Military History Canada from World War I to the Present
by
Michael Bechthold
  • LAST REVIEWED: 01 December 2016
  • LAST MODIFIED: 24 July 2013
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199791279-0147

Introduction

“The Military History of an Unmilitary People” is the subtitle that George Stanley gave to his book Canada’s Soldiers (Stanley 1974, cited under Surveys). The subtitle may ring true, but it is also clear, based on its participation in World War II, the Korean War, the Cold War, and Afghanistan in the 21st century (as well as various small wars and peacekeeping missions along the way) that Canada has a rich and extensive military history in the period since 1918. The two world wars touched virtually all aspects of Canadian society and in so doing changed the very fabric of the nation. The history of this period reflects that change. The field of Canadian military history has always attracted a high level of scholarship, but in the decades after World War II, this material was primarily generated as official histories. The field has enjoyed something of a renaissance in the last two decades, which is reflected in the works contained in this bibliography. The works cited here focus on Canada’s military experience, and there are a great number of works that reflect operational history. The fields of social and political history are also represented here, in smaller numbers, where they intersect with that military history. In order to keep the number of citations manageable the number of journal articles cited has been limited. However, there is much thought-provoking original scholarship that is central to the study of the field found in journal articles. To that end, the most relevant journals in the field have been listed here. The same stricture is applied to the sub-field of regimental, squadron, and ships’ histories. There are dozens of worthy histories on this topic that have been excluded to keep the scope of this article manageable. Many of these titles may be found in Cooke 1997 (cited under Introductory Works).

Introductory Works

There are a small number of essential reference works related to this topic. These are not books that will necessarily be read cover-to-cover, but they should always be within easy reach to provide the necessary background for a better understanding of Canadian military history. The two standard references are Bercuson and Granatstein 1992 and Granatstein and Oliver 2011 while Cooke 1997 provides a bibliographic survey of the field.

  • Bercuson, David J., and J. L. Granatstein. Dictionary of Canadian Military History. Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1992.

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    An older but still useful resource that contains short entries on a wide range of topics related to the field.

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    • Cooke, O. A. The Canadian Military Experience 1867–1995: A Bibliography. 3d ed. Ottawa: Directorate of History and Heritage, Department of National Defence, 1997.

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      This bibliography offers a detailed guide to books on the Canadian military experience. Is somewhat dated, but lists many obscure and limited-print-run books that would otherwise be difficult to find.

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      • Granatstein, J. L., and Dean F. Oliver. The Oxford Companion to Canadian Military History. Don Mills, Canada: Oxford University Press, 2011.

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        This rich resource contains over seven hundred entries on a wide range of topics including short descriptions of people, battles, and technology as well as longer essays on scholarship and historiography.

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        Surveys

        There are a number of essential surveys that provide a general overview of this period in Canadian military history. The best of these works are solid academic studies, while others are more popular overviews of the field; but all are useful introductions to the subject and suitable as reference for those familiar with the field or those seeking to learn more. The only comprehensive survey of the field is Morton 2007, which is often used as the text for undergraduate survey courses. The remainder of the titles are service specific: army (Granatstein 2011, Stanley 1974), navy (German 1990, Milner 2010, Sarty 1996) and air force (Greenhous and Halliday 1999). Eayrs 1964–1983 is a magisterial five- volume collection and an essential introduction to the study of defense policy in Canada.

        • Eayrs, James George. In Defence of Canada. 5 vols. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1964–1983.

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          This five-volume study examines the history of Canada’s external affairs from the end of World War I, World War II, Korea, the Cold War, and NATO through the conflict in Southeast Asia in the 1960s and 1970s. It highlights the interplay between diplomacy and military affairs in the development of the Canadian nation.

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          • German, Tony. The Sea is at Our Gates: The History of the Royal Canadian Navy. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1990.

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            The first comprehensive history of the RCN, it traces the trials and tribulations of the navy through the two world wars. Its main theme is that the navy prospered despite governmental and public indifference, various equipment woes, and contradictory policy direction.

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            • Granatstein, J. L. Canada’s Army: Waging War and Keeping the Peace. 2d ed. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2011.

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              Parallels and updates Stanley 1974 while providing a comprehensive overview of the Canadian Army from before Confederation to Afghanistan.

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              • Greenhous, Brereton, and Hugh A. Halliday. Canada’s Air Force 1914–1999. Montreal: Art Global, 1999.

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                Examines the development and experiences of Canada’s pilots in Canadian and British service. It traces the changes in technology and air warfare strategy and the impact this had on the evolution of the air force.

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                • Milner, Marc. Canada’s Navy: The First Century. 2d ed. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2010.

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                  An essential primer for anyone interested in the history of the RCN. It covers the entire story, from its origins to the global war on terrorism (updated for the second edition). The post-1945 section is particularly well done, dealing with issues such as unification and the “Canadianization” of the navy.

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                  • Morton, Desmond. A Military History of Canada. 5th ed. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 2007.

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                    This is the only comprehensive survey of Canadian military history from the founding of Canada to the present.

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                    • Sarty, Roger. The Maritime Defence of Canada. Toronto: Canadian Institute of Strategic Studies, 1996.

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                      Linked essays that explore the role of air, naval, and land forces, domestic politics and diplomacy in the development of Canadian maritime defense from the late 19th century to the end of World War II.

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                      • Stanley, George F. G. Canada’s Soldiers: The Military History of an Unmilitary People. 3d ed. Toronto: Macmillan of Canada, 1974.

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                        This is an early and important chronicle of the rich military history of Canada, which continues to be relevant today.

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                        Autobiographies and Memoirs

                        There is a dearth of quality autobiographies in the field of Canadian military history. It has left a large hole in the historiography that has been partially filled by collections of letters and diaries, but the lack of reasoned, thoughtful accounts (especially by senior leaders) cannot easily be rectified. Only one senior army command from World War II has left a memoir (Burns 1970) though a couple of division commanders have also left useful memoirs (Kitching 1993, Vokes 1985). More recently generals MacKenzie and Hillier have written useful accounts of their service since the 1970s and 1980s: MacKenzie 2008 and Hillier 2010. There are a few excellent memoirs written by more junior personnel: Blackburn 1995, Martin and Whitsed 1996, and Mowat 2012.

                        • Blackburn, George G. The Guns of Normandy: A Soldier’s Eye View of France. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1995.

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                          The first of three volumes written by an artillery forward observation officer, this extremely readable book details the everyday aspects of a soldier on the front lines. Will be of interest to any wanting to know more about the role of artillery.

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                          • Burns, E. L. M. General Mud: Memoirs of Two World Wars. Toronto: Clark, Irwin, 1970.

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                            A thoughtful account of his junior posting during the Great War and his senior command appointments in World War II.

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                            • Hillier, Rick. A Soldier First: Bullets, Bureaucrats and the Politics of War. Toronto: Harper Collins, 2010.

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                              The most popular and effective chief of the defense staff in many years, Hillier’s memoirs chronicle the many battles he fought with the government to bring the Canadian Forces out of what he termed “the decade of darkness.”

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                              • Kitching, George. Mud and Green Fields: The Memoirs of Major-General George Kitching. St. Catharines, Canada: Vanwell, 1993.

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                                A readable account detailing Kitching’s relations with other senior commanders. Gives Kitching’s viewpoint on his sacking as commander of Fourth Canadian Armoured Division in August 1944.

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                                • MacKenzie, Lewis. Soldiers Made Me Look Good. Toronto: Douglas and McIntyre, 2008.

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                                  A hard-hitting account of his career that offers strong opinions of Off 2000 (cited under Military Biographies), which was an account of his time in Sarajevo and criticizes Dallaire 2008 (cited under Peacekeeping), which contains a record of the author’s decisions in Rwanda.

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                                  • Martin, Charles Cromwell, and Roy Whitsed. Battle Diary: From D-Day and Normandy to the Zuider Zee and VE. Toronto: Dundurn, 1996.

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                                    An account of the infantryman’s war written by a company sergeant-major of the Queen’s Own Rifles of Canada who landed on Juno Beach during D-Day and survived all the battles to the end of the war. This book presents the most poignant accounts of 6 June 1944 written by someone who was there.

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                                    • Mowat, Farley. And No Birds Sang. Rev. ed. Toronto: Douglas and McIntyre, 2012.

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                                      One of the most literate accounts written by a Canadian soldier, Mowat wrote this memoir of his time in Italy during the Vietnam War. It is worth comparing this to earlier and later accounts he wrote to see how time changed his perspective.

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                                      • Vokes, Chris. My Story. Ottawa: Gallery, 1985.

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                                        An engaging, direct memoir that fully displays the tough-talking reputation Vokes earned as a commander.

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                                        Military Biographies

                                        “Serious military biography in Canada is almost a contradiction in terms” is one description of the genre (see Granatstein and Oliver 2011, cited under Introductory Works), but there are a number of worthwhile military biographies that avoid the pitfalls of hero worship and lack of context. There are a number of 21st-century collected biographies that fill gaps in our understanding of a wide range of senior and more junior military personnel that played important, if often unheralded, roles in times of conflict (Horn 2007, Horn and Harris 2001, Off 2000). Two World War II generals have received a fitting treatment for the first time (Delaney 2005, Dickson 2007) and a third, who has been the subject of previous biographies, received a more balanced assessment (Rickard 2010). In addition, there is an interesting biography of an air marshal written by his daughter (Edwards 2007) and an edited diary of a naval officer (Whitby 2005).

                                        • Delaney, Douglas E. The Soldier’s General: Bert Hoffmeister at War. Vancouver, Canada: University of British Columbia Press, 2005.

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                                          This well-researched book looks at one of Canada’s best divisional commanders during World War II and uses this as a lens to examine Canadian operations in Italy from 1943–1945. It is a model for using biography to tell a larger story.

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                                          • Dickson, Paul Douglas. A Thoroughly Canadian General: A Biography of General H. D. G. Crerar. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2007.

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                                            This long overdue biography examines the career of Canada’s most important general in World War II. It is essential to our understanding of Canadian operations in northwest Europe.

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                                            • Edwards, Suzanne K. Gus: From Trapper Boy to Air Marshal; Air Marshal Harold Edwards, Royal Canadian Air Force: A Life. Renfrew, Ontario: General, 2007.

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                                              The only book-length biography of a Canadian air marshal. The book was written by his daughter and is all the more revealing because of that fact. Covers his service from World War I through his central role, as commander-in-chief of the RCAF Overseas in 1941–1944, in the implementation of “Canadianzation.”

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                                              • Horn, Bernd. Intrepid Warriors: Perspectives on Canadian Military Leaders. Toronto: Dundurn, 2007.

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                                                Follows the pattern set in Horn and Harris 2001 but focuses on more junior commanders at the battalion/squadron/ship level. It covers the period of the South African war, as well as World War I and II.

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                                                • Horn, Bernd, and Stephen J. Harris, eds. Warrior Chiefs: Perspectives on Senior Canadian Military Leaders. Toronto: Dundurn, 2001.

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                                                  A collection of biographies of major Canadian military and political leaders from the world wars, the Cold War, and peacetime. It is particularly important for its biographical treatment of a number of post-World War II Canadian commanders.

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                                                  • Off, Carol. The Lion, the Fox and the Eagle: A Story of Generals and Justice in Rwanda and Yugoslavia. Toronto: Random House Canada, 2000.

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                                                    A flawed but important study of three Canadians (Roméo Dallaire, Lewis MacKenzie and Louise Arbour) who played important roles with the United Nations during the conflicts in the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda during the early 1990s.

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                                                    • Rickard, John Nelson. Politics of Command: Lieutenant-General A. G. L. McNaughton and the Canadian Army, 1939–1943. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2010.

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                                                      McNaughton was a controversial figure who was the commander of the Canadian Army at the start of World War II. Often portrayed as a hands-on micromanager not suited to higher command, this study reevaluates his performance and concludes that McNaughton was a victim of a negative view espoused by his peers, including Lord Alanbrooke and Field Marshal B. M. Montgomery.

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                                                      • Whitby, Michael, ed. Commanding Canadian: The Second World War Diaries of A. F. C. Layard. Vancouver, Canada: University of British Columbia Press, 2005.

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                                                        The literate and revealingly frank diaries of a British regular naval officer who commanded a crack Royal Canadian Navy anti-submarine group during the Allied offensive against the U-boats in 1944–1945.

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                                                        Civilian Biographies

                                                        The field of civilian biographies that are important to the field of Canadian military history is less rich than comparable military biographies, but there are two well-researched biographies (Bercuson 1993, Bothwell and Kilbourn 1979) and an edited memoir (Norman 1966) of politicians who held important posts related to the military during World War II and the immediate postwar period.

                                                        • Bercuson, David J. True Patriot: The Life of Brooke Claxton, 1899–1960. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1993.

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                                                          This is a well-written and well-documented biography on a cabinet minister who played a key role as minister of national defense following World War II when he was responsible for demobilizing the military, negotiating Canada’s role in NATO, helping to shape the country’s Cold War foreign policy, and remobilizing for the Korean War.

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                                                          • Bothwell, Robert, and William Kilbourn. C. D. Howe: A Biography. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1979.

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                                                            Though written in the late 1970s, this study remains the best available work on the life of C. D. Howe who, as the minister of munitions and supply, was one of the more important cabinet ministers in Mackenzie King’s government.

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                                                            • Norman, Ward, ed. A Party Politician: The Memoirs of Chubby Power. Toronto: Macmillan of Canada, 1966.

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                                                              The first-rate (and very well-edited) memoirs of the air minister from 1940 to 1944, who was the prime mover in the “Canadianization” of the RCAF overseas. He was also a leading opponent of conscription, over which issue he resigned in 1944.

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                                                              Journals

                                                              There are a number of journals that focus on Canadian military history since World War I. The premier journal is Canadian Military History, but there are a number of others that feature relevant articles: the most important of which are the professional service journals of the Canadian forces (Canadian Army Journal, Canadian Military Journal, Royal Canadian Air Force Journal). There are also two journals devoted to maritime history: Canadian Naval Review and the Northern Mariner.

                                                              Canadian Military Law

                                                              The literature on Canadian military law is limited, especially when compared to the publications being produced from a legal, rather than historical, perspective. The published works fall into two broad but very different categories. The first deals with general issues of military justice and discipline as it affected the personnel of the Canadian forces (Coombs 2007, Madsen 1999). The second stream deals with war crimes perpetrated against Canadian soldiers, especially the trial of German general Kurt Meyer (Brode 1997, Lackenbauer and Madsen 2007, MacDonald 1954, Margolian 1998).

                                                              • Brode, Patrick. Casual Slaughters and Accidental Judgements: Canadian War Crimes Prosecutions, 1944–1948. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1997.

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                                                                Provides important context in the story of Canadian war crimes trials, as it examines not only the Meyer trial but also the Far East war crimes trials, as well as the almost forgotten Opladen case involving the murder of three Canadian airmen in Germany.

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                                                                • Coombs, Howard G. The Insubordinate and the Noncompliant: Case Studies of Canadian Mutiny and Disobedience 1920 to Present. Toronto: Dundurn, 2007.

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                                                                  “Famous” cases such as the VE Day riots in Halifax and the Airborne Regiment and the Somalia affair are discussed, but the treatment of lesser-known incidents such as a hunger strike by First Canadian Parachute Battalion after Normandy and possible cases of “Murder by Spitfire” in the Royal Canadian Air Force add considerably to our knowledge.

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                                                                  • Lackenbauer, P. Whitney, and Chris Madsen. Kurt Meyer on Trial: A Documentary Record. Kingston, Canada: Canadian Defence Academy, 2007.

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                                                                    An invaluable collection of primary documents related to the Kurt Meyer trial. It contains evidence presented at the trial, opening addresses and statements by the prosecutors and defense, as well as a wealth of material on the decision to commute Meyer’s sentence and on his eventual repatriation and release.

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                                                                    • MacDonald, Bruce. The Trial of Kurt Meyer. Toronto: Clarke, Irwin, 1954.

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                                                                      An insider’s view of the Meyer trial written by the chief prosecutor. Though he argued for the imposition of the death sentence at the trial, he later agreed with the release of Meyer in the changed circumstances of the Cold War era where West Germany was now an ally against the Soviets.

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                                                                      • Madsen, Chris. Another Kind of Justice: Canadian Military Law from Confederation to Somalia. Vancouver, Canada: University of British Columbia Press, 1999.

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                                                                        Should be the starting point for any understanding of Canadian military law, as it is the only historical survey of the topic. It examines the origins of the system based on British military law and how it has changed and adapted in response to changes in society.

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                                                                        • Margolian, Howard. Conduct Unbecoming: The Story of the Murder of Canadian Prisoners of War in Normandy. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1998.

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                                                                          Begins with a detailed examination of the various battles where Canadian soldiers were murdered by soldiers of the 12th SS Hitlerjugend Division and finishes with a description of the war crimes trials. This book should be the starting point for anyone interested in understanding this topic.

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                                                                          First Nations

                                                                          The history of First Nations peoples and their dealings with the Canadian military is frequently one of challenge and discrimination. This is clearly set out with regard to the issue of land claims (Lackenbauer 2007, Winegard 2008). There are useful studies on World War II (Sheffield 2004) and two collections of essays that usefully examine the Canadian experience in an historical (Lackenbauer, et al. 2007) and international context (Lackenbauer and Mantle 2007).

                                                                          • Lackenbauer, P. Whitney. Battle Grounds: The Canadian Military and Aboriginal Lands. Vancouver, Canada: University of British Columbia Press, 2007.

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                                                                            The issue of aboriginal land claims in Canada remains a sensitive topic, and the military has been at the center of the storm, as many bases were established on traditional aboriginal reserves. Examines the government-aboriginal interaction that led to the use of these grounds for military training and the process involved in the reclamation of those lands.

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                                                                            • Lackenbauer, P. Whitney and Craig Leslie Mantle, eds. Aboriginal Peoples and the Canadian Military: Historical Perspectives. Kingston, Canada: Canadian Defence Academy, 2007.

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                                                                              Contains essays covering the period from the Seven Years’ War to the present. Of particular note are essays on the role of Aboriginal servicewomen in the World War II-era Canadian military and the role of the Canadian Rangers in the north; also there is a historiographic essay on Aboriginals in World War I and II.

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                                                                              • Lackenbauer, P. Whitney, R. Scott Sheffield, and Craig Leslie Mantle, eds. Aboriginal Peoples and Military Participation: Canadian and International Perspectives. Kingston, Canada: Canadian Defence Academy, 2007.

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                                                                                This collection of essays benefits from an international and comparative approach that sheds additional light on the varied experiences of native peoples in Canada, the USA, Australia, New Zealand, and Nepal.

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                                                                                • Sheffield, R. Scott. “The Red Man’s On the Warpath”: The Image of the “Indian” and the Second World War. Vancouver, Canada: University of British Columbia Press, 2004.

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                                                                                  This groundbreaking study examines perceptions of Canadian natives in World War II through images used by government bureaucrats and journalists and how public opinion of natives influenced government policy.

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                                                                                  • Winegard, Timothy C. Oka: A Convergence of Cultures and the Canadian Forces. Kingston, Canada: Canadian Defence Academy, 2008.

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                                                                                    The infamous Oka crisis of 1990 is examined through an historic lens and the book argues that while it was a defining moment in Canadian-Aboriginal relations, it was not an isolated event but the culmination of three hundred years of history. It provides detailed account on the largest Canadian Forces internal security operation ever conducted.

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                                                                                    Leadership

                                                                                    The historiography on Canadian military leadership is not deep; but a number of recent publications, especially from the Canadian Forces Canadian Defence Academy, are slowly changing this. Granatstein 1995 is the only survey of Canadian generals in the World War II. Edited collections by Harris and Horn 2001; Gimblett, et al. 2006; Horn 2006; Horn 2007; and Whitby, et al. 2006 profile leaders from all three services in different eras. Harris 1988 is not a classic leadership study, but it examines the effort to professionalize the officer corps of the Canadian Army, a development essential in the evolution of leadership.

                                                                                    • Gimblett, Richard Howard, Michael Whitby, and Peter Haydon, eds. The Admirals: Canada’s Senior Naval Leadership in the Twentieth Century. Toronto: Durdurn, 2006.

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                                                                                      A collection of essays on senior commanders of the Royal Canadian Navy written by leading naval historians.

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                                                                                      • Granatstein, J. L. The Generals: The Canadian Army’s Senior Commanders in the Second World War. Toronto: Stoddart, 1995.

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                                                                                        Based on archival research and comprehensive interviews this study examines the men who directed and led the Canadian Army in World War II.

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                                                                                        • Harris, Stephen J. Canadian Brass: The Making of a Professional Army, 1860–1939. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1988.

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                                                                                          This groundbreaking study examines the social, political, and professional factors that underpin the creation of the Canadian Army from Confederation to the eve of World War II. It concludes that there was a fundamental disconnect between Canadian sensibilities and the professionalization of the army, which limited its integration into mainstream society.

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                                                                                          • Harris, Stephen J., and Bernd Horn, eds. Generalship and the Art of the Admiral: Perspectives on Canadian Senior Military Leadership. St. Catharines, Canada: Vanwell, 2001.

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                                                                                            This well-conceived volume provides sections on historical perspectives, the nature of higher command, operations, civil-military relations and the functional roles of higher commanders. It is noteworthy since most of the contributors are senior military commanders, either serving or retired, writing based on their experience.

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                                                                                            • Horn, Bernd, ed. In Harm’s Way: On the Front Lines of Leadership, Sub-Unit Command on Operations. Kingston, Canada: Canadian Defence Academy, 2006.

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                                                                                              Contains interesting perspectives on the challenges faced by junior commanders in Canadian air, sea, and land operations in peace support missions in the former Yugoslavia and Afghanistan.

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                                                                                              • Horn, Bernd, ed. In Harm’s Way: The Buck Stops Here, Senior Commanders on Operations. Kingston, Canada: Canadian Defence Academy, 2007.

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                                                                                                This collection of essays has been written by senior Canadian commanders based on their experiences on UN missions in the 1990s and 2000s and more recently in Afghanistan.

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                                                                                                • Whitby, Michael, Richard H. Gimblett, and Peter Haydon, eds. The Admirals: Canada’s Senior Naval Leadership in the Twentieth Century. Toronto: Dundurn, 2006.

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                                                                                                  Contains sixteen biographies of prominent leaders of the Royal Canadian Navy and Maritime Command starting with the founder of the Canadian Navy, Admiral Sir Charles E. Kingsmill.

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                                                                                                  Cities at War

                                                                                                  A recent trend in the historiography has been to use case studies of Canadian communities to examine larger issues of Canada’s World War II experience. The essays listed here showcase the best new research on a number of Canadian communities including Verdun, Quebec (Durflinger 2006), St. John’s, Newfoundland (High 2010) along with Halifax (Naftel 2008) and Sydney, Nova Scotia (Tennyson and Sarty 2000).

                                                                                                  • Durflinger, Serge Marc. Fighting from Home: The Second World War in Verdun, Quebec. Vancouver, Canada: University of British Columbia Press, 2006.

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                                                                                                    This study of a Canadian community at war sets the standard for a regional understanding of the larger issues affecting Canadians.

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                                                                                                    • High, Steven, ed. Occupied St. John’s: A Social History of a City at War, 1939–1945. Montreal and Kingston, Ontario: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2010.

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                                                                                                      Scholarly papers on the impact of the large scale activities by the Canadian, US, and British forces in the development of this small port into a major advanced base in the Battle of the Atlantic.

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                                                                                                      • Naftel, William D. Halifax at War: Searchlights, Squadrons and Submarines 1939–1945. Halifax, Canada: Formac, 2008.

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                                                                                                        Despite the subtitle, this book focuses on the impact of the war on the civilian population rather than military developments in Canada’s principal major naval and maritime air base in the Battle of the Atlantic.

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                                                                                                        • Tennyson, Brian, and Roger Sarty. Guardian of the Gulf: Sydney, Cape Breton and the Atlantic Wars. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2000.

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                                                                                                          The only scholarly study of military activities—naval, land, and air—in a Canadian city from its founding in the 18th century through the end of the Cold War.

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                                                                                                          World War II

                                                                                                          World War II was one of the pivotal events in the evolution of the Canadian nation. Like many nations, the conflict dragged Canada out of the Great Depression; but unlike most other nations, it emerged stronger and with a more robust economy than six years earlier. The cost had been high, as the nation completely committed to supporting the war effort; over one million Canadians donned a uniform, and more than 47,000 never came home. The books in this section provide a general overview of the military dimension of Canada’s war effort. Copp 2004 and Douglas and Greenhous 1995 cover all aspects of the conflict, while Hayes, et al. 2012 is a collection of essays covering a wide spectrum of topics related to Canada’s World War II.

                                                                                                          • Copp, Terry. A Nation at War: Essays from Legion Magazine. Waterloo, Canada: Laurier Centre for Military Strategic and Disarmament Studies, 2004.

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                                                                                                            This collection of sixty-two essays examines many aspects of Canada’s World War II experience, from the home front to the battlefields of Europe and the Pacific. Though written in a popular and engaging style and lacking citations, the essays are based on the best current research and offer short, readable introductions to a wide range of complicated issues.

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                                                                                                            • Douglas, W. A. B., and Brereton Greenhous. Out of the Shadows: Canada in the Second World War. Rev. ed. Toronto: Dundurn, 1995.

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                                                                                                              This one-volume history provides a popular overview of Canada and World War II. It is organized thematically, which allows examination of the various debates and interpretations surrounding Canada’s war effort.

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                                                                                                              • Hayes, Geoffrey, Mike Bechthold, and Matt Symes, eds. Canada and the Second World War: Essays in Honour of Terry Copp. Waterloo, Ontario: Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 2012.

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                                                                                                                Offers fresh perspectives on a wide range of topics related to Canada and World War II including the home front, aboriginal participation, science and technology, and operations.

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                                                                                                                Official Histories

                                                                                                                The official histories of the army, written soon after the war, were analytical histories that became the basis for all future historical inquiries. As early histories of World War II, Stacey 1955, Stacey 1960, and Nicholson 1956 are extremely well written but suffer the expected problems of covering events soon after they happened when many of the participants were still alive. Stacey 1970 later completed the multi-service policy volume dealing with Canada’s participation in World War II. The historical program of the Royal Canadian Navy produced a popular history soon after the war; but their serious academic histories did not appear until much more recently (Douglas, et al. 2002; Douglas, et al. 2007). The Royal Canadian Air Force also took its time to produce its official histories (Douglas 1986; Greenhous, et al. 1994), but the wait was worthwhile as, like the RCN histories, the accounts are more balanced and incorporate information not available right after the war such as Ultra and various enemy source material.

                                                                                                                • Douglas, W. A. B. The Creation of a National Air Force. Vol. 2, The Official History of the Royal Canadian Air Force. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1986.

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                                                                                                                  Operations on the home front are the focus of this book, in particular the growth of the air force, the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan as well as home air defense and prosecution of the U-boat war from Canadian bases.

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                                                                                                                  • Douglas, W. A. B., Roger Sarty, Michael Whitby, Robert H. Caldwell, William Johnston, and William G. P. Rawling. No Higher Purpose: The Official Operational History of the Royal Canadian Navy in the Second World War, 1939–1943. Vol. 2, Part 1. St. Catharines, Canada: Vanwell, 2002.

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                                                                                                                    The fundamental transformation of the Royal Canadian Navy from a small coastal service to a major navy, which materially contributed to the victory over Germany, is examined in considerable detail in this volume.

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                                                                                                                    • Douglas, W. A. B., Roger Sarty, Michael Whitby, Robert H. Caldwell, William Johnston, and William G. P. Rawling. A Blue Water Navy: The Official Operational History of the Royal Canadian Navy in the Second World War, 1943–1945. Vol. 2, Part 2. St. Catharines, Canada: Vanwell, 2007.

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                                                                                                                      The title of this book reflects the goal of the Royal Canadian Navy to become a “big ship” navy, which was very different from its primary function in the Battle of the Atlantic. This book examines the role of the RCN in its battles, both at sea and political, in the last stages of the war.

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                                                                                                                      • Greenhous, Brereton, Stephen J. Harris, William C. Johnston. The Crucible of War, 1939–1945. Vol. 3, The Official History of the Royal Canadian Air Force. Toronto: The University of Toronto Press, 1994.

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                                                                                                                        A detailed study of the Royal Canadian Air Force at war, it examines fighter, bomber, and maritime operations in northwest Europe and the Mediterranean theaters as well as the development of air policy. It is especially good on the technical side of the air war.

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                                                                                                                        • Nicholson, G. W. L. Official History of the Canadian Army in the Second World War. Vol. 2, The Canadians in Italy, 1943–1945. Ottawa: Queen’s Printer, 1956.

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                                                                                                                          Presents the role of the Canadian Army in the Sicilian and Italian campaigns, stressing the nature of coalition operations.

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                                                                                                                          • Stacey, C. P. Official History of the Canadian Army in the Second World War. Vol. 1, Six Years of War. Ottawa: Queen’s Printer, 1955.

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                                                                                                                            Covers the army in Canada and Britain as well as in a number of discrete battles and campaigns. The treatment of the debacles at Hong Kong and Dieppe are required reading.

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                                                                                                                            • Stacey, C. P. Official History of the Canadian Army in the Second World War. Vol. 3, The Victory Campaign: Operations in North-West Europe, 1944–1945. Ottawa: Queen’s Printer, 1960.

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                                                                                                                              This is the most important of Stacey’s books and is the standard to which all other accounts of the Canadians in northwest Europe are compared. Stacey has shaped our understanding of the campaign, and only recently are historians reappraising some of his conclusions.

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                                                                                                                              • Stacey, C. P. Arms, Men and Government: The War Policies of Canada, 1939–1945. Ottawa: Queen’s Printer, 1970.

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                                                                                                                                A companion to the army histories and examines the political and administrative side of Canada’s war effort.

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                                                                                                                                Army

                                                                                                                                The Canadian Army mobilized in 1939 but was not committed to sustained combat until the Sicilian campaign in July 1943. The official histories were the first serious scholarly attempts to understand the various campaigns. The battles in Normandy and northwest Europe have been written about extensively since the publication of the official histories. There is an ongoing debate about the effectiveness of the Canadian Army in Normandy. One side (English 1991) has picked up on themes found in Stacey 1960 (cited under Official Histories) and concludes the Canadian Army did not perform up to its potential. The other side of the debate (Copp 2003) argues that the Canadian Army was a very effective force. In addition there are a number of studies that offer solid examinations of other aspects of those battles: Whitaker and Whitaker 1989, Reid 2004, and Copp 2007. The Italian Campaign is still looking for a similar level of academic examination. There are only two campaign histories, Dancocks 1991 and McAndrew 1996, published since the war that push the story originally told in the official history (Nicholson 1956, cited under Official Histories), but listed here is an innovative regiment history that hints at the 21st-century revised work on the campaign (see Windsor 2011).

                                                                                                                                • Copp, Terry. Fields of Fire: The Canadians in Normandy. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2003.

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                                                                                                                                  This reappraisal of the Canadian effort in Normandy presents a view of a Canadian Army that was much more effective in combat than has been portrayed by authors such as Stacey 1960 (cited under Official Histories) and English 1991. Copp’s main argument is that the Canadian contribution to victory in Normandy was out of proportion to the size of the force deployed.

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                                                                                                                                  • Copp, Terry. Cinderella Army: The Canadians in Northwest Europe, 1944–45. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2007.

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                                                                                                                                    This volume continues with the theme of a Canadian Army that was effective in operations in the Channel Ports, the Scheldt, the Rhineland, and the liberation of the Netherlands.

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                                                                                                                                    • Dancocks, Daniel G. The D-Day Dodgers: The Canadians in Italy, 1943–1945. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1991.

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                                                                                                                                      This is a solid campaign history that combines an examination of the official documents with a variety of personal accounts to add color to the narrative. The book examines Canadian operations in the context of overall Allied strategy and includes useful material from the German and Italian perspectives.

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                                                                                                                                      • English, John A. The Canadian Army and the Normandy Campaign: A Study of Failure in High Command. New York: Praeger, 1991.

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                                                                                                                                        Argues that the Canadian Army in Normandy did not live up to the high reputation of the Canadian Corps in World War II and was let down by the poor quality of its commanders.

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                                                                                                                                        • McAndrew, Bill. Canadians and the Italian Campaign, 1943–1945. Montreal: Art Global, 1996.

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                                                                                                                                          A demi-official history of the Italian campaign, this provides an updated account of operations based on more recent scholarship compared to the official history (Nicholson 1956, cited under Official Histories) and is rich in new detail. It is especially noteworthy for its treatment of Lieutenant-General E. L. M. Burns and the Gothic Line battles.

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                                                                                                                                          • Reid, Brian A. No Holding Back: Operation Totalize, Normandy, August 1944. Toronto: Robin Brass, 2004.

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                                                                                                                                            A well-researched account of Operation Totalize, which examines the planning, execution, and outcome of the battle.

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                                                                                                                                            • Whitaker, Denis, and Shelagh Whitaker. Rhineland: The Battle to End the War. Toronto: Stoddart, 1989.

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                                                                                                                                              A comprehensive account of one of the most underrated Canadian campaigns of World War II.

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                                                                                                                                              • Windsor, Lee. Steel Cavalry: The 8th (New Brunswick) Hussars and the Italian Campaign. Fredericton, Canada: Goose Lane Editions, 2011.

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                                                                                                                                                More than simply a regimental history, this book examines the story of a Canadian armored regiment and explains its role in the larger context of the Italian Campaign. This is the model of what a regimental history should be.

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                                                                                                                                                Hong Kong

                                                                                                                                                Though Canada is a Pacific nation, its role in the war against the Japanese was limited. A request from Britain in 1941 to support its defenses against Japanese expansionism was met with two infantry battalions and a brigade headquarters to bolster the Hong Kong garrison. “C” Force arrived in the colony mere weeks before the Japanese attack. The entire Canadian contingent was lost, either in the fighting, or subsequent imprisonment. The controversy over Hong Kong lies in the decision to dispatch the force. Historical treatments of the episode are split between those works critical of the Canadian deployment (Greenhous 1997, Vincent 1981) and those that attempt to understand the operation in its chronological context (Copp 2001, Copp 2011, Greenfield 2010).

                                                                                                                                                • Copp, Terry. “The Defence of Hong Kong: December 1941.” Canadian Military History 10.4 (Autumn 2001): 5–20.

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                                                                                                                                                  Offers a balanced examination of the battle for Hong Kong based on an examination of the events as they unfolded.

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                                                                                                                                                  • Copp, Terry. “The Decision to Reinforce Hong Kong: September 1941.” Canadian Military History 20.2 (Spring 2011): 3–13.

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                                                                                                                                                    Previous commentators have criticized the decision to send Canadians to Hong Kong based on their knowledge of the failed mission. This article carefully reconstructs the decision-making process to show that Canadian political and military leaders acted in good faith using the best information available to them.

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                                                                                                                                                    • Greenfield, Nathan. The Damned: The Canadians at the Battle of Hong Kong and the POW Experience, 1941–45. Toronto: Harper Collins, 2010.

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                                                                                                                                                      This recent account of Hong Kong offers a detailed analysis of the battle and a very emotional examination of the conditions endured by the Canadian soldiers who survived the battle only to spend four years in Japanese prison camps.

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                                                                                                                                                      • Greenhous, Brereton. “C” Force to Hong Kong: A Canadian Catastrophe. Toronto: Dundurn, 1997.

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                                                                                                                                                        Very critical of the decision to send Canadian troops to Hong Kong. It contradicts the claim laid by the British commanding general after the war that the Canadian troops were cowardly.

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                                                                                                                                                        • Vincent, Carl. No Reason Why: The Canadian Hong Kong Tragedy. Stittsville, Canada: Canada’s Wings, 1981.

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                                                                                                                                                          The title of this book leaves no doubt about the author’s thesis. He levels clear charges of negligence at Canada’s political and military leadership.

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                                                                                                                                                          Dieppe

                                                                                                                                                          The failed raid on Dieppe on 19 August 1942 has attracted much attention from historians in an attempt to understand (and hopefully lend meaning to) the terrible price paid that day. Accounts of the raid tend to fall into two categories, orthodox accounts (Campbell 1993, Hunter 1982, Robertson 1962, Whitaker and Whitaker 1992) that attempt to describe and understand the raid and revisionist accounts, which lay blame (Greenhous 1992, Villa 1989). The story of the air battle over Dieppe, the largest single-day air battle of the war, has also received a useful treatment (Franks 1992).

                                                                                                                                                          • Campbell, John P. Dieppe Revisited: A Documentary Investigation. London: Frank Cass, 1993.

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                                                                                                                                                            This monograph represents a second generation of investigation on the Dieppe raid and takes advantage of the opening of archival material on issues such as radar, intelligence, and previously classified sources. The chapter debunking the links between Dieppe and D-Day is particularly well done.

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                                                                                                                                                            • Franks, Norman. The Greatest Air Battle: Dieppe, 19th August 1942. London: Grub Street, 1992.

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                                                                                                                                                              Provides a narrative look at the air battle over Dieppe. It focuses mostly on the air battles over Dieppe but leaves much room for studies of other aspects of the air battles.

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                                                                                                                                                              • Greenhous, Brereton. Dieppe, Dieppe. Montreal: Art Global, 1992.

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                                                                                                                                                                This short book presents an uncompromisingly critical interpretation of the raid. Greenhous argues that the plans for Rutter and Jubilee were fatally flawed, inexperienced Canadian troops did not fight well, and no worthwhile lessons were learned. Concludes that only gross German incompetence could have resulted in the success of the Dieppe operation.

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                                                                                                                                                                • Hunter, T. Murray. Canada at Dieppe. Ottawa: Balmuir, 1982.

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                                                                                                                                                                  This short monograph was written by a member of the Army Historical Section and offers a succinct and balanced narrative of the raid. This book is the best starting place to gain an understanding of the Dieppe raid.

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                                                                                                                                                                  • Robertson, Terence. Dieppe: The Shame and the Glory. Boston: Little, Brown, 1962.

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                                                                                                                                                                    A traditional account of the raid that offers a balance between the planning of the raid and its execution.

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                                                                                                                                                                    • Villa, Brian Loring. Unauthorized Action: Mountbatten and the Dieppe Raid 1942. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989.

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                                                                                                                                                                      This classic revisionist account blames Lord Louis Mountbatten for ordering the raid without reference to higher command. This is a difficult case to prove, but the detailed analysis of the planning for the raid is unsurpassed.

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                                                                                                                                                                      • Whitaker, Denis, and Shelagh Whitaker. Dieppe: Tragedy to Triumph. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 1992.

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                                                                                                                                                                        Written by a veteran of the raid, this book offers a balanced overall appraisal of the raid that seeks to understand and justify the cost. Particular care is given to linking the failures at Dieppe to the successes at D-Day.

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                                                                                                                                                                        Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF)

                                                                                                                                                                        As in World War I, the Royal Canadian Air Force operated within the envelope of the Royal Air Force. A major difference was the ability of the RCAF to attain some semblance of identity and independence. Aside from the official histories Douglas 1986 and Greenhous, et al. 1994, both cited under Official Histories, there are a couple of good overall studies of the RCAF (Dunmore 1996, Milberry and Halliday 1990) along with a number of more focused studies on topics such as the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan (Hatch 1994), No. 6 Group in Bomber Command (Carter 1991, Dunmore and Carter 1991), including one of the best memoirs written by a pilot (Peden 1979), a memoir by a pilot in Ferry Command (Christie and Hatch 1995), and a biographical account of pilots in the fighter war (Bashow 1996).

                                                                                                                                                                        • Bashow, David L. All the Fine Young Eagles: In the Cockpit with Canada’s Second World War Fighter Pilots. Toronto: Stoddart, 1996.

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                                                                                                                                                                          Presents the personal stories of Canadian fighter pilots (day, night, intruder, reconnaissance, and fighter-bomber pilots) within the context of the campaigns they participated in.

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                                                                                                                                                                          • Carter, William S. Anglo-American Wartime Relations, 1939–1945: RAF Bomber Command and No.6 (Canadian) Group. New York: Garland, 1991.

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                                                                                                                                                                            Looks at relations between Canada and Britain through the lens of No. 6 Group. Of particular interest is the Canadian attempt to establish an independent air force (“Canadianization”) and implement strategic control over its own armed forces.

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                                                                                                                                                                            • Christie, Carl, and Fred Hatch. Ocean Bridge: The History of RAF Ferry Command. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1995.

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                                                                                                                                                                              The Ferry Command story, thought not strictly Canadian, illuminates a relatively unknown but crucial aspect of the air war. It examines the organization that flew aircraft from their factories in North America to the operational theaters in Europe.

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                                                                                                                                                                              • Dunmore, Spencer. Above and Beyond: The Canadians’ War in the Air, 1939–1945. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1996.

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                                                                                                                                                                                Though a popular history, this is one of the few books that provides a chronological overview of the RCAF encompassing all theaters and commands during the course of the entire war.

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                                                                                                                                                                                • Dunmore, Spencer, and William Carter. Reap the Whirlwind: The Untold Story of 6 Group, Canada’s Bomber Force of World War II. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1991.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  An important complement to Carter 1991 as it provides a narrative overview of the role played by No. 6 Group during the strategic bombing of Germany.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  • Hatch, F. J. The Aerodrome of Democracy: Canada and the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan, 1939–1945. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1994.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    Offers a solid survey of the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan (BCATP), which was conceived by Prime Minister Mackenzie King as Canada’s main contribution to World War II: the goal was to avoid sending Canadian youth to the killing grounds of Europe. This did not work out exactly as planned, but the resulting BCATP was a major contribution to Allied victory.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    • Milberry, Larry, and Hugh Halliday. The Royal Canadian Air Force at War 1939–1945. Toronto: CANAV, 1990.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      This well-illustrated large-format book provides a primer on the RCAF in World War II, from its expansion, domestic operations, and activities in all the overseas commands including England, Europe, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      • Peden, Murray. A Thousand Shall Fall. Stittsville, Canada: Canada’s Wings, 1979.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        The best Canadian memoir of the air war in 1939–1945 and one of the best to come from any country. The book chronicles the experiences of an RCAF pilot in Bomber Command.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        Royal Canadian Navy (RCN)

                                                                                                                                                                                        Canada’s navy expanded exponentially during World War II to meet the needs of a global war. The primary task of the RCN was the defense of trade routes to the United Kingdom, and it is not surprising that this topic is well covered in the historiography. Sarty 1998 is a survey on the overall campaign that situates the role of the RCN while more specialized studies and a memoir explore the various successes and failures experiences by the Canadians in the Atlantic (Halford 1995, Lawrence 1979, Milner 1985, Milner 1994). Hadley 1985 and Sarty 2012 are specialized studies exploring the battles fought in Canadian waters while the Salty Dips series of collected memoirs explores all aspects of Canada’s World War II navy (see Lynch 1983–2008).

                                                                                                                                                                                        • Hadley, Michael L. U-boats Against Canada: German Submarines in Canadian Waters. Kingston, Canada: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 1985.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          A pioneering and comprehensive study of German sources concerning German submarine operations in Canadian waters.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          • Halford, Robert G. The Unknown Navy: Canada’s World War II Merchant Navy. St. Catharines, Canada: Vanwell, 1995.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            The Merchant Navy played an important yet unheralded role in achieving victory in World War II. This book, part history and part memoir, examines the role played by the Canadian Merchant Navy, including the sailors and their Canadian-built ships as well as the many hazards they faced as they crossed the North Atlantic between Canada and the United Kingdom.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            • Lawrence, Hal. A Bloody War: One Man’s Memory of the Canadian Navy, 1939–1945. Toronto: Macmillan of Canada, 1979.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              An engaging memoir of a junior officer who served on corvettes during the Battle of the Atlantic. The overall tone of the book is light hearted, but it does not hesitate to discuss the hardships and more horrific aspects of the war at sea.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              • Lynch, Mark, ed. Salty Dips. 9 vols. Ottawa: Naval Officers’ Association of Canada Ottawa Branch, 1983–2008.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                This series contains the collected stories of Canadian naval veterans, largely from World War II. Provides many useful insights on familiar and unfamiliar aspects of Canada’s navy.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                • Milner, Marc. North Atlantic Run: The Royal Canadian Navy and the Battle for the Convoys. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1985.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  A seminal book that fundamentally changed our understanding of Canada’s role in the Battle of the Atlantic. The technological, manpower, and administrative difficulties encountered by the RCN as it grew exponentially in the first years of the war are examined. This book shows that RCN’s success came from the fact that it was present in the North Atlantic, not in the sinking of U-boats.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Milner, Marc. The U-Boat Hunters: The Royal Canadian Navy and the Offensive Against Germany’s Submarines. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1994.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                    Examines the second half of the RCN’s war against the U-boats and demonstrates an ever increasing level of technological and tactical sophistication that allowed Canadian support groups to become adept at sinking German U-boats.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Sarty, Roger. Canada and the Battle of the Atlantic. Montreal: Éditions Art Global and the Department of National Defence, 1998.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                      A brief but comprehensive history of the role of both the RCN and the RCAF in Canada’s greatest maritime effort of World War II. Distills the scholarly literature, together with new archival material and recollections of veterans.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Sarty, Roger. War in the St. Lawrence: The Forgotten U-Boat Battles on Canada’s Shores. Toronto: Allen Lane, 2012.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                        The U-boat offensive in Canadian waters is generally considered a German victory and a Canadian defeat that shut down the important St. Lawrence River to shipping. This book argues that the Canadians in fact mounted a successful defense in the face of far greater challenges than were previously known.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                        Personnel Issues/Conscription

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Finding enough bodies to fill uniforms was a challenge faced by the government and military. The divisive issue of conscription reappeared and caused broad schisms in national fabric of Canada (Granatstein and Hitsman 1977) but ultimately played an important role in supplying reinforcements to the army (Granatstein 2001). The mental health of Canadian servicemen was treated very differently than in previous wars and is examined in the context of the army (Copp and McAndrew 1990) and the air force (English 1996). Two studies on the issue of manpower mobilization are told from the perspective of a senior commander in the army (Burns 1956) and a historian (Stevenson 2001).

                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Burns, E. L. M. Manpower in the Canadian Army, 1939–1945. Toronto: Clarke, Irwin, 1956.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                          Written by one of the army’s senior commanders, this book analyzes manpower policies of the Canadian Army in an effort to understand what did and did not work. He has some interesting comments on the controversial issue of the standard of reinforcement training.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Copp, Terry, and Bill McAndrew. Battle Exhaustion: Soldiers and Psychiatrists in the Canadian Army, 1939–1945. Montreal and Kingston, Canada: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 1990.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                            This groundbreaking study examines the how the Canadian Army attempted to deal with psychiatric casualties through screening, pre-selection, leadership, and training prior to battle, and compassionate treatment of battle stress cases.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                            • English, Allan D. The Cream of the Crop: Canadian Aircrew, 1939–1945. Montreal and Kingston, Canada: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 1996.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                              An important study that looks at the issue of aircrew recruitment, selection, and training in the Royal Canadian Air Force. Particularly important is the treatment of stress casualties termed “lack of moral fibre” in air force parlance.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Granatstein, J. L. “Conscription and My Politics.” Canadian Military History 10.4 (Autumn 2001): 35–38.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                Marks a complete reversal of Granatstein’s previous assessment of conscription (Granatstein and Hitsman 1977). Based on research and written during a different political climate in Canada, this article argues that conscription mattered and was an important factor in maintaining the army’s combat power through the battles of late 1944 and early 1945.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Granatstein, J. L., and J. M. Hitsman. Broken Promises: A History of Conscription in Canada. Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1977.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Influenced by the Vietnam era and long considered the standard work in the field, this book considers the negative impact that conscription had on Canada during the two world wars, especially its impact on relations between Quebec and the rest of the country. The underlying assumption is that conscription was bad for Canada.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Stevenson, Michael D. Canada’s Greatest Wartime Muddle: National Selective Service and the Mobilization of Human Resources During World War II. Montreal and Kingston, Canada: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2001.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Argues that the government was only partially successful in mobilizing Canadian personnel to meet the needs of the military and civilian labor toward the war effort.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Home Front and Politics

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Canada’s home front in World War II is a topic that is both under- and over-represented in the literature. Studies at the high school level tend to focus on aspects of the Canadian home front such as the internment of enemy aliens (especially Japanese Canadians) conscription and the changing role of women, to the exclusion of the war overseas. These important home-front topics are best understood in the overall context of the war, and there is much work yet to be done in this area. Conscription is discussed above while the divergent views on the internment of Japanese Canadians are represented by Adachi 1977 and Granatstein and Johnston 1988. The complex politics of the wartime period are represented by a seminal study of the Mackenzie King government (Granatstein 1975) and the disconnects between the government and the navy that caused problems for the prosecution of the war at sea (Zimmerman 1989). The effect of the war on Canadian society is examined by Keshen 2004.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Adachi, Ken. The Enemy That Never Was: A History of the Japanese Canadians. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1977.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The internment of Japanese Canadians on the west coast of Canada during World War II is presented as a shameful and racist overreaction on the part of government officials in response to the start of the war against Japan following the Pearl Harbor attack.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Granatstein, J. L. Canada’s War: The Politics of the Mackenzie King Government, 1939–1945. Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1975.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Looks at Canada’s war effort through the prism of Prime Minister King and his government. It argues that Canada emerged from the war as a fully independent nation and that King must be given credit for the country’s successes as well as its failures.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Granatstein, J. L., and Gregory A. Johnston. “The Evacuation of the Japanese Canadians, 1942: A Realist Critique of the Received Version.” In On Guard for Thee: War, Ethnicity, and the Canadian State, 1939–1945. Edited by Norman Hillmer and Bohdan Kordan, 101–129. Ottawa: Canadian Committee for the History of the Second World War, 1988.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Argues that while interned Japanese Canadians were victims of a racist society, military and civilian intelligence had compelling evidence suggesting that the community could present a threat to the Canadian nation.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Keshen, Jeffrey A. Saints, Sinners, and Soldiers: Canada’s Second World War. Vancouver, Canada: University of British Columbia Press, 2004.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                            An extensively researched portrait of Canada’s home front during World War II. It looks at the daily lives of Canadians and how the war impacted such things as price and wage controls, the black market, marriage, morality, children, and the interaction of soldiers and civilians.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Zimmerman, David. The Great Naval Battle of Ottawa. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1989.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Presents a critical examination of the politics behind the rapid expansion of the Royal Canadian Navy. It concludes the failures at sea were a result of problems in Ottawa such as poor leadership, a conservative navy, lack of support from the British Admiralty and problems with the National Research Council of Canada.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The Korean War, 1950–1953

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Characterized as Canada’s “forgotten war” (Bercuson 1999), the Korean War came at an interesting juncture in history when Canada was able to send an experienced force of veterans into combat, something that was not possible in any previous conflict. The official histories of the army and the navy (Thorgrimsson and Russell 1965, Wood 1966) were the first attempt at serious academic studies of the war. There were a number of forgettable popular histories over the years, and it was not until the 1990s that academics again analyzed the conflict (Bercuson 1999, Johnston 2003, Watson 2002). Also notable are an uncompromising memoir by a company commander (Pope 2002); a study of bilateral relations between Canada and the US (Stairs 1974); and a study of Canada’s most important battle in Korea (Bjarnson 2011).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Bercuson, David J. Blood on the Hills: The Canadian Army in the Korean War. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1999.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                A solid, well written account of the Canadian campaign in Korea that updates the official history (Wood 1966) but does not go much beyond it.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Bjarnson, Dan. Triumph at Kapyong: Canada’s Pivotal Battle in Korea. Toronto: Dundurn, 2011.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  A recent account of Canada’s largest pitched battle in Korea that took place in April 1951 when the 2nd Battalion, Princess Patricia’s Canadian Light Infantry repelled a major assault on their position by the Chinese People’s Volunteer Army. The book combines a concise overview of the battle with engaging stories of the soldiers involved in the fight.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Johnston, William. A War of Patrols: Canadian Operations in Korea. Vancouver, Canada: University of British Columbia Press, 2003.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    A comprehensive account of Canada’s role in the Korean War that reevaluates the performance of the original volunteer Special Service soldiers and argues that their World War II combat experience made them more effective than the later professional soldiers who took over.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Pope, Harry. Leading from the Front: The War Memoirs of Harry Pope. Waterloo, Canada: Laurier Centre for Military Strategic and Disarmament Studies, 2002.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Based on a series of articles originally published in La Citadelle, the regimental journal of the Royal 22nd Regiment, this book chronicles the author’s experiences in Italy in World War II and in Korea. The Korean section is of particular interest due to Pope’s strong opinions on the errors made by the Canadian Army in Korea.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Stairs, Denis. The Diplomacy of Constraint: Canada, the Korean War, and the United States. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1974.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Focuses on the bilateral relations of Canada and the USA during the Korean War period with only a small focus on the campaign itself.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Thorgrimsson, Thor, and Edward C. Russell. Canadian Naval Operations in Korean Waters, 1950–1955. Ottawa: Queen’s Printer, 1965.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The official operational history of Canadian destroyers deployed to serve with United Nations forces fighting in Korea. Its focus is on the activities of the individual ships deployed to the theater, but it also deals with issues such as logistics and administration.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Watson, Brent Byron. Far Eastern Tour: The Canadian Infantry in Korea, 1950–1953. Montreal and Kingston, Canada: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2002.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Offers a detailed examination of the social experiences of Canadian soldiers in Korea including factors such as training, wounds and infectious diseases, food and alcohol, and manpower and rotational policies.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Wood, Herbert Fairlie. Strange Battleground: The Operations in Korea and Their Effect on the Defence Policy of Canada. Ottawa: Queen’s Printer, 1966.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              This official history was the first academic study of Canada’s contribution to the Korean conflict to appear in print. It provides a good narrative of the war and is well illustrated with maps. It conveys the idea that the Special Service men who first went to Korea were amateurs compared to the professional regular soldiers who went later.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Post-1950

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Canada’s military underwent a series of major reorganizations in the post-World War II period. From the massive demobilization in 1945–1946 to the Cold War buildup to the unification of the three services in the late 1960s, there was constant change underway. There are a number of surveys that chronicle this period of change (Bland 1987; Bland 1995; Tomlin, et al. 2008) and works that examine aspects of the relationship between defense and foreign policy (McLin 1967, Sarty 2009). The origins and working experience of the North American Air Defence Command are the subject of two studies (Jockel 1987, Jockel 2007). One of the key figures in this period was Paul Hellyer, the minister of national defense who has left us an uncompromising memoir by the man chiefly responsible for unification (Hellyer 1990).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Bland, Douglas. The Administration of Defence Policy in Canada 1947 to 1985. Kingston, Canada: Ronald P. Frye, 1987.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                A critical analysis whose focus is the origins, implementation and results of the unification of the Canadian Armed Forces in the 1960s.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Bland, Douglas. Chiefs of Defence: Government and the Unified Command of the Canadian Armed Forces. Toronto: Canadian Institute of Strategic Studies, 1995.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The sequel to Bland 1987, which explores the experiences of the first ten chiefs of defense, the unified appointment that replaced the previous air, land, and naval chiefs of staff committee in 1964.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Hellyer, Paul. Damn the Torpedoes: My Fight to Unify Canada’s Armed Forces. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1990.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The opinionated and comprehensive memoirs of Canada’s most controversial minister of defense, who put through the integration and then unification of the Canadian Armed Forces in 1964–1968.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Jockel, Joseph T. No Boundaries Upstairs: Canada, the United States and the Origins of North American Air Defence, 1945–1958. Vancouver, Canada: University of British Columbia Press, 1987.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The standard work exploring the relationship between Canada and the United States, which lead to the creation of the North American Air Defence Command (NORAD).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Jockel, Joseph T. Canada in NORAD 1957–2007: A History. Montreal and Kingston, Canada: McGill-Queen’s University Press, Queen’s Centre for International Relations and Queen’s Defence Management Program, 2007.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        This follow-up work to Jockel 1987 examines the working dynamics of continental air defense in the North American context.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • McLin, Jon B. Canada’s Changing Defense Policy, 1957–1963: The Problems of a Middle Power in Alliance. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins, 1967.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          A little dated but still the most useful source on a period of turmoil in the history of the Canadian military. Includes a good overview of the controversy surrounding the cancellation of the Avro Arrow project by the John Diefenbaker government.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Sarty, Roger. “The Interplay of Defence and Foreign Policy.” In Canada Among Nations 2008: 100 Years of Canadian Foreign Policy. Edited by Robert Bothwell and Jean Daudelin, 111–141. Montreal and Kingston, Canada: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2009.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            A useful survey of the interrelationship between the departments of National Defence and External/Foreign Affairs in the 20th century, which includes review of the relevant literature.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Tomlin, Brian W., Norman Hillmer, and Fen Osler Hampson. Canada’s International Policies: Agendas, Alternatives, and Politics. Toronto: Oxford University Press, 2008.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              This is an excellent source on defense white papers and other key government policy statements for the period from 1945 to 2008. See chapters 6 and 7.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Cold War

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The Cold War was a period of significant growth and stability for the Canadian military. Training and equipping to fight the Soviets was relatively straightforward, though the multi-lateral relations with NATO and NORAD partners were sometimes problematic. There is yet much to be written on the Canadian military in the Cold War period, but an existing survey of the period (Bothwell 2007) provides a good start. There are also excellent studies on the air force (Wakelam 2012) and army (Maloney 1997) along with a number of studies of Canada’s Cold War nuclear policies (Clearwater 1998, Maloney 2007, Richter 2002). Nicholson 1972 and Burtch 2012 discuss the other side of the debate regarding how Canada would deal with a nuclear attack.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Bothwell, Robert. Alliance and Illusion: Canada and the World, 1945–1984. Vancouver, Canada: University of British Columbia Press, 2007.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The most comprehensive history of Canada and the Cold War, it is strong on military, diplomatic, and domestic political developments.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Burtch, Andrew. Give Me Shelter: The Failure of Canada’s Cold War Civil Defence. Vancouver, Canada: University of British Columbia Press, 2012.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  An examination of the home front during the Cold War which argues, as the title suggests, that despite extensive planning, Canada’s civil defense plans were vastly inadequate for nuclear war.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Clearwater, John. Canadian Nuclear Weapons: The Untold Story of Canada’s Cold War Arsenal. Toronto: Dundurn, 1998.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The first book to reveal the extensive history of Canada’s six nuclear-related programs including atomic warheads for the Bomarc missile, the Genie rocket, and nuclear-armed CF-104 squadrons.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Maloney, Sean M. War Without Battles: Canada’s NATO Brigade in Germany, 1951–1993. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 1997.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      An insightful study of the important role played by the Canadian Army brigade deployed to Germany during the height of the Cold War. It shows that the very presence of the Canadian force contributed to a show of strength by NATO, which helped to prevent the Cold War from turning hot.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Maloney, Sean M. Learning to Love the Bomb: Canada’s Nuclear Weapons During the Cold War. Washington, DC: Potomac, 2007.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Canada, a traditional non-nuclear country, had extensive classified plans to use nuclear weapons defensively during the Cold War.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Nicholson, G. W. L. “The Canadian Militia’s introduction to civil-defence training.” In Policy by Other Means: Essays in Honour of C. P. Stacey. Edited by Michael Cross and Robert Bothwell, 219–245. Toronto: Clarke, Irwin, 1972.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The future of the Canadian militia was in jeopardy due to budget cuts until a new role was found in the task of civil defense to deal with the aftermath of a nuclear attack.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Richter, Andrew. Avoiding Armageddon: Canadian Military Strategy and Nuclear Weapons, 1950–63. Vancouver, Canada: University of British Columbia Press, 2002.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            An examination of Canadian foreign and defense policy that seeks to understand how Canadian governments, which were against the use of nuclear weapons, tried to integrate differing Canadian and US policies so it could best contribute to Western security and defense.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Wakelam, Randall. Cold War Fighters: Canadian Aircraft Procurement, 1945–54. Vancouver, Canada: University of British Columbia Press, 2012.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The Royal Canadian Air Force enjoyed a renaissance during the immediate postwar period as a result of Cold War demands. This book examines the procurement process for successful projects such as the Canadian version of the F-86 and the domestically designed and produced CF-100 while avoiding generalizations created by the failure of the CF-105 Arrow project.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Peacekeeping

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Since the first United Nations peacekeeping deployment to the Sinai and Egypt in response to the Suez Crisis of 1956, Canada has been considered a leading nation of peacekeepers. The role of Lester B. Pearson in this first deployment, for which he was awarded a Nobel Prize, has confirmed this assessment. Surveys follow either a conventional assessment of peacekeeping (Jockel 1994) or attempt to understand peacekeeping in the context of the Cold War (Conrad 2011, Maloney 2002). There are also a number of studies that illuminate specific Canadian deployments to the Middle East (Carroll 2009), Africa (Dallaire 2008, Spooner 2010), and the Balkans (Off 2004).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Carroll, Michael K. Pearson’s Peacekeepers: Canada and the United Nations Emergency Force, 1956–1957. Vancouver, Canada: University of British Columbia Press, 2009.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The definitive account of Canada’s role in the first major UN peacekeeping mission in Egypt, which helped to prevent a wider conflict between Britain, France, Egypt, and possibly the Soviet Union.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Conrad, John. Scarce Heard Amid the Guns: An Inside Look at Canadian Peacekeeping. Toronto: Dundurn, 2011.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  This is an important survey of Canada’s long-standing commitment to UN peacekeeping operations. Written by a former officer who participated in many of these missions, this study provides perspective that goes beyond the myth of peacekeeping that is so firmly entrenched in the consciousness of the Canadian public.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Dallaire, Romeo. Shake Hands with the Devil: The Failure of Humanity in Rwanda. Toronto: Random House, 2008.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    A first-person account by the commander of the UN mission of the terrible events in Rwanda that led to the execution of ten Belgian peacekeepers amid the genocide of some 800,000 Rwandans. Dallaire talks candidly about the failure of his mission, the lack of support from UN headquarters, and the personal toll his experiences caused.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Jockel, Joesph T. Canada and International Peacekeeping. Toronto: Canadian Institute of Strategic Studies, 1994.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      A conventional account of the role of Canadian peacekeeping during the Cold War. Argues that peacekeeping is an essential component of Canadian military activity and needs to be continued with the end of the Cold War.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Maloney, Sean M. Canada and UN Peacekeeping: Cold War by Other Means, 1945–1970. St. Catharines, Canada: Vanwell, 2002.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The ideal of peacekeeping has always resonated with the Canadian public even though it was a small part of the Canadian military’s role during the Cold War. This innovative study looks at Canada’s peacekeeping commitments through the prism of the Cold War to show that Canadian deployments were not as altruistic as they may have appeared on the surface.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Off, Carol. The Ghosts of the Medak Pocket: The Story of Canada’s Secret War. Toronto: Random House, 2004.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Tells the story of a Canadian peace support operation that devolved into conventional war fighting during a UN peacekeeping deployment to Croatia in the late summer of 1993. It relies extensively on anecdotes and interviews and does a solid job of telling the human side of the story.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Spooner, Kevin A. Canada, the Congo Crisis, and UN Peacekeeping 1960–64. Vancouver, Canada: University of British Columbia Press, 2010.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Chronicles the political background of the Canadian deployment to the Congo as well as the mechanics of the deployment itself. It shows that despite serious misgivings, the Canadian government ultimately sent troops because it feared that failure in the Congo could mean the end of UN peacekeeping.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Somalia

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Canada’s deployment to Somalia under UN auspices in 1992–1993, while an overall success in its main goal of securing a lawless area of the country, has become infamous for the isolated murder of a Somali teen who broke into the Canadian base. The incident became a media sensation, and the military was pilloried for a number of regrettable events. It resulted in the prosecution/sanction of the soldiers involved, as well as the disbandment of the Airborne Regiment. Monographs on this topic are split between carefully researched works that attempt to understand events in the context of the time (Bercuson 1996, Dawson 2007, Worthington and Brown 1997) and others seeking to prove the decay of the Canadian military (Desbarats 1997, Taylor and Nolan 1996).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Bercuson, David. Significant Incident: Canada’s Army, the Airborne, and the Murder in Somalia. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1996.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              A balanced analysis of the state of the Canadian Army and the Airborne Regiment at the time of the Somalia affair and how a wide range of seemingly unrelated factors combined to create the environment that led to the terrible murder of a Somali teen.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Dawson, Grant. “Here is Hell”: Canada’s Engagement in Somalia. Vancouver, Canada: University of British Columbia Press, 2007.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Chronicles the international political scene that led to the Canadian deployment to Somalia and analyzes the political, diplomatic, and military decision making in the wider context of the deployment.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Desbarats, Peter. Somalia Cover-Up: A Commissioner’s Journal. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1997.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Written by one of the commissioners of the Somalia Inquiry, this book defends the findings of the commission and resents the premature shutdown of the inquiry by Vice-Admiral Larry Murray, the acting chief of the defense staff.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Taylor, Scott and Brian Nolan. Tarnished Brass: Crime and Corruption in the Canadian Military. Toronto: Lester, 1996.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Offers a stinging indictment of the Canadian military at the time of the Somalia affair. It begins with the premise that the military was rotten, and the authors have no trouble finding the evidence to support their viewpoint.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Worthington, Peter, and Kyle Brown. Scapegoat: How the Army Betrayed Kyle Brown. Toronto: Doubleday, 1997.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Examines the murder of Shidane Arone from the perspective of one of the men charged in the affair and concludes that Brown was a scapegoat for a cover up of more senior personnel.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Afghanistan

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The conclusion of Canada’s combat mission in 2011 has been predated by a large number of books dealing with the extensive Canadian presence in Afghanistan over the first decade of the 21st century. Like many early attempts at telling the history of an event before it is over, the quality of these works ranges from popular journalistic accounts (Blatchford 2007, Day 2010) to politically inspired critiques (Stein and Lang 2007) to interesting and informative personal memoirs (Conrad 2009, Wiss 2009). There are also a number of solid accounts of the war that attempt to analyze and contextualize events as well as possible without the benefit of historical perspective (Horn 2010; Pigott 2007; Windsor, et al. 2010).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Blatchford, Christie. Fifteen Days: Stories of Bravery, Friendship, Life and Death from Inside the New Canadian Army. Toronto: Doubleday Canada, 2007.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        An empathetic account of the events of the summer of 2006, during Operation Medusa, written by a journalist who was embedded with the Canadian Army during this intense period of operations.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Conrad, John. What the Thunder Said: Reflections of a Canadian Officer in Kandahar. Toronto: Dundurn, 2009.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          This unusual memoir, written by a logistics officer, offers an invaluable inside look at the challenges of keeping the Canadian battle group supplied in combat during the critical 2006 campaign against the Taliban.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Day, Adam. Witness to War: Reporting on Afghanistan 2004–2009. Kingston, Canada: Canadian Defence Academy Press, 2010.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            A memoir/history of the Afghan conflict told in a series of vignettes written by a journalist who visited the theater four times between 2004 and 2009.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Horn, Bernd. No Lack of Courage: Operation Medusa, Afghanistan. Toronto: Dundurn, 2010.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              A well-researched account of Canada’s first large-scale, deliberate offensive combat operation since the Korean War. This is likely to remain the best account of this important battle until the declassification of official records.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Pigott, Peter. Canada in Afghanistan: The War So Far. Toronto: Dundurn, 2007.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                This is one of the first histories of the Canadian deployment to Afghanistan. It provides a good overview of the situation as it was known following Operation Medusa. As such, it offers an interesting comparison to later books that deal with an operational/tactical situation that has changed considerably over time.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Stein, Janice Gross, and Eugene Lang. The Unexpected War: Canada in Kandahar. Toronto: Viking Canada, 2007.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Examines the political background of Canada’s participation in the Afghanistan conflict and attempts to contextualize the domestic and international factors behind the decision.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Windsor, Lee, David Charters, and Brent Wilson. Kandahar Tour: The Turning Point in Canada’s Afghan Mission. Mississauga, Canada: Wiley, 2010.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    An innovative study that follows the training, deployment and return of a Canadian battle group sent to Kandahar in 2007. The book discusses the mission in considerable detail and provides a deeper analysis of the factors behind success and failure than can be found in more popular accounts of the Canadians in Afghanistan.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Wiss, Ray. FOB Doc: A Doctor on the Front Lines in Afghanistan. Vancouver, Canada: Douglas and McIntyre, 2009.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Based on a diary kept during his deployment, Wiss, a civilian ER doctor and part-time solider, writes an engaging account of his time in Afghanistan. It offers a behind-the-scenes look at battlefield medicine and the medical establishment at Kandahar Airfield.

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