International Law Idea and Limits of the Continental Shelf
by
Øystein Jensen
  • LAST MODIFIED: 11 January 2018
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199796953-0161

Introduction

The outcome of many years’ development in customary international law and treaty law, the continental shelf is today subject to a special international legal regime. This regime—which acquired its name simply from its geological counterpart—is, basically, one of the maritime zones in which coastal states exercise sovereign rights and jurisdiction. The regime of the continental shelf came into being around the mid-20th century, as technological developments made it easier to exploit offshore hydrocarbon resources in the seabed and its subsoil. These technological advances prompted a series of coastal states to lay claim to maritime areas that previously had belonged to no one: the seabed and subsoil extending beyond the territorial waters. Chief among these claims was that promulgated by US president Harry Truman on 28 September 1945. But who really owned the seabed? The international community was forced to consider the question. Developed concurrently as customary international law in the post–World War II era, the regime on the continental shelf was the subject of multilateral negotiations at consecutive Law of the Sea Conferences under the auspices of the United Nations. The First United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS I) 1958 adopted the Geneva Convention on the Continental Shelf. This Convention was widely supported and solidified the continental shelf regime in international law, notably with respect to the substantive rights regarding the continental shelf that accrue to a state. The 1958 Convention nevertheless failed to provide an acceptable regime with respect to the definition of the continental shelf. It defined its outer limits using an exploitability criterion; in practice, it meant there were no clearly defined outer limits. The controversies thus continued, and new ideas for the outer limit of the continental shelf unfolded at the Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS III) 1973–1982. UNCLOS III culminated with the 1982 adoption of the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (the Law of the Sea Convention). Compared to the Geneva Convention, the Law of the Sea Convention contained a more balanced and holistic regime for the law of the sea, including more clearly defined rules concerning the seaward extension of the continental shelf.

A vast amount of literature has been published on the legal regime of the continental shelf, of which this bibliography obviously only can provide a brief overview. It is nevertheless meant to provide authoritative guidance with respect to existing scholarly works, placing emphasis on what are generally considered the key monographs and anthologies, as well as a selection of relevant research articles. For practical purposes, the bibliography is limited to literature in English.

General Overviews and Textbooks

The rules concerning the continental shelf are first of all dealt with in a number of classic textbooks devoted to public international law. Crawford 2012 provides an overview of the regime on the continental shelf. An overall assessment is also contained in Jennings and Watts 2008. The law of the continental shelf is, however, too vast and complicated to be discussed in a mere few pages. So, although they situate the continental shelf regime in its proper international law context, these treatises cannot do justice to every detail of the continental shelf regime. There are several textbooks that nevertheless deal specifically with the law of the sea as a separate subfield of international law. They offer a more comprehensive examination of the rules on the continental shelf, including the rights and duties of the coastal states. Early monographs on the law of the sea, which also address aspects of the regime of the continental shelf, include Smith 1959, McDougal and Burke 1962, Bowett 1967, and Anand 1982. A widely recognized textbook on the modern law of the sea is Churchill and Lowe 1999. Anyone new to the field of the law of the sea will acquire balanced information from this extensive, readable, and coherent book, distinguished by excellent references to legal disputes and notes apparatus. Last updated and revised in 1999, the third edition is already almost twenty years old. Other textbooks that take a broader but thorough approach to the topic, and which discuss the continental shelf regime in its historical and contemporary setting, are Tanaka 2015 and Rothwell and Stephens 2016.

  • Anand, Ram Prakash. Origin and Development of the Law of the Sea: History of International Law Revisited. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1982.

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    An historical account of the emergence of the law of the sea, in which Anand pays special attention to the 20th century and acceptance of new maritime zones in international practice, including fisheries zones and continental shelves.

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    • Bowett, Derek William. The Law of the Sea. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press, 1967.

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      Written by an authority on global institutions, this advanced introduction is a useful early monograph on the law of the sea.

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      • Churchill, Robin Rolf, and Alan Vaughan Lowe. The Law of the Sea. 3d ed. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press, 1999.

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        A standard work on the law of the sea, both balanced and readable. Covers all the relevant subject areas of the field. The book is an excellent introduction for advanced students to the continental shelf regime, in terms of its definition, substantive rights, and delimitation.

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        • Crawford, James. Brownlie’s Principles of Public International Law. 8th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012.

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          Offering a comprehensive coverage of international law, the legal system and its constituent elements, this extensively referenced book provides a solid foundation for further research.

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          • Jennings, Robert, and Arthur Watts, eds. Oppenheim’s International Law. 9th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008.

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            This two-volume work is a classic of international law. The book makes extensive references to state practice and judicial decisions.

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            • McDougal, Myres Smith, and William Thomas Burke. The Public Order of the Oceans: A Contemporary International Law of the Sea. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1962.

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              The original version of a critical textbook. McDougal and Smith research the early post–World War II development of the law of the sea, including UNCLOS I and the Geneva Conventions. Discussion of maritime zones beyond the territorial sea is limited.

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              • Rothwell, Donald R., and Tim Stephens. The International Law of the Sea. 2d ed. Oxford: Hart, 2016.

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                An extensive elaboration of the law of the sea. Rothwell and Stephens address the main areas of the law of the sea, including the nature and extent of the maritime zones and delimitation of maritime boundaries.

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                • Smith, Herbert Arthur. The Law and Custom of the Sea. London: Stevens, 1959.

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                  The third edition of Smith’s introduction to the international law of the sea, written by a professor of international law who for many years lectured at the Royal Naval War College. The section on the continental shelf is rather limited.

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                  • Tanaka, Yoshifumi. The International Law of the Sea. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2015.

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                    An extensive yet student-friendly textbook that covers a wide range of topics, including the different maritime zones, marine environmental protection, and maritime boundary delimitation.

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                    Journals and Yearbooks

                    Several international peer-reviewed journals dedicated to the law of the sea have contributed a vast body of literature on the regime of the continental shelf. The primary journals are the International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law and Ocean Development & International Law. Each year, these journals publish articles on the continental shelf, invaluable to anyone interested in keeping up to date on the latest developments in the field. Another journal targeting ocean affairs, but somewhat less focused on legal dogmatic issues, is Marine Policy. Writings on the continental shelf are also found in journals not specifically limited to the law of the sea, but on international law in general, and for which there is a broader audience. Chief among them are high-ranking journals such as the American Journal of International Law, Leiden Journal of International Law, and International & Comparative Law Quarterly. Valuable literature on the continental shelf is also published by a great number of international law journals with a regional catchment area, two excellent examples of which are the Nordic Journal of International Law and Chinese Journal of International Law. Among the leading yearbooks to have issued important scholarly works on the continental shelf are the Ocean Yearbook, German Yearbook of International Law, and Netherlands Yearbook of International Law.

                    Anthologies and Handbooks

                    There is a plethora of edited volumes of use to scholars interested in the legal regime of the continental shelf. They are more or less specialized on the continental shelf regime. Vidas and Østreng 1999; Freestone, et al. 2006; Vidas 2010; Symmons 2011; and Molenaar, et al. 2013 are general anthologies on the law of the sea that also deal with different continental shelf–related questions. Cook and Carleton 2000 and Nordquist, et al. 2004 are specialized anthologies on the continental shelf. Both address the technical issues involved and explain the interface between the legal concepts in Article 76 of the Law of the Sea Convention. Nordquist, et al. 2013 identifies and explores many unresolved legal questions related to the continental shelf. An important and recent publication is Rothwell, et al. 2015, the first specialized handbook on the law of the sea, of which several chapters explore continental shelf–related issues.

                    • Cook, Peter J., and Chris M. Carleton, eds. Continental Shelf Limits: The Scientific and Legal Interface. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.

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                      Exploring the provisions of Article 76 of the Law of the Sea Convention, this constructive book looks at the technical issues involved and explains relations between the legal concepts contained within the article.

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                      • Freestone, David, Richard Barnes, and David Ong, eds. The Law of the Sea: Progress and Prospects. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006.

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                        An eminently practical publication of contributions from a number of leading experts on the law of the sea. Takes a critical approach to the Law of the Sea Convention. Chapters interrogate the role of the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf, maritime boundary delimitation, and sustainable use related to the conservation of continental shelf resources.

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                        • Molenaar, Erik J., Alex G. Oude Elferink, and Donald R. Rothwell, eds. The Law of the Sea and the Polar Regions: Interactions between Global and Regional Regimes. Leiden, The Netherlands, and Boston: Martinus Nijhoff, 2013.

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                          This volume examines regional regimes for the Arctic and Antarctic on science, maritime security, fisheries, and shipping. It also analyzes the intricate process of establishing outer continental shelf limits in the polar maritime regions.

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                          • Nordquist, Myron H., John N. Moore, Aldo Chircop, and Ronán Long, eds. The Regulation of Continental Shelf Development: Rethinking International Standards. Leiden, The Netherlands, and Boston: Martinus Nijhoff, 2013.

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                            Leading global experts identify and explore several unresolved legal concerns related to the continental shelf. Issues highly vary and include, inter alia, jurisprudence of the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (ITLOS) with respect to continental shelf delimitation in the Bay of Bengal and the role of the International Maritime Organization (IMO) in establishing safety standards for transboundary effects of oil pollution for offshore platforms.

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                            • Nordquist, Myron H., John N. Moore, and Tomas H. Heidar, eds. Legal and Scientific Aspects of the Continental Shelf Limits. Leiden, The Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff, 2004.

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                              An interdisciplinary edited volume that deals with both legal and scientific dimensions of continental shelf limits.

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                              • Rothwell, Donald, Alex G. Oude Elferink, Karen Scott, and Tim Stephens, eds. The Oxford Handbook of the Law of the Sea. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015.

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                                An extensive and valuable handbook of analyses of current debates and controversies with respect to the Law of the Sea Convention. It consists of forty chapters, several on continental shelf–related issues.

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                                • Symmons, Clive R., ed. Selected Contemporary Issues in the Law of the Sea. Leiden, The Netherlands, and Boston: Martinus Nijhoff, 2011.

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                                  Specifically as related to the continental shelf, contributors scrutinize the outer limits of the continental shelf, including potential problems with respect to submissions to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf in instances where regional maritime or land boundary disputes exist, or where differences arise between the commission and a submitting state.

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                                  • Vidas, Davor, ed. Law, Technology and Science for Oceans in Globalisation: IUU Fishing, Oil Pollution, Bioprospecting, Outer Continental Shelf. Leiden, The Netherlands, and Boston: Martinus Nijhoff, 2010.

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                                    Contributors address a variety of emerging challenges to the world’s oceans, including illegal, unreported, and unregulated fishing; illegal oil spills from ships; and marine genetic resources and bioprospecting. A separate section is devoted to substantive and institutional matters concerning the establishment of continental shelf limits beyond 200 nautical miles from the territorial baselines.

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                                    • Vidas, Davor, and Willy Østreng, eds. Order for the Oceans at the Turn of the Century. The Hague: Kluwer Law International, 1999.

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                                      Focusing on the regime on the continental shelf, the book examines issues such as the impact of the Law of the Sea Convention for maritime boundary delimitation and the role of the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf.

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                                      Reference Works and Bibliographies

                                      Entries on the continental shelf and the most central and essential topics in international law can be found in the major encyclopedias. The most important is Wolfrum 2012, initiated by the Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law (Max Planck Institute). The encyclopedia is available in both electronic and print form. The online version has been steadily expanding with the addition of new articles since 2008, while authors can also update existing articles. The entries on the continental shelf range from the historical and general to specialized issues, such as court decisions relating to continental shelf delimitation or the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf. Libraries have assembled shorter bibliographies on the continental shelf literature online. The most extensive bibliographies on the literature of the continental shelf in international law are, however, selections of works published by the Division of Ocean Affairs and the Law of the Sea of the United Nations (DOALOS) from 1968 to 2012: A Bibliography on the Law of the Sea 1968–1988 (DOALOS 1991), Law of the Sea: 35 Year Law of the Sea Bibliography 1967–2002 (DOALOS 2004), and The Law of the Sea: A Select Bibliography (DOALOS 2013).

                                      • Division of Ocean Affairs and the Law of the Sea of the United Nations. A Bibliography on the Law of the Sea 1968–1988. New York: United Nations, 1991.

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                                        A single volume citing literature published from 1968 to 1988 on all aspects of the law of the sea.

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                                        • Division of Ocean Affairs and the Law of the Sea of the United Nations. Law of the Sea: 35 Year Law of the Sea Bibliography 1967–2002. CD-ROM. New York: United Nations, 2004.

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                                          A searchable CD-ROM of bibliographic citations on all aspects of the law of the sea from 1967 to 2002. More than 5,600 authors writing in some 454 journals are listed.

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                                          • Division of Ocean Affairs and the Law of the Sea of the United Nations. The Law of the Sea: A Select Bibliography 2012. New York: United Nations, 2013.

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                                            This bibliography was compiled annually by the DOALOS from 1985 to 2012. The books and articles are divided into subject categories based on the major topics of the Law of the Sea Convention, including the continental shelf. Available online.

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                                            • Wolfrum, Rüdiger Wolfrum, ed. The Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012.

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                                              The definitive reference work on international law, with more than 1,600 articles covering the full breadth of the subject. This encyclopedia provides in-depth information on public international law, with several articles on continental shelf issues. It is a new and revised edition of the Encyclopedia of Public International Law published between 1991 and 2001 by Rudolf Bernhardt.

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                                              Codification

                                              The process of codifying the rules on the continental shelf in the postwar era can be divided into three phases. First, with respect to the 1958 Convention on the Continental Shelf, the proceedings of the International Law Commission (ILC)—which played the major role in proposing drafts for treaty provisions to UNCLOS I—are published in the Yearbook of the International Law Commission. The United Nations has also published the Official Records of United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS I) 1958. Second, the papers of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of the Sea-Bed and Ocean Floor beyond the Limits of National Jurisdiction (UN Seabed Committee)—which from 1968 worked on proposing a new legal regime for the continental shelf, and later got an enlarged mandate to prepare for a forthcoming major global conference to deal with all aspects related to the law of the sea—are published in the United Nations General Assembly Official Records (United Nations General Assembly 1968–1973) and in the Yearbook of the United Nations. Third, the United Nations has also published the Official Records of the proceedings of United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS III) 1973–1982. With respect to UNCLOS III, a more extensive set of conference documents is published in Platzöder 1982–1987. An article-by-article commentary on the provisions of the continental shelf in the Law of the Sea Convention is found in Nandan and Rosenne 1993.

                                              • Nandan, Satya N., and Shabtai Rosenne. United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea 1982: A Commentary. Vol. II, Articles 1–85, Annexes I and II, Final Act, Annex II. Dordrecht, The Netherlands, and Boston: Martinus Nijhoff, 1993.

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                                                Given the limited extent of travaux préparatoires, this commentary is a must for anyone interested in studying the negotiations of the provisions on the continental shelf during UNCLOS III.

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                                                • Platzöder, Renate. Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea. 18 vols. Dobbs Ferry, NY: Oceana, 1982–1987.

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                                                  This reproduction of documents from UNCLOS III is a necessary tool for anyone interested in the negotiations of the current treaty regime applying to the continental shelf.

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                                                  • United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS I). Official Records. Vols. I–VII. Geneva, Switzerland: United Nations, 1958.

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                                                    The Official Records of UNCLOS I comprise seven volumes. Volume VI contains the summary records of the meetings of the committee specifically dealing with the continental shelf. It includes the draft articles prepared by the ILC and the final texts adopted by the committee.

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                                                    • United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS III). Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea, Official Records. Vols. 1–17. New York: United Nations, 1973–1982.

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                                                      The Official Records of UNCLOS III comprise seventeen volumes with summaries of the sessions of meetings held at New York, Caracas and Geneva.

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                                                      • United Nations General Assembly. Official Records. New York: United Nations, 1968–1973.

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                                                        These include summary records of the meetings of the General Assembly, including commentaries on the work of the UN Seabed Committee, which was in operation from 1968 to 1973. General Assembly resolutions and decision relevant to the work of the committee are attached as supplements to the records.

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                                                        • Yearbook of the International Law Commission.

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                                                          These publications contain the summary records of the ILC’s meetings preceding UNCLOS I (1949–1958), including the commission’s annual report to the UN General Assembly. The yearbooks thus form an important part of the preparatory work of the 1958 Convention on the Continental Shelf.

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                                                          • Yearbook of the United Nations.

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                                                            These are important reference works on the activities of the UN Seabed Committee and UN consideration, deliberation, and action relating to the continental shelf regime prior to UNCLOS III. See the yearbooks for the years 1968–1973.

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                                                            Core Concepts

                                                            This section distinguishes four core concepts. The distinctions are made on the basis of how key issues related to the legal regime of the continental shelf have been approached by the relevant legal literature. The first element involves the continental shelf in its historical context; the second element addresses key theoretical issues; the third element attends to the relationship of the continental shelf regime to certain other treaty regimes; and the fourth element deals with the continental shelf in dispute settlement.

                                                            History

                                                            A good place to begin examining the formative stages of the development of the legal regime on the continental shelf is Hurst 1923–1924. Early state practice and jurisdictional issues are also explored by Bingham 1946 and Boggs 1951. Mouton 1952 provides perhaps the first comprehensive analysis of attempts to define the legal regime of the continental shelf. Writings specifically dealing with the work of the ILC leading up to the 1958 Convention on the Continental Shelf—and the 1958 Convention itself—include Young 1958 and Whiteman 1958. Slouka 1968 and Andrassy 1970 are noteworthy early monographs on the continental shelf. Slouka 1968 studies the relationship of customary international law and the continental shelf regime. Preceding UNCLOS III, Andrassy 1970 skillfully surveys the legal problems related to the continental shelf and outlines regulatory alternatives to the framework provided by the 1958 Convention on the Continental Shelf. Mahmoudi 1987 provides an excellent assessment of the regulations relating to the continental shelf as laid down in the Law of the Sea Convention. Another good general introduction to the rules on the continental shelf is Brown 1992.

                                                            • Andrassy, Juraj. International Law and the Resources of the Sea. New York: Columbia University Press, 1970.

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                                                              An excellent publication, demonstrating that the 1958 Convention on the Continental Shelf was not suitable for balancing the economic and political considerations of international politics in the course of the 1960s. A well-written “classic” of the early scholarly works on the continental shelf.

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                                                              • Bingham, Joseph Walter. “The Continental Shelf and the Marginal Belt.” American Journal of International Law 40 (1946): 173–178.

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                                                                The author reflects on the two proclamations of President Harry Truman on 28 September 1945, including the one on the continental shelf, and how they radically altered the practice of the United States with respect to the range of coastal state maritime jurisdiction.

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                                                                • Boggs, S. Whittemore. “Delimitation of Seaward Areas under National Jurisdiction.” American Journal of International Law 45 (1951): 240–266.

                                                                  DOI: 10.2307/2194453Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                  The author addresses contemporary problems associated with the seaward extension of maritime zones under national jurisdiction, including the territorial sea and other adjacent zones.

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                                                                  • Brown, E. D. Sea-Bed Energy and Minerals: The International Legal Regime. Vol. 1, The Continental Shelf. Dordrecht, The Netherlands, and Boston: Martinus Nijhoff, 1992.

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                                                                    A detailed study on the regime of the continental shelf, this is the first volume of a three-volume work on international law concerned with the rules of international law governing the exploitation of the mineral resources to be found on and under the seabed.

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                                                                    • Hurst, Cecil. “Whose Is the Bed of the Sea? Sedentary Fisheries Outside the Three-Mile Limit.” British Yearbook of International Law 4 (1923–1924): 34–43.

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                                                                      A useful early contribution to the legal status of the continental shelf. The author discusses whether a coastal state can claim sovereignty on the continental shelf, and the relation of such sovereignty claims to other states’ freedoms in the superjacent waters.

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                                                                      • Mahmoudi, Said. The Law of Deep Seabed Mining: A Study of the Progressive Development of International Law concerning the Management of the Polymetallic Nodules of the Deep Sea-Bed. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell International, 1987.

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                                                                        This book remains an important contribution to the legal literature on the continental shelf, particularly as it relates to the demarcation of the continental shelf’s outer limits under the Law of the Sea Convention.

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                                                                        • Mouton, M. W. The Continental Shelf. The Hague: Springer Netherlands, 1952.

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                                                                          The first extensive discussion of continental shelf issues in the legal literature. The book provides an early analysis of efforts to define the continental shelf under international law, as well as the regime’s interrelationship with fisheries and navigation.

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                                                                          • Slouka, Zdenek J. International Custom and the Continental Shelf: A Study in the Dynamics of Customary Rules of International Law. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1968.

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                                                                            Written at a time when the seabed was being rapidly politicized, this book is a useful study of the growth of international custom, particularly as it relates to the continental shelf regime.

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                                                                            • Whiteman, Marjorie M. “Conference on the Law of the Sea: Convention on the Continental Shelf.” American Journal of International Law 52 (1958): 629–659.

                                                                              DOI: 10.2307/2195589Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                              The article traces the history of the continental shelf regime in international law, placing emphasis on UNCLOS I and its resultant 1958 Convention on the Continental Shelf.

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                                                                              • Young, Richard. “The Geneva Convention on the Continental Shelf: A First Impression.” American Journal of International Law 52 (1958): 733–738.

                                                                                DOI: 10.2307/2195594Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                The author provides a critical examination of the 1958 Geneva Convention on the Continental Shelf. He concludes that while the Convention takes a moderate approach and in many respects has substantial merit, it cannot be regarded as a wholly satisfactory instrument.

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                                                                                Theory

                                                                                This section highlights four main theoretical features related to the regime on the continental shelf in international law. While these theoretical elements cover some of the same ground, they have generally been approached as separate features in the relevant scholarly literature. The first element is the definition of the continental shelf; the second element, much interrelated with the first, is the delineation of the continental shelf beyond 200 nautical miles from the territorial sea baselines; the third is institutions and procedures; and the fourth is continental shelf delimitation.

                                                                                Defining “Continental Shelf”

                                                                                One of the most contentious issues with respect to the concept of the continental shelf has been to attain an agreed-upon definition of the legal continental shelf; that is, to fix in terms of nautical miles or depth its seaward limit. Traditionally, this issue was less important. As a result of developments in offshore technology, however, the physical definition of the continental shelf—its breadth—has come to cause much international controversy, not least at the negotiations at UNCLOS III. Assessments of the preparation and definition of the continental shelf as contained in the 1958 Geneva Convention on the Continental Shelf are found in Andrassy 1970 and Oxman 1971–1972. Hutchinson 1985 examines the seaward limit of the continental shelf in customary international law. Following adoption of the Law of the Sea Convention, a vast body of legal literature has been devoted to assessing the complex definition of the continental shelf laid down in its Article 76. Detailed examinations of Article 76 include Mahmoudi 1987 and Brown 1992. Division of Ocean Affairs and the Law of the Sea of the United Nations 1993, prepared by the DOALOS prior to the entry into force of the Law of the Sea Convention in 1994, is also a useful publication.

                                                                                • Andrassy, Juraj. International Law and the Resources of the Sea. New York: Columbia University Press, 1970.

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                                                                                  Critically reveals the weaknesses of the definition of the continental shelf contained in the 1958 Convention on the Continental Shelf, and also proposes regulatory alternatives.

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                                                                                  • Brown, E. D. Sea-Bed Energy and Minerals: The International Legal Regime. Vol. 1, The Continental Shelf. Dordrecht, The Netherlands, and Boston: Martinus Nijhoff, 1992.

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                                                                                    A detailed study on the regime of the continental shelf, also with respect to its seaward limits.

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                                                                                    • Division of Ocean Affairs and the Law of the Sea of the United Nations. The Law of the Sea: Definition of the Continental Shelf: An Examination of the Relevant Provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. New York: United Nations, 1993.

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                                                                                      Clarifies highly technical aspects of the relevant provisions of the Law of the Sea Convention on the establishment of the outer limits of the continental shelf. A useful glossary of technical terms is also included.

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                                                                                      • Hutchinson, D. N. “The Seaward Limit to Continental Shelf Jurisdiction in Customary International Law.” British Yearbook of International Law 56 (1985): 133–187.

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                                                                                        With the 1958 Convention on the Continental Shelf operative in the mutual relations of some fifty states, and the Law of the Sea Convention not having entered into force, the author discusses customary international law on the question of the outer limit of the continental shelf.

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                                                                                        • Mahmoudi, Said. The Law of Deep Sea-Bed Mining: A Study of the Progressive Development of International Law Concerning the Management of the Polymetallic Nodules of the Deep Sea-Bed. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell International, 1987.

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                                                                                          An excellent and concise publication, particularly as it relates to the definition of the continental shelf under the Law of the Sea Convention.

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                                                                                          • Oxman, Bernhard H. “The Preparation of Article 1 of the Convention on the Continental Shelf.” Journal of Maritime Law and Commerce 3 (1971–1972): 245–305, 445–472, 683–723.

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                                                                                            The author undertakes an informative examination of the views of participants at UNCLOS I and offers a comprehensive review of the primary sources.

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                                                                                            Delineation of the Continental Shelf beyond 200 Nautical Miles

                                                                                            Article 76 of the Law of the Sea Convention establishes the right of a coastal state to determine the outer limits of the continental shelf by means of two criteria, based on either the natural prolongation to the end of the continental margin, or a distance of 200 nautical miles measured from the territorial sea baselines. The rules of Article 76 specifically relating to defining the outer limits of the continental shelf beyond 200 nautical miles have generated a large body of scholarly literature. Klemm 1992 and McDorman 1995 provide general overviews. Cook and Carleton 2000 and Nordquist, et al. 2004 deal with technical issues and explain the interface between the legal concepts contained within Article 76. Oude Elferink 2006 provides an authoritative survey of the complex legal issues involved in establishing the outer limits of the continental shelf beyond 200 nautical miles. In addition to Churchill and Lowe 1999, monographs analyzing the definition of the continental shelf limits beyond 200 nautical miles include Suarez 2008, Jensen 2014, Busch 2016, and Magnússon 2015.

                                                                                            • Busch, Signe. Establishing Continental Shelf Limits Beyond 200 Nautical Miles by the Coastal State: A Right of Involvement for Other States? Leiden, The Netherlands, and Boston: Brill/Nijhoff, 2016.

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                                                                                              The author undertakes a study of coastal state submissions to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf, but also analyzes the relevant provisions in the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, including Article 76.

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                                                                                              • Churchill, Robin Rolf, and Alan Vaughan Lowe. The Law of the Sea. 3d ed. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press, 1999.

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                                                                                                The standard work on the law of the sea bar none; Churchill and Lowe give an excellent advanced introduction to the continental shelf regime, also in terms of its legal delineation.

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                                                                                                • Cook, P. J., and C. M. Carleton, eds. Continental Shelf Limits: The Scientific and Legal Interface. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.

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                                                                                                  This useful book addresses the provisions of Article 76 of the Law of the Sea Convention, focusing on the technical issues involved and explaining the interface between the legal concepts contained within the article.

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                                                                                                  • Jensen, Øystein. The Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf: Law and Legitimacy. Leiden, The Netherlands, and Boston: Brill/Nijhoff, 2014.

                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1163/9789004274174Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                    Predominantly an institutional study of the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf, but also a detailed presentation of the various provisions defining the continental shelf under Article 76 of the Law of the Sea Convention.

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                                                                                                    • Klemm, Ulf-Dieter. “Continental Shelf, Outer Limits.” In Encyclopedia of Public International Law. Vol. 1. Edited by Rudolf Bernhardt and Peter Macalister Smith, 804–806. Amsterdam and New York; North-Holland, 1992.

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                                                                                                      This is a brief but informative discussion on the complexity of determining the outer limits of the continental shelf, particularly under Article 76 of the Law of the Sea Convention.

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                                                                                                      • Magnússon, Bjarni Már. The Continental Shelf Beyond 200 Nautical Miles: Delineation, Delimitation and Dispute Settlement. Leiden, The Netherlands, and Boston: Brill/Nijhoff, 2015.

                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1163/9789004296848Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                        The author details various aspects of the establishment of the outer limits of the continental shelf beyond 200 nautical miles.

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                                                                                                        • McDorman, Ted. “The Entry into Force of the Law of the Sea Convention and the Article 76 Outer Continental Shelf Regime.” International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law 10 (1995): 165–187.

                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1163/157180895X00033Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                          The author, an eminent scholar in the field of the law of the sea, reflects on the significance of the entry into force of the Law of the Sea Convention with respect to the definition of the continental shelf contained in its Article 76.

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                                                                                                          • Nordquist, Myron H., John N. Moore, and Tomas H. Heidar, eds. Legal and Scientific Aspects of the Continental Shelf Limits. Leiden, The Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff, 2004.

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                                                                                                            An interdisciplinary edited volume on both the legal and scientific dimensions of continental shelf limits.

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                                                                                                            • Oude Elferink, Alex G. “Article 76 of the LOSC on the Definition of the Continental Shelf: Questions Concerning Its Interpretation from a Legal Perspective.” International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law 21 (2006): 269–285.

                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1163/157180806778884769Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                              Oude Elferink goes back to the origins of Article 76 of the Law of the Sea Convention and elements of Article 76 that pose challenges in terms of its application and legal interpretation.

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                                                                                                              • Suarez, Suzette. The Outer Limits of the Continental Shelf: Legal Aspects of Their Establishment. Berlin: Springer, 2008.

                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1007/978-3-540-79858-3Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                Addressing the legal, scientific, and technical interface, this work probes questions relating to the establishment of the limits of the continental shelf beyond 200 nautical miles from the territorial sea baselines under Article 76 of the Law of the Sea Convention.

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                                                                                                                Institutions and Procedures

                                                                                                                A particular aspect of the present-day treaty regime contained in Article 76 of the Law of the Sea Convention is the process by which coastal states need to involve the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf to establish the outer limits of their continental shelf extending beyond 200 nautical miles. Useful research specifically dealing with the role of the CLCS in the continental shelf delineation process includes McDorman 2002, Jares 2010, and Oude Elferink 2013. An extensive analysis of the institutional characteristics of the commission as a decision-making body, including legitimacy challenges related to the exercise of its functions and competences, is provided in Jensen 2014. Kunoy 2012 analyzes institutional aspects related to the commission. Other scholarly works, including Oude Elferink 2009 and Cavnar 2009, look at the operation of the commission. On the interrelationship between the commission and the international judiciary, notable publications include Oude Elferink 2004 and Jensen 2015.

                                                                                                                • Cavnar, Anna. “Accountability and the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf: Deciding Who Owns the Ocean Floor.” Cornell International Law Journal 42 (2009): 387–440.

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                                                                                                                  A well-written and informative contribution on the mandate and procedures of the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf, as well as accountability gaps in its functioning.

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                                                                                                                  • Jares, Vladimir. “The Work of the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf.” In Law, Technology and Science for Oceans in Globalisation: IUU Fishing, Oil Pollution, Bioprospecting, Outer Continental Shelf. Edited by Davor Vidas, 449–475. Leiden, The Netherlands, and Boston: Martinus Nijhoff, 2010.

                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1163/ej.9789004180406.i-610.144Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                    Insightfully written by the deputy director of the Division of Ocean Affairs and the Law of the Sea (DOALOS) of the United Nations, this publication reviews the working methods of the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf and some of the issues the commission has had to deal with since its establishment.

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                                                                                                                    • Jensen, Øystein. The Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf: Law and Legitimacy. Leiden, The Netherlands, and Boston: Brill/Nijhoff, 2014.

                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1163/9789004274174Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                      This monograph is essentially an institutional study of the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf. It deals with the functions and competence of the commission and potential legitimacy deficits in its procedures and composition.

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                                                                                                                      • Jensen, Øystein. “Maritime Boundary Delimitation Beyond 200 Nautical Miles: The International Judiciary and the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf.” Nordic Journal of International Law 84 (2015): 580–604.

                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1163/15718107-08404001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                        A more recent contribution examining the legal significance of the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf in third party dispute settlement regarding delimitation of the continental shelf beyond 200 nautical miles from the territorial sea baselines. It is argued that the procedures involving the commission may influence a dispute settlement body’s decision to exercise its jurisdiction to delimit continental shelf areas.

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                                                                                                                        • Kunoy, Bjørn. “The Terms of Reference of the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf: A Creeping Legal Mandate.” Leiden Journal of International Law 25 (2012): 109–130.

                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1017/S0922156511000604Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                          An informative and well-balanced analysis that seeks to determine the exact terms of reference of the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf, and to what extent it is empowered to undertake legal interpretations of the Law of the Sea Convention.

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                                                                                                                          • McDorman, Ted. “The Role of the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf: A Technical Body in a Political World.” International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law 17 (2002): 301–324.

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                                                                                                                            A key publication for understanding the role of the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf. The author argues that the principal role of the commission is as a legitimator of the claims of a coastal state.

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                                                                                                                            • Oude Elferink, Alex G. “The Continental Shelf beyond 200 Nautical Miles: The Relationship between the CLCS and Third Party Dispute Settlement.” In Oceans Management in the 21st Century: Institutional Frameworks and Responses. Edited by Alex G. Oude Elferink and Donald R. Rothwell, 107–124. Leiden, The Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff, 2004.

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                                                                                                                              An early publication on the roles and impact of the Commission on the Limit of the Continental Shelf in third party dispute settlement.

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                                                                                                                              • Oude Elferink, Alex G. “The Establishment of Outer Limits of the Continental Shelf beyond 200 Nautical Miles by the Coastal State: The Possibilities of Other States to Have an Impact on the Process.” International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law 24 (2009): 535–556.

                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1163/157180809X455610Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                The author concludes that the role of other states can exert influence in different phases of the submission process. He argues that the legal framework provides a satisfactory framework for dealing with the rights and interests of other states.

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                                                                                                                                • Oude Elferink, Alex G. “Continental Shelf, Commission on the Limits of the.” In Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law. Edited by Rüdiger Wolfrum, 1–9. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013.

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                                                                                                                                  An excellent introduction to the role of the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf, including its competence to deal with legal issues and its work and the submission process—also with respect to submissions involving land and maritime disputes. Also available online.

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                                                                                                                                  Delimitation

                                                                                                                                  In cases where maritime zones overlap, there is a need to set boundaries between them to avoid uncertainty and disputes over the right to exercise jurisdiction to exploit resources. Maritime boundary delimitation is one of the most controversial, discussed, and politicized issues in international law. Delimitation of the continental shelf is no exception, and the writings of publicists on this matter are manifold. The rules on continental shelf delimitation are addressed in general textbooks on the law of the sea. Numerous books and journal articles address the theory of maritime boundary delimitation more narrowly as it relates to the continental shelf, including the classic works Johnston 1988 and Evans 1989. Important contributions since the Convention’s entry into force are found in Antunes 2003, Tanaka 2006, and Lagoni and Vignes 2006. A complete traversal of the jurisprudence on continental shelf delimitation, with detailed analyses of individual cases, is provided in Kolb 2003. The most extensive and systematic study of continental shelf delimitation agreements is arguably Smith, et al. 1991–2011, which also includes an appraisal of continental shelf delimitation in regional contexts. Oude Elferink 2016 addresses continental shelf delimitation specifically as it relates to the Arctic. As many coastal states are under an obligation to submit particulars of their continental shelf limits beyond 200 nautical miles from the territorial sea baselines to the CLCS, delimitation of the outer continental shelf has gained momentum in recent years, as has the scholarly attention to such delimitation. Colson 2003, Churchill 2012, and Oude Elferink 2015 are key contributions to this most complex of maritime boundary-setting questions.

                                                                                                                                  • Antunes, Nuno Marques. Towards the Conceptualisation of Maritime Delimitation: Legal and Technical Aspects of a Political Process. Leiden, The Netherlands, and Boston: Martinus Nijhoff, 2003.

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                                                                                                                                    This extensive monograph, written by an author with both legal and technical expertise, makes a significant contribution to the literature on the important topic of continental shelf delimitation.

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                                                                                                                                    • Churchill, Robin. “The Bangladesh/Myanmar Case: Continuity and Novelty in the Law of Maritime Boundary Delimitation.” Cambridge Journal of International and Comparative Law 1 (2012): 137–152.

                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.7574/cjicl.01.01.3Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                      A useful and well-written analysis of the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea’s judgment relating to the Bay of Bengal dispute between Bangladesh and Myanmar, the first case in which an international court or tribunal actually performed a delimitation of continental shelf areas beyond 200 nautical miles from the territorial sea baselines.

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                                                                                                                                      • Colson, David. “The Delimitation of the Outer Continental Shelf between Neighboring States.” American Journal of International Law 97 (2003): 91–107.

                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.2307/3087106Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                        The author addresses the complex issue of continental shelf delimitation as it relates to the segment of the seabed beyond 200 nautical miles from the territorial sea baselines. Colson emphasizes the significance of the current definition of continental shelf in Article 76 of the Law of the Sea Convention for such delimitation processes, including the concept of natural prolongation.

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                                                                                                                                        • Evans, Malcolm David. Relevant Circumstances and Maritime Delimitation. Oxford: Clarendon, 1989.

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                                                                                                                                          Among the classic publications on relevant circumstances, focusing on the role that relevant circumstances have come to play in maritime boundary delimitation, including delimitation of the continental shelf.

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                                                                                                                                          • Johnston, D. M. The Theory and History of Ocean Boundary-Making. Montreal: McGill Queen’s University Press, 1988.

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                                                                                                                                            The author addresses the history of all modes of ocean boundary-making and provides a conceptual framework for the evaluation of ocean boundary claims and settlements.

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                                                                                                                                            • Kolb, Robert. Case Law on Equitable Maritime Delimitation: Digest and Commentaries. Leiden, The Netherlands, and Boston: Martinus Nijhoff, 2003.

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                                                                                                                                              This book provides a complete overview of case law on maritime boundary delimitation, including with respect to the continental shelf. A comprehensive publication, with fruitful commentaries.

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                                                                                                                                              • Lagoni, Rainer, and Daniel Vignes, eds. Maritime Delimitation. Leiden, The Netherlands, and Boston: Martinus Nijhoff, 2006.

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                                                                                                                                                This volume includes contributions by scholars, judges, and practitioners, who write on various aspects of maritime delimitation, including delimitation of the continental shelf.

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                                                                                                                                                • Oude Elferink, Alex G. “ITLOS’s Approach to the Delimitation of the Continental Shelf beyond 200 Nautical Miles in the Bangladesh/Myanmar Case: Theoretical and Practical Difficulties.” In Contemporary Developments in International Law: Essays in Honor of Budislav Vukas. Edited by Rüdiger Wolfrum, Maja Seršić, and Trpimir Šošić, 230–249. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill Academic, 2015.

                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1163/9789004245624_015Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                  A thorough examination of the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea’s judgment relating to the Bay of Bengal dispute between Bangladesh and Myanmar, with particular emphasis on the continental shelf beyond 200 nautical miles from the territorial sea baselines.

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                                                                                                                                                  • Oude Elferink, Alex G. “The Delimitation of the Continental Shelf beyond 200 Nautical Miles in the Arctic Ocean: Recent Developments, Applicable Law and Possible Outcomes.” In Challenges of the Changing Arctic: Continental Shelf, Navigation, and Fisheries. Edited by Myron Nordquist, Ronan Long, and John Norton Moore, 53–80. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill Academic, 2016.

                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1163/9789004314252_007Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                    A recent and informative publication that addresses the extent of continental shelf beyond 200 nautical miles in the Arctic Ocean, potential entitlement overlaps, and questions that might arise in relation to the delimitation of such overlapping entitlements.

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                                                                                                                                                    • Smith, Robert W., David A. Colson, Jonathan I. Charney, and Lewis M. Alexander, eds. International Maritime Boundaries. 6 vols. Dordrecht: Martinus Nijhoff, 1991–2011.

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                                                                                                                                                      This multivolume work is a systematic examination of all international maritime boundaries worldwide; it includes expert papers examining the status of maritime boundary delimitations in all regions of the world.

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                                                                                                                                                      • Tanaka, Yoshifumi. Predictability and Flexibility in the Law of Maritime Delimitation. Oxford: Hart, 2006.

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                                                                                                                                                        The book provides a comparative examination of case law and state practice with regard to delimitation of the continental shelf. It is particularly useful in identifying relevant factors that exert an influence during the delimitation process.

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                                                                                                                                                        The Continental Shelf and Other Treaty Regimes

                                                                                                                                                        In areas where territorial sovereignty is still under dispute, notably Antarctica, implementation of the continental shelf regime entails radical legal implications. A general overview of challenges in implementing the continental shelf regime in the Southern Ocean (i.e., with respect to the establishment of continental shelf limits beyond 200 nautical miles) is provided by Vidas 2000. Serdy 2009 analyzes papers submitted to the CLCS regarding Antarctic territorial sovereignty. Oude Elferink 2013 provides a more recent overview of the legal challenges raised by the establishment of outer continental shelf limits in the Antarctic maritime area. While the issue of sovereignty is not in question with respect to Svalbard, controversy still exists as to whether the seabed seaward of Svalbard’s territorial waters is subject to the regulations of the 1920 Spitsbergen Treaty; that is, whether Norway is under an obligation not to discriminate against nationals of the contracting parties with respect to the exploitation of continental shelf resources. Ulfstein 1995 and Churchill and Ulfstein 2010 address the international legal status of the continental shelf adjacent to the Svalbard archipelago.

                                                                                                                                                        • Churchill, Robin, and Geir Ulfstein. “The Disputed Maritime Zones around Svalbard.” In Changes in the Arctic Environment and the Law of the Sea. Edited by Myron Nordquist, John Norton Moore, and Tomas H. Heidar, 551–593. Leiden, The Netherlands, and Boston: Martinus Nijhoff, 2010.

                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1163/ej.9789004177567.i-594.156Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                          A more recent publication dealing specifically with the geographical reach of the 1920 Spitsbergen Treaty, including the controversial issue of whether Norway’s jurisdiction over the continental shelf is subject to the nondiscriminatory regulations of the treaty.

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                                                                                                                                                          • Oude Elferink, Alex G. “The Outer Limits of the Continental Shelf in the Polar Regions.” In The Law of the Sea and the Polar Regions: Interactions between Global and Regional Regimes. Edited by Erik J. Molenaar, Alex G. Oude Elferink, and Donald R. Rothwell, 61–84. Leiden, The Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff, 2013.

                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1163/9789004255210_005Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                            A highly informative publication on some of the complex substantive legal issues that arise in the process of establishing outer limits of the continental shelf beyond 200 nautical miles in the Southern Ocean and the Arctic Ocean.

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                                                                                                                                                            • Serdy, Andrew. “Some Views Are More Equal Than Others: Submissions to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf and the Strange Loss of Confidence in Article IV of the Antarctic Treaty.” Australian Year Book of International Law 28 (2009): 181–195.

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                                                                                                                                                              Serdy convincingly addresses position papers submitted by Antarctic Claimant States to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf regarding Article IV of the Antarctic Treaty.

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                                                                                                                                                              • Ulfstein, Geir. The Svalbard Treaty: From Terra Nullius to Norwegian Sovereignty. Oslo: Scandinavian University Press, 1995.

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                                                                                                                                                                Written by an eminent international lawyer, this is a leading research publication on legal issues related to the 1920 Spitsbergen Treaty. Ulfstein also discusses the geographical reach of the Spitsbergen Treaty, or the applicability of its provisions to continental shelf areas adjacent to the territorial waters of the archipelago.

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                                                                                                                                                                • Vidas, Davor. “Emerging Law of the Sea Issues in the Antarctic Maritime Area: A Heritage for the New Century?” Ocean Development & International Law 31 (2000): 197–222.

                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1080/009083200276120Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                  Focuses on emerging law of the sea issues for states cooperating in the management of the Antarctic and its maritime area, including what to do with the requirement contained in the Law of the Sea Convention relating to the submission of information on the outer limit of the continental shelf beyond 200 nautical miles to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf.

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                                                                                                                                                                  The Continental Shelf in Dispute Settlement

                                                                                                                                                                  The international continental shelf regime has become involved in international litigation on several occasions. Cases have generally been brought for the purpose of delimitation, but the judiciary has made important contributions with respect to other aspects of the regime. Scholarly works in this particular field are innumerable, and only a very brief selection of the literature can be provided here. Oude Elferink 2013 is a modern and authoritative perusal of the important North Sea Continental Shelf cases before the International Court of Justice (ICJ) in 1969. Since 2003 an annual and useful survey of dispute settlement in the law of the sea, which also covers all cases dealing with the continental shelf, is written by Emeritus Professor Robin Churchill in the International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law (see Churchill 2016).

                                                                                                                                                                  • Churchill, Robin. “Dispute Settlement in the Law of the Sea.” International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law 31.4 (2016): 555–582.

                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1163/15718085-12341420Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                    Since 2003, in a readable fashion, the author has provided annual surveys reviewing dispute settlement in the law of the sea, both under the Law of the Sea Convention and outside the framework of the Convention.

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                                                                                                                                                                    • Oude Elferink, Alex G. The Delimitation of the Continental Shelf between Denmark, Germany and the Netherlands: Arguing Law, Practicing Politics? Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2013.

                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1017/CBO9781139649698Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                      The author addresses in particular the negotiations between Denmark, Germany, and the Netherlands concerning the delimitation of their continental shelf in the North Sea. He asks why they chose to submit their dispute to the International Court of Justice (ICJ), and analyzes the preparation and litigation strategy before the ICJ.

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