Ecological engineering is a hybrid discipline developed for solving certain kinds of environmental problems. The conceptual basis is to engineer solutions that incorporate ecosystems that are fueled by natural energies such as sunlight into the design. The creation of ecologically engineered ecosystems includes both restoration of past systems for conservation and the design of new systems that address environmental problems. The goal is to create designs that are cost effective and that provide multiple benefits to society. Where applicable ecological engineered systems are intended to be alternatives to conventional technologies that rely on higher inputs of fossil fuel energies. As with other kinds of engineering, ecologically engineered systems require quantitative methods of design such as sizing, optimization, and input-output balances. However, because ecologically engineered systems utilize living ecosystems, they also allow for and often rely on self-design of the system itself through the self-organizing quality of species populations and abiotic components. It is the utilization of natural ecosystems and self-design that differentiates ecological engineering from traditional engineering disciplines. Because engineering is inherently based on complete knowledge of and control over designs, there has been some resistance to the concept of self-design from traditional engineering disciplines. In fact, ecological engineering is applicable to only a subset of problems but, where appropriate, it offers solutions that can be more effective and sustainable than conventional approaches. The challenge is to combine the strengths of ecology and engineering to create a new paradigm for environmental problem solving. Ecological engineering is both an academic field with curricula taught in universities and with a regularly published journal of peer-reviewed articles (Ecological Engineering by Elsevier) along with a practical field where systems are designed, built and operated by commercial companies for clients. Professional societies, such as the American Ecological Engineering Society, have arisen to try to better connect theory and practice in this emerging discipline through the use of certification programs and annual meetings of academics and practitioners.
The term ecological engineering was introduced by the American ecologist H. T. Odum in the 1960s. Odum 1971 includes a chapter on ecological engineering in which he described the goal of the field as a partnership with nature. Odum pioneered the field by adapting ecological theory for applied purposes and he carried out major design experiments throughout his career. Odum and Odum 2003 provides a summary of his lifelong approach to ecological engineering, published posthumously. William Mitsch, one of H. T. Odum’s students, became a leader in the field and has carried on the Odum tradition. He co-edited the first major edited volume on ecological engineering; see Mitsch and Jørgensen 2004. Mitsch established a model field laboratory on wetland science and engineering on the Ohio State University campus, as described by Mitsch, et al. 1998, and he has been the editor of the journal Ecological Engineering from its start in 1992 until the present. Three major textbooks on the field of ecological engineering have been published: Kangas 2004, Mitsch and Jørgensen 2004, Matlock and Morgan 2011. Each of these texts has different emphases which represent a maturation of the discipline. Some of the original thinkers in the field continue to inspire students and practitioners: Walter Adey’s text on the unique approach that he has called synthetic ecology has gone through three editions (see Adey and Loveland 2007), and John Todd’s work on eco-machine technologies has been summarized by his wife and collaborator: see Todd 2005. As Mitsch 1995 has pointed out, work on ecological engineering developed in China independently from the Western world with similar types of applications and with historical leaders such as Shijun Ma and Chung-Hsin Chung.
Adey, W. H., and K. Loveland. 2007. Dynamic aquaria: Building and restoring living ecosystems. 3d ed. London: Academic Press.
This is a broad-based book that covers aquatic ecology and its application to a form of ecological engineering termed synthetic ecology. Walter Adey’s unique approach to creating microcosms and mesocosm as living models of ecosystems is described. The book ends with coverage on the algal turf scrubber technology that Adey invented.
Kangas, P. C. 2004. Ecological engineering: Principles and practice. Boca Raton, FL: Lewis.
A major college-level textbook on the field with an emphasis on the ecological contributions to ecological engineering. Special features include chapters on exotic species and economics.
Matlock, M. D., and R. A. Morgan. 2011. Ecological engineering design: Restoring and conserving ecosystem services. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
A major college-level textbook on the field with a focus on ecosystem services provided by ecologically engineered systems. The text also takes a hierarchical approach ranging downward from the biome to the watershed to the site and finally to the soil.
Mitsch, W. J. 1995. Ecological engineering: From Gainesville to Beijing—A comparison of approaches in the United States and China. In Maximum power: The ideas of applications of H. T. Odum. Edited by C. A. S. Hall, 109–122. Niwot: Univ. Press of Colorado.
A comparison of the field of ecological engineering as developed and practiced in the United States and in China. Case studies from each country are included and contrasts in the different approaches are explored.
Mitsch, W. J., and S. E. Jørgensen. 2004. Ecological engineering and ecosystem restoration. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
A major college-level textbook on the field with a balance between restoration and ecological engineering. A case study approach is used. Special features include a chapter on computer modeling and a chapter on ecological engineering in China.
Mitsch, W. J., X. Wu, R. W. Nairn, et al. 1998. Creating and restoring wetlands: A whole-ecosystem experiment in self-design. Bioscience 48:1019–1030.
A description of William Mitsch’s approach to wetland creation with an emphasis on self-design. A summary of data is presented on the early development of the wetland research park that Mitsch established on the Ohio State University campus.
Mitsch, W. J., and S. E. Jørgensen, eds. 1989. Ecological engineering: An introduction to ecotechnology. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
The first major text on the field of ecological engineering, in the form of an edited volume of nineteen chapters. Chapter 3 by the volume editors is particularly instructive in listing thirteen principles of the field.
Odum, H. T. 1971. Environment, power, and society. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
A textbook on energy systems theory applied to natural and human systems. Chapter 10 is a summary of the author’s early thinking about ecological engineering.
Odum, H. T., and E. C. Odum. 2003. Concepts and methods of ecological engineering. Ecological Engineering 20:339–361.
A summary of H. T. Odum’s work in the field of ecological engineering that was published after his death. Theory and practical methods are covered with illustrations from his research conducted over fifty years.
Todd, N. J. 2005. A safe and sustainable world: The promise of ecological design. Washington, DC: Island Press.
A book intended for a non-technical audience that covers the contributions of John Todd and Nancy Jack Todd to ecological engineering and to other environmental fields. Their work in developing systems, such as bioshelters and treatment ecosystems, and in establishing organizations, such as the New Alchemy Institute, is described.
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- Accounting for Ecological Capital
- Adaptive Radiation
- Allocation of Reproductive Resources in Plants
- Animals, Functional Morphology of
- Animals, Reproductive Allocation in
- Animals, Thermoregulation in
- Antarctic Environments and Ecology
- Applied Ecology
- Aquatic Conservation
- Aquatic Nutrient Cycling
- Archaea, Ecology of
- Assembly Models
- Bacterial Diversity in Freshwater
- Benthic Ecology
- Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning
- Biodiversity Patterns in Agricultural Systms
- Biological Chaos and Complex Dynamics
- Biome, Alpine
- Biome, Boreal
- Biome, Desert
- Biome, Grassland
- Biome, Savanna
- Biome, Tundra
- Biomes, African
- Biomes, East Asian
- Biomes, Mountain
- Biomes, North American
- Biomes, South Asian
- Braun, E. Lucy
- Bryophyte Ecology
- Butterfly Ecology
- Carson, Rachel
- Chemical Ecology
- Classification Analysis
- Coastal Dune Habitats
- Communities and Ecosystems, Indirect Effects in
- Communities, Top-Down and Bottom-Up Regulation of
- Community Concept, The
- Community Ecology
- Community Genetics
- Community Phenology
- Competition and Coexistence in Animal Communities
- Competition in Plant Communities
- Complexity Theory
- Conservation Biology
- Conservation Genetics
- Coral Reefs
- Darwin, Charles
- Dead Wood in Forest Ecosystems
- De-Glaciation, Ecology of
- Disease Ecology
- Drought as a Disturbance in Forests
- Early Explorers, The
- Earth’s Climate, The
- Eco-Evolutionary Dynamics
- Ecological Dynamics in Fragmented Landscapes
- Ecological Engineering
- Ecological Forecasting
- Ecological Informatics
- Ecological Relevance of Speciation
- Ecology, Microbial (Community)
- Ecology of Emerging Zoonotic Viruses
- Ecology of the Atlantic Forest
- Ecosystem Ecology
- Ecosystem Engineers
- Ecosystem Multifunctionality
- Ecosystem Services
- Ecosystem Services, Conservation of
- Elton, Charles
- Endophytes, Fungal
- Energy Flow
- Environmental Anthropology
- Environmental Justice
- Environments, Extreme
- Ethics, Ecological
- European Natural History Tradition
- Evolutionarily Stable Strategies
- Facilitation and the Organization of Communities
- Fern and Lycophyte Ecology
- Fire Ecology
- Food Webs
- Foraging Behavior, Implications of
- Foraging, Optimal
- Forests, Temperate Coniferous
- Forests, Temperate Deciduous
- Freshwater Invertebrate Ecology
- Genetic Considerations in Plant Ecological Restoration
- Genomics, Ecological
- Geographic Range
- Gleason, Henry
- Grazer Ecology
- Greig-Smith, Peter
- Gymnosperm Ecology
- Habitat Selection
- Harper, John L.
- Harvesting Alternative Water Resources (US West)
- Heavy Metal Tolerance
- Himalaya, Ecology of the
- Host-Parasitoid Interactions
- Human Ecology
- Human Ecology of the Andes
- Human-Wildlife Conflict and Coexistence
- Hutchinson, G. Evelyn
- Indigenous Ecologies
- Industrial Ecology
- Insect Ecology, Terrestrial
- Introductory Sources
- Invasive Species
- Island Biogeography Theory
- Island Biology
- Keystone Species
- Kin Selection
- Landscape Dynamics
- Landscape Ecology
- Laws, Ecological
- Legume-Rhizobium Symbiosis, The
- Leopold, Aldo
- Lichen Ecology
- Life History
- Literature, Ecology and
- MacArthur, Robert H.
- Mangrove Zone Ecology
- Marine Fisheries Management
- Mathematical Ecology
- Mating Systems
- Maximum Sustainable Yield
- Metabolic Scaling Theory
- Metacommunity Dynamics
- Metapopulations and Spatial Population Processes
- Microclimate Ecology
- Multiple Stable States and Catastrophic Shifts in Ecosyste...
- Mutualisms and Symbioses
- Mycorrhizal Ecology
- Natural History Tradition, The
- Networks, Ecological
- Niche Versus Neutral Models of Community Organization
- Nutrient Foraging in Plants
- Odum, Eugene and Howard
- Old Fields
- Ordination Analysis
- Organic Agriculture, Ecology of
- Parental Care, Evolution of
- Pastures and Pastoralism
- Patch Dynamics
- Phenotypic Selection
- Philosophy, Ecological
- Phylogenetics and Comparative Methods
- Physiological Ecology of Nutrient Acquisition in Animals
- Physiological Ecology of Photosynthesis
- Physiological Ecology of Water Balance in Terrestrial Anim...
- Physiological Ecology of Water Balance in Terrestrial Plan...
- Plant Blindness
- Plant Disease Epidemiology
- Plant Ecological Responses to Extreme Climatic Events
- Plant-Insect Interactions
- Polar Regions
- Pollination Ecology
- Population Dynamics, Density-Dependence and Single-Species
- Population Dynamics, Methods in
- Population Ecology, Animal
- Population Ecology, Plant
- Population Fluctuations and Cycles
- Population Genetics
- Population Viability Analysis
- Populations and Communities, Dynamics of Age- and Stage-St...
- Predation and Community Organization
- Predator-Prey Interactions
- Reductionism Versus Holism
- Religion and Ecology
- Remote Sensing
- Restoration Ecology
- Ricketts, Edward Flanders Robb
- Secondary Production
- Seed Ecology
- Serpentine Soils
- Shelford, Victor
- Simulation Modeling
- Soil Biogeochemistry
- Soil Ecology
- Spatial Pattern Analysis
- Spatial Patterns of Species Biodiversity in Terrestrial En...
- Spatial Scale and Biodiversity
- Species Distribution Modeling
- Species Extinctions
- Species Responses to Climate Change
- Species-Area Relationships
- Stability and Ecosystem Resilience, A Below-Ground Perspec...
- Stochastic Processes
- Stoichiometry, Ecological
- Stream Ecology
- Sustainable Development
- Systematic Conservation Planning
- Systems Ecology
- Tansley, Sir Arthur
- Terrestrial Nitrogen Cycle
- Terrestrial Resource Limitation
- Theory and Practice of Biological Control
- Thermal Ecology of Animals
- Tragedy of the Commons
- Trophic Levels
- Tropical Humid Forest Biome
- Urban Ecology
- Vegetation Classification
- Vegetation Mapping
- Vicariance Biogeography
- Weed Ecology
- Wetland Ecology
- Whittaker, Robert H.
- Wildlife Ecology