The Austro-Hungarian armed forces were bookended by devastating military defeats. Born from the Austrian Empire’s defeat in the Austro-Prussian War in 1866, it passed in 1918 with the Central Powers’ defeat in the Great War, the only major conflict in which the Dual Monarchy’s armed forces participated. For this reason, the vast majority of scholarly literature on the Austro-Hungarian armed forces focuses on World War I and various facets of its operations and the experiences of its soldiers, sailors, and airmen. Institutional studies of the Austro-Hungarian armed forces have detailed the organizational, multiethnic, and political complexities which consistently hindered their ability to keep pace with Europe’s other “Great Powers.” Campaign studies reveal as much, offering a seemingly endless supply of military catastrophes due to all manner of ineptitude and implacability: the indecisiveness of its leadership, “Schlamperei” (carelessness), ill-conceived and/or poorly executed military operations, ethnic antagonisms within, and poor relations between officers and their men (Offizierhass). These deficiencies, during World War I, forced their German ally to intervene on an ever-greater scale to keep the army reasonably functional and intact. In the process, it placed the Habsburg Monarchy in an increasingly subservient role. The more recent turn of literature toward the experiences of Austro-Hungarian soldiers in the field has revealed the very real consequences of the debacles of the Habsburg high command. No soldiers among Europe’s Great Powers suffered more than did those of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
While Bassett 2016 offers an expansive operational and institutional overview of the Austro-Hungarian army compared to previous works, Rothenberg 1976 offers greater depth in its coverage of the k.u.k. army under Kaiser Franz Josef’s reign. Wandruszka and Urbanitisch 1987 is a particularly valuable source in terms of detailing the institutional changes effective with the Ausgleich (or compromise) of 1867. Its combination of breadth and depth remains quite impressive. Lackey 1995 is an able and well-researched study of Friedrich Beck’s efforts to overhaul and modernize the institution, but by design, it focuses only on Beck’s tenure as Chief of the Habsburg General Staff. Austro-Hungarian Land Forces 1848–1918 complements Rothenberg 1976 and Lackey 1995 by charting the organization of the separate Austrian and Hungarian national armies (the Landwehr and Honvéd, respectively) as well as that of the joint k.u.k. (Kaiserlich und Königlich) army. As for the Austro-Hungarian navy, Rechkron, et al. 1966 offers a detailed, archivally based account of the navy’s warships, their deployment, and actions at various points in monarchy’s history. Sondhaus 2017 and Vego 1996 provide concise and useful overviews of the development of the Austro-Hungarian navy, while Sokol 1980—a naval officer, Great War veteran, and author of the multivolume Österreich-Ungarns Seekrieg 1914–18, the naval counterpart to the General Staff’s official history of World War I, Österreich-Ungarns letzter Krieg—details its expeditions and actions before the outbreak of the Great War. In a similar vein to Sokol 1980, Desoye 1999 provides a useful narrative for the development of the Austro-Hungarian army’s air corps in the years leading up to World War I. The lack of scholarly attention given to the empire’s navy and air corps, in particular, makes these overviews all the more important. As is the case in most topic areas of the Austro-Hungarian armed forces, there much room for further research, analysis, and reassessment of these military institutions.
This website created by Glenn Jewison and Jörg C. Steiner is incredible in both its depth and breadth, detailing the organization, unit histories, ethnic composition of units, and orders of battle, among other aspects of the Austro-Hungarian army, but also includes a wealth of information on the organization of its air wing.
Bassett, Richard. For God and Kaiser: The Imperial Austrian Army, 1619–1918. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2016.
Bassett’s monograph is a sweeping, chronological exploration of the Habsburg army. It follows the evolution of the army on the battlefield, detailing its descent from being the finest in Europe to being woefully ill-prepared for war in 1914. Nevertheless, Bassett channels Rothenberg’s ceaseless optimism, finding strength and achievement where others have found weakness and failure.
Desoye, Reinhard Karl Boromäus. Die k.u.k. Luftfahrtruppe: Die Entstehung, der Aufbau and die Organisation der österreichisch-ungarischen Heersluftwaffe 1912–1918. Hamburg, Germany: Diplomica Verlag, 1999.
This is Desoye’s published master’s thesis, which documents the brief life of the Austro-Hungarian army air wing from its inception to its demise in 1918. In doing so, it draws heavily on archival documents to detail the air service’s relationship with Austro-Hungarian industry, its organization and expansion, and its tactical and strategic doctrine during World War I.
Lackey, Scott W. The Rebirth of the Habsburg Army: Friedrich Beck and the Rise of the General Staff. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger, 1995.
In his revised PhD dissertation, he examines the achievements the first Chief of the Austro-Hungarian General Staff, Friedrich Beck. Following the Prussian model, Beck’s General Staff overhauled the empire’s system of mobilization, created a new reserve in the Landsturm, and established a defensive alliance with Germany. In short, Beck created the army Conrad von Hötzendorf took to war in 1914.
Rechkron, Josef Rechberger, Josef Ritter von Lehnert, Artur von Khuepach, Heinrich Bayer von Bayersburg, and Hans Sokol. Geschichte der K. u. K. Kriegsmarine. 5 vols. Vienna and Graz, Austria: Böhlau, 1966.
With volumes commissioned and written at various points in time by Austro-Hungarian and, later, Austrian authorities—the last having been completed in 1966—this five-volume set, written by generations of historians at the Kriegsarchiv in Vienna, provides a comprehensive history of the Habsburg navy from 1500 to 1914. Many of the volumes have been digitized and are widely available online.
Rothenberg, Gunther E. The Army of Francis Joseph. West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University Press, 1976.
Still widely available, any broad examination of the Habsburg army must begin with Gunther Rothenberg’s foundational work, which remained, for many years, the only English-language study of the Austro-Hungarian army. Francis Joseph’s army, while a unifying force in the empire, was behind Europe’s Great Powers and could not wage a major war on its own. That this was never redressed reflected the dysfunction of imperial politics.
Sokol, Hans. Des Kaisers Seemacht: Die K.K. Osterreichische Kriegsmarine 1848 bis 1914. Vienna: Amalthea, 1980.
A history of the development of the Austro-Hungarian navy prior to the outbreak of World War I. In addition to his coverage of naval missions projecting Austro-Hungarian imperial power, Sokol’s coverage of the navy’s actions in international incidents, such as its support of the revolts in Crete in 1898, the Annexation Crisis of 1908, and the Boxer Rebellion (1900), are of particular interest.
Sondhaus, Lawrence. “Austria-Hungary: An Inland Empire Looks to the Sea.” In The Sea in History: The Modern World. Edited by N. A. M. Rodger and Christian Buchet, 180–190. Suffolk, UK: Boydell Press, 2017.
This book chapter provides an informative overview of the spasmodic development of the Austro-Hungarian navy as well as its embrace of maritime trade in the late decades of the 19th century. Sondhaus highlights the fact that despite being consistently underfunded and numerically inferior, it overachieved and held its own against the Great Power navies it faced.
Vego, Milan N. Austro-Hungarian Naval Policy, 1904–1914. Portland, OR: Frank Cass, 1996.
A limited but useful introduction to the development of the Imperial and Royal Navy under Admiral Rudolf Montecuccoli, who guided the institution throughout much of the period under examination.
Wandruszka, Adam, and Peter Urbanitisch, eds. Die Habsburgermonarchie 1848–1918. Vol. 5, Die bewaffnete Macht. Vienna: Osterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1987.
This encyclopedic anthology details the organization and inner workings of the Austro-Hungarian armed forces from 1848 to 1914. With a useful introduction that positions the Habsburg armed forces in imperial society, the volume is topically divided, with the reorganization of the Habsburg army after the Ausgleich appropriately receiving the most extensive treatment.
Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content on this page. Please subscribe or login.
- 1812, War of
- Aerial Bombardment, Ethics of
- Afghanistan, Wars in
- Africa, Gunpowder and Colonial Campaigns in
- African Wars of Independence
- Air Transport
- Allenby, Edmund
- All-Volunteer Army, Post-Vietnam Through 2016
- American Colonial Wars
- American Indian Wars
- American War of Independence
- Animals and the Military
- Antietam, Battle of
- Arab-Israeli Wars, 1948-Present
- Arctic Warfare
- Armed Forces of the Ottoman Empire, 1683–1918
- Armored War
- Arms Control and Disarmament
- Army, Roman
- Artists and War Art
- Australia from the Colonial Era to the Present
- Austrian Succession, War of the
- Austro-Hungarian Armed Forces
- Balkan Liberation, 1878–1913, Wars of
- Boer Wars
- Bonaparte, Napoleon
- Brazilian Armed Forces
- Britain and the Blitz
- British Armed Forces, from the Glorious Revolution to Pres...
- British Army in World War II
- British Army of the Rhine, The
- British-India Armies from 1740 to 1849
- Canada from World War I to the Present
- Canada through World War I
- Cavalry since 1500
- China's Modern Wars, 1911-Present
- Chinese Civil War, 1945-1949
- Clausewitz, Carl von
- Coalition and Alliance War
- Cold War, 1945-1990
- Communications, French Revolution to Present
- Conquest of Mexico and Peru
- Cornwallis, Charles
- Counterinsurgency in the Modern World
- Cromwell, Oliver
- Crusades, The
- Defense Industries
- Dien Bien Phu, Battle of
- European Wars, Mid-Nineteenth-Century
- Frederick the Great
- French Armies, Early Modern
- French Military, 1919-1940
- French Revolutionary Wars, The
- German Air Forces
- German Army, 1871–1945
- German Sea Power, 1848-1918
- German Unification, Wars of
- Grant, Ulysses S.
- Guerrilla Warfare, Pre-20th-Century
- Hippolyte, Comte de Guibert, Jacques Antoine
- Hundred Days Campaign of 1918
- Hundred Years War
- Hungary, Warfare in Medieval and Early Modern
- Imperial China, War in
- India 'Mutiny' and 'Revolution,' 1857-1858
- Indian Army in World War I
- Indian Warfare, Ancient
- India-Pakistan Wars
- Indochina Wars, 1946-1975
- Information Warfare
- Intelligence, Military
- International Efforts to Control War
- Iraq Wars, 1980s-Present
- Irish Civil War, 1922-1923
- Irish Revolution, 1911-1923, The
- Italian Armed Forces in the Modern Age
- Italian Campaign, World War I
- Japanese Army in the World War II Era, The Imperial
- Japanese Navy
- Jomini, Antoine-Henri
- Justice, Military, the Anglo-American Tradition
- Justice of War and Justice in War
- Khan, Genghis
- Kursk, Battle of
- Lee, Robert E.
- Lepizig, Battle of
- Literature and Drama, War in
- Loos, Battle of
- Louis XIV, Wars of
- Low-Intensity Operations
- Manzikert, Battle of
- Medicine, Military
- Medieval Japan, 900-1600
- Meuse-Argonne Offensive
- Mexico and the United States, 1836–1848, Wars of
- Midway, Battle of
- Military Officers, United States
- Mongol Wars
- Montgomery, Bernard Law
- Music and War
- Napoleonic Wars, The
- Navy, British
- Nelson, Horatio
- New Zealand
- Nimitz, Chester
- Nuclear Culture
- Nuclear Weapons
- Occupations and Military Government
- Operational Art
- Ottoman Navy
- Passchaendale, Battle of
- Patton, George
- Peninsular War
- Polish Armed Forces, 1918-present
- Political Purges in the 20th Century
- Poltava, Battle of
- Psychiatric Casualties
- Race in the US Military
- Red Cross
- Religio-Military Orders
- Roman Empire
- Roses, Wars of the
- Russian and Soviet Armed Forces
- Russian Campaign of 1812
- Russian Civil War, 1918-1921
- Russian Military History
- Russian Military History, 1762-1825
- Russo-Japanese War
- Safavid Army
- Sailing Warships
- Science and Technology in War
- Science Fiction, Military
- Semi-Military and Paramilitary Organizations
- Seven Years' War
- Seven Years' War in North America, The
- Sino-Japanese Wars, 1895-1945
- South West Pacific, 1941–1945, Campaigns in
- Southeast Asian Military History, Colonial
- Southeast Asian Military History, Precolonial
- Space and War
- Spain since the Reconquista
- Spanish Civil War
- Special Operations Forces
- Special Operations Forces
- Stalingrad, Battle of
- Steppe Nomadic Warfare
- Submarine Warfare
- Swedish Armed Forces
- Tet Offensive
- The Allied Bombardment of Occupied Europe During World War...
- The United States and the Middle East, 1945-2001
- Trench Warfare
- United States Marine Corps, The
- Urban Warfare
- US Air Force
- US Air Power
- US Army
- Verdun, Battle of
- Vietnam War
- War, Chemical and Biological
- War Correspondents
- War, Culture of
- Warfare, Precolonial, in Africa
- Warships, Steam
- Women in the Military
- World War I in Film
- World War I Origins
- World War I: The Western Front
- World War II and the Far East
- World War II in the Mediterranean and Middle East
- World War II, Indian Army in
- World War II, Russo-German War
- Yugoslavian Civil War, 1991-1999
- Zhukov, Georgii
- Zulu Wars