The Community Concept
- LAST REVIEWED: 15 August 2016
- LAST MODIFIED: 23 May 2012
- DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199830060-0011
- LAST REVIEWED: 15 August 2016
- LAST MODIFIED: 23 May 2012
- DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199830060-0011
For almost as long as ecology has been a discipline, it has struggled to define what constitutes an ecological community. A sharp dichotomy emerged early on, contrasting the view that communities were tightly integrated entities consisting of interdependent species (the community-unit concept) vs. the view that species co-occur largely according to the individualistic response of each species to spatially variable environmental conditions (the individualistic concept). To a large degree, the latter view has dominated ecological thought since the mid-20th century, based to a considerable extent on empirical patterns of community composition along environmental gradients. However, it has been repeatedly pointed out that neither view (in its extreme form) can capture the reality of processes and patterns in real communities, in which species often show both some degree of interdependence and gradual change in composition based on environmental conditions. Despite the debate regarding the concept of an ecological community, the discipline of community ecology has thrived and remained a key pillar of the broader field of ecology, with intense debates over the importance of competition in driving community structure and the relative importance of processes occurring at different spatial and temporal scales, among others. Finally, while few contemporary theoretical ecologists treat communities as belonging to discrete types, the community-unit concept lives on in applied ecology, where the classification of communities (often described as “vegetation” or “ecosystem”) is commonplace in order to facilitate conservation management, prioritization, and policy.
Frederic Clements put forth the formal concept of a community as a coherent unit of study for ecologists. Clements considered the different species in a community as being tightly integrated and interdependent, much like the organs that make up a plant or animal, leading him to use the metaphor of the community as a “complex organism” (Clements 1916). Forbes 1887 articulated a similar view of the species living together in lakes. The community-unit view was challenged by Leonty Ramensky (see McIntosh 1983) and Henry Gleason (Gleason 1926), who argued that species respond individualistically to environmental factors, such that their distributions and abundances vary continuously from place to place, rather than forming discrete and internally integrated community types. Tansley 1935 is a sharp criticism of Clements’s views, especially his terminology. McIntosh 1985, Kingsland 1991, Kingsland 2005, and Kingsolver and Paine 1991 provide historical accounts of this debate and place it within the context of the development of ecology as a scientific discipline.
Clements, Frederic E. 1916. Plant succession: An analysis of the development of vegetation. Washington, DC: Carnegie Institute of Washington Publication.
A comprehensive account of Clements’s views on the nature of ecological communities, including the complex-organism metaphor and how perturbations from the “climax” state of a community are followed by a deterministic succession leading back to the original state.
Forbes, Stephen A. 1887. The lake as a microcosm. Bulletin of the Illinois State Natural History Survey 15:537–550.
A classic paper detailing the argument that species in a community are tightly integrated via their interactions with one another; the biota of lakes is used as a case study.
Gleason, Henry A. 1926. The individualistic concept of the plant association. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 53:7–26.
Detailed articulation of the view that we are “treading upon rather-dangerous ground” in any attempt to define discrete plant associations. Clearly intended as a counterpoint to Clements 1916, although, oddly, without any explicit mention of Clements’ work (or any citations at all, apart from a few of Gleason’s earlier papers).
Kingsland, Sharon E. 1991. Defining ecology as a science. In Foundations of ecology. Edited by Leslie A. Real and James H. Brown, 1–13. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.
A concise overview of some of the key foundational papers in ecology, including Clements 1916, Forbes 1887, and Gleason 1926. This and other chapters that introduce different sections of the book provide an excellent historical overview of ecology.
Kingsland, Sharon E. 2005. The evolution of American ecology, 1890–2000. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press.
A history of how ecology developed as a scientific discipline over the 20th century in the United States. A good complement to an earlier book, McIntosh 1985.
Kingsolver, Joel G., and Robert T. Paine. 1991. Conversational biology and ecological debate. In Foundations of ecology. Edited by Leslie A. Real and James H. Brown, 309–317. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.
An overview of papers covering particularly contentious topics in ecology, including Tansley 1935, which the authors say “dismantled systematically” the most central idea in Clements 1916: the ecological community as a complex organism.
McIntosh, Robert P. 1983. Excerpts from the work of L. G. Ramensky. Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America 64.1 (March): 7–12.
English translations of excerpts from L. G. Ramensky, “Basic Regularities of Vegetation Cover and Their Study (on The Basis of Geobotanic Researches in Voronezh Province),” establishing the fact that Ramensky independently arrived at conclusions very similar to Gleason’s (see Gleason 1926). Available online for purchase or by subscription.
McIntosh, Robert P. 1985. The background of ecology: Concept and theory. Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.
An excellent book on the history of ecology, with an emphasis on the Anglo-American tradition.
Tansley, Arthur G. 1935. The use and abuse of vegetational concepts and terms. Ecology 16:284–307.
A blunt and clearly articulated criticism of Clements’s ideas (see Clements 1916), signaling a general shift in the views of ecologists toward the individualistic concept.
Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content on this page. Please subscribe or login.
- Accounting for Ecological Capital
- Adaptive Radiation
- Allocation of Reproductive Resources in Plants
- Animals, Functional Morphology of
- Animals, Reproductive Allocation in
- Animals, Thermoregulation in
- Antarctic Environments and Ecology
- Applied Ecology
- Aquatic Conservation
- Aquatic Nutrient Cycling
- Archaea, Ecology of
- Assembly Models
- Bacterial Diversity in Freshwater
- Benthic Ecology
- Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning
- Biodiversity Patterns in Agricultural Systms
- Biological Chaos and Complex Dynamics
- Biome, Alpine
- Biome, Boreal
- Biome, Desert
- Biome, Grassland
- Biome, Savanna
- Biome, Tundra
- Biomes, African
- Biomes, East Asian
- Biomes, Mountain
- Biomes, North American
- Biomes, South Asian
- Braun, E. Lucy
- Bryophyte Ecology
- Butterfly Ecology
- Carson, Rachel
- Chemical Ecology
- Classification Analysis
- Coastal Dune Habitats
- Communities and Ecosystems, Indirect Effects in
- Communities, Top-Down and Bottom-Up Regulation of
- Community Concept, The
- Community Ecology
- Community Genetics
- Community Phenology
- Competition and Coexistence in Animal Communities
- Competition in Plant Communities
- Complexity Theory
- Conservation Biology
- Conservation Genetics
- Coral Reefs
- Darwin, Charles
- Dead Wood in Forest Ecosystems
- De-Glaciation, Ecology of
- Disease Ecology
- Drought as a Disturbance in Forests
- Early Explorers, The
- Earth’s Climate, The
- Eco-Evolutionary Dynamics
- Ecological Dynamics in Fragmented Landscapes
- Ecological Engineering
- Ecological Forecasting
- Ecological Informatics
- Ecological Relevance of Speciation
- Ecology, Microbial (Community)
- Ecology of Emerging Zoonotic Viruses
- Ecology of the Atlantic Forest
- Ecosystem Ecology
- Ecosystem Engineers
- Ecosystem Multifunctionality
- Ecosystem Services
- Ecosystem Services, Conservation of
- Elton, Charles
- Endophytes, Fungal
- Energy Flow
- Environmental Anthropology
- Environmental Justice
- Environments, Extreme
- Ethics, Ecological
- European Natural History Tradition
- Evolutionarily Stable Strategies
- Facilitation and the Organization of Communities
- Fern and Lycophyte Ecology
- Fire Ecology
- Food Webs
- Foraging Behavior, Implications of
- Foraging, Optimal
- Forests, Temperate Coniferous
- Forests, Temperate Deciduous
- Freshwater Invertebrate Ecology
- Genetic Considerations in Plant Ecological Restoration
- Genomics, Ecological
- Geographic Range
- Gleason, Henry
- Grazer Ecology
- Greig-Smith, Peter
- Gymnosperm Ecology
- Habitat Selection
- Harper, John L.
- Harvesting Alternative Water Resources (US West)
- Heavy Metal Tolerance
- Himalaya, Ecology of the
- Host-Parasitoid Interactions
- Human Ecology
- Human Ecology of the Andes
- Human-Wildlife Conflict and Coexistence
- Hutchinson, G. Evelyn
- Indigenous Ecologies
- Industrial Ecology
- Insect Ecology, Terrestrial
- Introductory Sources
- Invasive Species
- Island Biogeography Theory
- Island Biology
- Keystone Species
- Kin Selection
- Landscape Dynamics
- Landscape Ecology
- Laws, Ecological
- Legume-Rhizobium Symbiosis, The
- Leopold, Aldo
- Lichen Ecology
- Life History
- Literature, Ecology and
- MacArthur, Robert H.
- Mangrove Zone Ecology
- Marine Fisheries Management
- Mathematical Ecology
- Mating Systems
- Maximum Sustainable Yield
- Metabolic Scaling Theory
- Metacommunity Dynamics
- Metapopulations and Spatial Population Processes
- Microclimate Ecology
- Multiple Stable States and Catastrophic Shifts in Ecosyste...
- Mutualisms and Symbioses
- Mycorrhizal Ecology
- Natural History Tradition, The
- Networks, Ecological
- Niche Versus Neutral Models of Community Organization
- Nutrient Foraging in Plants
- Odum, Eugene and Howard
- Old Fields
- Ordination Analysis
- Organic Agriculture, Ecology of
- Parental Care, Evolution of
- Pastures and Pastoralism
- Patch Dynamics
- Phenotypic Selection
- Philosophy, Ecological
- Phylogenetics and Comparative Methods
- Physiological Ecology of Nutrient Acquisition in Animals
- Physiological Ecology of Photosynthesis
- Physiological Ecology of Water Balance in Terrestrial Anim...
- Physiological Ecology of Water Balance in Terrestrial Plan...
- Plant Blindness
- Plant Disease Epidemiology
- Plant Ecological Responses to Extreme Climatic Events
- Plant-Insect Interactions
- Polar Regions
- Pollination Ecology
- Population Dynamics, Density-Dependence and Single-Species
- Population Dynamics, Methods in
- Population Ecology, Animal
- Population Ecology, Plant
- Population Fluctuations and Cycles
- Population Genetics
- Population Viability Analysis
- Populations and Communities, Dynamics of Age- and Stage-St...
- Predation and Community Organization
- Predator-Prey Interactions
- Reductionism Versus Holism
- Religion and Ecology
- Remote Sensing
- Restoration Ecology
- Ricketts, Edward Flanders Robb
- Secondary Production
- Seed Ecology
- Serpentine Soils
- Shelford, Victor
- Simulation Modeling
- Soil Biogeochemistry
- Soil Ecology
- Spatial Pattern Analysis
- Spatial Patterns of Species Biodiversity in Terrestrial En...
- Spatial Scale and Biodiversity
- Species Distribution Modeling
- Species Extinctions
- Species Responses to Climate Change
- Species-Area Relationships
- Stability and Ecosystem Resilience, A Below-Ground Perspec...
- Stochastic Processes
- Stoichiometry, Ecological
- Stream Ecology
- Sustainable Development
- Systematic Conservation Planning
- Systems Ecology
- Tansley, Sir Arthur
- Terrestrial Nitrogen Cycle
- Terrestrial Resource Limitation
- Theory and Practice of Biological Control
- Thermal Ecology of Animals
- Tragedy of the Commons
- Trophic Levels
- Tropical Humid Forest Biome
- Urban Ecology
- Vegetation Classification
- Vegetation Mapping
- Vicariance Biogeography
- Weed Ecology
- Wetland Ecology
- Whittaker, Robert H.
- Wildlife Ecology