Jewish Studies The Holocaust in France
by
Renée Poznanski
  • LAST REVIEWED: 30 June 2015
  • LAST MODIFIED: 30 July 2014
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199840731-0089

Introduction

Since the screening in 1985 of Claude Lanzmann’s monumental documentary film Shoah, this term—Shoah—has, in France, come to replace the term Holocaust when referring to the destruction of the Jews by the Nazis during World War II, in popular culture as well as in scholarly literature. 80,000 Jews—25 percent of the Jewish population present in the country—perished between 1940 and 1944. The vast majority of the victims had immigrated to France since the beginning of the century; some had acquired French citizenship during the 1920s and the 1930s; others had not. The persecution of the Jews in France (anti-Semitic legislation followed by internment in French camps and deportations to the death camps in the East) is closely intertwined with the evolution of the Vichy regime, the National Revolution that its leader (the Marechal Pétain) implemented, and the regime’s policy of collaboration with the Nazis. After an early postwar phase during which historiography on the fate of the Jews in France during the war seemed to be the concern of a handful of Jewish historians, working in the Centre de documentation juive contemporaine (CDJC), it began to develop considerably following the publication of Robert Paxton’s book on Vichy France (Vichy France: Old Guard and New Order, New York: Knopf, 1972; 1973 in its French version), and the book he wrote in collaboration with Michael Marrus, Vichy and the Jews (New York: Basic Books, 1981). The growing interest in the history of French policy under the occupation, combined with a rising focus on the Holocaust throughout the Western world, explain the multiplication of studies on diverse aspects of the Vichy persecution of the Jews that were published in the 1990s. The differences and the evolution of these differences between the geographical “zones” of occupation (the occupied zone, including Paris; the so-called Free Zone, unoccupied until November 1942; the Italian zone between November 1942 and September 1943, etc.) led to a number of regional studies, reflecting an interesting disparity between those regions. Based on the fact that 75 percent of the Jewish population escaped deportation, the most recent historiography seems to focus on trying to find an explanation to this relatively high percentage rate of rescue as compared to other West European countries, attributing it mostly to rescue actions by French citizens (the “civil society”) embodied in the figure of the “Righteous of France.”

General Overviews

The first comprehensive book on the persecution of the Jews by the Vichy regime (Marrus and Paxton 1981) set the tone for most of the works to follow. The policy of the French government toward the Jews, rather than the persecution measures by the occupying powers, became the main focus. Klarsfeld 1983–1985 argues with some details of Marrus and Paxton’s book as the author published a large amount of documents in his two volumes. In the 1990s, general overviews integrated the history of the persecution and the history of the victims into one narrative, moving the focus on the reaction of Jews themselves to the persecution. Kaspi 1991 offers a relative short synthesis, while Zuccotti 1993 elaborates on the role of Jewish organizations and Poznanski 2001 (first published in French in 1994) underlines the interaction between the Jews and the French population.

  • Kaspi, André. Les juifs en France pendant l’Occupation. Paris: Seuil, 1991.

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    This is a narrative survey, based on secondary sources, that provides a reliable synthesis suitable for general readers and undergraduates.

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    • Klarsfeld, Serge. Vichy-Auschwitz. 2 vols. Paris: Fayard, 1983–1985.

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      These two volumes contain a good collection of administrative documents (French and German; in French translation) illustrating Vichy’s policy and its articulation in line with German objectives.

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      • Marrus, Michael R., and Robert O. Paxton. Vichy France and the Jews. New York: Basic Books, 1981.

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        The first monograph drawing on Paxton’s book on Vichy France, it presents a thorough analysis of the Vichy regime policy toward the Jews, showing its singularity, its articulation in line with the German policy, and its implementation by different governmental agencies. It remains the seminal book on the anti-Semitic policy of the French government during World War II. Some historians, though, are challenging the author’s depiction of the French population and its anti-Semitism. Reprinted by Schocken Books, 1983.

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        • Poznanski, Renee. Jews in France during World War Two. Translated by Nathan Bracher. Hanover, NH: University Press of New England, 2001.

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          A comprehensive general overview (first published in French in 1994), with a special focus on the daily life of the Jews and their strategy of survival, as they relied on their connections to the French population, or on the Jewish organizations. Translated from French. Published for Brandeis University Press in association with the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.

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          • Zuccotti, Susan. The Holocaust, the French, and the Jews. New York: Basic Books, 1993.

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            Synthetic history based on memoirs and primary sources that describes the fate of the Jews in France during the war.

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            Reference Works

            While Szajkowski collected each and every piece of evidence, documentation, and information that he could find on the Jews in France during World War II and listed them according to a geographical key, Klarsfeld provides us with lists of Jews deported from France to the camps in Eastern Europe and arranges them by convoy.

            • Klarsfeld, Serge. Memorial to the Jews Deported from France, 1942–1944: Documentation of the Deportation of the Victims of the Final Solution in France. New York: Klarsfeld Foundation, 1983.

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              First published in French in 1978 and 1980 (Mémorial de la déportation des juifs de France), this book provides a list of the Jews deported to the camps in Eastern Europe. The names are listed in alphabetical order, according to each of the 82 convoys. Birth date, place of birth, and nationality are recorded for each person. Klarsfeld adds a detailed history of each convoy. A revised and completed edition was published in French in 2012.

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              • Klarsfeld, Serge. Calendrier de la persécution des Juifs de France. Paris: FFDJF, 1993.

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                This is a comprehensive collection of documents on the persecution of the Jews in France. The documents along with Klarsfeld’s comments are listed in chronological order, day by day. Klarsfeld does not provide the reference of each document and sometimes gives only partial quotes. But this volume is a very useful tool for anyone looking for information on any aspect of the persecution.

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                • Klarsfeld, Serge. French Children of the Holocaust: A Memorial. Edited by Susan Cohen, Howard M. Epstein. Translated by Glorianne Depondt, Howard M. Epstein. New York: New York University Press, 1996.

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                  This book includes alphabetical lists of the 11,400 Jewish children deported from France, by convoy, indicating surname, first name, birthdate and birthplace, assembly center, convoy number, deportation date, and last address in France. It was first published in French in 1994 (Mémorial des enfants juifs déportés de France); a revised and completed edition was published in 2006 (Les 11,400 enfants juifs déportés de France). Translated from French.

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                  • Szajkowski, Zosa. Analytical Franco-Jewish Gazetteer, 1939–1945. New York, 1966.

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                    As the persecutions developed, the Jews moved throughout the country, first leaving the capital for the southern zone, then for the Italian zone of occupation, as well as departing larger cities for the countryside. This book is an extensive guide to the life of the Jews in all the cities, villages, and camps in France during the war. It includes citations from many documents, bibliographical indications, and either information that was available to the author in the 1960s.

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                    Journals

                    Some scholarly articles on the Holocaust in France can be found scattered throughout journals dedicated to Holocaust studies (Holocaust and Genocide Studies and Yad Vashem Studies) and others in journals dealing with Jewish history in France (Les Cahiers du Judaïsme, Archives Juives). While Les Cahiers de la Shoah lasted only a few years, the Revue d’histoire de la Shoah remains the most important journal in French focusing on the Holocaust in France.

                    Collected Studies

                    Three special issues focusing on the history of Jews in France during World War II (Pardès, Les Annales, and French Politics, Culture & Society) have been included under this heading. While Kaspi, et al. 1992 and Valensi 1993 try to encompass all the topics related to the situation of the Jews in France during the Occupation, Caron 2012 deals with rescue. A collection of books based on the scholarly presentations at a series of conferences, taking place in Lacaune, France, every two years, has been added (Fijalkow 2003; Fijalkow 2004; Fijalkow 2006; Fijalkow 2009; Fijalkow 2011; Fijalkow and Fijalkow 2013). They mark important stages in the development of the historiography by their focus on the specific topics, which are being addressed by the historians (righteous among the nations, children, women, etc.).

                    • Caron, Vicki, ed. Special Issue. French Politics, Culture & Society 30.2 (2012).

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                      This special issue, based on a conference held at Columbia University, deals with the rescue of Jews in France and its empire during World War II, paying special attention to the interaction between history and memory.

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                      • Fijalkow, Jacques, ed. Vichy, les Juifs et les Justes. Toulouse: Privat, 2003.

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                        This is a first attempt to tackle with the role of the French Righteous among the Nation in the rescue of persecuted Jews. The topic has recently gained popularity among mainstream historians, supported by the media, which are eager to balance the negative image of the Vichy regime by a positive one of the French society.

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                        • Fijalkow, Jacques, ed. Les femmes à l’épreuve des années quarante: Juives et non-juives, résistance et entraide. Paris: Ed. de Paris, 2004.

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                          Reflecting a more general tendency in the historiography of the period, this collection of articles singles out the role of women, especially in the Resistance and the rescue efforts by social organizations turned clandestine.

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                          • Fijalkow, Jacques, ed. Les enfants de la Shoah. Paris: Ed. de Paris, 2006.

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                            Here again, the central idea of this collection of articles is to apply to the history of the Holocaust in France the main questions dealt with in the general historiography. The Jewish children, their victimization and fate during the war years are being analyzed thoroughly.

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                            • Fijalkow, Jacques, ed. La transmission de la Shoah. Paris: Ed. de Paris, 2009.

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                              This collection of articles examines the different ways the Holocaust is being taught in France and the patterns of transmission, which have been experimented.

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                              • Fijalkow, Jacques, ed. Histoire régionale de la Shoah en France. Paris: Ed. de Paris, 2011.

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                                Different parts of France have known different patterns of occupation, and therefore, the situation of the persecuted Jews differed from one region to another. This book collects the works of historians who dealt with the holocaust in a particular region rather than in the broad national perspective. This historiographical development has been particularly productive in the recent years.

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                                • Fijalkow, Jacques, and Ygal Fijalkow, eds. Les élèves face à la Shoah: Lieux, histoire, voyages. Albi, France: Presses du centre universitaire Champollion, 2013.

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                                  As a complement to the 2009 volume, this book focuses on the study trips organized for young students to the memorial places where the Holocaust took place.

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                                  • Kaspi, André, Annie Kriegel, and Annette Wieviorka, eds. Special Issue. Pardès, 16 (1992).

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                                    With articles by André Kaspi, Philippe Landau, Maurice Moch, Claire Andrieu, Claude Singer, and others, this special issue has no particular focus but tackles different aspects of the persecution of the Jews in France during the war.

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                                    • Valensi, Lucette, ed. Special Issue. Les Annales, Histoire, Sciences sociales, 8.3 (1993).

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                                      With articles by Robert Paxton, Pierre Laborie, Serge Klarsfeld, Anne Grynberg, Michael Marrus, and others, this issue presents some interesting testimonies (Daniel Cordier, Pierre Vidal-Naquet, Henri Szwarc, and Liliane Klein-Lieber).

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                                      Published Primary Sources

                                      The CDJC had been created clandestinely in April 1943 in Grenoble and then occupied by the Italians, with the purpose of documenting the persecution of the Jews of France. It began publishing documentary collections immediately after the liberation of France, some of them being reedited when the topic gained public interest (Les Juifs sous l’Occupation, 1940–1944). Many of these books remain seminal for any study of the Holocaust in France. They present extremely useful documents on the persecution itself (Billig 1960) or on the Resistance by the Jews (Rutkowski 1975). A rising interest in the fate of French Jewry during the Second World War, and especially in the “lack of compensation” for the looted assets, led to the creation by the French prime minister, Alain Juppé, of the Commission Mattéoli in 1997, to investigate the looting of Jewish properties by the French state during the war and the ways that Jews recovered their assets after the liberation of the country. Several documentary collections have been published as a result of this work. Claire Andrieu 2000 is the most important one. President Jacques Chirac has played a crucial role in the recognition by the French state of the responsibility of the French state in the persecution of the Jews in France. Therefore the collection of his speeches on this topic is helpful for any study on the attitude of the French state toward this difficult past (Chirac 1998). Some collections of underground press can be added to this list of primary sources. They encompass a large scope of clandestine literature of this time, issued by the Christians (Bédarida and Bédarida 2001, cited under Underground Press), by the Communist Jews, in French (La presse antiraciste sous l’Occupation hitlérienne; Courtois and Rayski 1987, both cited under Underground Press) or in Yiddish (Das vort fun vidershtand und zig, 1949, cited under Underground Press) as well a large selection of the broadcasts in French from London by the BBC (Crémieux-Brilhac 1976, cited under Underground Press). Diaries by Jews (Berr 2008; Biélinky 1992; Calef 1991; Grunberg 2001; Shatzmann 2005, all cited under Diaries by Jews) provide a close insight into the daily life of the persecuted Jews or an interesting perspective on Jewish leaders (Lambert 2007; Montel and Kohn 1999, both cited under Diaries by Jews). As a useful complement, diaries by non-Jews help to contextualize these writings, by offering a complex picture of French society in Paris (Guéhenno 1947, cited under Diaries by Non-Jews) or in the “free” zone (Limagne 1987, cited under Diaries by Non-Jews), depicting a French internment camp in the Vichy zone (Bohny-Reiter 1993, cited under Diaries by Non-Jews), presenting the mood of the Protestant community (Blocher-Saillens 1998; Carnets du Pasteur Boegner, 1940–1945, both cited under Diaries by Non-Jews) or the fate of young Parisian student who decided wear the yellow star as a sign of solidarity with the persecuted Jews (Siefridt 2010, cited under Diaries by Non-Jews). A few collections of letters (Baumann 1985; Jacobson 1997; Mass 2012; Schoenberg 1995, all cited under Collection of Letters) are most informative on the situation of Jewish internees in French camps and their interaction with their siblings outside the camps. Postwar memoirs are extremely numerous. Kofman 1994 (cited under Postwar Memoirs and Testimonies) provides a powerful insight into the life of a Jewish child in occupied Paris. But this very selective list includes works which are particularly informative, on the Drancy camp, the most important in France (Crémieux-Dunand 1945; Wellers 1991, both cited under Postwar Memoirs and Testimonies), on the Compiègne camp, a camp managed by the German occupation authorities (Bernard 1944, cited under Postwar Memoirs and Testimonies), on the rescue operations conducted by the Organisation de secours à l’Enfants (OSE) organization (Weill 2002, cited under Postwar Memoirs and Testimonies), on rescue by French social organizations (Merle d’Aubigné, et al. 1968, cited under Postwar Memoirs and Testimonies) or on different patterns of resistance by Jews or Jewish organizations (Jakubowicz 1948; Lazarus 1947; Lévy 1998, all cited under Postwar Memoirs and Testimonies). This amounts to an exceptional number of published primary sources.

                                      • Andrieu, Claire, ed. La Persécution des juifs de France, 1940–1944 et le rétablissement de la légalité républicaine. Recueil de textes officiels, 1940–1999. Paris: La Documentation française, Mission d’étude sur la spoliation des juifs de France, 2000.

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                                        With the participation of Annette Wieviorka, Serge Klarsfeld, and the collaboration of Olivier Cariguel, and Cecilia Kapitz. As a result of the work accomplished by the Commission Mattéoli, this book gathers all the French and German texts organizing the economic persecution of the Jews in France, as well as the official postwar texts (1943–1960) related to the restitution of properties to their previous Jewish owners.

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                                        • Billig, Joseph. Le Commissariat général aux questions juives. 3 vols. Paris: Éditions du Centre, 1960.

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                                          A pioneer work, these three volumes document the activity of the Commissariat général aux Questions juives, which was created by the Vichy Government in March, 1941 to implement anti-Semitic legislation. This is the first book dealing extensively with the role of the French state in the persecution of the Jews.

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                                          • Chirac, Jacques. Discours et Messages, En hommage aux Juifs de France victimes de la collaboration de l’État français de Vichy avec l’occupant allemand. Paris: FFDJF, 1998.

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                                            Only in 1995 did President Jacques Chirac recognize the responsibility of France in the persecution of the Jews on its soil during the war; until then the French authorities had made a point to distinguish between the French state of the Vichy period and the French Republic, which supposedly could not be held responsible for the deeds of the former. Subsequently to this recognition, President Chirac spoke at different occasions on the subject and his speeches and messages are gathered in this volume.

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                                            • Les Juifs sous l’Occupation, 1940–1944. Paris: CDJC-FFDJF, 1982.

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                                              A collection of official French and German texts. This collection gathers the main official texts of laws and decrees, from French or German origin, documenting the anti-Semitic legislation that was adopted and implemented in France during the war, in both the occupied zone and the so-called Free Zone.

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                                              • Rutkowski, Adam. La lutte des Juifs en France à l’époque de l’Occupation. Paris: Éditions du Centre, 1975.

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                                                Based on documents to be found in the CDJC archives, this collection provides a glimpse into the different ways that Jews organized in France to resist persecution. Preface by Georges Wellers.

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                                                Underground Press

                                                The underground press developed very rapidly during the war, extending into both zones. Most of the press issued by the French Resistance movements hardly mentioned the persecution of the Jews, except for a few weeks during the summer of 1942. The Cahiers du Témoignage chrétien are the exception (Bédarida and Bédarida 2001). The broadcasts in French from London at the BBC had some programs dedicated to the fate of the Jews in France (Crémieux-Brilhac 1976). The Jewish communists, organized in a distinct structure under the aegis of the Communist Party, issued a very rich collection of clandestine literature (Courtois and Rayski 1987; Das vort fun vidershtand und zig, 1949; La presse antiraciste sous l’Occupation hitlérienne, 1950). Each of the collections presented here have a synthetic introduction presenting the ways these newspapers or broadcasts have been produced.

                                                • Bédarida, François, and Renée Bédarida, ed. La Résistance spirituelle, 1941–1944. Les Cahiers clandestins du Témoignage Chrétien. Paris: Albin Michel, 2001.

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                                                  This is a complete collection of the clandestine Cahiers du Témoignage chrétien that includes the issues denouncing racism, anti-Semitism, the actual persecution on French soil and the extermination in Eastern Europe of the Jews deported from France.

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                                                  • Courtois, Stéphane, and Rayski, Adam, eds. Qui savait quoi? Paris: La Découverte, 1987.

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                                                    With the collaboration of Philippe Burrin, Claude Lévy, Denis Peschanski, and Renée Poznanski. Focused on information that was available during the war on the extermination process taking place in the camps of Eastern Europe, these large excerpts of the Jewish underground communist publications are preceded by articles on what could have been known at that time by the different agencies: the world, the French state, or the Jews of France themselves.

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                                                    • Crémieux-Brilhac, Jean-Louis, ed. Les voix de la liberté; Ici Londres, 1940–1944. 5 vols. Paris: La Documentation Française, 1976.

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                                                      Some of the broadcasts denouncing the persecution of the Jews in France or the extermination in the camps of Eastern Europe can be found in these comprehensive five volumes of French broadcasts from London at the BBC.

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                                                      • Das vort fun vidershtand und zig. Paris: UJRE, 1949.

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                                                        This is a unique collection of underground Jewish newspapers and leaflets issued in Yiddish by the Jewish section of the MOI, the Communist organization that organized all the groups of foreign communists under the aegis of the French Communist Party.

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                                                        • La presse antiraciste sous l’Occupation hitlérienne. Paris: UJRE, 1950.

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                                                          The Jewish section of the MOI also published an impressive amount of clandestine newspapers and leaflets in French. This collection provides an important number of them.

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                                                          Diaries by Jews

                                                          The number of important diaries by Jews, of French citizenship (Berr 2008; Lambert 2007; Montel and Kohn 1999) or from foreign origin (Biélinky 1992; Grunberg 2001; Shatzmann 2005) in Paris (Biélinky 1992; Berr 2008; Grunberg 2001), in one of the French camps in the occupied part of the country (Calef 1991; Montel and Kohn 1999), or in the Southern zone (Lambert 2007) is extremely significant. They shed an indispensable light on the ways that Jews confronted the anti-Semitic laws and the manhunts conducted against them, how it affected their daily life, how they understood the purpose of this persecution or what they knew about the destination of the deportation convoys.

                                                          • Biélinky, Jacques. Journal, juillet 1940-décembre 1943. Edited by Renée Poznanski. Paris: Cerf, 1992.

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                                                            Jacques Biélinky, a Jewish journalist or Russian origin, was very involved in the artistic milieu and in the Jewish social life before the war. His diary consists of a few lines written every day, in which he reports the difficulties of daily life in Paris as well as the development of the anti-Semitic policy and its impact on the Jewish life in the capital. He was deported to the camp of Sobibor and did not survive. Introduction by Renée Poznanski.

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                                                            • Berr, Hélène. The Journal of Hélène Berr. Translated by David Bellos. New York: Weinstein, 2008.

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                                                              Hélène Berr, a young French Jewish student of English literature in Paris began this extraordinary diary in April 1942 to understand her own feelings and ended up documenting the persecution and the ways that it affected her and the people around her. She was deported in March 1944 and did not survive the camps. Translated from French. With an introduction and an essay by David Bellos and an afterword by Mariette Job.

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                                                              • Calef, Noël (Nissim). Drancy 1941, Camp de représailles. Edited by Serge Klarsfeld. Paris: Fils et Filles des Déportés Juifs de France, 1991.

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                                                                Although it is presented in a fictionalized form, this is actually an important diary documenting the first period of the Drancy camp, before its author, a Jewish scenarist of Italian citizenship, was released thanks to the intercession of the Italian authorities. Introduction by Serge Klarsfeld.

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                                                                • Grunberg, Albert. Journal d’un coiffeur juif à Paris sous l’Occupation. Paris: Éditions de l’Atelier, 2001.

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                                                                  Albert Grunberg, a Parisian Jewish hairdresser of Rumanian origin, went into hiding in September 1942. Thanks to his diary, we have an interesting picture of the daily life of an entire building in Paris during the occupation, beginning with the “concierge” who helped him on a daily basis. Grunberg describes the difficulties encountered by his wife, as an “Aryan” married to a Jew. Introduced by Laurent Douzou and annotated by Jean Laloum.

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                                                                  • Lambert, Raymond-Raoul. Diary of a Witness: 1940–1943. Translated by Isabel Best. Edited by Richard I. Cohen. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 2007.

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                                                                    Raymond-Raoul Lambert served as the general director in the Southern zone of the General Union of the Jews of France—the organization created in November 1941 by the Vichy Government to replace all existing Jewish organizations—until his arrest in August 1943. In his diary, which he began in 1940, Lambert, a typical French Israelite, comments on the persecution and reports on his activities. Translated from French. Introduction by Richard I. Cohen.

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                                                                    • Montel, François, and Georges Kohn. Journal de Compiègne et de Drancy. Paris: FFDJF, 1999.

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                                                                      François Montel and Georges Kohn after him were both Jewish “leaders” in the camp of Drancy in 1942 and 1943. Their diaries are of incredible value in following life in the camp day after day. Introduced and annotated by Serge Klarsfeld.

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                                                                      • Shatzmann, Benjamin. Journal d’un interné, Compiègne–Drancy–Pithiviers, 12 décembre 1941/23 décembre 1943. Paris: Fayard, 2005.

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                                                                        Benjamin Shatzmann, a Jewish dentist in the prestigious neighborhoods of Paris, of Rumanian origin, was arrested in December 1941 and deported in September 1942. This highly educated man wrote a very special diary, including a detailed description of what he is enduring in the three camps as well as his comments and analysis of the persecution as he understood it. Foreword by Serge Klarsfeld.

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                                                                        Diaries by Non-Jews

                                                                        Several diaries by non-Jews contain a great deal of information on the persecution, and they are important in understanding how the general population reacted to the anti-Semitic laws and then to the arrests and deportations of Jews. Their choices reflect the variety of their situations: a Protestant clergywoman (Blocher-Saillens 1998) commenting the persecution, the head of the Protestant community in France (Carnets du Pasteur Boegner, 1940–1945) trying to intervene, a social worker (Bohny-Reiter 1993) helping the Jewish internees in the camps, a French writer in Paris (Guéhenno 1947) documenting the daily life in the capital, a young student (Siefridt 2010), and a French journalist in the Vichy zone (Limagne 1987) describing all the events that he happened to hear about.

                                                                        • Blocher-Saillens, Madeleine. Témoin des années noires. Journal d’une femme pasteur. Paris: Éditions de Paris-Max Chateil, 1998.

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                                                                          Madeleine Blocher-Saillens was the first woman to serve as a pastor in France. Her diary has many comments on the persecution of the Jews of Paris. Introduced and annotated by Jacques-E. Blocher.

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                                                                          • Bohny-Reiter, Friedel. Journal de Rivesaltes, 1941–1942. Geneva: Éditions Zoé, 1993.

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                                                                            Friedel Bohny-Reiter worked as a social worker for the Swiss Red Cross Aid in the camp of Rivesaltes in the Southern zone. Her diary gives an interesting account of the situation of the internees as well as the help, which has been provided to them by the social organizations.

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                                                                            • Carnets du Pasteur Boegner, 1940–1945. Paris: Fayard, 1992.

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                                                                              In these Carnets, the head of the Protestant community in France reports, among other things, on his encounters with the Maréchal Pétain as well as with the chief rabbi of France and his efforts to help the Jews. Introduced and annotated by Philippe Boegner.

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                                                                              • Guéhenno, Jean. Journal des années noires. Paris: Gallimard, 1947.

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                                                                                Jean Guéhenno, a French writer who was a fierce opponent to the Vichy policy, describes the population in Paris and follows all the events during the war, including the persecution of the Jews.

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                                                                                • Limagne, Pierre. Éphémérides de 4 années tragiques. 3 vols. Lavilledieu, France: Éditions de Candide, 1987.

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                                                                                  This young journalist at La Croix, a Catholic daily, recorded in his diary each and every piece of information, official or not, that was available to him.

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                                                                                  • Siefridt, Françoise. J’ai voulu porter l’étoile jaune, Journal. Paris: Robert Laffont, 2010.

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                                                                                    Françoise Siefridt was a young student in Paris when she was arrested for wearing the yellow star as a sign of solidarity with the persecuted Jews. She spent a few weeks in the camp of Drancy and describes her arrest and the life in the camp. Introduced by Jacques Duquesne.

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                                                                                    Collection of Letters

                                                                                    These letters add an important component to our understanding of the life of Jews interned in the concentration camps in France. They allow us to follow some of these internees from camp to camp (Baumann 1985), as a prelude to their deportation to the camps in Eastern Europe. They provide us with an intimate insight on their daily life in the camps (Jacobson 1997; Schoenberg 1995): their needs, their hopes (Mass 2012), and their expectations.

                                                                                    • Baumann, Denise. Une famille comme les autres. Paris: Albin Michel, 1985.

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                                                                                      Denise Baumann, who had been engaged in the rescue of Jewish children during the Occupation, published the letters sent by her parents from the French camps in this volume, as well as letters from her sister and brother-in-law, who had been arrested and interned with their three children (including a one-year-old infant). None of them survived deportation. Letters collected and introduced by Denise Baumann.

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                                                                                      • Jacobson, Louise. Lettres de Louise Jacobson et de ses proches, Fresnes, Drancy, 1942–1943, Paris: Robert Laffont, 1997.

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                                                                                        Louise Jacobson was a teenager when she was arrested and interned in Fresnes and then in Drancy. This correspondence, which lasted six months until she was deported and perished in an extermination camp, is very rich and sheds a unique light on the life of a young girl in the camps. Presented by her sister, Nadia Kaluski-Jacobson, and introduced by Serge Klarsfeld.

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                                                                                        • Mass, Zacharie. Passeport pour Auschwitz. Correspondance d’un médecin du camp de Drancy. Paris: Le Manuscrit/FMS, 2012.

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                                                                                          Zacharie Mass was a Jewish physician of Rumanian origin. These eighty letters to his wife closely follow his efforts to be liberated from the camp of Drancy and his hopes that were not fulfilled. He was deported to Auschwitz and did not return. Introduced by President Jacques Chirac; introduced and annotated by Michel Laffitte.

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                                                                                          • Schoenberg, Isaac. Lettres à Chana: Camp de Pithiviers, mai 1941–24 juin 1942. Orléans, France: Cercil, 1995.

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                                                                                            This collection of beautiful love letters, (most of them translated from the Yiddish) between the artist (painter/musician) Isaac Schoenberg, interned in the camp of Pithiviers, and his wife in Paris, illustrates daily life in the camp and reveals the expectations of the internees in this early period of the persecutions. Presented and annotated by Serge Klarsfeld. Preface by Pierre Pachet.

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                                                                                            Postwar Memoirs and Testimonies

                                                                                            Some of these memoirs were written in the immediate postwar period (Bernard 1944; Crémieux-Dunand 1945; Jakubowicz 1948; Wellers 1991), while others were published later. Some report on the life in the camps (Bernard 1944; Crémieux-Dunand 1945; Wellers 1991), while others focus on the life of a Jewish organization or a Resistance movement (Lazarus 1947, Lévy 1998, Weill 2002). Merle d’Aubigné, et al. 1968 presents one of the main non-Jewish organizations active in rescue. Kofman 1994 offers a very moving account on the life of a Jewish child in occupied Paris.

                                                                                            • Bernard, Jean-Jacques. Le Camp de la mort lente. Paris: Albin Michel, 1944.

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                                                                                              This testimony on the camp of Compiègne, by a French Jew, completely estranged from any sense of Jewish identity, adds a different voice to the existing testimonies.

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                                                                                              • Crémieux-Dunand, Julie. La vie à Drancy, 1941–1944 récit documentaire. Paris: Librairie Gedalge, 1945.

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                                                                                                Crémieux-Dunand’s testimony on the camp of Drancy was one of the first to be published. It remains a significant document in visualizing the terrible reality of the camp.

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                                                                                                • Jakubowicz, Yehuda. Ri Amelot, hilf und vidershtand. Paris: Éditions Colonie Scolaire, 1948.

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                                                                                                  The “Rue Amelot Committee” was engaged in helping persecuted Jews in Paris, since the very beginning of the occupation. Providing social assistance during the first period, it turned to clandestine forms of action when Jews began being arrested “en masse.” This is a very thorough account of the organization’s activity by one of its main activists.

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                                                                                                  • Kofman, Sarah. Rue Ordener, rue Labat. Paris: Galilée, 1994.

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                                                                                                    Kofman, an eminent French philosopher and essayist wrote this powerful piece about her childhood in France under the Occupation and the deportation of her father, Rabbi Bereck Kofman who was murdered at Auschwitz.

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                                                                                                    • Lazarus, Jacques. Juifs au combat: Témoignage sur l’activité d’un mouvement de résistance. Paris: CDJC, 1947.

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                                                                                                      The Organisation Juive de Combat, called the Jewish Army (Armée Juive) during the earlier period of the Occupation of France, was a Zionist organization involved in resistance. Lazarus describes his own involvement in the organization.

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                                                                                                      • Lévy, Jean-Pierre, with Dominique Veillon. Mémoires d’un franc-Tireur. Itinéraire d’un résistant (1940–1944). Brussels: Complexe/IHTP-CNRS, 1998.

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                                                                                                        A French citizen of Jewish origin, Lévy initiated and led one of the important French resistance movements in the Southern zone, Franc Tireur. His account is representative of the nature of the many French Jews’ involvement in the general resistance movement in France.

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                                                                                                        • Merle d’Aubigné, Jeanne, Violette Mouchon, and Émile Fabre, eds. Les Clandestins de Dieu, CIMADE 1939–1944. Paris: Fayard, 1968.

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                                                                                                          The Cimade, an organization founded in September 1939 by young Protestant students, dedicated itself to the support of the large number of Alsatians, uprooted as a consequence of war operations. After the defeat of France, this activity was enlarged to include all the new refugees, including numerous Jews, who were sent to the French camps. This collection of testimonies reports about the activities of the organization that provided protection for the persecuted Jews in the later stage of the persecution.

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                                                                                                          • Weill, Joseph. Le combat d’un juste: essai autobiographique. Le Coudray-Macouard: Cheminement, 2002.

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                                                                                                            This physician of Alsatian origin led the Organisation de secours à l’Enfant during the war. He was one of the first to push forward the organization’s adoption of illegal actions to ensure the rescue of the Jewish children, aware that keeping them in collective structures compromised their security.

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                                                                                                            • Wellers, Georges. Un Juif sous Vichy. Paris: Éditions Tirésias, 1991.

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                                                                                                              This is one of the most comprehensive testimonies on the persecution in France, first published in 1946 (De Drancy à Auschwitz), focusing on the camp of Drancy where the author spent two years before being deported in June 1944. The author, a well-known chemist from Russian origin, was liberated from Buchenwald, where he had been evacuated from Auschwitz. After the war he resumed his activities as a scientist and dedicated himself to writing the history of the Holocaust. Also published as L’étoile jaune à l’heure de Vichy (Paris: Fayard, 1973).

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                                                                                                              In The Prewar Years

                                                                                                              Around 330,000 Jews lived in France at the outbreak of the war: 90,000 of them had been French citizens for many generations (France was the first European country to emancipate the Jews in September 1791). Among the remaining Jews, half acquired French citizenship during the first half of the century, while the second half immigrated to France in the 1930s and were nationless. These different components of French Jewry were organized in various organizations that diverged regarding strategies to address and combat the rise of anti-Semitism in France in the years before the war. Some of the ideas that circulated in France in the anti-Semitic parties before the war found their way in the legislation adopted by the Vichy regime, after the defeat of France.

                                                                                                              Political and Social History of the Jews

                                                                                                              While Birnbaum 1996 focuses on the French Jews (the French Israelites) and their relation to the French state, Hyman 1979 offers a broader picture of all the components of French Jewry. Weinberg 1977 limits the study to the Parisian Jews. The main axis of the author’s analysis (like Hyman’s) revolves around the idea of a profound divided community that failed to present a united response to the growing anti-Semitism. The Ligue Internationale contre l’Antisémitisme (Debonno 2012) was the most active organization fighting against this anti-Semitism in the prewar years.

                                                                                                              • Birnbaum, Pierre. The Jews of the Republic: A Political History of State Jews from Gambetta to Vichy. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1996.

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                                                                                                                This work on the history of French Jews by the best specialist on the question provides a necessary context to understand their reactions, when confronted with the anti-Semitic persecution officially launched by the French state after the fall of the Republic in 1940.

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                                                                                                                • Debonno, Emmanuel. La LICA aux origines de l’antiracisme. Paris: éditions du CNRS, 2012.

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                                                                                                                  Debonno’s book describes the activities of the Ligue Internationale contre l’Antisémitisme, which was created in 1928 by Bernard Lecache and Jewish activists to involve as many intellectuals and activists in the struggle against the rising anti-Semitism in France, in the name of human rights (in French, the Rights of Man).

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                                                                                                                  • Hyman, Paula E. From Dreyfus to Vichy: The Remaking of French Jewry, 1906–1939. New York: Columbia University Press, 1979.

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                                                                                                                    Hyman’s book focuses on the organizational aspects of the history of French Jewry and the challenges that they met between these two major anti-Semitic moments in French history. Diversity and therefore disunion occupy the center of her analysis.

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                                                                                                                    • Weinberg, David. A Community on Trial: The Jews of Paris in the 1930’s. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1977.

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                                                                                                                      Focusing on a shorter period of time (the 1930s) and on Parisian Jewry, Weinberg supports the idea that French Jewry proved incapable of uniting their efforts to counter the anti-Semitic attacks of the 1930s and ended up disunited when the war broke up.

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                                                                                                                      Anti-Semitism in France

                                                                                                                      Once the Vichy regime’s anti-Semitic policy has been disclosed and analyzed, historians began looking into the historical roots that might explain this betrayal of the Emancipation Act. They found them in the anti-Semitic climate, which prevailed in France during the 1930s (Birnbaum 1992), enhanced by the international circumstances of this period: the economic crisis and the arrival of a large number of Jewish refugees, fleeing from France’s neighboring countries, in which fascism and/or official anti-Semitism became prevalent (Caron 1999). Schor 1992 pays more attention to the philo-Semitic currents trying to cope with the anti-Semitic climate of the time.

                                                                                                                      • Birnbaum, Pierre. Anti-Semitism in France: A Political History from Leon Blum to the Present. Translated by Miriam Kochan. Oxford: Blackwell, 1992.

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                                                                                                                        Birnbaum inserts the anti-Semitism of the war years in the historical context of French political anti-Semitism, insisting on its continuity and specifically French characteristics. Translated from French.

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                                                                                                                        • Caron, Vicki. Uneasy Asylum. France and the Jewish Refugee Crisis, 1933–1942. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1999.

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                                                                                                                          Among the different themes nourishing anti-Semitism during the 1930s, the relative large number of Jewish refugees seeking asylum in France constitutes one of the most important. Caron’s book deals in details with all the aspects of this much-discussed crisis in France, depicting a society concerned with the economic as well as identity-based problems brought about by this new population.

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                                                                                                                          • Schor, Ralph. L’Antisémitisme en France pendant les années trente. Brussels: Complexe, 1992.

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                                                                                                                            Focusing on the 1930s, Schor’s book deals both with the manifestations of anti-Semitism in French society and with the philo-Semitic responses that they triggered.

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                                                                                                                            The Vichy Regime

                                                                                                                            Until the 1970s, Aron 1954 was considered as the authoritative study on the Vichy regime. Yet Aron’s analysis underestimated French collaboration with the German occupiers and marginalized the persecution of the Jews. Robert Paxton’s book (Paxton 1972) reconsidered the whole policy of the regime and today remains the basic book to understand the characteristics of the Vichy regime. In his study, the French anti-Semitic policy occupies a central place as part of the National Revolution ideology of the regime as well as in the framework of its collaboration with the Nazis. After this basic historical revision, a general synthesis was written (Azéma 1984), followed by other synthetic studies (Baruch 1996; Rousso 1992). In the beginning of the 1990s, the focus switched from the political authorities to the society in an effort to understand the interaction between the state and the population, including on the question of the anti-Jewish persecution (Azéma and Bedarida 1993).

                                                                                                                            • Aron, Robert. Histoire de Vichy. Paris: Fayard, 1954.

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                                                                                                                              In this study of the Vichy regime, the authoritative analysis until the 1970s, the Marechal Petain is presented as the shield that protected France, while the General de Gaulle embodied its sword in London, suggesting that both combined their efforts in the interest of France during the war years. The Minister of State and Prime Minister Pierre Laval is the one to be blamed for all acts of collaboration with the Germans, including the anti-Semitic persecution.

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                                                                                                                              • Azéma, Jean-Pierre. From Munich to the Liberation, 1938–1944. London: Cambridge University Press, 1984.

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                                                                                                                                Azema’s synthetic book on the Vichy period is meant especially for undergraduates. It tackles with every aspects of French history during the war period, including the Vichy regime, the resistance movements on French territory and the Free French in London, while the persecution of the Jews is inserted into the narrative.

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                                                                                                                                • Azéma, Jean-Pierre, and François Bedarida, eds. La France des années noires. 2 vols. Paris: Seuil, 1993.

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                                                                                                                                  This collection of articles by the best specialists on the topic deals with all aspects of the Vichy period, including the persecution of the Jews.

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                                                                                                                                  • Baruch, Marc-Olivier. Le régime de Vichy. Paris: La Découverte, 1996.

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                                                                                                                                    Unlike Rousso’s book, this synthesis focuses on the Vichy regime, underlining its political characteristics.

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                                                                                                                                    • Jackson, Julian. France. The Dark Years, 1940–1944. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001.

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                                                                                                                                      Jackson’s book is the latest published synthesis on the topic. Based on secondary sources, it makes use of the latest studies on each aspect of the period under analysis. It is very useful for anyone interested in the history of France during the war years and in a study of the anti-Jewish persecution in the context of this comprehensive history.

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                                                                                                                                      • Paxton, Robert O. Vichy France, Old Guard and New Order, 1940–1944. New York: Columbia University Press, 1972.

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                                                                                                                                        Paxton’s book created a true revolution in the perception of the Vichy regime. It disclosed the interplay between the ideology of the regime, embodied in the National Revolution, and the choice of collaborating with the German occupiers, thereby reconsidering the importance, development, implementation and meaning of the anti-Jewish policy in all its aspects (legislation, looting, arrests, and deportation).

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                                                                                                                                        • Rousso, Henry. Les Années noires; vivre sous l’Occupation. Paris: Gallimard, 1992.

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                                                                                                                                          This short synthesis on all aspects of the war period in France pays much attention to social life under the German occupation and is abundantly illustrated.

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                                                                                                                                          The French Population and the Vichy Regime

                                                                                                                                          The fate of the Jews was obviously dependent on the policy of the Germans and the Vichy authorities, but the attitude of the French population toward the French anti-Semitic government or the German occupiers could be of great influence. The society could either volunteer to implement the new laws, help the perpetrators, or transform itself into a rescuing society. While the articles collected in Azéma and Bedarida 1992 explore the different sides of the interaction between the state and the society, Laborie 1990 insists on the confusion of a French society traumatized by the defeat of 1940 and Burrin 1996 focuses on the ways diverse sectors of the French population found accomodation with the new regime and its policy. All three books deal more or less extensively with the reaction of the French population to the anti-Jewish persecution. Fouilloux 1997 studies the development of the christian churches in France, inserting the Vichy years in a longer continuum. Fogg 2009 proposes an analysis of the interaction between French citizens and Foreigners (including Jews) through the prism of daily life.

                                                                                                                                          • Azéma, Jean-Pierre, and Bedarida, François, ed. Vichy et les Français. Paris: Fayard, 1992.

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                                                                                                                                            This collection of articles pioneered the switch of focus from the state to the society. It marks an important step in the development of the historiography on the Vichy regime.

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                                                                                                                                            • Burrin, Philippe. France under the Germans: Collaboration and Compromise. Translated by Janet Lloyd. New York: New Press, 1996.

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                                                                                                                                              Without directly arguing with Laborie, Burrin pictures French society in a reverse way, by focusing on the different levels of collaboration with the German occupiers, at the state level as well as in different sectors of the French society. The persecution of the Jews and the reactions that it provoked (or failed to provoke) are integrated fully in this thorough analysis. This is the most important book on this topic. Translated from French.

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                                                                                                                                              • Fogg, Shannon. The Politics of Everyday Life in Vichy France: Foreigners, Undesirables, and Strangers. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2009.

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                                                                                                                                                Focusing on daily life, Fogg’s book deals more specifically with the interaction between the French population and the foreigners (including the Jews) in this period of persecution.

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                                                                                                                                                • Fouilloux, Étienne. Les Chrétiens français entre crise et libération, 1937–1947. Paris: Seuil, 1997.

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                                                                                                                                                  A central part in this book deals with the Christian churches during the Occupation and studies the different attitudes in the wider framework of the ways that they coped with the modern world, while comparing between Catholics and Protestants. Fouilloux connects the silence of the Catholic hierarchy on the persecution of the Jews to the traditional anti-Judaism of the church.

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                                                                                                                                                  • Laborie, Pierre. L’opinion française sous Vichy. Paris: Seuil, 1990.

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                                                                                                                                                    As the first in-depth study on French opinion during the Occupation years, this book was and still is very influential. It dates the gap between the Vichy regime and the French population very early (spring of 1941) and explains this first period by the multiple crises of the prewar period and the trauma of the France’s defeat in June 1940.

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                                                                                                                                                    The German Occupying Authorities

                                                                                                                                                    Jaeckel’s book 1966 provides a general framework for understanding the place that France occupied within the Reich’s strategy. Eismann 2010, Herbert 1996, and Lambauer 2001 focus on German institutions operating in France, thereby examining their specific role in the persecution of the Jews in this country. Each of these books seems to give precedence to the institution under study in the impulse to the anti-Jewish German policy in France.

                                                                                                                                                    • Eismann, Gaël. Hôtel Majestic: Ordre et sécurité en France occupée (1940–1944). Paris: Tallandier, 2010.

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                                                                                                                                                      The Militärbefehlshaber in Frankreich (the occupation structure) in France is at the center of this analysis, which thereby examines, among other topics, its specific role in the persecution of the Jews.

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                                                                                                                                                      • Herbert, Ulrich. Best: Biographische Studien über Radikalismus, Weltanschauung und Verninft, 1903–1989. Bonn, Germany: J. H. W. Dietz, 1996.

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                                                                                                                                                        Herbert’s book is the authoritative biography of this close collaborator of Heydrich, who became the chief of the Civil Administration in occupied France and was involved in fighting the French Resistance and in the deportation of Jews to the death camps in Poland.

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                                                                                                                                                        • Jaeckel, Eberhard. Frankreich in Hitlers Europa. Die deutsche Frankreichpolitik im 2. Weltkrieg. Stuttgart: Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, 1966.

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                                                                                                                                                          By studying both ways the Franco-German relations functioned, Jaeckel’s study provides the first historiographical glimpse into the French initiatives toward the Reich aiming to broaden the scope of the collaboration between the occupier and the occupied country.

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                                                                                                                                                          • Lambauer, Barbara, Otto Abetz et les Français; ou l’envers de la collaboration. Paris: Fayard, 2001.

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                                                                                                                                                            Otto Abetz was the German ambassador in occupied France. Lambauer’s book provides an analysis of his own personal contribution and the embassy’s role in the persecution of the Jews in France, while insisting on its centrality on that matter. Preface by Jean-Pierre Azéma.

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                                                                                                                                                            Anti-Semitic Legislation and Deportations to the Death Camps

                                                                                                                                                            The first deportation from France to the death camps in Poland took place on March 27, 1942. But since the autumn of 1940, anti-Semitic laws had transformed the Jewish population in France into pariahs, deprived them of their property and confined foreign Jews to camps located on French territory. The books listed under this heading focus on the persecution itself, encompassing books dealing with the politics of persecution (legislative exclusion, looting, arrests, and deportations). Lubetzki 1945 was the first book to be published on the anti-Semitic laws, La France et la question juive 1979 is the result of the very first scientific conference on the topic organized in France while the more recent Joly 2006 tries to revise the current historiography, insisting on Vichy’s ideological implication in the second phase of the anti-Semitic policy in France, the deportation period. Several authors (Badinter 1997; Weisberg 1996, both cited under Exclusion) have studied the implementation of the anti-Semitic laws among the lawyers. The looting of Jewish property began to be studied thoroughly by the Commission Mattéoli (Andrieu 2000; Prost 2000, both cited under Looting) and paved the way for others (Dreyfus 2003, cited under Looting). Studies on the French concentration camps were first published in the immediate postwar (Weill 1946, cited under Concentration Camps). The deportation itself is best studied either in the general overviews (Klarsfeld 1983–1985; Marrus and Paxton 1981; Poznanski 2001; Zuccotti 1993, all cited under General Overviews) or in books focusing on each of the camps (Conan 1991; Rutkowski 1981; Wieviorka and Laffitte 2012, all cited under Concentration Camps)

                                                                                                                                                            • Joly, Laurent. Vichy dans la “solution finale”: histoire du Commissariat general aux Questions juives. Paris: Grasset, 2006.

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                                                                                                                                                              Joly focuses in this book on the specific role of the Vichy regime in the persecution. He emphasizes the ideological involvement of the regime in the implementation of the “final solution” on French soil.

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                                                                                                                                                              • Lubetzki, Joseph. La condition des Juifs en France sous l’Occupation allemande. Paris: CDJC, 1945.

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                                                                                                                                                                Lubetzki, a lawyer, opened the way by focusing on the racial legislation adopted in France.

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                                                                                                                                                                • Wellers, Georges, André Kaspi, and Serge Klarsfeld, eds. La France et la question juive, 1940–1944. Paris: Éditions Sylvie Messinger, 1981.

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                                                                                                                                                                  Acts of the colloquium held at the CDJC, March 10–12, 1979. This collection of articles is particularly interesting, owing to its early publication and to the fact that it unites scholarly articles with personal testimonies.

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                                                                                                                                                                  Exclusion

                                                                                                                                                                  The first stage of the persecution consisted of imposing a mandatory official registration on the entire Jewish population of France, before putting the results of this census on file and sorting the cards according to citizenship, age, address and profession (Rémond 1996). This meticulous administrative work facilitated the implementation of all anti-Semitic measures to come (Bruttmann 2006). The Commissariat Général aux Questions Juives, created in March 1941, was the official administrative office in charge of the application of the anti-Jewish legislation. Some studies address the anti-Semitism manifestations in specific professional environments (Badinter 1997; Fette 2012; Singer 1992; Weisberg 1996).

                                                                                                                                                                  • Badinter, Robert. Un antisémitisme ordinaire. Vichy et les avocats juifs (1940–1944). Paris: Fayard, 1997.

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                                                                                                                                                                    This is a solid synthesis on the fate of Jewish solicitors under the Vichy regime, meant for a general public rather than for scholars.

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                                                                                                                                                                    • Bruttmann, Tal. Au bureau des affaires juives: L’administration française et l’application de la législation antisémite (1940–1944). Paris: La découverte, 2006.

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                                                                                                                                                                      Bruttmann’s book deals in details with the actual enforcement of the anti-Jewish legislation by the Commissariat Général aux Questions Juives.

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                                                                                                                                                                      • Fette, Julie. Exclusions: Practicing Prejudice in French Law and Medicine, 1920–1945. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2012.

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                                                                                                                                                                        This book is distinctive for two reasons. It inserts the anti-Semitic policy into a long-term historical perspective, beginning with the roots of hostility toward foreigners well before the defeat and the advent of the Vichy regime, which transformed such sentiments into an official policy. Moreover, it compares two professional environments in that respect: the medical and the juridical professions.

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                                                                                                                                                                        • Rémond, René. Le “Fichier juif.” Paris: Plon, 1996.

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                                                                                                                                                                          This book is the official report of a governmental commission. It was initially meant to trace out the postwar itinerary of Jews’ file cards from the Vichy period but ended up as a thorough analysis of the whole process of putting the Jewish population on file during the Occupation. Report from the commission presided by René Rémond.

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                                                                                                                                                                          • Singer, Claude. Vichy, l’université et les Juifs. Paris: Les Belles Lettres, 1992.

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                                                                                                                                                                            This book focuses on the implementation of the anti-Jewish policy in the universities. It has the specificity of dealing with the policy and its application as well as with the reaction of the Jews, victims of these anti-Semitic measures.

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                                                                                                                                                                            • Weisberg, Richard H. Vichy Law and the Holocaust in France. New York: New York University Press, 1996.

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                                                                                                                                                                              Weisberg’s book is one of the studies on the persecution of Jewish lawyers in France and the response of non-Jewish lawyers. Legislation, rather than deportation (which seems to be implied by the title of the book), is the main focus here.

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                                                                                                                                                                              Looting

                                                                                                                                                                              The looting of Jewish property was studied thoroughly by the Commission Mattéoli. Listed here are two books (Andrieu and Prost), which present findings of the commission on specific topics as well as Dreyfus 2003 a book on the fate of Jewish banks.

                                                                                                                                                                              • Andrieu, Claire, ed. La Spoliation financière. Paris: La Documentation française, Mission d’étude sur la spoliation des juifs de France, 2000.

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                                                                                                                                                                                This is one of the important books that accompanied the publication of the official report of the Commission Mattéoli. It is focused on financial looting.

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                                                                                                                                                                                • Dreyfus, Jean-Marc. Pillages sur ordonnance: aryanisation et restitution des banques en France, 1940–1953. Preface by Antoine Prost. Paris: Fayard, 2003.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  Focused more precisely on the looting of Jewish banks, this book also deals with the restitution process during the post-Liberation period.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  • Prost, Antoine, ed. Aryanisation économique et restitutions. Paris: La Documentation française, Mission d’étude sur la spoliation des juifs de France, 2000.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    This is an additional complement to the official reports on the work done by the Commission Mattéoli, dealing with looting as well as with restitution of stolen properties in the postwar.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    Concentration Camps

                                                                                                                                                                                    In 1941, 8,000 Jews were interned in the occupied zone as a result of three massive arrests of Jews decided by the German authorities and carried out by the French police. In the so-called Free Zone, the Vichy prefects ordered massive internment of foreigners, mostly Jews. In February, 1941, 40,000 Jewish internees rotted behind barbed wires in that zone. When the implementation of the Final Solution in France was decided, they became an easy prey for the deportation convoys. The concentration camps on French soil have been the focus of many books. Some of them deal with the phenomenon as a whole (Grynberg 1991; Peschanski 2002; Weill 1946), while others (Conan 1991; Dreyfus and Gensburger 2011; Rutkowski 1981; Wieviorka and Laffitte 2012) choose to thoroughly study one particular camp.

                                                                                                                                                                                    • Conan, Éric. Sans oublier les enfants: Les camps de Pithiviers et de Beaune-la-Rolande, 19 juillet-16 septembre 1942. Paris: Grasset, 1991.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      Those two camps have opened their gates to the internment of Jews in May 1941, but after the mass arrests of mid-1942, Jewish families with children were transferred to it. The fathers, then the mothers, and ultimately the children were transferred separately to Drancy and deported to the East. This book describes the lot of these children.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      • Dreyfus, Jean-Marc, and Sarah Gensburger. Nazi Labour Camps in Paris: Austerlitz, Lévitan, Bassano, July 1943–August 1944. Translated by Jonathan Hensher. New York: Berghahn, 2011.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        Seven hundred ninety-five Jews (spouses of “Aryans,” wives of prisoners of war, or half-Jews) were interned in these three satellites of the Drancy camp. This is a detailed study of these three camps. Translated from French.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        • Grynberg, Anne. Les Camps de la honte. Paris: La Découverte, 1991.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          Grynberg’s book is the first scholarly book on the camps in France, based on previously unused primary sources.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          • Peschanski, Denis. La France des camps. L’internement 1938–1946. Paris: Gallimard, 2002.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            Peschanski’s book has become the authoritative book on the camps in France. It encompasses all aspects of the internment system, including its roots in the prewar and its postwar brief history.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            • Rutkowski, Adam. “Le camp de Royallieu à Compiègne, 1941–1944.” Le Monde juif 104 (1981): 121–150.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              Continues in Le Monde juif 105 (1981): 12–30. This camp was the only one on French (occupied) soil (until July 1943) to be administered by the Germans. Jews of French bourgeois origin arrested in December 1941 were interned in one of its sections. These two articles give a detailed account of the history of this camp.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              • Weill, Joseph. Contribution à l’histoire des camps d’internement dans l’anti-France. Paris: Editions du Centre, 1946.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                Weill’s book is the first study on the concentration camps in France. The author was a physician and worked in some of those camps of the Southern zone, trying to ease the lot of the internees. He became a main activist in the OSE organization and dedicated himself to the rescue of Jewish children.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                • Wieviorka, Annette, and Michel Laffitte. À l’intérieur du camp de Drancy. Paris: Perrin, 2012.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  The camp of Drancy, located near Paris, became the most important “camp for the Jews” in France. More than 100,000 Jews were interned there. When the deportations of Jews to the death camps of the East began, Drancy became the main camp to which deportees from all parts of France were transferred before deportation. This book focuses on Drancy’s internal history and is full of details on the ways it operated.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  The French Population and the Persecution of the Jews

                                                                                                                                                                                                  The main concern of public memory as well as of nowadays historiography is linked to the attitude of the French population toward the persecuted Jews. Caron, in line with her book (Caron 2003) draws on the continuity of popular anti-Semitism in France in the 1930s and during the Occupation years. Most of the accounts (Cohen 1993, Cabanel 2012, Sémelin 2013) as a reaction to Marrus and Paxton’s book, which had pictured a French society widely supporting the anti-Semitic legislation, depict a population sympathetic to rescue, while two books (Epstein and Poznanski) question the attitude of the Resistance movements from different perspectives and their lack of reaction to the persecution. Churches and their attitude toward the persecution have been in the center of some studies that try to explain the reasons for their silence or that describe rescue efforts by part of their agencies (Bernay 2012, de Montclos 1976–1978)

                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Bernay, Sylvie. L’église catholique et la persécution des Juifs pendant l’Occupation. Paris: Éditions du CNRS, 2012.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                    This recent study deals with the position of the catholic hierarchy in France, while the persecution of the Jews was in full swing. Its conclusions are rather lenient toward the Church.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Cabanel, Patrick. Histoire des Justes en France. Paris: Armand Colin, 2012.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                      Cabanel focuses on the “Righteous”—those French people who helped rescuing persecuted Jews. This is a solid historical account and sociological analysis, based on a problematic source, the files of the French “Righteous among the Nations” constituted by Yad Vashem, the official Israeli memorial to the victims of the Holocaust.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Caron, Vicki. “French Public Opinion and the ‘Jewish Question’, 1930–1942: The Role of Middle-Class Professional Organizations.” In Nazi Europe and the Final Solution. Edited by Bankier David and Israel Gutman, 374–410. Jerusalem: Yad Vashem, 2003

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                                                                                                                                                                                                        Insisting on the continuity between prewar French anti-Semitism and the war years, this article of social history focuses on the middle-class professional organizations. Reprint: New York: Berghahn, 2009.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Cohen, Asher. Persécutions et sauvetages, Juifs et Français sous l’Occupation et sous Vichy. Paris: Cerf, 1993.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                          Cohen’s study emphasizes the move of the French population after the mass arrests of the summer of 1942, from indifference to the fate of the Jews, to a wave of solidarity. Preface by René Rémond.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Comte, Madeleine. Sauvetages et baptèmes. Les religieuses de Notre Dame de Sion face à la persécution des Juifs en France, 1940–1944. Paris: L’Harmattan, 2001.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                            Comte focuses on the rescue of Jews by Notre Dame de Sion congregation in Paris and concludes that they made no efforts to baptize the rescued children.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                            • De Montclos, Xavier, et al., eds. Églises chrétiennes dans la 2ème Guerre Mondiale: la région Rhône-Alpes. 2 vols. Lyon, France: Presses universitaires de Lyon, 1976–1978.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                              These two volumes, based on scholarly conferences on this topic, deal with the Christian churches during the Occupation, including studies on their attitude toward the anti-Semitic persecution.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Epstein, Simon. Un paradoxe français: Antiracistes dans la Collaboration, antisémites dans la Résistance. Paris: Albin Michel, 2008.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                Epstein’s polemic book describes the individual itineraries of activist anti-Semites who became members of a Resistance movement and of anti-racists who joined the collaborators. In his understanding, this blurs the clear distinction currently referred to by historians between two trends in French history—the progressive one as opposed to the reactionary one.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Poznanski, Renée. Propagandes et Persécutions. La Résistance et le “Problème juif”. Paris: Fayard, 2008.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Through a thorough analysis of all the propaganda material of this period issued by the Resistance movement (underground press and BBC broadcasts from London), this book tries to explain the extreme discretion of the Resistance concerning the persecution of the Jews, showing how the idea that France had to deal with a “Jewish problem” structured the social culture of all the components of French society.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Sémelin, Jacques. Persécutions et entraides dans la France occupée. Paris: Les Arènes, 2013.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Accumulating little stories of rescue, Sémelin depicts a French society that mobilized to help the persecuted Jews. This is his explanation for the relatively high number of Jews who survived the Holocaust in France.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Jewish Organizations

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    After the defeat of France, most of the prewar Jewish organizations fled to the southern, unoccupied zone, where their leaders tried to ease the lot of the Jewish population. In November 1941, a Vichy decree collapsed all the existing Jewish organizations into a unified structure, the Union Générale des Israélites de France (UGIF). The role of the UGIF, accused by some to be a collaboration structure while others insisted on the help forwarded to a pauperized community has been much discussed. Marrus 1987 deals with the limited range of political choices available to the Jewish leaders, Cohen 1987 and Laffitte 2004 study the history of the UGIF, while Moch 1990 focuses on the archives of the Consistoire central (the main prewar Jewish organization which was the only one to remain outside the UGIF). Schwarzfuchs 1998 deals with the history of the Consistoire central while the collection of articles edited by Lemalet 1993 tackles the history of the OSE.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Cohen, Richard I. The Burden of Conscience. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1987.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                      This is a balanced account of the history of the UGIF, which deals extensively with the moral dilemmas faced by its leaders, who accepted to take part in an organization created by the Vichy regime under the control of the Germans, to help the persecuted Jews.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Laffitte, Michel. Un engrenage fatal, l’UGIF face aux réalités de la Shoah, 1941–1944. Paris: Liana Levi, 2004.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Laffitte’s account of the UGIF is much more technical that Cohen’s and avoids bringing polemical questions about the role of the organization to the fore.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Lemalet, Martine, ed. Au secours des enfants du siècle, regards croisés sur l’OSE. Paris: Nil Éditions, 1993.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                          This is one of the few collections of scholarly articles on one of the Jewish organizations operating in France during the occupation. The OSE focused on social assistance to Jewish children and, in the second phase of the Occupation, on their clandestine rescue.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Marrus, Michael R. “Jewish Leaders and the Holocaust: The Case of France.” French Historical Studies 15.2 (1987): 316–331.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Pleading for a nonjudgmental historical approach, Marrus deals in this article with different authors who tackled the question of the Jewish leadership in France during the Occupation.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Moch, Maurice. L’Étoile et la francisque; les institutions juives sous Vichy. Edited by Alain Michel. Paris: Cerf, 1990.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Maurice Moch was the general secretary of the Consistoire Central, and this book is more of a patchwork of the organization’s archives, which he collected after the war with the aim of writing its history. Michel added little to this rough draft, where important excerpts of archives can nevertheless be found.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Schwarzfuchs, Simon. Aux prises avec Vichy: histoire politique des Juifs de France, 1940–1944. Paris: Calmann-Lévy, 1998.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                This account of the history of the Consistoire central is well-inclined toward the institution. It does not encompass the whole political history of Jews in France during this period but rather remains very close to the archives of this institution.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Resistance and Rescue Activity

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The main focus of Jewish Resistance has periodically become the topic of much debate among survivors and historians. For the communists who created specific resistance organizations, military operations were at its core. For social organizations, which turned clandestine at a later stage of the occupation, rescue was the central activity of a Jewish Resistance. Knout (Knout 1947) was himself a member of the Organisation Juive de Combat (previously called the Jewish Army), a Zionist organization, and Lazare (Lazare 1996) had been involved in the Jewish scouts group, while the authors of Diamant 1971, Ravine 1973, and Rayski 1992 had been active in Jewish communist organizations. These books offer a great amount of information, even if biased. A comprehensive book on all aspects of Resistance by Jews is still lacking. Poznanski 1995 proposes a conceptual frame to deal with the resistance by Jews. The rescue of children (Kieval 1980) and the Resistance of foreigners (Le sang de l’étranger 1989), including Jews, under the aegis of the Communist Party, are the only specific topics to be tackled by historians who had not been a member of one of these groups. Moore 2010 studies rescue efforts in a comparative frame.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Courtois, Stéphane, Denis Peschanski, and Adam Rayski. Le Sang de l’étranger. Paris: Fayard, 1989.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  This is the best available study on the resistance by foreign groups created by the Communist Party, including the Jewish group.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Diamant, David. Les Juifs dans la Résistance française, 1940–1944. Paris: Roger Maria Éditeur, 1971.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Coming from a communist perspective, this book draws on a large amount of archival material collected by the author. The author gives precedence to the Jewish Communist groups in his narrative.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Kieval, Hillel J. “Legality and Resistance in Vichy France: The Rescue of Jewish Children.” Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 124.5 (1980): 339–366.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      This article is a thorough study of the rescue of children in Vichy France.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Knout, David. La Résistance juive en France. Paris: Éditions du Centre, 1947.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        This first account in the immediate postwar that uses the term of Jewish Resistance by a member of a Zionist group (Armée Juive) attempts to encompass all aspects of Jewish Resistance to the persecution.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Lazare, Lucien. Rescue as Resistance: How Jewish Organizations Fought the Holocaust in France. Translated by Jeffrey M. Green. New York: Columbia University Press, 1996.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          As is indicated by its title, Lazare’s book regards rescue as the core of Jewish Resistance, as opposed to French Resistance, which was organized with the sole aim of liberating occupied France. Translated from French.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Moore, Bob. Survivors: Jewish Self-Help and Rescue in Nazi-Occupied Western Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The main contribution of this comprehensive book lies in its comparative overview of rescue in Nazi-occupied countries of Western Europe, instead of focusing on a single country, as well as in the integration of both Jewish and non-Jewish organizations in the proposed analysis.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Poznanski, Renée. “Reflections on Jewish Resistance and Jewish Resistants in France.” Jewish Social Studies 2.1 (1995): 124–158.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              This article attempts to deal with the stakes involved in the debate concerning the definition of Jewish Resistance and how it ought to be studied.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Ravine, Jacques. La Résistance organisée des Juifs en France. Paris: Julliard, 1973.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Ravine’s book can be considered as the first account of Jewish Resistance by a communist activist trying to distance himself from the strict communist perspective, although the political background of the author remains predominant.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Rayski, Adam. Le Choix des Juifs sous Vichy; entre soumission et résistance. Paris: La Découverte, 1992.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Despite its title, this book written by one of the main leaders of the Jewish communist groups during the Occupation focuses on the question of Jewish Resistance. It is an intelligent, indirect, and well-informed plea for the author’s own perception of what Resistance ought to be or rather what defined the core of Jewish Resistance insisting on military and propaganda actions. Preface by François Bédarida.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Regional Studies

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Situations could differ considerably for the Jews from one region to another: North Africa (with an additional differentiation between each country; Abitbol 1983); occupied Paris, where the majority of the Jews living on French soil were to be found in the prewar years (Adler 1987); the departments east of the Rhône, occupied by the Italian military forces between November 1942 and September 1943 who protected the Jews from persecution (Carpi 1994); a city of the Forbidden zone in the north of the country (Mariot and Zalc 2010); the regions populated mainly by Protestants (Joutard, et al. 2006) where Jews were often protected; Toulouse (Estèbe 1996), which was close to the Spanish border and the port of Marseille (Ryan 1996), from which some ships could leave the country. Todorov 1996 provides a meticulous account of a massacre of Jews that took place during the last weeks of the occupation in the city of Saint-Amand Monrond.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Abitbol, Michel. Les Juifs d’Afrique du Nord sous Vichy. Paris: Maisonneuve et Larose, 1983.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    This is the basic account of the situation of the Jews in the different countries of North Africa.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Adler, Jacques. The Jews of Paris and the Final Solution: Communal Response and Internal Conflicts, 1940–1944. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Adler’s book focuses on the political history of the Jewish community facing the persecution in the occupied capital. It is a critical account of the French native leadership as opposed to the foreign Jews organizations, which adopted very quickly a resistance stand.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Carpi, Daniel. Between Mussolini and Hitler. The Jews and the Italian Authorities in France and Tunisia. Hanover, NH: University Press of New England, 1994.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Carpi’s book provides a detailed analysis of the Italian politics toward the Jews in the territories, which fell under their authority. This was the case for seven departments east of the river Rhône, in which Jews have been protected from persecution during eight months, until the Germans took over.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Estèbe, Jean. Les Juifs à Toulouse et en Midi toulousain au temps de Vichy. Toulouse, France: Presses universitaires du Mirail, 1996.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Estèbe’s book focuses on the southwest of France, which was part of the unoccupied zone until November 1942. It is specifically concerned with the relative proximity of the Spanish border.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Joutard, Philippe, Jacques Poujol, and Patrick Cabanel, eds. Cévennes, terre de refuge, 1940–1944. Montpellier, France: Les Presses du Languedoc, 2006.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            This collection of articles focuses on the Cévennes, a region where Protestants were a majority and in which French local communities aided and sheltered Jews.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Mariot, Nicolas, and Claire Zalc. Face à la persécution: 991 Juifs dans la guerre. Paris: Odile Jacob, 2010.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              This is a detailed account of the fate of 991 immigrant Jews from the city of Lens (Pas-de-Calais), one of the rare examples of micro-history, as a method to understand in depth the social and political components of Jewish life in this time of persecution.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Ryan, Donna F. The Holocaust and the Jews of Marseille: The Enforcement of Anti-Semitic Policies in Vichy France. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1996.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Donna Ryan provides a study of the enforcement of Vichy’s anti-Semitic policy in this large city of the unoccupied zone.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Todorov, Tzvetan. A French Tragedy. Scenes of Civil War, Summer 1944. Hanover, NH: University Press of New England, 1996.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  This meticulous account of the massacre of seventy Jews at Saint-Amand Monrond, as retaliation for the execution of militiamen by the Resistance, is representative of what happened in many places during the last weeks of the Occupation.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The Memory of the Holocaust

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The books in this list deal with the memory of the Holocaust in France, which are intertwined with the ways in which France has dealt with the more general memory of the Vichy regime (Rousso 1991). The ways the specific genocide of the Jews has been perceived in French society continues to be discussed (Azouvi 2012; Epelbaum 2005; Lagrou 2000; Wieviorka 1992), while more recently, public apologies to the Jews emanating from different institutions proliferated (Fette 2008) and the Righteous of France have become the new heroes of a French war memory (Gensburger 2010). During the years, the Holocaust has been at the center of some controversies (Moyn 2005), involving more general questions linked to French identity (Wolf 2004).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Azouvi, François. Le mythe du grand silence: Auschwitz, les Français, la mémoire. Paris: Fayard, 2012.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Challenging Wieviorka’s book, this essay aims to demonstrate that the uniqueness of the Holocaust was immediately perceived in France in the postwar period and revises the sequences of Holocaust memory in France, disputing the centrality of Eichmann trial.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Epelbaum, Didier. Pas un mot, pas une ligne? 1944–1994: Des camps de la mort au génocide rwandais. Paris: Stock, 2005.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      This thorough review of the French press documents an overwhelming silence in the public sphere on the Holocaust in the immediate postwar years.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Fette, Julie. “Apology and the Past in Contemporary France.” French Politics, Culture and Society 26.2 (2008): 78–113.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        This article provides an analysis of the public apologies to the Jews by different institutions, following President Chirac’s acknowledgment of the French state responsibility in the persecution of the Jews, in the larger framework of the politics of memory in France.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Gensburger, Sarah. Les Justes de France: Politiques publiques de la mémoire. Paris: Presses de Sciences Po, 2010.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Gensburger’s book provides an analysis of the political stages in the construction of the Righteous of France, as a new figure to replace the resistance activist and serve as a counterweight to the crimes of the Vichy regime.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Lagrou, Pieter. The legacy of Nazi Occupation: Patriotic Memory and National Recovery in Western Europe, 1945–1965. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2000.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Lagrou’s book provides a comparative and comprehensive framework to understand the cultural context in which the Holocaust was apprehended in Western Europe in the two first decades following the Liberation.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Moyn, Samuel. A Holocaust Controversy, the Treblinka Affair in Postwar France. Hanover, NH: University Press of New England, 2005.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              In this detailed analysis of the debate concerning the attitude of the Jews during the Holocaust, which developed in France following the publication of Steiner’s book on the camp of Treblinka, Moyn argues that this debate brought the perception of the uniqueness of the Holocaust to public attention.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Rousso, Henry. The Vichy Syndrome; History and Memory in France since 1944. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1991.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                This is the authoritative book on the evolution of the memory of the Vichy regime in France. Rousso integrates fully into his analysis questions related to the memory of the Holocaust and of the role of the Vichy regime in the implementation of the “Final Solution” in France.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Wieviorka, Annette. Déportation et génocide; entre la mémoire et l’oubli. Paris: Plon, 1992.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Focused more specifically on the memory of the Holocaust, this book argues that the memory of the deportation (of political activists) obscured the specificity of the Holocaust in the postwar years.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Wolf, Joan B. Harnessing the Holocaust: The Politics of Memory in France. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2004.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Wolf expands the perspective of the series of Holocaust controversies in French public memory, showing their relationship to more general problems of identity.

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