that link ethnic identity and minority languages can be found in Fishman and García 2010, Fishman and García 2011, and in McCarty 2011. May 2012 includes discussion of the homogenizing effects of globalization and language policies that promote monolingualism, arguing that a solution ultimately lies in nations reformulating their thinking to embrace multilingualism and multiculturalism. These and similar works are foundational to the study of ethnicity, minority languages and speakers, and language shift.

                              • Fishman, Joshua A., and Ofelia García, eds. 2010. Handbook of language and ethnic identity. Vol. 1, Disciplinary and regional perspectives. 2d ed. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                                Excellent opening to the study of how language, ethnicity, and identity are defined and intertwined. Areal chapters give very thorough coverage of the issues worldwide, with attention to minority languages, diasporic populations, and border regions. An excellent introductory overview; Fishman’s chapter is foundational. Written for nonspecialists.

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                                • Fishman, Joshua A., and Ofelia García, eds. 2011. Handbook of language and ethnic identity. Vol. 2, The success-failure continuum in language and ethnic identity. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                                  An ambitious volume of thirty-nine chapters that address varying cases where efforts to create a strong ethnic identity for linguistic minorities have largely failed. A very international approach to the topic, with authors presenting case studies from all over the world. It is especially valuable because each chapter ends with a comprehensive bibliography.

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                                  • May, Stephen. 2012. Language and minority rights: Ethnicity, nationalism, and the politics of language. 2d ed. New York: Routledge.

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                                    In a highly interdisciplinary framework incorporating sociology, political science, education, law, and linguistics, the first edition of this book focused on language and policy rights; the second edition is expanded to include globalization and the tensions of building a nation-state.

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                                    • McCarty, Teresa L. 2011. Ethnography and language policy. New York and London: Routledge.

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                                      This volume provides an interdisciplinary approach to the study of minority languages through the lens of ethnography, with theoretical discussion and case studies. Individual chapters address such issues as globalization, migration, language shift, revitalization, educational policies, and ethnic identity, as well as the ethics of conducting such research.

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                                      Minority Languages and Education

                                      Educational policies, approaches, and methodologies that are relevant to minority languages are often so deeply intertwined with language policies that it frequently becomes difficult, if not impossible, to discuss the one without reference to the other. Whether or not a minority language is taught or used in schools may have long-term ramifications for its vitality. Furthermore, educational policies are in constant flux and vary significantly from region to region. The language of education, and/or the language of standardized testing, can have a direct impact on language use and attitudes to particular languages. The following works serve as general guides to the issues. In addition to these, readers are encouraged to seek out the most recent educational policies specific to the individual regions of interest. Baker 2011, now in its 5th edition, is a standard introduction to the subject; García 2009 and Hornberger 2008 provide overviews from different perspectives; Cenoz and Gorter 2008 introduces a special issue of a journal that discusses the issues from a variety of angles. Corson 1991 focuses on theoretical aspects of language education. Skutnabb-Kangas 2000 takes the controversial attitude that the loss of language is tantamount to genocide. Works with regional focus are Pujolar 2010 on Catalan and Sridhar 1996 on India.

                                      • Baker, Colin. 2011. Foundation of bilingual education and bilingualism. 5th ed. Bristol, UK, and Buffalo, NY: Multilingual Matters.

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                                        This is a classic textbook on bilingual education, with an interdisciplinary approach that provides a thorough overview of the topic from the standpoint of majority and minority languages at individual, regional, and national levels.

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                                        • Cenoz, Jasone, and Durk Gorter. 2008. Applied linguistics and the use of minority languages in education. In Special issue: Multilingual and minority languages: Achievements and challenges in education. Edited by Jasone Cenoz and Durk Gorter. AILA Review 21:5–12.

                                          DOI: 10.1075/aila.21.02cenSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                          Introduction to a special issue of AILA Review that focuses on the use of minority languages in education, including issues of globalization, multilingualism, and language education policy. This introduction provides an overview; the reader is referred to other articles in this issue.

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                                          • Corson, David. 1991. Language, power, and minority schooling. Language and Education 5.4: 231–253.

                                            DOI: 10.1080/09500789109541313Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                            This article examines the relationship between language and power from the standpoint of the theoretical approaches of Pierre Bourdieu and Roy Bhaskar, arguing that Western formal educational systems and their discourse practices can repress and dominate minority language speakers.

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                                            • García, Ofelia. 2009. Bilingual Education in the 21st century: A global perspective. Malden, MA, and Oxford: Wiley/Blackwell.

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                                              Comprehensive discussion of the role of bilingual education today; specific chapters are devoted to minority languages, bilingual education in the United States, bilingual education in in Europe, the sociopolitics of bilingualism and language shift or maintenance, and the position of monolinguals in bilingual systems.

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                                              • Hornberger, Nancy, ed. 2008. Can schools save indigenous languages? Policy and practice on four continents. Palgrave Studies in Minority Languages and Communities. Basingstoke, UK, and New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

                                                DOI: 10.1057/9780230582491Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                This collection focuses on the role of schools in indigenous language revitalization, with case studies that focus on the Maori and the Saami, among others. Contributions by experts are in turn discussed in international perspective by four counterpart experts, with an emphasis on how to revitalize minority languages.

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                                                • Pujolar, Joan. 2010. Immigration and language education in Catalonia: Between national and social agendas. Linguistics and Education 21.3: 229–243.

                                                  DOI: 10.1016/j.linged.2009.10.004Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                  Examines education and the status of immigrant languages in Catalonia, where the Catalan language is a symbol of identity and local forces support its revitalization, but Spanish is still the national majority language. The realities of daily speech practices (as determined by ethnographic data) are contrasted with official language policies.

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                                                  • Skutnabb-Kangas, Tove. 2000. Linguistic genocide in education—or worldwide diversity and human rights? Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

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                                                    The author takes a strong stance on the loss of indigenous and minority languages by labeling this loss as genocide. She argues that education and mass media are primary agents in this process of linguistic genocide.

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                                                    • Sridhar, Kamal. 1996. Language in education: Minorities and multilingualism in India. International Review of Education/Internationale Zeitschrift für Erziehungswissenschaft/Revue Internationale de l’Education 42.4: 327–347.

                                                      DOI: 10.1007/BF00601095Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                      After an introductory overview of minority languages in India, this article provides a definition of minority language for the Indian context with discussion of education policies, decisions involving language of instruction, and the relative position of English.

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                                                      Sign Languages

                                                      Sign languages, like spoken languages, are conventionalized systems, and they vary from group to group of signers. Despite popular misconceptions, it is not the case that all sign languages are mutually intelligible; rather, each is a unique linguistic system. What all sign languages share with one another is a specific modality (the upper body) distinct from that used in spoken languages. Sign languages are used primarily by deaf people, and therefore are minority languages vis-à-vis spoken languages. A clear and accessible introduction to the field of sign language linguistics and the position of sign languages in the world can be found in Lucas 2001; this work is recommended for first reading about sign. Brentari 2010 is aimed at linguists and so is more technical than some of the other readings suggested here, but the chapters on history and transmission (Part I, pp. 17–147) give a very readable account of how sign languages are distributed worldwide. Similarly, Pfau, et al. 2012 provides an overview of sign languages from an international perspective, with a section devoted to applied studies. Rayman 2009 is a thought-provoking discussion of why societies are not bilingual, using both signed and spoken languages, a discussion that then moves to consider larger issues of the marginalization of sign languages and the deaf. The journal Sign Language Studies is an invaluable resource for up-to-date studies of specific issues. Unlike the other works here, which are primarily aimed at linguists, Timmermans 2005 discusses sign languages in Europe, with specific information about legislation about sign languages and differences in individual countries.

                                                      • Brentari, Diane, ed. 2010. Sign languages. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

                                                        DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511712203Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                        This is a technical introduction to the linguistic structure of sign languages in a cross-linguistic perspective, written primarily for linguists. A section of the book is devoted to the transmission of sign languages in different parts of the world.

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                                                        • Liddell, Scott. 2003. Grammar, gesture and meaning in American Sign Language. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

                                                          DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511615054Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                          Excellent introduction to the differences between signed and spoken languages, with discussion of American Sign Language.

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                                                          • Lucas, Ceil, ed. 2001. The sociolinguistics of sign languages. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

                                                            DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511612824Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                            Excellent resource for an overview of sign languages in society, with chapters focusing on bilingualism, language planning and policy, and language attitudes.

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                                                            • Pfau, Roland, Marcus Steinbach, and Bencie Woll, eds. 2012. Sign languages: An international handbook. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

                                                              DOI: 10.1515/9783110261325Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                              Along with technical linguistic descriptions of sign languages, this handbook includes a section (Section VIII, pp. 909–1022) on applied issues, including the emergence of deaf communities and deaf education, in an international perspective.

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                                                              • Rayman, Jennifer. 2009. Why doesn’t everyone here speak sign language? Questions of language policy, ideology and economics. Current Issues in Language Planning 10.3: 338–350.

                                                                DOI: 10.1080/14664200903162620Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                Examines the feasibility of creating bilingual signing societies, based on existing examples, concluding that it is not practical in groups with small deaf populations. Further considers the marginalization of sign languages as minority languages and reduced socioeconomic opportunities for the deaf.

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                                                                • Sign Language Studies. 2000–.

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                                                                  This is a key journal for the study of sign languages, and it welcomes articles from all over the world.

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                                                                  • Timmermans, Nina. 2005. The status of sign languages in Europe. Strasbourg, France: Council of Europe Publishing.

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                                                                    Invaluable resource for information on the status of sign languages in each individual European country, with detailed discussion of the history of sign language policies. Also published in French as Le statue des langues de signe en Europe.

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                                                                    Economics and Globalization

                                                                    The world’s increasing economic, technological, and cultural interconnectedness means that traditional linguistic barriers are more permeable than ever before. Globalization can have unexpected consequences for linguistic minorities and the languages they speak, and this alone makes it worthwhile to include resources on globalization, economics, and linguistic homogenization in any broader discussion of minority languages. To offer but one point, new technologies and economic integration have made possible the spread of a handful of languages of wider communication on a global scale. The most prominent and powerful of these is English, which has become a global lingua franca and a second language to many—even in regions where it does not enjoy political or official status. (In fact, thanks to the unprecedented position now afforded to English, as well as to Russian, Spanish, and Mandarin Chinese, one could argue that all other languages now have minority status with respect to this fairly small set of major languages of wider communication.) In addition, the use and continued prosperity of a language is tied to the social arenas in which speakers see fit to use it; some languages enjoy economic privileges, whereas others do not. It is important, therefore, for readers to keep in mind the close connection between economics and the rights and practices of linguistic minorities. The following works should appeal to a wide variety of readers, including linguists, sociologists, economists, and concerned speakers. Entries in this section specifically focusing on the economics of minority languages include Grin and Vaillancourt 1997 and Lamberton 2002. The remaining entries are concerned not only with the economics of globalization, but also with the nature of the implications of a single global lingua franca, English. Crystal 2003 provides the most general introduction to the subject. Fishman 1998 and Laponce 2004 map out a more theoretical discussion on the pressures on minority languages. Maurais and Morris 2003 first appeared in French as Géostratégies des langues; the more widely cited English translation is given here. Blommaert 2010 provides a refreshing and provocative challenge to theories that separate language and globalization, seeing them as deeply intertwined, and asking for a reconsideration of the way that linguists approach synchronic linguistics. And for readers interested in understanding how unexceptional English may ultimately prove to be in the context of the world’s former lingua francas, Ostler 2010 is recommended for those who wish to understand the history of those languages that once served as widely-used lingua francas, such as Sanskrit, Persian, Latin, and French.

                                                                    • Blommaert, Jan. 2010. The sociolinguistics of globalization. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

                                                                      DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511845307Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                      Empirically grounded, the author critically examines current sociolinguistic approaches to globalization, arguing that the impacts of globalization on language need to be studied within a theory of language in society, as part of a larger social system, anchoring actual speech usage in its social, historical, and political setting.

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                                                                      • Crystal, David. 2003. English as a global language. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

                                                                        DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511486999Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                        Excellent introduction to the use of English as a global language, with a broad overview and discussion of the history of the spread of English and its position as a global language.

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                                                                        • Fishman, Joshua A. 1998. The new linguistic order. Foreign Policy 113:26–40.

                                                                          DOI: 10.2307/1149230Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                          A very accessible overview of globalization and the rise of the importance of English and the issues involved. The author maps how major regional languages pressure minority languages from one end while English pressures them from the other, while also creating local pockets of resistance and efforts at revitalization.

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                                                                          • Grin, François, and François Vaillancourt. 1997. The economics of multilingualism: Overview and analytical framework. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics 17:43–65.

                                                                            DOI: 10.1017/S0267190500003275Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                            A useful although somewhat dated article providing a review of the literature on the economics of multilingualism with an eye toward market and nonmarket costs and benefits.

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                                                                            • Lamberton, Donald M. 2002. The economics of language. Cheltenham, UK, and Northampton, MA: E. Elgar.

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                                                                              Collection of essays devoted to issues of language from the perspective of economists, including the economics of globalization and language; discussion of issues such as employment opportunities, cultural identity, and tourism; and a chapter devoted to why some languages survive and others do not.

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                                                                              • Laponce, J. A. 2004. Minority languages and globalization. Nationalism and Ethnic Politics 10.1: 15–24.

                                                                                DOI: 10.1080/13537110490450755Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                The author argues that globalization increases contact between what he terms more powerful and weaker languages, resulting in language shift and loss.

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                                                                                • Maurais, Jacques, and Michael A. Morris, eds. 2003. Languages in a globalising world. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

                                                                                  DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511613739Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                  If English is the sole global language, then the remainder of the world’s languages are minority in relation to it. Discussion of the epiphenomenon of linguistic globalization, along with case studies focusing on its impact on specific languages (e.g., French, German) or regions (e.g., Central Asia, Latin America).

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                                                                                  • Ostler, Nicholas. 2010. The last lingua franca: English until the return of Babel. London: Penguin.

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                                                                                    Tracks the rise and spread of English as a global language and the impact it has, and argues that it will decline as a truly global language and not be replaced. This book frames English within the wider context of the development of lingua francas and global languages.

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                                                                                    Media

                                                                                    Media and technology play key roles in the vitality of minority languages, just as economic and political clout do. For speakers, linguists, and activists interested in revitalization and maintenance, it is increasingly important to pay attention to the ways in which media can contribute to the success of a program. Here one sees, as clearly as anywhere else, how the status of a minority language cannot be divorced from the social, economic, and technological condition of its speakers—unlike many lingua francas or transnational languages, which are no longer associated with particular ethnic groups or nationalities. Whether a minority group has access to and command of its own media resources is closely connected to the status and long-term prospects of that group’s language. Most entries in this section present case studies describing the specifics of minority media, with theoretical attention to the role of media in language development: Cormack and Hourigan 2007, Hourigan 2004, Jones and Uribe-Jongbloe 2013, and Riggins 1992 fall into this category. Moring and Dunbar 2008 is aimed at policymakers and those who implement policies, with an analysis of the role of media in the implementation of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (cited under Minority Language Policies).

                                                                                    • Cormack, Mike, and Niamh Hourigan, eds. 2007. Minority language media: Concepts, critiques and case studies. Clevedon, UK, and Buffalo, NY: Multilingual Matters.

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                                                                                      Arguing that media is a major factor in the use and maintenance of minority languages, the chapters in this book explore regional specifics (the Basque country, Catalonia, Wales) and such issues as the economics of media and the legitimacy and advantages that minority language media provides.

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                                                                                      • Hourigan, Niamh. 2004. Escaping the global village: Media, language, and protest. Oxford: Lexington.

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                                                                                        Within a framework of social movement theory, this book examines broadcast media (radio and television) for minority languages, focusing on Welsh, Irish, Scots Gaelic, Basque, Catalan, and Galician as case studies.

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                                                                                        • Jones, Elin Haf Gruffydd, and Enrique Uribe-Jongbloe, eds. 2013. Social media and minority languages: Convergence and the creative industries. Bristol, UK, and Buffalo, NY: Multilingual Matters.

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                                                                                          Fourteen chapters examine the issues of social media and ethnic/linguistic minority media, with attention to the future sustainability of these languages and the role of social media in promoting it (or not).

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                                                                                          • Moring, Tom, and Robert Dunbar. 2008. The European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages and the media. Regional or Minority Languages 6. Strasbourg, France: Council of Europe Publishing.

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                                                                                            Looks at the role of media and the development of new media. Based on a study prepared for the Secretariat of the European Charter, this report has been published so that governments, public servants, nongovernmental organizations, and the general public will better understand how to implement the obligations of the charter.

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                                                                                            • Riggins, Stephen Harold, ed. 1992. Ethnic minority media: An international perspective. Newbury Park, CA: SAGE.

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                                                                                              The case studies in this collection focus on minority media (radio, television, newspapers) in Algeria, Australia, Canada, Chile, France, Great Britain, Greenland, Ireland, Israel, and the United States, and on the impact they have on minority identity, with consideration of differences between ethnic and mainstream media.

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                                                                                              Areal Studies

                                                                                              The following sections address questions related to linguistic minorities in specific countries and regions. This is merely one way of organizing the materials, and readers are advised that many minority languages cross national borders. This is true for immigrant languages, such as Spanish, which have minority status in many countries and yet majority status in many others. This may also be true for indigenous minorities: Basque speakers are found in both Spain and France; Gwich’in speakers reside in Canada and the United States. Therefore, it would be equally possible to arrange these sections according to language or language groups, rather than areally. The decision to arrange the entries geographically comes in part from a recognition that the local and national laws and policies where the languages are spoken have a major impact on their status. For space reasons, it has not been possible to give equal treatment to all nations or continents; included here are resources that are largely available to an English-speaking audience, with some additional resources in Spanish and Portuguese. The entries contained here ought to excite interest in a wide range of countries and regions, in addition to helping readers with specific geographic interests to enrich their understanding and knowledge.

                                                                                              Europe

                                                                                              A full treatment of the situation of minority languages in Europe would require multiple entries for every country—and perhaps even full bibliographies for some. Given the space limitations here, a few works are instead included that give an idea of the broader issues and controversies as they play out in Europe. These resources should prove useful, especially if read in conjunction with related documents in the broader thematic sections Minority Language Policies and Evaluation of Minority Language Policies. Тhere is a particularly rich literature on the sociopolitical situation and revitalization of Irish, Cornish, Scots, and Gaelic in the United Kingdom; of Breton, Occitan, and Provençal in France; and of Basque and Catalan in Spain. Over the last few decades, there has been increasing attention given to the situation of immigrant languages in Europe, such as Turkish in Germany. The sources cited here provide a general introduction to various aspects, including two foundational works, Dorian 1981 and Gal 1979. Williams 2005 offers a general discussion of the European context and serves as a solid introduction to the situation; Fenyvesi 2005, Hornsby 2008, and Jones 1998 focus on more specific case studies of individual languages: Hungarian (spoken by several million people outside of Hungary proper), Breton (a Celtic language that survives to this day in northern France), and Welsh, respectively.

                                                                                              • Dorian, Nancy. 1981. Language death: The life cycle of a Scottish Gaelic dialect. Philadelphia: Univ. of Pennsylvania Press.

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                                                                                                One of the earliest works to study the position of Scots Gaelic and analyze the causes of language shift.

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                                                                                                • Fenyvesi, Anna, ed. 2005. Hungarian language contact outside Hungary: Studies on Hungarian as a minority language. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

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                                                                                                  The essays in this collection offer sociolinguistic surveys of the Hungarian language as it is spoken by immigrant communities abroad and in European nations that border Hungary. A useful, well-constructed volume that helps to show how a given minority language can differ in terms of vitality and status between countries.

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                                                                                                  • Gal, Susan. 1979. Language shift: Social determinants of linguistic change in bilingual Austria. San Francisco: Academic Press.

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                                                                                                    A foundational linguistic and ethnographic study of the sociocultural factors that lead to language choice in the bilingual setting of a German-Hungarian speaking community in Oberwart, Austria. This book is now a classic.

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                                                                                                    • Hornsby, Michael. 2008. The incongruence of the Breton linguistic landscape for young speakers of Breton. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 29.2: 127–138.

                                                                                                      DOI: 10.2167/jmmd538.0Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                      Points to the disconnect between the symbolic use of Breton in signage and other public space in Brittany, which does not necessarily translate into a more active use of the language in informal settings and private domains, and to the effect on young speakers currently educated in immersion schools.

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                                                                                                      • Jones, Mari C. 1998. Language obsolescence and revitalization: Linguistic change in two sociolinguistically contrasting Welsh communities. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                        Examines the developments in Welsh that led to shift and then revitalization, with fieldwork in two distinctive communities, to see the differing effects of various sociolinguistic factors. Particular attention to the role of education and media. Contrastive evidence from Breton and Cornish is also included.

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                                                                                                        • Williams, Glyn. 2005. Sustaining language diversity in Europe: Evidence from the Euromosiac project. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1057/9780230514683Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                          Reports on the study of European language vitality conducted from 1992 to 2004, with broad discussion of the European context and factors in language use. Provides an overall view of Europe at the time.

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                                                                                                          Russia and Eurasia

                                                                                                          Russia and Eurasia encompasses the territory of the former Soviet Union, a large, multiethnic, multilingual state that, at its peak, was home to at least 150 languages according to official counts, although linguists put the number much higher. Throughout the Soviet period, Russian served as the majority language, and all other languages were minority languages with respect to it, although some of the regional languages (such as Uzbek) have very large speaker bases. The collapse of the Soviet Union began, from a legislative point of view, with the passing of language laws in a number of republics; such laws were aimed at strengthening the position of each republic’s majority language. For an overview of the language policies that brought the USSR to this situation, see Grenoble 2004. The post-Soviet period has been marked by reactions to Soviet policies and to shifting demographics throughout the region, redefining Russian as a minority language in many areas. Kreindler 1997 provides a snapshot view of the situation in this early post-Soviet period. For information on individual languages of Russia, Matsumura 2002 is a bibliographic collection of web documents on minority languages in Russia, translated into English from Russian; it was updated in 2008 with an online version, also referenced here. With the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991, immigration and shifting national borders created a body of Russian speakers as minority language speakers outside of Russia; see the articles in Lähteenmäki and Vanhala-Aniszewski 2010 for one view of Russian as a minority language (among others) in Finland. A similar study that focuses only on Russian is Pavlenko 2008, which encompasses language policies in fourteen post-Soviet countries. Brown 2010 focuses on the role of teachers and the schools in reinforcing or changing language attitudes toward minority languages in Estonia, and provides a model for discussion of such practices in other regions. Finally, Mac Giolla Chríost 2003 is a somewhat different work; it focuses on ethnic conflict in western Europe and Eurasia, taking a more sociological perspective on language than many of the works referenced here. Readers are also directed to more regionally specific studies and to see entries in the article on Endangered Languages.

                                                                                                          • Brown, Kara. 2010. Teachers as language-policy actors: Contending with the erasure of lesser-used languages in schools. Anthropology and Education Quarterly 41.3: 298–314.

                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1111/j.1548-1492.2010.01089.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                            Focusing on minority languages in Estonia, this article examines the role of teachers as policy actors in using regional language policy to affect language ideologies in the school.

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                                                                                                            • Grenoble, Lenore A. 2004. Language policy in the former Soviet Union. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic.

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                                                                                                              This book traces the development of Soviet language policy from its inception up to the end of the Soviet period. Organized both chronologically and geographically with attention to different regions of the USSR and discussion of orthographic development, standardization, and the ever-increasing role of Russian.

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                                                                                                              • Kreindler, Isabelle. 1997. Multilingualism in the successor states of the Soviet Union. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics 17:91–112.

                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1017/S0267190500003299Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                Focuses on the status of languages in the years immediately following the breakup of the Soviet Union, with new minorities created by Russian speakers now living outside of Russia, as well as efforts at cultural and linguistic reclamation.

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                                                                                                                • Lähteenmäki, Mika, and Marjatta Vanhala-Aniszewski, eds. 2010. Language ideologies in transition: Multilingualism in Russia and Finland. Frankfurt: Peter Lang.

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                                                                                                                  Chapters focus on different aspects of multilingualism in Finland and Russia, with discussions of Russian as a minority language in Finland, and of education and language policies in both countries as multilingual societies. Includes a chapter focusing on Saami.

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                                                                                                                  • Mac Giolla Chríost, Diarmait. 2003. Language, identity and conflict: A comparative study of language in ethnic conflict in Europe and Eurasia. London: Routledge.

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                                                                                                                    An interdisciplinary look at the role of language, ethnicity, and the building of nation-states, combining methodologies of linguistics, political science, and sociology. Case studies include regions in western Europe and Eurasia, such as France, India, and Kurdistan.

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                                                                                                                    • Matsumura, Kazuto, ed. 2002. Indigenous minority languages of Russia: A bibliographical guide. Endangered Languages of the Pacific Rim 4. Osaka, Japan: Endangered Languages of the Pacific Rim.

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                                                                                                                      This guide compiles web documents as of March 2002 on fifty-four minority languages in Russia, with information on textbooks, dictionaries, grammars, grammatical descriptions, and folklore. Original sources are primarily in Russian and translated here into English. Updated as of 2008 and available online.

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                                                                                                                      • Pavlenko, Aneta. 2008. Russian in post-Soviet countries. Russian Linguistics 32.1: 59–80.

                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1007/s11185-007-9020-1Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                        Concise examination of the status of Russian in the post-Soviet era in terms of four geographic blocks: (1) Belarus, the Ukraine, and Moldova; (2) Latvia, Estonia, and Lithuania; (3) Azerbaijan, Georgia, and Armenia; and (4) Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Turkmenistan.

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                                                                                                                        Africa

                                                                                                                        Africa exemplifies the complex nature of determining what counts as a minority language. The (European) colonizing languages are in many places not spoken by majority populations but hold sway as the languages of education, government, and power. In this respect, one could argue that African languages themselves—even those with very large speaker bases (e.g., Hausa, Igbo, Yoruba)—are minority languages in terms of prestige and clout. At the same time, they are themselves majority languages vis-à-vis other indigenous languages. In Senegal, for example, the official language for all purposes (including education and government administration) is French, but Wolof is spoken by a majority of the population as a first or second language at home and in daily life. French is the first and primary language of only a very small percentage of Senegalese. So which of these languages counts as minority? In some sense, both do; in another sense, neither passes the test. Furthermore, multilingualism is the norm in much of Africa, and there is not necessarily a one-to-one mapping between ethnic groups and languages. That is, members of a particular group may speak multiple languages (but identify with only one or a few of them), and multiple ethnic groups may share a single language. These complications, together with the fact that colonially imposed languages continue to be used by the educated and the elites, show just how complicated the very idea of a “minority language” can be. Djité 2008 and Chapter 4 of Batibo 2005 provide excellent overview discussions of the notion of minority language in the African context. The individual chapters of the anthologies given here—Egbokhare and Kolawole 2006, Simpson 2008, and Vigouroux and Mufwene 2008—give more detailed information about individual case studies. Another valuable work is Kamwangamalu 2003, which explores how the end of apartheid and other social changes in South Africa have in fact precipitated a decline in the use and prestige of the country’s indigenous Bantu languages vis-à-vis English.

                                                                                                                        • Batibo, Herman M. 2005. Language decline and death in Africa. Clevedon, UK, and Buffalo, NY: Multilingual Matters.

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                                                                                                                          Devoted to an overall discussion of the loss of indigenous African languages, chapter 4 of this book (pp. 51–86) addresses African minority languages more generally, with focused definitions, tables of their distribution, and discussion of the forces that promote or inhibit their use.

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                                                                                                                          • Djité, Paulin G. 2008. The sociolinguistics of development in Africa. Clevedon, UK, and Buffalo, NY: Multilingual Matters.

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                                                                                                                            This book gives a pan-African view of the role of African languages in the development of the continent, framed in the context of education, policy, health, and economics, with attention to multilingualism, the role of colonial languages, and how languages can be forces for oppression or might be leveraged to change society.

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                                                                                                                            • Egbokhare, Francis, and Clement Kolawole, eds. 2006. Globalization and the future of African languages. Ibadan, Nigeria: Ibadan Cultural Studies Group.

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                                                                                                                              Papers in this edited volume fall into three categories: the effects of information and communication technology on African languages, sociolinguistics, and applied linguistics.

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                                                                                                                              • Kamwangamalu, Knonko M. 2003. Social change and language shift: South Africa. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics 23:225–242.

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                                                                                                                                Examines how social changes in South Africa, such as the end of apartheid, have contributed to the loss of indigenous African languages, in particular Sotho, Xhosa, and Zulu, and their shift from being demographically majority languages to marginalized and low-prestige languages, losing ground to English (in urban regions in particular).

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                                                                                                                                • Simpson, Andrew, ed. 2008. Language and national identity in Africa. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                  Chapters devoted to the role of language and identity in each of thirteen different African countries, with discussion of indigenous languages, multilingualism, and the role of European colonial languages.

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                                                                                                                                  • Vigouroux, Cécile B., and Salikoko S. Mufwene, eds. 2008. Globalization and language vitality: Perspectives from Africa. London: Continuum.

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                                                                                                                                    The articles in this anthology explore the impact of globalization on African languages, arguing that the effects are not the same throughout the continent, and investigating the position of multilingualism in different parts of Africa, where societies continue to be multilingual.

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                                                                                                                                    Australia

                                                                                                                                    The linguistic mosaic of present-day Australia is complex: a large number of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages coexist with a wide variety of imported immigrant tongues. Readers interested in those languages that are indigenous to the continent should consult Dixon 2002, which surveys languages and puts forth an account of their development. Readers with a more advanced background or an interest in diachronic issues should consult the essays in Bowern and Koch 2004. Also included here are two works that focus on educational questions: Clyne 1991 surveys nonindigenous immigrant languages in Australian schools and public policy, while Rubino 2010 is a more recent examination that discusses the changing landscape of immigrant languages within the country. Hartman and Henderson 1994 is a collection of essays on Aboriginal language programs and on broader questions and challenges related to education in Aboriginal languages; Purdie, et al. 2008 provides an updated account of these programs, overviewing best practices and successful case studies.

                                                                                                                                    • Bowern, Claire L., and Harold J. Koch, eds. 2004. Australian languages: Classification and the comparative method. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

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                                                                                                                                      Australia’s indigenous languages have been in close multilingual contact with one another for tens of thousands of years. The essays in this volume discuss the genetic classification of these languages and show how the traditional comparative method is especially important (but also difficult to implement) when it comes to Australia.

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                                                                                                                                      • Clyne, Michael. 1991. Community languages: The Australian experience. Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511597084Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                        Clyne discusses the many immigrant languages (in addition to English) that were brought to Australia from 1857 onwards, focusing on their use, structure, distribution and maintenance, and treatment under official policy. Readers may also wish to consult more recent works on the subject, such as Rubino 2010.

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                                                                                                                                        • Dixon, Robert M. W. 2002. Australian languages: Their nature and development. Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511486869Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                          A lengthy discussion of the typological and grammatical features of Australia’s approximately 250 indigenous languages, and of their possible historical development and genetic affiliations, by a respected scholar of Aboriginal linguistics.

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                                                                                                                                          • Hartman, Deborah, and John Henderson. 1994. Aboriginal languages in education. Alice Springs, Australia: Institute for Aboriginal Development Press.

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                                                                                                                                            This volume contains accounts of individual Aboriginal language programs and schools as well as discussions of various questions related to educational programming in Aboriginal languages. A more recent perspective is provided in Purdie, et al. 2008.

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                                                                                                                                            • Purdie, Nola, Tracey Frigo, Clare Ozolins, Geoff Noblett, Nick Thieberger, and Janet Sharp. 2008. Indigenous languages programmes in Australian schools—A way forward. Canberra: Australian Council for Educational Research.

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                                                                                                                                              A recent overview of a project to improve the quality of indigenous language instruction in Australia, an enterprise that involves nearly thirty thousand students.

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                                                                                                                                              • Rubino, Antonia. 2010. Multilingualism in Australia: Reflections on current and future research trends. Australian Review of Applied Linguistics 33.2: 17.1–17.21.

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                                                                                                                                                Rubino’s article follows up on the discussion begun in Clyne 1991 by examining the important role played by research into Australia’s minority immigrant languages within the broader field of applied linguistics in Australia. Raises important issues related to language transmission and maintenance, as well.

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                                                                                                                                                Asia

                                                                                                                                                Asia is a vast, multilingual territory. Several Asian countries—China, Japan, Korea, Thailand—have clear majority languages that are privileged in education, economics, and politics. Others (such as India) are more committed to multilingualism, but here too there are disparities between languages. As with other sections, there is overlap between entries in policy and education. As a basic introduction to the issues of language, identity, and the creation of nations, Simpson 2007 provides an excellent overview of the region. Also included here are key works that present overviews of different regions of Asia: Benedikter 2009 for India, Smalley 1994 for Thailand, Miyawaki 1992 and Shibatani 1990 for Japan, Song 2012 for South Korea, and Zhou 2012 for China (see also Zhou and Sun 2004, cited under Evaluation of Minority Language Policies, for China). Finally, Fase, et al. 1992 (cited under General Overviews) contains multiple articles that touch on this region.

                                                                                                                                                • Benedikter, Thomas. 2009. Language policy and linguistic minorities in India: An appraisal of the linguistic rights of minorities in India. Berlin: LIT Verlag Münster.

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                                                                                                                                                  Detailed description of the numbers and status of linguistic minorities, with facts about tribal languages, education and literacy, scripts and writing traditions, and the role of the constitution. A very clear and thorough overview of the Indian context.

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                                                                                                                                                  • Miyawaki, Hiroyuki. 1992. Some problems of linguistic minorities in Japan. In Maintenance and loss of minority languages. Edited by Willem Fase, Koen Jaspaert, and Sjaak Kroon, 357–367. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

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                                                                                                                                                    Succinct, although somewhat dated, overview of the status of the major linguistic minority groups in Japan: Ainu, Okinawans, Koreans, and Chinese. In Japanese society, minority languages are devalued, and assimilation to the majority language is strongly encouraged.

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                                                                                                                                                    • Shibatani, Masayoshi. 1990. The languages of Japan. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                      Part I of this book provides a thorough overview of the linguistic structure of Ainu, while Part II focuses on Japanese. Aimed more at linguists than those interested in minority languages, per se.

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                                                                                                                                                      • Simpson, Andrew. 2007. Language and national identity in Asia. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                        The book presents a very accessible overview of the status of languages as official, majority, or minority in Asia, and the role of languages in the development of national identity in different countries in South, Southeast, and East Asia, along with discussion of the differences of national, ethnic, and cultural identity.

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                                                                                                                                                        • Smalley, William A. 1994. Linguistic diversity and national unity: Language ecology in Thailand. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.

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                                                                                                                                                          Excellent introduction to the linguistic landscape of Thailand, with discussion of the majority languages, followed by categories of what could all be classified as minority with respect to these national languages: major regional and marginal regional languages, and other minority languages, with discussion of ethnicity, social hierarchies, and sociopolitical context.

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                                                                                                                                                          • Song, Jae Jung. 2012. South Korea: Language policy and planning in the making. Current Issues in Language Planning 13.1: 1–68.

                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1080/14664208.2012.650322Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                            Broad discussion of language policy and planning in South Korea, with an overview of minority languages, including English and Chinese, and their position in society.

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                                                                                                                                                            • Zhou, Minglang, ed. 2012. Special issue: The contact between Putonghua and minority languages in China. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 215.

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                                                                                                                                                              This special issue contains articles on contact and minority languages and Chinese in China, with an introduction mapping the general background (by Minglang Zhou), followed by articles on contact between Standard Chinese (Putonghua) and Uyghur, Yi, and Zhuang, and on contact in rural southwest China.

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                                                                                                                                                              Spanish in the Americas

                                                                                                                                                              The status of Spanish in the United States is complicated. On the one hand, it does not (yet) command the same degree of historical and economic prestige as English does, and it is still associated with particular ethnic and national groups. On the other hand, it enjoys a diverse speaker base that is growing both in numbers and in sociopolitical and economic significance. With these conflicting perspectives in mind, readers ought to consult Balestra, et al. 2008, which discusses the historical Spanish-language heritage of the United States; Beaudrie and Fairclough 2012, which focuses on (increasingly urgent) pedagogical issues for heritage speakers of Spanish; and Otheguy and Zentella 2012, a sociolinguistic survey of the Spanish spoken in modern-day New York. Clements 2009 usefully surveys the history of Spanish contact situations in a variety of colonial contexts, such as Cuba and the Andes. The essays in Potowski and Cameron 2007 take on an even geographic range, but their focus is more on the present day. Finally, Silva-Corvalán 1995 includes not only North and South America but also Africa and Europe, addressing contact between Spanish and indigenous American languages, Bantu, and Basque. Lacorte and Leeman 2009 is a diverse volume that includes essays in both Spanish and English on a range of subjects, including sociolinguistics, linguistic ideologies, and education.

                                                                                                                                                              • Balestra, Alejandra, Glenn Martínez, and María Irene Moyna, eds. 2008. Recovering the U.S. Hispanic linguistic heritage: Sociohistorical approaches to Spanish in the United States. Houston, TX: Arte Público.

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                                                                                                                                                                This collection challenges the myth of the United States as an English-only nation by exploring its historical Spanish-language heritage. Especially interesting are entries concerning language shift and language policy in past generations.

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                                                                                                                                                                • Beaudrie, Sara M., and Marta Fairclough, eds. 2012. Spanish as a heritage language in the United States: The state of the field. Washington, DC: Georgetown Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                  For those interested in pedagogy and acquisition, this collection discusses key issues concerning Spanish as a heritage language within the United States. It may also prove to be a useful source of comparative information for work on heritage acquisition and education for other languages.

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                                                                                                                                                                  • Clements, J. Clancy. 2009. The linguistic legacy of Spanish and Portuguese: Colonial expansion and language change. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511576171Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                    Discusses how colonalization and imperial expansion led to structural changes in the versions of Spanish and Portuguese spoken in the New World and spawned new languages, such as creoles. Addresses language contact in many regions of the Americas. Despite the title, the book primarily focuses on Spanish.

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                                                                                                                                                                    • Lacorte, Manel, and Jennifer Leeman, eds. 2009. Español en Estados Unidos y otros contextos de contacto: Sociolingüística, ideología y pedagogía/Spanish in the United States and other contact environments: Sociolinguistics, ideology and pedagogy. Madrid: Iberoamericana.

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                                                                                                                                                                      Addressing sociolinguistics, linguistic ideologies, and educational questions, this bilingual volume (some entries in Spanish, others in English) casts a wide net concerning Spanish in the United States and other contact areas today. Should be useful for students and researchers from a variety of fields. Copublished by Vervuert (Frankfurt).

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                                                                                                                                                                      • Otheguy, Ricardo, and Ana Celia Zentella. 2012. Spanish in New York: Language contact, dialectal leveling, and structural continuity. Oxford Studies in Sociolinguistics. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199737406.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                        This is an empirical exploration of the Spanish language as spoken in New York, with special attention paid to questions of dialect leveling and language change. Of principal interest for sociolinguists, since the technical nature of the discussion may be inaccessible for those outside of the field.

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                                                                                                                                                                        • Potowski, Kim, and Richard Cameron, eds. 2007. Spanish in contact: Policy, social and linguistic inquiries. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

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                                                                                                                                                                          The papers in this volume address a wide variety of topics related to Spanish as a (heritage) language in the United States, and to the contact between Spanish and other languages. Includes a few pieces concerning Iberian Spanish, but the main focus is on the Americas.

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                                                                                                                                                                          • Silva-Corvalán, Carmen, ed. 1995. Spanish in four continents: Studies in language contact and bilingualism. Washington, DC: Georgetown Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                            This volume addresses the interaction between Spanish and a diverse set of other languages. Not limited to the Americas only, it also addresses Africa, Asia, and Europe, and should prove useful for students and scholars interested in any of these regions.

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                                                                                                                                                                            The Andes

                                                                                                                                                                            Stretching along the western edge of South America, the Andes are home to a broad variety of indigenous languages, of which Aymara and Quechua (a cover term for a range of related varieties that are not mutually intelligible) are the most famous and most widely spoken. Students and scholars interested in a detailed overview of the Andean languages should consult Adelaar and Muysken 2004. For an accessible work on Aymara linguistics and culture—and on the intersection between language and culture—readers should consult Hardman 1981. Mannheim 1991 details how Quechua has changed in response to the Spanish conquest of the Inca and should be especially useful when read in conjunction with sources such as Adelaar and Muysken 2004. Finally, included here are three sources that concern the connection between indigenous minority languages and education in the Andes: Hornberger 1988, Hornberger and King 1996, and King 2001. These studies focus on Peru and Ecuador, where Quechua/Quichua are the dominant indigenous languages, and should be appropriate for readers with little to no background in formal linguistics.

                                                                                                                                                                            • Adelaar, Willem F. H., with Pieter C. Muysken. 2004. The languages of the Andes. Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511486852Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                              This is a technical, detailed book for those interested in the linguistic structure of the many languages and language families spoken in the Andean region. The coverage and quality are excellent, with reviews of each major family and of their genetic connections.

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                                                                                                                                                                              • Hardman, M. J., ed. 1981. The Aymara language in its social and cultural context: A collection of essays on aspects of Aymara language and culture. Gainesville: Univ. Presses of Florida.

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                                                                                                                                                                                An accessible and interesting collection that addresses both grammatical issues and broader questions concerning the Aymara people and their civilization. Includes discussion of contact linguistics as well as educational and political issues. Some entries are authored or coauthored by Juan de Dios Yapita Moya, an educator and native speaker.

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                                                                                                                                                                                • Hornberger, Nancy H. 1988. Bilingual education and language maintenance: A southern Peruvian Quechua case. Dordrecht, The Netherlands, and Providence, RI: Foris.

                                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1515/9783110849158Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                  A book-length resource for those interested in the intersection between indigenous languages, linguistic minorities, and educational policy. Should be accessible and useful for students who have no background in linguistics, since the focus is on the use and vitality of Quechua in the classroom (rather than on the language’s structure).

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                                                                                                                                                                                  • Hornberger, Nancy H., and Kendall A. King. 1996. Language revitalization in the Andes: Can the schools reverse language shift? Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 17:427–441.

                                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1080/01434639608666294Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                    Shift from Quechua, the most widely-spoken Andean language family, to Spanish has spurred new educational programs. This article discusses policies and approaches in Bolivia and Ecuador and should be useful for students and scholars interested in the pedagogical decisions related to minority languages and their maintenance. See also the separate Oxford Bibliographies article on Endangered Languages.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    • King, Kendall A. 2001. Language revitalization processes and prospects: Quichua in the Ecuadorian Andes. Clevedon, UK, and Buffalo, NY: Multilingual Matters.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      An overview of the sociolinguistic situation of Quichua, the Ecuadorian variety of Quechua, with a discussion of language use, educational practices, and long-term prospects for the language’s maintenance and revitalization.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      • Mannheim, Bruce. 1991. The language of the Inka since the European invasion. Austin: Univ. of Texas.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        An important resource for both linguists and historians, Mannheim’s work details how Quechua—widely credited as the lingua franca of the Incan empire—has changed and evolved in response to the Spanish conquest of the Andes. Could prove helpful for readers interested in Andean linguistic history more broadly.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        Guatemala

                                                                                                                                                                                        Guatemala receives its own section on this list because of the uniqueness of its “minority languages” within the broader context of the Americas. Half of Guatemala’s population is ethnically indigenous, and over twenty different Mayan languages are spoken within its borders (see England 1992). The only other Latin American countries with comparably high indigenous populations are those of the central Andes. Furthermore, over the past two decades, descriptive work conducted solely by foreign linguists has given way to partnerships with Maya scholars, as England 1998 discusses, as well as to excellent linguistic research by native speakers of Mayan languages. Ajpub’ 1997 is a superb descriptive grammar of the Tz’utujil language; together with the multilingual story collection K’ulb’il Yol Twitz Paxil 2007, it exemplifies the impressive outputs of institutions such as the official Academia de Lenguas Mayas de Guatemala (ALMG) and the writers’ group Oxlajuuj Keej Maya’ Ajtz’iib’ (OKMA). Finally, language description and revitalization in Guatemala are part of a still larger cultural renaissance, the goals of which have been captured in works like Cojtí Cuxil 1994. At the same time, there is also pressure to shift to Spanish, as Garzón, et al. 1998 discusses, and the violence of the Guatemalan Civil War proved disastrous for many Mayan communities. To this end, see Carlsen 2011, an ethnography of the Tz’utujil town of Santiago Atitlán, and the collected essays in Hawkins and Adams 2005 to better understand modern Mayan culture(s). To conclude, each of the Mayan languages of Guatemala must technically be considered a “minority” tongue, because none possess the clout or prestige of Spanish. In the aggregate, however, they occupy a singular position in the Western Hemisphere; and despite the pressure to switch to Spanish, they still enjoy some of the best prospects in the Americas for long-term survival.

                                                                                                                                                                                        • Ajpub’, Pablo García Ixmatá. 1997. Rukeemiik ja Tz’utujiil Chii’: Gramática Tz’utujiil. Guatemala City, Guatemala: Editorial Cholsamaj.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          One in a series of grammars and other works written by native speakers. These works set a high standard for scholarship on indigenous languages by speakers of those same languages.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          • Carlsen, Robert S. 2011. The war for the heart and soul of a highland Maya town. Updated ed. Austin: Univ. of Texas Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            An ethnography and history of how Santiago Atitlán, a conservative Tz’utujil Maya community in the southwestern highlands, has reacted to, adapted to, and survived the violence of the Spanish Conquest and the more recent Guatemalan Civil War.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            • Cojtí Cuxil, Demetrio. 1994. Políticas para la reinvidicación de los Mayas de hoy: Fundamento de los derechos específicos del pueblo Maya. Guatemala City, Guatemala: Editorial Cholsamaj.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              The status of the Mayan “minority languages” of Guatemala is inextricably tied to the Mayan revitalization movement. This work by a leading Maya intellectual argues for Mayan human and cultural rights and helps to contextualize the Mayan languages within their broader social and historical context.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              • England, Nora C. 1992. La autonomía de los idiomas mayas: Historia e identidad. Guatemala City, Guatemala: Editorial Cholsamaj.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                This volume offers a concise but wide-reaching overview of the Mayan languages of Guatemala and serves as a useful introduction to their structure and history.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                • England, Nora C. 1998. Mayan efforts toward language preservation. In Endangered languages: Current issues and future prospects. Edited by Lenore A. Grenoble and Lindsay J. Whaley, 99–116. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  England has worked for decades to document and describe Mayan languages and to train indigenous Maya as linguists and scholars. This concise but informative overview of the Guatemalan situation discusses the particular case of the Maya and touches on issues concerning standardization, literacy, and speaker-oriented language policies.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Garzón, Susan, R. McKenna Brown, Julia Becker Richards, and Wuqu’ Ajpub’ (Arnulfo Simón). 1998. The life of our language: Kaqchikel Maya maintenance, shift, and revitalization. Austin: Univ. of Texas Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                    Focuses on the particular case of Kaqchikel, one of the most widely-spoken Mayan languages, within the broader Guatemalan and pan-Mayan contexts. The case studies present the situation in three different communities that vary in terms of size, economic situation, and language contact experience. Includes a valuable native speaker account.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Hawkins, John P., and Walter Randolph Adams, eds. 2005. Roads to change in Maya Guatemala: A field school approach to understanding the K’iche’. Norman: Univ. of Oklahoma Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                      A collection of essays that discuss communities that speak K’ichee’, Guatemala’s most widely-spoken Mayan language. Should prove useful for readers interested in understanding the cultural contexts within which the Mayan languages are used and have life.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                      • K’ulb’il Yol Twitz Paxil (Academia de Lenguas Mayas de Guatemala). 2007. Ojer taq tzijonik: Mayab’ taq komon ch’ab’al rech paxil kayala’/Tradición oral: Comunidades lingüísticas Mayas de Guatemala. Guatemala City: K’ulb’il Yol Twitz Paxil (Academia de Lenguas Mayas de Guatemala).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                        An impressive collection of stories and tales in Guatemala’s twenty-two Mayan languages. An excellent example of the success of pan-Mayan linguistic efforts. May be of special interest for those interested in comparative Mayan studies, since so many languages are included.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                        Brazil

                                                                                                                                                                                                        That Brazil’s “minority languages” are a heterogeneous group is hardly surprising, given that Brazil is itself continental in size and diversity. First, there are the approximately 150–180 indigenous languages still spoken within the country’s borders (a fraction of the total number spoken when colonization began). Aikhenvald 2012 tackles these languages head-on in a wide-reaching and detailed discussion, focused principally on grammatical issues. The great variety of linguistic phenomena discussed and the sheer number of languages surveyed may be difficult for some readers, so for those interested primarily in coming to understand how Amazonia’s many language families overlap synchronically and diachronically, Epps 2009 is recommended. (Rodrigues 1986 is an important text in that it brought indigenous languages to the attention of wider Portuguese-reading public, though it is dated when next to modern sources such as Aikhenvald 2012 and Epps 2009.) For those interested specifically in the special role played by Tupi, the country’s indigenous lingua franca for over two centuries, the essays in Noll and Dietrich 2010 will be of interest. A fascinating look into a very different kind of minority language is provided in Meyer and Moore 2013, which discusses the usage of musical instruments as a surrogate speech system by the Gavião, an indigenous people of Amazonia. Next, there are the languages brought over by the many immigrant groups who have come to Brazil over the past few centuries; on this, see the contributions in Mello, et al. 2011. Furthermore, the nation’s huge African-descended population and tragic tradition of slavery have come to exert powerful influences on Brazilian language as culture, as the studies in Galves, et al. 2009 attest. Finally, there is Brazilian Portuguese (BP) itself, a more heterogeneous mixture than is sometimes acknowledged. The vernacular variety of BP has been compared to creoles because of its morphological simplification and restructuring, and it must be considered a “minority language” in that it lacks the currency and prestige of the more educated variety. Azevedo 2005 discusses Brazilian Portuguese in some detail and touches on the vernacular-nonvernacular divide, and some of the essays in Mello, et al. 2011 explore the structure of BP.

                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Aikhenvald, Alexandra. 2012. The languages of the Amazon. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199593569.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                          This is principally a linguistics book, the majority of its chapters being devoted to grammatical topics. Also addresses the extreme diversity of the languages of Amazonia, a majority of which fall inside Brazilian territory. In this sense it could prove useful to both novices and more experienced scholars.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Azevedo, Milton M. 2005. Portuguese: A linguistic introduction. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511755057Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                            This useful and largely nontechnical overview introduces the reader to the history and structure of the Portuguese language, and it concludes with a discussion of the explanations and theories offered to account for the striking departure of Brazilian Portuguese from the European standard.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Epps, Patience. 2009. Language classification, language contact, and Amazonian prehistory. Language and Linguistics Compass 3.2: 581–606.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1111/j.1749-818X.2009.00126.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                              An excellent overview of the startling and confusing linguistic diversity that characterizes Amazonia today and has characterized it throughout history. Especially useful for readers who seek an accessible, clearly-written introduction to Amazonia’s languages.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Galves, Charlotte, Helder Garmes, and Fernanda Rosa Ribeiro, eds. 2009. África-Brasil: Caminhos da língua portuguesa. Campinas, Brazil: UNICAMP.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                An interesting collection of Portuguese-language essays that discuss multiple issues concerning the linguistic connection between Africa and Brazil. An important reminder of the fact that Brazil was but one part of the Lusophonic colonization of the Atlantic, and that its present linguistic composition was deeply shaped by the African component.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Mello, Heliana, Cléo V. Altenhofen, and Tommaso Raso, eds. 2011. Os contatos linguísticos no Brasil. Belo Horizonte, Brazil: Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Touching on formal linguistics and linguistic history, this volume surveys the many ways that Brazil has served as an arena for contact between different languages. Deserves credit for both depth and breadth, as it addresses indigenous, African, and immigrant languages and situates them within Brazil’s unique historical and social context.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Meyer, Julien, and Denny Moore. 2013. Arte verbal e música la língua Gavião de Rondônia: Metodologia para estudar e documentar a fala tocada com instrumentos musicais/Verbal art and music in the Gavião language of Rondônia: Methodology for the study and the documentation of speech played on musical instruments. Boletim Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi: Ciências Humanas 8.2: 113–128.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Many indigenous Amazonian peoples use surrogate speech systems, such as those played on musical instruments. This article examines the system used by the Gavião, who live in the Brazilian state of Rondônia, and discusses both the authors’ scientific findings and broader questions related to documenting and describing such systems.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Noll, Volker, and Wolf Dietrich, eds. 2010. O português e o tupi no Brasil. São Paulo, Brazil: Editora Contexto.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Discusses the relationship between Portuguese and Tupi, the indigenous language that served as a lingua franca in Brazil for close to three centuries and that survives through a contact-modified daughter language in modern-day Amazonia. A useful reminder that today’s “minority languages” may have held very different positions in the past.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Rodrigues, Aryon Dall’Igna. 1986. Línguas brasileiras: Para o conhecimento das línguas indígenas. São Paulo, Brazil: Edições Loyola.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Provides an important and accessible Portuguese-language overview of Brazil’s many indigenous languages. Divided by genetic grouping, this volume offers a largely nontechnical introduction to each of Brazil’s major linguistic stocks, including Tupi and Macro-Jê, as well as its isolates.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                        African American Minority Languages and the Creole Debate

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        One of the United States’ most widely known “minority languages” (next to American Sign Language, or ASL) is probably African American English (AAE). An exact definition of AAE is contentious, however, and theories that it developed from an earlier creole are even more controversial. The scholarship that addresses these politically charged and hotly debated questions could fill a bibliography all on its own. Green 2002 provides an overview of the grammar and usage of AAE. Mufwene, et al. 1998 addresses both grammatical questions and broader sociolinguistic questions. Mufwene and Condon 1993 focuses on the African element of African American speech. Poplack 2000 looks at the prototypically English side of that speech. Green 2002 is a good place for beginners to start, but the essays in the other volumes should also prove thought-provoking and helpful. Finally, so as to remind readers to address the notion of creole (often applied to AAE) with caution, two articles by Michel DeGraaf are recommended: a 2003 discussion note from Language (DeGraaf 2003), and an expanded 2005 essay in Language in Society (DeGraaf 2005). A different analysis, according to which creoles do form a distinct class of languages, is captured in works such as McWhorter 2005. The inclusion of such opposing works in this bibliography is intended to provide interested readers with a more complete view of the creole debate and of the implications that this debate holds for understanding AAE.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • DeGraaf, Michael. 2003. Against Creole Exceptionalism. Language 79.2: 391–410.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1353/lan.2003.0114Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          De Graaf challenges the widespread conception of creoles as some kind of fundamentally different type of language. He develops these ideas further and provides historical contextualization in DeGraaf 2005.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • DeGraaf, Michael. 2005. Linguists’ most dangerous myth: The fallacy of Creole Exceptionalism. Language in Society 34:533–591.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                            DeGraaf follows up on his 2003 piece in Language by arguing that the concept of “creoles” is a colonial holdover without parallel in modern linguistics and without empirical justification. For opposing views, see the discussion in Green 2002.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Green, Lisa J. 2002. African American English: A linguistic introduction. Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511800306Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Covers the syntax and phonology, as well as pragmatics and social uses of African-American English. For students interested in both the linguistic structure of African American English and the social context in which it operates.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • McWhorter, John H. 2005. Defining Creole. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                A collection of essays that challenge the notion that “creole” is a sociolinguistic term without application to questions of grammar proper. McWhorter’s analysis argues against the work of other scholars on this list, including DeGraaf (DeGraaf 2003, DeGraaf 2005) and Mufwene (Mufwene and Condon 1993, Mufwene, et al. 1998).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Mufwene, Salikoko, John Baugh, Guy Bailey, and John R. Rickford, eds. 1998. African-American English: Structure, history, and use. London and New York: Routledge.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  With papers by several leading scholars, the chapters in this volume address grammatical topics (aspect, predicate structure, noun phrases) in African American English, as well as broader historical and social questions on creole origins, pragmatic usage, discourse, and education.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Mufwene, Salikoko, and Nancy Condon, eds. 1993. Africanisms in Afro-American language varieties. Athens, GA: Univ. of Georgia Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The Afro-American linguistic mosaic is complex and politically charged. This collection explores the African component of this mosaic, addressing many issues concerning creole structure, genesis, and development.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Poplack, Shana, ed. 2000. The English history of African American English. Malden, MA: Blackwell.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The essays in this volume examine whether what makes African American English (AAE) strikingly different from Standard American English can be explained through English history and dialectal variation, with reduced need for appeal to African influences. Probably a wise antidote to studies claiming that all features of AAE can be captured through the creole hypothesis.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Native American Minority Languages in North America

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The present status of the indigenous minority languages of the United States cannot be understood without also examining US history. With this in mind, this section of the bibliography includes several historical works concerning those educational policies that have impacted language use and contributed to language endangerment. The boarding school (as detailed in Adams 1995 and Szasz 1999) was the most infamous manifestation of these policies: Native American children were taken from their homes and abused into giving up their languages and customs. But alongside the tragedy of language loss, there are success stories of revitalization, as well: see the accessible discussions in Hinton 2013 and Hinton and Hale 2001. The documentary film Makepeace 2010 deserves special mention, since it addresses such a broad range of issues, including language extinction, the prospect of revitalization, Native American history, and the collaboration between community members and professional linguists. Of course, the native languages of the United States are so diverse that few volumes try to synthesize all the available information. For beginners, Silver and Wick 1997 is an excellent place to start. Those interested in linguistic structure are advised to consult Mithun 1999, a comprehensive work which focuses on the morphosyntax and genetic classification of Native American languages. Finally, the essays in Hornberger 1997 address questions of literacy in native languages in the United States and elsewhere in the Americas.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Adams, David Wallace. 1995. Education for extinction: American Indians and the boarding school experience, 1875–1928. Lawrence: Univ. Press of Kansas.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Adams’s book details the sobering phenomenon of Native American boarding schools, which helped facilitate the decline of so many North American native languages.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Hinton, Leanne, ed. 2013. Bringing our languages home: Language revitalization for families. Berkeley, CA: Heyday.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          A series of autobiographical essays by native speakers and educators concerning their individual experiences working on language revitalization. As in Hinton and Hale 2001, the principal (but not exclusive) focus here is on the United States. Unlike other works on this list, this collection is very nontechnical and personal.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Hinton, Leanne, and Ken Hale, eds. 2001. The green book of language revitalization in practice. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Most (but not all) of the language cases discussed in this volume are indigenous to North America. A worthwhile survey of different means and strategies for revitalizing languages that are endangered or in decline. Impressive for its combination of specific languages and families, with a discussion of revitalization practices. See also the separate Oxford Bibliographies article on Endangered Languages.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Hornberger, Nancy H., ed. 1997. Indigenous literacies in the Americas: Language planning from the bottom up. Berlin and New York: Mouton de Gruyter.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1515/9783110814798Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              A collection of approximately twenty essays that address literacies in indigenous languages of the Americas (not just the United States). A useful resource for those interested in the connection between linguistic minorities and educational programming. The essays cover most major regions but omit Brazil, where indigenous literacies remain underdeveloped.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Makepeace, Anne, dir. 2010. We Still Live Here (Âs Nutayuneân). DVD. Oley, PA: Bullfrog Films.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Documents the efforts of preservationist, linguist, and educator Jessie Little Doe Baird to resurrect and revitalize the Wampanoag/Wôpanâak language. Touches on Native American history, language structure, the field of linguistics, and Wampanoag/Wôpanâak language and culture. An excellent introduction to the fields of Native American languages and linguistic endangerment/revitalization for students.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Mithun, Marianne. 1999. The languages of native North America. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  This extensive work consists of two parts: a discussion of specific grammatical topics exemplified by native North American languages, and a survey of the genetic units (families and linguistic isolates) into which these languages subdivide. Readers may find a background in linguistics or experience with non–Indo-European grammar to be helpful.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Silver, Shirley, and R. Miller Wick. 1997. American Indian languages: Cultural and social contexts. Tucson: Univ. of Arizona Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    This volume addresses a wide range of topics: history, grammar, writing systems, and linguistic myths and misconceptions. The United States and Mexico form the bulk, but by no means all, of the examples discussed. Commendable for its extensiveness and recommended for students of multiple disciplines.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Szasz, Margaret Connell. 1999. Education and the American Indian: The road to self-determination since 1928. 3d ed. Albuquerque: Univ. of New Mexico Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Szasz’s study picks up chronologically where Adams 1995 concludes, detailing a paradigm shift in the approach to Native American education. Discusses the belated—perhaps irreparably so—departure away from the original policies that led to the decimation of so many indigenous minority languages.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Broader Looks at the Linguistic Mosaic of the United States

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      To complement sections in this bibliography that focus on Spanish in the Americas, African American Minority Languages and the Creole Debate, and Native American Minority Languages in North America, the following works on the linguistic mosaic of the United States more broadly are recommended. Ferguson and Heath 1981 discusses both specific languages and the social and institutional use of those languages, and the volume remains worth reading more than three decades after its publication. For more recent surveys, readers should consult Finegan and Rickford 2004, which discusses broad sociolinguistic questions, and Potowski 2010, which includes pieces on a diverse set of languages, mostly brought to the United States by immigrants. All three volumes should be accessible for readers with minimal background in linguistics.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Ferguson, Charles A., and Shirley Brice Heath, eds., with David Hwang. 1981. Language in the USA. Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Although more than thirty years old, this volume remains worthwhile because of its unique approach, with separate sections for (a) the diversity of American English; (b) the languages “before English” (read: Spanish and indigenous languages); (c) post-English immigrant languages; (d) and the social and institutional use of language within the United States.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Finegan, Edward, and John Rickford, eds. 2004. Language in the USA: Themes for the twenty-first century. Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511809880Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Not to be confused with Ferguson and Heath 1981, this volume focuses less on individual languages or language groups and instead addresses a wide range of sociolinguistic topics, including language ideology, linguistic prejudice, medical language, sign language, gender and sexuality, and more.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Potowski, Kim, ed. 2010. Language diversity in the USA. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511779855Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Although it contains one chapter (chapter 3, pp. 47–65) on native languages (see the section Native American Minority Languages in North America), Potowski’s collection principally focuses on a wide range of immigrant tongues in the United States, including European (Spanish, French, German, Russian, etc.), Asian (Chinese, Vietnamese, Korean), and other languages.

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