African Studies Zambia
by
David M. Gordon
  • LAST REVIEWED: 06 May 2016
  • LAST MODIFIED: 25 October 2012
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199846733-0068

Introduction

Zambia was formed in 1964 with the political independence of the British colony of Northern Rhodesia. Competition between British, Belgian, German, and Portuguese interests led to the establishment of Northern Rhodesia’s borders in the late 19th century. The colonial territory unified a range of African polities and peoples who lived on the savanna woodland plateau that separated the northern drainage basin of the Zambezi River and the southern drainage basin of the Congo River. For the first two decades of the 20th century, the British South African Company (BSAC) ruled Northern Rhodesia. In 1924, just as rich copper deposits in the center of the country were discovered, the British Colonial Office took over the administration. The first publications about Zambia emerged from colonial concerns with the functioning of indirect rule in rural areas, the perceived problem of “detribalization,” and the administration of a growing number of urban workers. These problems received sophisticated attention by a school of liberal colonial anthropologists, mostly attached to the Rhodes-Livingstone Institute (RLI). In 1953 Northern Rhodesia joined with Nyasaland and Southern Rhodesia to form the Central African Federation (CAF), which fell apart with Zambian and Malawian independence in 1964. Soon after independence, a tradition of historical scholarship highlighted African resistance to colonialism, pointed to earlier precolonial political and economic achievements in the region, and detailed the failures of European settler colonialism. Scholarship about the urban Copperbelt pioneered an approach to the study of migrant labor and the interactions between rural and urban economies. By the late colonial period, scholars also wrote about the spread of Christianity, the public and political engagements of Christian movements and churches, and the relationship between Christianity and other beliefs in forces attributed to an invisible world. After independence, Kenneth Kaunda and the United National Independence Party (UNIP) attempted to dominate Zambian politics and, to deal with challenges, declared a one-party democracy in 1972. During the 1990s and 2000s, scholarship focused on how Zambians resisted and challenged UNIP authoritarianism and constructed an alternative civil society. In 1991 the Movement for Multi-Party Democracy (MMD) of Frederick Chiluba defeated Kaunda and UNIP in the first multiparty elections since 1972. The MMD introduced neoliberal policies, including the privatization of key state assets and industries. Recent scholarship identifies problems and popular discontent with such neoliberal policies. Between 1964 and 1990, Zambia hosted numerous organizations from neighboring countries and from South Africa who were campaigning for liberation from colonialism and apartheid. Due to the overall success of these struggles, by the 1980s Zambia was bordered by eight independent African countries: Angola, Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Malawi, Tanzania, and the Democratic Republic of Congo. Much scholarship views Zambia within this regional context.

General Overviews

The most complete survey of Zambian history up to the 1970s is Roberts 1976. Gann 1964 provides unmatched detail for the political and administrative features of the colonial period. There are currently no surveys of the postcolonial period after 1976, although Taylor 2006 introduces aspects of late-20th-century Zambian culture.

  • Gann, Lewis H. A History of Northern Rhodesia: Early Days to 1953. London: Chatto and Windus, 1964.

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    A detailed history of colonial administration and politics until the achievement of the Central African Federation in 1953. Useful for the history of the colonial administration but weak in other areas.

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    • Roberts, Andrew. A History of Zambia. New York: Africana, 1976.

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      A survey of precolonial and colonial Zambian history until the late 1960s, based on the most influential literature to the 1970s. Considers social, economic, and political changes. With substantial focus on the precolonial period, this remains the most accessible survey of Zambian history.

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      • Taylor, Scott. Culture and Customs of Zambia. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 2006.

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        An introductory overview of diverse aspects of Zambian culture, useful for tourists, aid workers, or those seeking a basic introduction to aspects of Zambian culture.

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        Bibliographies and Reference Works

        Rau 1978 and Williams 1984 provide extensive bibliographies for pre-independence and post-independence Zambia, respectively. Van Donge 2000 is a particularly helpful comprehensive annotated bibliography ordered by subject headings. The third and latest edition of The Historical Dictionary of Zambia (Simon, et al. 2008) combines a thorough historical dictionary with a comprehensive bibliography sorted into several sections.

        • Rau, William. A Bibliography of Pre-Independence Zambia: The Social Sciences. Boston: G. K. Hall, 1978.

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          A thorough bibliography of all publications prior to 1976 dealing with precolonial and colonial Zambia, ordered under subject headings.

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          • Simon, David John, Jim Pletcher, Brian V. Siegel, and John H. Grotpete. Historical Dictionary of Zambia. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow, 2008.

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            Valuable and current reference tool. The 2008 third edition is a significant improvement on previous editions, including a chronology of events until 2007, a comprehensive dictionary of people, political parties, and other organizations, as well as a thorough bibliography.

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            • van Donge, Jan Kees. Zambia. World Bibliographic Series 51. Oxford: CLIO, 2000.

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              Comprehensive annotated bibliography until 2000 ordered under subject headings, with indexes of authors, titles, and subjects.

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              • Williams, Geoffrey. Independent Zambia: A Bibliography of the Social Sciences, 1964–1979. Boston: G. K. Hall, 1984.

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                Thorough bibliography of all publications prior to 1980 that deal with independent Zambia, ordered under subject headings.

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                Journals

                Articles about Zambia appear in numerous Africa-focused journals. Those journals focused on the southern African region, such as the Journal of Southern African Studies, have a higher frequency of articles about Zambia. Scholarship on Zambia has been in dialogue with southern African historiographic trends covered in such journals. The South African–based African Studies (previously Bantu Studies) is also an occasional venue for articles about Zambia, especially in the 1950s and 1960s, when many South African scholars worked in Zambia. The Northern Rhodesia Journal (1950–1964) contains accounts by Northern Rhodesian residents (mostly European settlers), early explorers’ accounts, colonial officials, and a few scholars. The Rhodes-Livingstone Journal (African Social Research) published scholars (mostly anthropologists, but also economists, historians, and colonial officials) often affiliated with the Rhodes-Livingstone Institute. In 1965 the institute was incorporated into the University of Zambia and eventually became the Institute for Social and Economic Research (INESOR). The Rhodes-Livingstone Journal was continued as African Social Research, published by the University of Zambia on behalf of the institute. In addition, since 1997 the University of Zambia has published the Journal of Humanities intermittently. In 2010 the Zambia Social Science Journal was launched.

                Primary Sources

                While the early history of Zambia can be reconstructed by using archaeology, linguistics, and oral traditions (see Precolonial Travel Accounts), textual sources only appear from the early 19th century. These include the travel accounts by precolonial European traders, explorers, missionaries, and early colonists. Records relating to successive colonial and postcolonial states from the 1890s are kept in Zambian and British archives (see Archival Collections). Various missionary societies also hold archival records from the late 19th century.

                Precolonial Travel Accounts

                The earliest written narrative accounts of Zambia include several Portuguese expeditions to the interior, such as José Maria de Lacerda e Almeida (Burton 1873), the traveling merchants or “pombeiros,” P. Baptista and Anastacio José in 1806–1810 (Baptista, et al. 1953), and the colonial expedition of A. C. P. Gamitto (Gamitto 1960). From the mid- to late 19th century, listed here are descriptions of several missionaries and explorers, the most valuable and revealing of which are those of David Livingstone (Livingstone 1858, Livingstone 1875). For an alternative, Swahili perspective of northern Zambia, see the narrated biography of “Tippu Tip” (Bontinck 1974). From the 1890s, accounts of British South Africa Company (BSAC) officials, such as Gouldsbury and Sheane 1911, begin to appear.

                • Baptista, P. J., A. Verbeken, and M. Walraet. La Première Traversée du Katanga en 1806: Voyage des “Pombeiros” d’Angola aux Rios de Sena. Brussels: Institute Colonial Belge, 1953.

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                  The most accessible version of the transcontinental journey of the traveling merchants (“pombeiros”) P. Baptista and Anastacio José from 1806 to 1810.

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                  • Bontinck, François, ed. L’Autobiographie de Hamed ben Mohammed el-Murjebi Tipoo Tip (ca. 1840–1905). Brussels: Académie royale des sciences d’outre-mer, 1974.

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                    The narrated autobiography of Mohammed el Murjeb (Tippu Tip) includes his travels through northern Zambia, with information about raiding, warfare, and trading relationships from the mid- to late 19th century.

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                    • Burton, R. F. The Lands of Cazembe. London: Royal Geographic Society, 1873.

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                      The most accessible version and English language translation of the expedition of José Maria de Lacerda e Almeida, the governor of Sena, a Portuguese colonial trading entrepôt on the Zambezi River. Also includes selections of accounts by the “pombeiros” (see Baptista, et al. 1953) and Gamitto (see Gamitto 1960).

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                      • Gamitto, A. C. P. King Kazembe and the Marave, Cheva, Bisa, Bemba, Lunda and Other Peoples of Southern Africa, Being the Diary of the Portuguese Expedition to That Potentate in the Years 1831 and 1832. Translated by Ian Cunnison. Lisbon, Portugal: Junta de investigações do ultramar, 1960.

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                        The diary of Gamitto’s expedition from Portuguese east Africa to the interior holds many details about culture, history, politics, and even environment in early-19th-century eastern and northern Zambia. The English translation by the anthropologist Ian Cunnison is comprehensive, sensitive to details, and accessible in most major research libraries.

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                        • Gouldsbury, Cullen, and Hubert Sheane. The Great Plateau of Northern Rhodesia: Being Some Impressions of the Tanganyika Plateau. London: Edward Arnold, 1911.

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                          Description of society, culture, and history of Zambia by two early BSAC officials at the end of the 19th century, just as European colonialism began.

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                          • Livingstone, David. Missionary Travels and Researches in South Africa. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1858.

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                            The Victorian explorer and missionary David Livingstone’s 19th-century account of his travels from the Zambezi to Luanda and back again contains details about the western region and, in particular, the Lozi Kingdom under Kololo rule.

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                            • Livingstone, David. The Last Journals of David Livingstone in Central Africa from 1865 to His Death. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1875.

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                              Livingstone’s last travels had him wandering across northeastern Zambia in the 1860s, providing details about the Bemba and the Eastern Lunda before he died in central-northern Zambia.

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                              Archival Collections

                              Unpublished colonial records prior to 1924, including district notebooks and limited British South Africa Company (BSAC) correspondence, are held in the National Archives of Zambia. From 1924 detailed colonial correspondence and reports from the departments of colonial Northern Rhodesia and independent Zambia are held in the National Archives of Zambia and the National Archives of the United Kingdom. Records of missionary societies are deposited in numerous different archives. For the Catholics, the White Fathers Archives, and, for the Protestants, the United Church of Zambia Archives, are the most valuable. Much material relating to postcolonial government is kept in the private archives of the United National Independence Party (UNIP; see United National Independence Party Archives)

                              • National Archives of the United Kingdom. Kew, United Kingdom.

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                                Houses correspondence relating to Northern Rhodesia, to the CAF, and to Zambia as a member of the Commonwealth.

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                                • National Archives of Zambia. Lusaka.

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                                  Here one can find district notebooks and documentation from the colonial administration, especially from 1924–1953, and for all African affairs to 1964. Documentation from postcolonial government departments is available but intermittent.

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                                  • United Church of Zambia Archives. Kitwe, Zambia.

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                                    Archives of Protestant mission societies are found in several archives, mostly in the United Kingdom. Most of the mainline Protestant mission societies combined to form the United Church of Zambia (UCZ). Documentation relating to UCZ and its predecessors is held in this archive.

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                                    • United National Independence Party Archives. Lusaka.

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                                      Here you can find documentation relating to UNIP organization and mobilization from 1959, and after independence to a range of government functions, especially after the declaration of the one-party state in 1972.

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                                      • White Fathers Archives. Rome; Zambia.

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                                        The most important Catholic missionary society contains records from all their missions in Zambia, and photocopies of materials relating to Zambia from the White Fathers Archives in Rome.

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                                        Geography, Environment, and Ecology

                                        Zambia is composed of a highland plateau intersected by a series of rivers, lakes, and lagoons, with vegetation composed of savanna woodlands. In general, a dry southern area with limited tree cover gives way to a northern region with denser forest cover, larger trees, and numerous marshes and lakes. The colonial state published several reports on features of the environment, especially in the departments of forestry, game, and fisheries, which can be found in the National Archives of Zambia (NAZ; see Archival Collections). Various Zambian government agencies such as the Ministry of Agriculture, Food, and Fisheries, and the Environmental Council of Zambia have produced occasional reports about the state of the environment, also collected in the NAZ. Authored by a colonial ecologist, Trapnell and Clothier 1957, Trapnell 1953, and Trapnell 2001 still provide unmatched surveys of Zambian environment. Reliable demographic data continues to be published by the Zambian Central Statistics Office. Marks 1984 offers a compelling argument regarding the social dimension of conservation strategies, with reference to eastern Zambia. In an argument that applies theories of rural underdevelopment to environmental change (see Rural Development and Underdevelopment), Vail 1977 argues that the transformation of the Zambian environment was linked to the spread of capitalism and colonialism. Frequently historical and ethnographic accounts contain details regarding human relationships with the local environment, including Scudder 1962, Marks 2005, and Gordon 2006.

                                        • Central Statistics Office.

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                                          Provides range of demographic data, including population size, composition, fertility, mortality, and economic activities. The last census data were collected in 2010 but have yet to be published.

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                                          • Gordon, David. Nachituti’s Gift: Economy, Society, and Environment in Central Africa. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2006.

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                                            Looks at transformations in tenure relationships and notions of wealth, especially with regard to control over prosperous but changing fishing resources in the Luapula lagoon and Lake Mweru, from the precolonial to the postcolonial periods.

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                                            • Marks, Stuart. The Imperial Lion: Human Dimensions of Wildlife Management in Central Africa. Boulder, CO: Westview, 1984.

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                                              Argues that wildlife conservation strategy should incorporate social and cultural imperatives alongside biological ones. Discusses Zambian environmental policy with a specific case study of the Luangwa Valley and argues against wildlife strategies developed in the “north” and applied indiscriminately to the conservation of African species.

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                                              • Marks, Stuart. Large Mammals and a Brave People. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction, 2005.

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                                                A study of the Bisa of Luangwa Valley that focuses on hunting in the Luangwa Valley. Gives details on social organization and cultural practices and their relationship to the Luangwa Valley environment. Based on lengthy fieldwork from the 1960s, the 2005 edition includes a new introduction that locates the earlier study within the more recent literature, as well as an afterword that describes changes to Bisa hunting to the 1990s.

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                                                • Scudder, Thayer. The Ecology of the Gwembe Tonga. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press, 1962.

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                                                  A description of the Zambezi Valley environment and an analysis of the agricultural and land-use patterns of the Gwembe Tonga prior to the construction of the Kariba Dam and their displacement and resettlement. Detailed documentation on both domesticated and wild plants used by the Tonga and sensitive to ecological changes from the 1940s to the 1960s.

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                                                  • Trapnell, Colin G. The Soils, Vegetations, and Agricultural Systems of North-Eastern Rhodesia. Lusaka: Government Printer, 1953.

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                                                    Similar to Trapnell and Clothier 1957 except for northeastern Rhodesia (present-day Luapula, northern and eastern provinces). A taxonomy and description of soils, vegetation, and agriculture, with suggestions for potential agricultural activities and environmental protection measures. Originally published in 1943. The foreword to the second edition includes a list of publications since 1943, generally about soil quality.

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                                                    • Trapnell, Colin G. Ecological Survey of Zambia: The Traverse Records of C. G. Trapnell, 1932–1943. Edited by Paul Smith. 3 vols. Kew, UK: Royal Botanical Gardens, 2001.

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                                                      The first two volumes of this collection include edited versions of Colin Trapnell’s research notes and diaries that the research reports Trapnell and Clothier 1957 and Trapnell 1953 were based on. These previously unpublished notes provide unmatched detail on the state of the environment and aspects of agriculture in colonial Zambia. Volume 3 reproduces the soil-vegetation map in Zambia that Trapnell first published in 1947.

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                                                      • Trapnell, Colin G., and J. N. Clothier. The Soils, Vegetation and Agricultural Systems of North-Western Rhodesia. Lusaka: Government Printer, 1957.

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                                                        Based on an extensive ecological and agricultural survey, this book provides taxonomies and descriptions of soils, vegetation, and agriculture in northwestern Zambia (present-day central, Lusaka, southern, Copperbelt, western, and northwestern provinces). Also suggests potential agricultural activities and environmental protection measures. Originally published in 1937, the 1957 edition includes minor changes to the review of soils, vegetation, and resources and lists more recent publications.

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                                                        • Vail, Leroy. “Ecology and History: The Example of Eastern Zambia.” Journal of Southern African Studies 3.2 (1977): 129–156.

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                                                          Considers ecological changes due to predatory capitalism in the late 19th century and colonialism in the 20th century. Argues that the environment was degraded and diseases spread due to capitalism and colonial land policies that led to, in particular, population relocations that sparked the spread of bush environments where the tsetse fly prospered.

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                                                          History

                                                          Even while Zambia is a recently formed nation-state, some of the earliest humans settled within its current borders. In addition, because the region was a center for Bantu-speaking peoples and polities, the precolonial history of Zambia has deep historical ties that extend northward to the forest fringe of central Africa, and from the 18th century, via caravan routes to the Atlantic and Indian Ocean areas. Due to the nature of the colonial mining economy and the significant European (especially English) settler presence, however, the colonial and postcolonial history of Zambia is often linked to its southern neighbors, Zimbabwe and South Africa. This historiography focuses on the nature of the colonial transformation, especially through colonial forms of capitalism, the mining economy, and African resistance to these colonial and capitalist transformations.

                                                          Early History

                                                          Zambia was settled by some of the earliest Stone Age humans, as evidenced by Desmond Clark’s famous excavations at Kalambo (Clark 2001). Scholars have reconstructed the later history of the settlement of the region by iron-working peoples from iron and pottery materials and by considering divergences in the Bantu languages spoken in the region. For the early history of settlement by Bantu speakers, scholarship has followed either archaeological or linguistic approaches but has rarely combined them. Archaeological studies and syntheses such as Derricourt 1980; Fagan 1966; and Fagan, et al. 1969 detail iron-working settlements of the region and various pottery-making traditions. Ehret 1998, Saidi 2010, and de Luna 2008 employ linguistic evidence to reconstruct aspects of early Zambian history. An adequate synthesis of established archaeological evidence and recent linguistic work has yet to be achieved.

                                                          • Clark, J. Desmond. Kalambo Falls Prehistoric Site. Vol. 3, The Earlier Cultures: Middle and Earlier Stone Age. Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2001.

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                                                            The third and most recent of Clark’s reports on the Kalambo excavations between 1956 and 1966 elaborates on his earlier reports from 1969 and 1974. Overall, Clark’s work demonstrates a range of settlements from the early Stone Age to the African Iron Age.

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                                                            • de Luna, Kathryn M. “Collecting Food, Cultivating Persons: Wild Resource Use in Central African Political Culture, c. 1000 BCE to c. 1900 CE.” PhD diss., Northwestern University, 2008.

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                                                              Combining linguistic evidence with paleoclimatic and archaeological evidence, this innovative thesis traces the history of hunting, fishing, and foraging practices among farming communities who spoke languages of the Botatwe family in southern Zambia. The thesis reflects on the contribution of wild resource use to political change in these farming communities.

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                                                              • Derricourt, Robin. People of the Lakes: Archaeological Studies in Northern Zambia. Zambian Papers 13. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press, 1980.

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                                                                Details field surveys and excavations of Iron Age sites by the author in the Lake Bangweulu region, along with a synthesis of existing archaeological knowledge from northern Zambia until the early 1970s. This work remains the most complete version of archaeological knowledge of northern Zambia.

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                                                                • Ehret, Christopher. An African Classical Age: Eastern and Southern Africa in World History, 1000 B.C. to A.D. 400. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1998.

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                                                                  A reconstruction of early African history across a vast region through historical linguistics. Demonstrates the longue durée history of Bantu speakers, and the chronology of settlement by Bantu speakers in Zambia, with political, economic, cultural, and social history revealed by linguistic divergences.

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                                                                  • Fagan, Brian, ed. A Short History of Zambia: From the Earliest Times to A.D. 1900. London: Oxford University Press, 1966.

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                                                                    After an introduction to the geographic history of Zambia, this collection of essays surveys settlement by various Stone Ages and the development of farming and iron working. A final section uses documentary evidence to reflect on the growth of regional and international trade after 1500.

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                                                                    • Fagan, Brian, D. Phillipson, and S. Daniels. Iron Age Cultures in Zambia. 2 vols. London: Chatto and Windus, 1969.

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                                                                      Reports on the most important excavations of Iron Age sites in Zambia, including Kalomo, Kangila, Dambwe, Ingombe Ilede, and the Tonga areas, as developed by Brian Fagan, the former head of the Rhodes-Livingstone museum in Livingstone. The reports are especially rich for sites concentrated in the Zambezi Valley, which record settlement at c. 1000 CE.

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                                                                      • Saidi, Christine. Women’s Authority and Society in Early East-Central Africa. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press, 2010.

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                                                                        Uses historical linguistics to argue that women in the region held significant authority in the precolonial period, especially in northern Zambia.

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                                                                        The Savanna Kingdoms and the Indian and Atlantic Worlds

                                                                        Oral tradition and documentary sources have informed histories of the region from around 1700. Vansina 1966 pioneered the use of central African oral traditions to describe the history of political units that he termed “Kingdoms of the Savanna,” in particular the Lunda and Luba confederations, which extended their influence through southern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and into Zambia. Recent studies have attempted to reevaluate and complicate the interpretation of these oral traditions, e.g., Schechter 1976. Studies of Zambian polities of the 18th and 19th centuries, including Langworthy 1972, Roberts 1973, Macola 2002, and Mainga 1973, make extensive use of documentary sources of travelers, missionaries, and early colonial administrators. Employing interview testimony collected in the 20th century and documentary sources, Oppen 1993 and Gordon 2009 connect the 19th-century history of Zambia to changes in the Atlantic and Indian Ocean slave and ivory trades.

                                                                        • Gordon, David. “The Abolition of the Slave Trade and the Transformation of South-Central African Interior.” William and Mary Quarterly 66.4 (2009): 915–938.

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                                                                          Charts the influence of international forces, including abolition and commerce, which led to the advance of militarized trading caravans into the region from the east, south, and west, during the 19th century.

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                                                                          • Langworthy, H. P. Zambia before 1890: Aspects of Precolonial History. London: Longman, 1972.

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                                                                            A synthesis of Zambian precolonial history that emphasizes the principal political “kingdoms,” the Bemba, the Lozi, the Ngoni, Kazembe’s Lunda, and the Undi. Argues that political centralization occurred due to monopolization of long-distance trade.

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                                                                            • Oppen, Achim von. Terms of Trade, Terms of Trust: The History and Context of Pre-colonial Market Production around the Upper Zambezi and Kasai. Münster, Germany: LIT Verlag, 1993.

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                                                                              Discusses the extension of the caravan trade to Angola, and the influence of the trade on forms of production in western and northwestern Zambia, mostly through the 19th century.

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                                                                              • Macola, Giacomo. The Kingdom of Kazembe: History and Politics in North-Eastern Zambia and Katanga to 1950. Hamburg, Germany: LIT Verlag, 2002.

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                                                                                A political history of one of the most powerful early-19th-century kingdoms in northern Zambia, based on documentary sources and interviews.

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                                                                                • Mainga, Mutumba. Bulozi under Luyana Kings: Political Evolution and State Formation in Pre-Colonial Zambia. London: Longmans, 1973.

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                                                                                  A history of the political center of the Lozi Kingdom from around 1700, through the conquest by the Kololo in the 19th century, and the restoration of the kingdom. Based on oral tradition and documentary sources, especially David Livingstone’s writings.

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                                                                                  • Roberts, Andrew. A History of the Bemba: Political Growth and Change in North-East Zambia before 1900. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1973.

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                                                                                    A political history of the Bemba, one of northern Zambia’s most influential slave-and-ivory trading polities, mostly through the 19th century.

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                                                                                    • Schecter, Robert E. “History and Historiography on a Frontier of Lunda Expansion: The Origins and Early Development of the Kanongesha.” PhD diss., University of Wisconsin–Madison, 1976.

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                                                                                      A study of the Kanongesha identity on the margins of the Lunda confederation in northwestern Zambia, with a sensitive interpretation of oral traditions.

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                                                                                      • Vansina, Jan. Kingdoms of the Savanna: A History of Central African States until European Occupation. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1966.

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                                                                                        With extensive use of oral tradition, the classic study of the rise and fall of Luba and Lunda polities across the south-central African savanna during the 18th and 19th centuries. While the Luba and Lunda centers fall within the DRC, Vansina also details of satellite states within Zambia, especially the eastern Lunda, Lozi, and Bemba.

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                                                                                        European Colonialism

                                                                                        The historiography of colonialism in Zambia centers on the impositions of the colonial administration and diverse forms of African resistance to it. In 1888 the British South Africa Company (BSAC), headed by Cecil John Rhodes, signed a treaty with the Lozi Kingdom, which led to the establishment of northwestern Rhodesia. To the east, in 1897, following the defeat of the Ngoni, the BSAC was granted a charter to rule northeastern Zambia. The BSAC combined both territories to form Northern Rhodesia in 1911, which fell under the administration of the British Colonial Office in 1924. Much of the historiography oscillates between African agency on the one hand and the force of the colonial imposition on the other. Examples include Pryns 1980, which considers Lozi agency in the early colonial period, as compared to Chanock 1985, which emphasizes the force of colonial transformations through the codification of custom. Regardless of approach, colonial chiefs are seen to be major beneficiaries of the colonial order, a view that is qualified by Gordon 2001, which considers the contested and contingent nature of early colonial chieftaincies. Historiography also highlights diverse forms of resistance to colonial rule, as in religious movements, studied with sophistication by Fields 1985. Other social, cultural, and economic activities of ordinary Zambians are studied in Chipungu 1992 and Kalusa 2011. Musambachime 1998 pioneered the study of rumor in Zambia’s colonial history, further developed by White 2000. For aspects of the economic history of colonial and postcolonial Zambia, see Society, Culture, Economy.

                                                                                        • Chanock, Martin. Law, Custom and Social Order: The Colonial Experience in Zambia and Malawi. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1985.

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                                                                                          Considers the role of indirect rule in the transformation of fluid forms of governance into rigid and codified customary laws administered by their principal beneficiaries: male rural chiefs and colonial officials.

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                                                                                          • Chipungu, Samuel N., ed. Guardians in Their Time: Experiences of Zambians under Colonial Rule, 1890–1964. London: Macmillan, 1992.

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                                                                                            An anthology of essays by Zambian historians on diverse experiences of Zambians, from politics to economics and social history.

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                                                                                            • Fields, Karen. Revival and Rebellion in Colonial Central Africa. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1985.

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                                                                                              Fields argues that the Watchtower movement’s insistence in the first decades of the 20th century on the authority of God above colonial and customary authorities made religious revival into political rebellion.

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                                                                                              • Gordon, David. “Owners of the Land and Lunda Lords: Colonial Chiefs in the Borderlands of Northern Rhodesia and the Belgian Congo.” International Journal of African Historical Studies 34.2 (2001): 315–337.

                                                                                                DOI: 10.2307/3097484Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                A comparative study of Belgian and British colonial chieftaincies in the Luapula region that points to the contested and historically contingent nature of colonial chieftaincies.

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                                                                                                • Kalusa, Walima. “Death, Christianity, and African Miners: Contesting Indirect Rule in the Zambian Copperbelt, 1935–1962.” International Journal of African Historical Studies 44.1 (2011): 89–112.

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                                                                                                  The ways that African mortuary practices contested missionary and colonial forms of authority on the Copperbelt.

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                                                                                                  • Musambachime, Mwelwa. “The Impact of Rumour: The Case of the Banyama Scare in Northern Rhodesia, 1930–1964.” International Journal of African Historical Studies 21 (1998): 201–215.

                                                                                                    DOI: 10.2307/219933Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                    The spread of Banyama “Vampire” rumors in colonial Zambia, and their political implications.

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                                                                                                    • Pryns, Gwin. The Hidden Hippopotamus: Reappraisals in African History; The Early Colonial Experience in Western Zambia. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1980.

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                                                                                                      A history of the Lozi kingdom between 1876 and 1896, pointing to the ways in which the Lozi paramount, Lewinika, and his subjects engaged, often successfully and to their benefit, with missionaries and colonists at the beginning of European colonialism.

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                                                                                                      • White, Luise. Speaking with the Vampires: Rumor and History in Colonial Africa. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000.

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                                                                                                        Vampire rumors across central and eastern Africa with two chapters devoted to rumors of vampires in Zambia, which, White argues, were linked to missionary interventions and to workers’ struggles on the Copperbelt.

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                                                                                                        Nationalism and Independence

                                                                                                        Nationalist political opposition galvanized around the entry of Northern Rhodesia into federation with Southern Rhodesia and Nyasaland, even while precursors to such political opposition existed in earlier periods, as Meebelo 1971 describes for the Northern Province. Zambians believed that with the onset of the Central African Federation (CAF), European settlers, especially from Southern Rhodesia, would dominate politics and land would be expropriated, as in the rest of southern Africa. The African National Congress (ANC), headed by Harry Nkumbula, led opposition to the CAF. In 1959, a faction of the ANC broke away and under the leadership of Kenneth Kaunda formed the Zambia Africa National Congress (ZANC)—the name “Zambia” a variation of a precolonial Portuguese term for the region. After ZANC’s banning in the same year, a series of opposition groups united to form the United National Independence Party (UNIP), which succeeded in winning elections in 1963 and leading the country to independence under Kenneth Kaunda in 1964. Much of this political history is recorded in Rotberg 1972. Biographies, autobiographies, and memoirs of UNIP and ANC cadres, for example, Kaunda 1962, Masiye 1977, and Macola 2010 provide personal perspectives on these political processes. Mulford 1967 details the electoral process leading to independence. Herbert 2002 subtly narrates the unraveling of the colonial order. Kaunda 1966 is on the Christian socialist philosophy of Zambian Humanism, which the author thought would provide a moral guide for Zambians after independence.

                                                                                                        • Herbert, Eugenia. Twilight on the Zambezi: Late Colonialism in Central Africa. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002.

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                                                                                                          A study of the year 1959 as it unfolded, first in the Kalabo District at the heart of the Lozi Kingdom in western Zambia and then expanding in regional scale to the capital of the CAF and then to London to examine how decolonization unraveled at the center and periphery of the British Empire.

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                                                                                                          • Kaunda, Kenneth. Zambia Shall Be Free. London: Heinemann, 1962.

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                                                                                                            Kaunda’s autobiography of his early life deals with the key aspects of his political identity, including his early politicization, involvement in the ANC, his detention, and the break from the ANC to form ZANC and UNIP.

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                                                                                                            • Kaunda, Kenneth. A Humanist in Africa: Letters to Colin M. Morris from Kenneth D. Kaunda President of Zambia. Nashville: Abingdon, 1966.

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                                                                                                              Explanation of Kaunda’s ideas of Christian African socialism, which Kaunda termed Zambian Humanism immediately after Zambian independence through a series of letters to the liberal missionary and first head of the United Church of Zambia, Colin Morris.

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                                                                                                              • Macola, Giacomo. Liberal Nationalism in Central Africa: A Biography of Harry Mwaanga Nkumbula. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010.

                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1057/9780230104891Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                A biography of Kaunda’s longtime rival. Nkumbula was the leader of the ANC, a southern province political leader, and galvanizer of opposition to UNIP. Macola gives special attention to his political life in colonial and postcolonial times.

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                                                                                                                • Masiye, Andreya S. Singing for Freedom: Zambia’s Struggle for African Government. Lusaka: Oxford University Press, 1977.

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                                                                                                                  Drawn from the personal experiences of a prominent radio broadcaster, this is a memoir of the independence struggle. Includes Bemba and Nyanja freedom songs that provide a unique perspective on the spread of popular nationalist slogans and ideas.

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                                                                                                                  • Meebelo, Henry S. Reactions to Colonialism: A Prelude to the Politics of Independence in Northern Zambia, 1893–1939. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press, 1971.

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                                                                                                                    Forms of resistance to colonial rule in northern Zambia prior to the organization of a formal nationalist movement.

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                                                                                                                    • Mulford, David C. Zambia: The Politics of Independence, 1957–1964. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1967.

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                                                                                                                      A detailed investigation into the political circumstances, negotiations, and series of elections that led to eventual UNIP victory at the end of 1963, and independence in 1964.

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                                                                                                                      • Rotberg, Robert. The Rise of Nationalism in Central Africa: The Making of Malawi and Zambia. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1972.

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                                                                                                                        A triumphalist history of the nationalist movements in Zambia and Malawi. Useful for general details about the rise of the nationalist movements and their transformation into the political parties that would come to rule independent Zambia and Malawi.

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                                                                                                                        The Kaunda Era

                                                                                                                        The Central African Federation (CAF) collapsed with Malawian and Zambian independence in 1964. Kaunda ruled Zambia for the next twenty-seven years, guided by a Christian-socialist philosophy termed “Zambian Humanism.” Through the 1960s, the United National Independence Party (UNIP) built its support base but had to contend with those who were disappointed by the unfulfilled promises of independence. When Kaunda’s rival, Simon Kapwepwe, challenged Kaunda’s rule by forming the United Progressive Party (UPP), opposition parties were banned and a “one-party participatory democracy” declared in 1972. For a biography of Kapwepwe and opposition to UNIP, see Mwangilwa 1986 and Larmer 2006. The consolidation of control by UNIP, and its relationship to the state and to civil society, is covered in the anthologies Gertzel 1984 and Tordoff 1974. With a declining economy in the 1970s and 1980s, opposition to UNIP emerged, especially in the form of a series of economically harmful strikes. UNIP responded by articulating a more authoritarian version of its Christian socialist philosophy, Zambian Humanism, as demonstrated by the account of Humanism in Kaunda 1974. Attempts to introduce scientific socialism led to widespread opposition by civil society and the churches, as indicated in contributions to Gewald, et al. 2008 (see Mainline Christianity). Larmer and Macola 2007 details the most significant incident of internal military opposition to Kaunda. For the social, cultural, and economic historiography of postcolonial Zambia, see the work of anthropologists cited under Society, Culture, and Economy.

                                                                                                                        • Gertzel, Cheryl, ed. The Dynamics of the One-Party State in Zambia. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press, 1984.

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                                                                                                                          This study looks at the one-party state, created in 1972, to manage political conflicts. Through political analysis of different parts of the country, the authors consider the conflicts through the 1960s that led to the formation of the one-party state and the way these conflicts continued to manifest themselves through the 1970s.

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                                                                                                                          • Gewald, Jan-Bart, Giacomo Macola, and Marja Hinfelaar, eds. One Zambia, Many Histories: Towards a History of Post-Colonial Zambia. Leiden, The Netherlands: E. J. Brill, 2008.

                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1163/ej.9789004165946.i-304Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                            A range of historical essays that reflect on opposition to UNIP and forms of political and civil resistance in trade unions, informal or illegal political groupings, and religious movements.

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                                                                                                                            • Kaunda, Kenneth D. Humanism in Zambia and a Guide to Its Implementation. Lusaka: Division of National Guidance, 1974.

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                                                                                                                              Kaunda’s later development of Humanism as a state religion that highlighted the role of the party, UNIP, and himself as chief prophet.

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                                                                                                                              • Larmer, Miles. “‘A Little Bit Like a Volcano’: The United Progressive Party and Resistance to One-Party Rule in Zambia, 1964–1980.” International Journal of African Historical Studies 39.1 (2006): 49–83.

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                                                                                                                                The potential challenge to UNIP by the United Progressive Party of Kapwepwe and Nkumbula.

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                                                                                                                                • Larmer, Miles, and Giacomo Macola. “The Origins, Context, and Political Significance of the Mushala Rebellion against the Zambian One-Party State.” International Journal of African Historical Studies 40 (2007): 471–496.

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                                                                                                                                  A study of a renowned attempt at armed rebellion from northwestern Zambia in the late 1970s that drew on long-standing dissatisfaction with eastern and northern dominance in Kaunda’s government.

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                                                                                                                                  • Mwangilwa, Goodwin B. The Kapwepwe Diaries. Lusaka: Multimedia Publications, 1986.

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                                                                                                                                    A biographical account of Kaunda’s one-time ally and rival, Simon Kapwepwe, based on his writings.

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                                                                                                                                    • Tordoff, William, ed. Politics in Zambia. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press, 1974.

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                                                                                                                                      Essays on politics in Zambia from independence in 1964 to the declaration of the one-party state in 1972, with a focus on local-level competitions over scarce resources.

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                                                                                                                                      Multi-Party Democracy and Neoliberalism

                                                                                                                                      By the end of the 1980s, faced with bankruptcy, international pressure, and widespread opposition from elements of civil society (see Mwanakatwe 1994), Kaunda agreed to multiparty elections. The trade union leader, Frederick Chiluba, and his Movement for Multi-Party Democracy (MMD), won the elections decisively, as explained in Phiri 2006. The MMD, embracing democracy and neoliberalism (see Chiluba 1995) oversaw the privatization of many state corporations, including the copper mines, a process mired in corruption and reflecting certain alliances between state and business elites—or their shortcomings—as both Handley 2008 and Taylor 2007 point out. The MMD ruled Zambia until 2011, when they were defeated by Michael Sata’s Patriotic Front, which drew on popular dissatisfaction with privatization and neoliberal policies. Fraser and Larmer 2010 considers the influence of neoliberalism, especially privatization, on Zambian industries and workers since the 1990s (also see Workers and Trade Unions).

                                                                                                                                      • Chiluba, Frederick J. T. Democracy: The Challenge of Change. Lusaka: Multimedia Publications, 1995.

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                                                                                                                                        The democratization movement in Zambia by the trade union leader, head of the MMD, and first president of the Zambian Third Republic. Based on his 1994 master’s thesis at the University of Warwick, United Kingdom.

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                                                                                                                                        • Fraser, Alaister, and Miles Larmer, eds. Zambia, Mining, and Neoliberalism. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010.

                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1057/9780230115590Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                          A collection of interdisciplinary essays on the process of privatization of the copper mining industry, its effects on workers and trade unionism, the involvement of regional international (including Chinese) investment, and Zambian disenchantment with neoliberal policies.

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                                                                                                                                          • Handley, Antoinette. Business and the State in Africa: Economic Policy Making in the Neo-Liberal Age. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2008.

                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511491832Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                            A comparison of state-business relations in four African countries, with Zambia as one case, highlights the lack of political capacity of business interests in Zambia.

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                                                                                                                                            • Mwanakatwe, John. The End of the Kaunda Era. Lusaka: Multimedia Publications, 1994.

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                                                                                                                                              Biography of Kaunda and his government by a political insider and one-time minister in Kaunda’s government, with a focus on the failings of Kaunda’s idealism, which contributed to the collapse of the Zambian economy and Kaunda’s defeat in the 1991 elections.

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                                                                                                                                              • Phiri, Bizeck Jube. A Political History of Zambia from the Colonial Period to the Third Republic. Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press, 2006.

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                                                                                                                                                A political history of alternative political visions, from the Capricorn society of the CAF, through to Chiluba and the MMD’s challenges to UNIP and the emergence of a liberal democracy.

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                                                                                                                                                • Taylor, Scott D. Business and the State in Southern Africa: The Politics of Economic Reform. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2007.

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                                                                                                                                                  An analysis of business-state relations, mostly focused on three southern African cases, argues that Zambian reliance on the copper mining industry contributed to state unease with independent private sector initiatives and difficulty with the economic liberalization process.

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                                                                                                                                                  Society, Culture, and Economy

                                                                                                                                                  Three areas of study have been especially important: the emergence of ethnic identities and their links to colonial and postcolonial modes of authority (see Ethnicity); gendered social and kin arrangements, and the engagements of especially women with political and economic changes (see Women and Gender); and interaction of rural economies and societies with the urban mining economy (see Urban Economy and Society and Rural Development and Underdevelopment). In much scholarship, these areas of interest are shown to be interlinked. However, this bibliography maintains these divisions for heuristic purposes.

                                                                                                                                                  The Study of Zambian Society

                                                                                                                                                  Some of the most sophisticated anthropological scholars, notably those attached to the Rhodes-Livingstone Institute (RLI), who later constituted the Manchester school of anthropologists, studied Zambian society, culture, and economy. Influential examples include the study of law (see Gluckman 1967), social conflict and religious symbolism (Turner 1957, Turner 1968), the agrarian economy (Richards 1939), the social role of clan-based historical narrations (Cunnison 1959), and Tonga society and culture (Colson 1960). These anthropologists have formed a significant subject of study in their own right: for example, Schumaker 2001 points out that even while the RLI anthropologists had diverse theoretical influences, they rested on scholarly networks and close collaborations with Zambian intermediaries. A subsequent group of anthropologists have built on, updated, and in some cases moved beyond the RLI analyses by focusing on historical change and multiple and contrasting Zambian identities: for example, the reevaluation of the work of Turner in Pritchett 2001 and Richards in Moore and Vaughan 1994.

                                                                                                                                                  • Colson, Elizabeth. The Social Organization of the Gwembe Tonga. New York: Humanities Press, 1960.

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                                                                                                                                                    A study of the Valley (Gwembe) Tonga in the 1950s prior to being displaced by the Kariba Dam. Considers religious and social relations, especially from the perspective of kin and clan, with sensitivity toward gender.

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                                                                                                                                                    • Cunnison, Ian. The Luapula Peoples of Northern Rhodesia: Custom and History in Tribal Politics. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press, 1959.

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                                                                                                                                                      Cunnison’s study of the eastern Lunda and Shila peoples of the Luapula swamps in northeastern Zambia focuses mainly on the construction of the authority of chiefs and clan identities, especially through historical narrations.

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                                                                                                                                                      • Gluckman, Max. The Judicial Process among the Barotse of Northern Rhodesia. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press, 1967.

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                                                                                                                                                        This examination of several judicial cases in Lozi courts evaluates legal principles, notions of evidence, the logic of arguments, and the application of rules to changing historical conditions. Originally published in 1955. The 1967 edition has two additional chapters, the first dealing with criticisms and the second outlining historical changes since the author’s initial research.

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                                                                                                                                                        • Moore, Henrietta, and Megan Vaughan. Cutting Down Trees: Gender, Nutrition, and Agricultural Change in the Northern Province of Zambia, 1890–1990. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 1994.

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                                                                                                                                                          A re-study of Audrey Richards that makes extensive use of her original field notes, critiques aspects of her theoretical framework, and places agrarian and nutritional practices in changing historical contexts.

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                                                                                                                                                          • Pritchett, James. Lunda-Ndembu: Style, Change and Social Transformation in South Central Africa. Madison: University of Wisconsin, 2001.

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                                                                                                                                                            A study of diverse and changing cultural forms found among the Lunda-Ndembu. Updates and places many of Victor Turner’s social, cultural, and symbolic analyses of the Ndembu (see Turner 1957 and Turner 1968) in specific historical contexts.

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                                                                                                                                                            • Richards, Audrey. Land, Labour and Diet: An Economic Study of the Bemba Tribe. London: Oxford University Press, 1939.

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                                                                                                                                                              Richards’s broad definition of “economy” encompasses and shows relationships between nutrition, agriculture, labor, culture, and political authority.

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                                                                                                                                                              • Schumaker, Lyn. Africanizing Anthropology: Fieldwork, Networks and the Making of Cultural Knowledge in Central Africa. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2001.

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                                                                                                                                                                A history of the RLI anthropologists, with an emphasis on the networks of knowledge and field assistants that made their studies possible. Crucial reading for understanding how RLI anthropologists developed a certain mode of analysis and contributed to a notion of Zambian identity that rested on tribal distinctions.

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                                                                                                                                                                • Turner, Victor. Schism and Continuity in an African Society. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press, 1957.

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                                                                                                                                                                  Turner’s first major monograph based on his Ndembu fieldwork argues that social conflicts among the Ndembu were usually caused by the tension between matrilineal descent and virilocal marriage residence. He explores the resulting conflicts and their resolutions through the tracing of community quarrels, which he terms “social dramas.”

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                                                                                                                                                                  • Turner, Victor. Drums of Affliction: A Study of Religious Processes among the Ndembu of Zambia. Oxford: Clarendon, 1968.

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                                                                                                                                                                    Turner’s second major monograph on the Ndembu turns from social conflict to religion, with an analysis of symbolic forms found in the healing rituals. Considers how morality, liminality, and color classification manifest in such rituals.

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                                                                                                                                                                    Ethnicity

                                                                                                                                                                    The study of ethnicity in Zambia can be separated by approach and subject into the study of African Identities, generally by social and cultural anthropologists, and the study of Settler Identities, including European, Indian, Chinese, and “Colored,” generally by historians and sociologists.

                                                                                                                                                                    African Identities

                                                                                                                                                                    British and South African anthropologists who worked in colonial Zambia studied and wrote of “tribal” life under pressure from or transformed by colonialism and capitalism. Audrey Richards, Branislaw Malinowski’s student, conducted the first professional ethnographic investigation and pioneered the functionalist study of a Zambian “tribe,” providing a detailed portrait of the interlinked aspects of Bemba identity (Richards 1939). Richards’s functionalist model could not account for conflict and dynamism, which was viewed as an aspect of “tribal disintegration.” Even while the RLI anthropologists detailed how ethnic units were made and unmade, especially in the Copperbelt (see Mitchell 1956), most of their studies were still often based on defined tribal units. A subsequent group of anthropologists, concerned with the construction of ethnic identities by anthropologists, have critiqued their work (see Crehan 1997). Papstein 1989, van Binsbergen 1992, and Macola 2003 consider the way ethnic communities have been invented and imagined, largely through the publication and dissemination of ethno-historical texts. Gordon 2004 considers the performance of traditional ceremonies and their broadcasting as a feature in the articulation of ethnic identities during the postcolonial period (also see Art, Music, and Performance). Ethnic politics, as Posner 2005 investigates, remains a feature of the Zambian political mobilization.

                                                                                                                                                                    • Crehan, Kate. The Fractured Community: Landscapes of Power and Order in Rural Zambia. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997.

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                                                                                                                                                                      A study of two Kaonde communities, one “traditional” and another “modern.” Critiques RLI anthropologists for their reliance on a tribal framework of analysis and explores the politics of postcolonial development and aid projects.

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                                                                                                                                                                      • Gordon, David. “The Cultural Politics of a Traditional Ceremony: Mutomboko and the Performance of History on the Luapula.” Comparative Studies in Society and History 46.1 (2004): 63–83.

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                                                                                                                                                                        Deals with the performance of traditional ceremonies, especially Mutomboko of eastern Lunda, which revive ethnic identities to engage with regional politics and counteract the marginalization of rural communities by the urban-based postcolonial state.

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                                                                                                                                                                        • Macola, Giacomo. “Historical and Ethnographical Publications in the Vernaculars of Colonial Zambia: Missionary Contribution to the ‘Creation of Tribalism.’” Journal of Religion in Africa 33.4 (2003): 343–363.

                                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1163/157006603322665305Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                          The ethnohistorical texts published by missionary societies that provided “tribal bibles,” which could be used to articulate distinctive tribal histories and identities.

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                                                                                                                                                                          • Mitchell, J. C. The Kalela Dance. Rhodes Livingstone Paper 27. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press, 1956.

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                                                                                                                                                                            A study of a dance that was the outcome of urbanization and an expression of new forms of ethnic identity on the Copperbelt.

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                                                                                                                                                                            • Papstein, R. J. “From Ethnic Identity to Tribalism: The Upper Zambezi Region of Zambia, 1830–1981.” In The Creation of Tribalism in Southern Africa. Edited by Leroy Vail, 372–394. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989.

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                                                                                                                                                                              The development of Lunda and Luvale identities since the 19th century through the transformation of historical narrations and cultural forms into rigid tribal markers of identity. An effective summary of the author’s doctoral thesis on the Luvale.

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                                                                                                                                                                              • Posner, Daniel. Institutions and Ethnic Politics in Africa. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2005.

                                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511808661Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                The relationship between languages, language policy, and ethnic identity formation in colonial and postcolonial Zambia, with attention to the way fluid identities respond to political imperatives and struggles.

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                                                                                                                                                                                • Richards, Audrey. Land, Labour and Diet: An Economic Study of the Bemba Tribe. London: Oxford University Press, 1939.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  A classic functionalist study, as well as a foundational text, about the Bemba tribal identity in northern Zambia.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  • van Binsbergen, Wim. Tears of Rain: Ethnicity and History in Central Western Zambia. London and New York: Kegan Paul International, 1992.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    The analysis of a Zambian oral tradition and a consideration of how its telling and performance contributed to the construction of an ethnic “Nkoya” identity.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    Settler Identities

                                                                                                                                                                                    Settlers from Europe and Asia formed a small but influential minority. The four main ethnic groups that have emerged from foreign settlement include white (or European), Indian, Chinese, and “Colored” (generally the descendents of Europeans and Africans). MacMillan and Shapiro 1999 considers a section of the European community, the Jews of Zambia. The broader European ethnicity has received scant scholarly attention, with the exception of Gann’s study of early settlement (Gann 1958). The Great North Road provides firsthand stories of the European community, predominantly during the colonial period. Dotson and Dotson 1968 and Phiri 2000 provide selective accounts of the Indian community from sociological and historical perspectives, respectively. Milner-Thornton 2012 uses the history of the “Colored” community to reflect on broader issues of colonial race policy. Chinese settlement began with the Sino-Zambian collaboration over the building of the railroad to Tanzania (see Zambia and the Southern African Region). Chinese settlement has increased due to a range of business interests, although the literature on settlement and culture remains limited, with the exception of Lee 2009, which is an account of Chinese managerial culture in the Copperbelt.

                                                                                                                                                                                    • Cooper, David, and Craig Hartnett. The Great North Road.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      Consists of personal stories and memorabilia by self-identified former inhabitants of colonial Zambia, generally Europeans, now scattered across an international diaspora. Provides insight into the social and cultural life of Europeans who lived in colonial Zambia.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      • Dotson, Floyd, and Lilian O. Dotson. The Indian Minority in Zambia, Rhodesia, and Malawi. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1968.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        Sociological study of Indians, based on extensive interviews, especially rich in Zambian material, with descriptions of Indian communities and relations with the African majority soon after independence.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        • Gann, Lewis H. The Birth of a Plural Society. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press, 1958.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          A history, informed by RLI anthropological techniques, of the arrival of European missionaries, administrators, politicians, traders, farmers, and miners under British South African Rule, prior to 1924.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          • Lee, Ching Kwan. “Raw Encounters: Chinese Managers, African Workers and the Politics of Casualization in Africa’s Chinese Enclaves.” China Quarterly 199 (2009): 647–666.

                                                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1017/S0305741009990142Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                            A sociological study of Chinese managerial practices and relationships with Zambian workers in the privatized “Chambishi Mines” on the Copperbelt. Considers the political economy of semi-permanent Chinese “enclaves” on the Copperbelt.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            • MacMillan, Hugh, and Frank Shapiro. Zion in Africa: The Jews of Zambia. London: I. B. Tauris, 1999.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              Through select biographies, the 20th-century history of the Jews who settled in Zambia is dealt with here: these transplants were mostly from eastern Europe, and they flourished in the Copperbelt during the colonial period, leaving in the decades after independence. Argues that a few members of this small population of Zambian Jews played significant political and economic roles.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              • Milner-Thornton, Juliette. The Long Shadow of the British Empire: The Ongoing Legacies of Race and Class in Zambia. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                A social history informed by personal experiences of the “Colored” (sometimes termed “Eurafrican”) community in colonial Zambia. Considers how “Colored” identities complicated and engaged with the development of colonial racial ideas.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                • Phiri, B. J. A History of Indians in the Eastern Province of Zambia. Lusaka: B. J. Phiri, 2000.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  History of Indian migration and settlement in Zambia, mostly from Gujarat and to the Eastern Province, where Indian communities prospered as rural traders.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  Women and Gender

                                                                                                                                                                                                  After Richards’s analysis of rural women, much Marxist-influenced scholarship examined their role within the urban colonial economy (see Chauncey 1981, for example). Parpart 1994 and Hansen 1997 depart from this deterministic framework to explore the social and cultural histories of women in urban areas. Hinfelaar 1994 relates the religious history of Bemba women. Moore and Vaughan 1994 is a re-study of Audrey Richards and considers the changing position of women in the agrarian colonial economy. In addition, anthropologists have long been fascinated by the gendered implications of matrilineal forms of succession and inheritance found in northern Zambia, most notably Poewe 1981. The HIV/AIDS epidemic has also inspired recent work on gender and sexuality, the most influential being Baylies and Bujra 2001.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Baylies, Carolyn, and Janet Bujra. AIDS, Sexuality, and Gender in Africa: Collective Struggles in Tanzania and Zambia. New York: Routledge, 2001.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                    Based on fieldwork from the late 1990s, an examination of HIV/AIDS activism by women’s organizations in three Zambian sites and how this activism plays out with existing gender, age, and class divisions.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Chauncey, George. “The Locus of Reproduction: Women’s Labour on the Zambian Copperbelt, 1927–1953.” Journal of Southern African Studies 7.2 (1981): 135–164.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1080/03057078108708024Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Argues that the mining companies allowed for the select urbanization of women to help to pay the costs of the “social reproduction” of their male urban workforce.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Hansen, Karen Tranberg. Keeping House in Lusaka. New York: Columbia University Press, 1997.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                        Based on extensive research in Lusaka, this is a study of women’s strategies within their families in the context of postcolonial development policies, processes, and programs.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Hinfelaar, Hugo F. Bemba-Speaking Women of Zambia in a Century of Religious Change (1892–1992). Leiden, The Netherlands: E. J. Brill, 1994.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                          Describes how Bemba women were disempowered by colonial changes and mission-based Christianity. Examines attempts to restore women’s agency through indigenous Christian movements.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Moore, Henrietta, and Megan Vaughan. Cutting Down Trees: Gender, Nutrition, and Agricultural Change in the Northern Province of Zambia, 1890–1990. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 1994.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                            Looks at the position of Bemba women in the changing agrarian economy of northern Zambia. Focuses on the dynamic engagement of women with the colonial and postcolonial economy rather than the disintegration of tribal norms, as Richards 1939 (cited under African Identities) claimed.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Parpart, Jane. “‘Where is Your Mother?’ Gender, Urban Marriage and Colonial Discourse on the Zambian Copperbelt, 1924–1945.” International Journal of African Historical Studies 27 (1994): 241–271.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                              An exploration of women’s agency in the changing marital practices on the Copperbelt. Challenges an older literature that emphasizes the imposition of male patriarchal alliances in the formation of such stable marital alliances.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Poewe, Karla. Matrilineal Ideology: Male-Female Dynamics in Luapula, Zambia. London: Academic Press, 1981.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                A study of the maintenance of matrilineal relations in the context of economic and cultural changes, with a claim that matriliny acts as a gendered ideology supported by many women and at odds with the development of individualistic forms of capitalist development.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                Urban Economy and Society

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Scholarship on Zambian urban areas has been concerned with the nature of urbanization and rural-urban ties in the form of migration, economic relations, and cultural identities. In an argument that has had a profound impact on southern African historiography, the first head of the RLI, Godfrey Wilson, critiqued views of a parallel “dual” agrarian and industrial economy by recognizing that industrial development contributed to (and even rested on) the underdevelopment of the countryside (Wilson 1941–1942). Scholarship can generally be separated into studies about the nature and economics of Urban Livelihoods on the one hand and the identities and actions of urban Workers and Trade Unions on the other. In both cases, the particular, and often partial, experience of urbanization looms large.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Wilson, Godfrey. An Essay on the Economics of Detribalization in Northern Rhodesia. Parts 1–2. Livingstone, Northern Rhodesia: Rhodes-Livingstone Institute, 1941–1942.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Critiques notions of a “dual” and separate urban and rural economy and recognizes industrial change as contributing to the uneven development of both city and countryside. Colonialism and socioeconomic change are viewed as part of a single transformation that subordinated Africans to a modern economy.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Urban Livelihoods

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  In the 1930s, scholars and activists, often encouraged by progressive Protestant missionary organizations, most notably in Davis 1967, studied African life in the Copperbelt as part of a general colonial concern with the new urban areas. Over the following two decades, RLI studies considered social and cultural changes as people reformulated identities in the Copperbelt, such as Powdermaker 1962 and Epstein 1992. Ferguson 1999 questions ideas of linear modernization and tribal breakdown held by some of RLI anthropologists, criticizing their “modernist” assumptions, including that of the permanent character of urbanization. This sparked an influential debate in MacMillan 1993. Scholars also point to African activities free from direct industrial employment, especially informal trade: for example, the secondhand cloth trade in Hansen 2000.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Davis, J. Merle. Modern Industry and the African: An Enquiry into the Effect of the Copper Mines of Central Africa upon Native Society and the Work of the Christian Missions. London: Frank Cass, 1967.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In the midst of the depression of the early 1930s, this report (first published in 1933) describes the deleterious effects of urban employment on Africans. Calls for missionary interventions, in alliance with the state, to alleviate the perceived problems.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Epstein, A. Scenes from African Copperbelt Life: Collected Copperbelt Papers. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1992.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Accessible collection of previously published essays from this prolific urban anthropologist, demonstrating his thorough research and providing a background for the anthropological and historical study of the Copperbelt. Explores diverse themes, including politics, rumor, ethnic networks, and kin relationships. An effective introduction to Epstein’s wide-ranging scholarship on urban Zambia.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Ferguson, James. Expectations of Modernity: Myths and Meanings of Urban Life on the Copperbelt. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Instead of a linear model of permanent urbanization attributed to RLI scholars, Ferguson contends that workers retained rural ties and identities: the teleology of “permanent urbanization” was a myth of modernity, perpetuated by the RLI anthropologists and shared by workers who sought to distinguish urban from rural life. The argument was first published as “Mobile Workers, Modernist Narrratives: A Critique of the Historiography of Transition on the Zambian Copperbelt, Part 1 and 2,” in Journal of Southern African Studies 16.3 (September 1990): 385–412 and 16.4 (December 1990): 603–621.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Hansen, Karen Tranberg. Salaula: The World of Secondhand Clothing in Zambia. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                          This book, whose title translates as “selecting from a pile in the form of rummaging,” is both an economic and a cultural study of secondhand clothes, through which Zambians constituted businesses and styles out of the clothing remnants of the West.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • MacMillan, Hugh. “The Historiography of Transition on the Zambian Copperbelt—Another View.” Journal of Southern African Studies 19.4 (December 1993): 681–712.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Critiques Ferguson 1999 for dismissing permanent urbanization in the colonial period and overestimating rural ties in the postcolonial period.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Powdermaker, Hortense. Copper Town: Changing Africa; The Human Situation on the Rhodesian Copperbelt. New York: Harper and Row, 1962.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                              An ethnography of the Copperbelt town of Luanshya during the 1950s, with reflections on the economic order, family life, and leisure activities.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Workers and Trade Unions

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Liberal scholars such as Julius Lewin (Lewin 1941) first described and criticized the process of racialized working-class formation and its relationship to both the state and capital. These criticisms contributed to colonial reforms that legalized trade unions. Sociologists and historians influenced by Marxist approaches wrote about the racial and particular nature of the Zambian working class and trade union formation, in works such as Perrings 1979 and Parpart 1993. Bates 1971 and Burawoy 1972 deal with aspects of the politicization of urban workers in the late colonial and early postcolonial periods. Larmer 2007 and Fraser and Larmer 2010 develop the postcolonial history of trade unionism, which challenged UNIP and contributed to its downfall in the 1990s, even though the end of socialism led to unions being disempowered by privatization, neoliberalism, and “casualization” policies.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Bates, Robert. Unions, Parties, and Political Development: A Study of Mine Workers in Zambia. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1971.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Charts the development of the Mineworkers Union of Zambia and gives an analysis of why it remained independent from UNIP and the nationalist movement at the time of independence. Gives important background for understanding later traditions of union autonomy and challenges to the party-state through the 1980s.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Burawoy, Michael. The Colour of Class on the Copper Mines: From African Advancement to Zambianization. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press, 1972.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  A short study of class mobility through the “Zambianization” of the administration and the copper mines, which confronted the problem of the domination of expertise and upper-level positions by European settlers and foreigners.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Fraser, Alaister, and Miles Larmer, eds. Zambia, Mining, and Neoliberalism. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1057/9780230115590Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Several essays in this collection consider the effects of privatization and neoliberalism on workers and trade unionism, such as the rise of “casualization” policies and the managerial styles of the private owners of the copper mining industry.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Larmer, Miles. Mineworkers in Zambia: Labour and Political Change in Post-Colonial Africa. London and New York: I. B. Tauris, 2007.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Examines the vicissitudes of the trade union movement in postcolonial Zambia, its role in promoting an oppositional civil society, and struggles over the implementation of neoliberal policies.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Lewin, Julius. The Colour Bar in the Copperbelt. Johannesburg: South African Institute of Race Relations, 1941.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        A liberal critique of colonial policies in the Copperbelt, which influenced some members of the colonial administration to turn away from attempting to administer urban Africans through indirect rule and to encourage the formation of trade unions and forms of urban representation instead.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Parpart, Jane L. Labor and Capital on the African Copperbelt. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1993.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The development of class consciousness among Zambian mineworkers in dialogue with strategies of control by management. Attention is paid to the formative experiences of strikes during colonialism.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Perrings, Charles. Black Mineworkers in Central Africa: Industrial Strategies and the Evolution of an African Proletariat in the Copperbelt, 1914–1941. New York: Holmes and Meier, 1979.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            A comparison of processes of proletarianization in the Zambian and Katangan Copperbelts arguing that the differences in the employment of labor, its control, and forms of working-class formation were due to differences in the variations in types of industrial development rather than explicit colonial policy.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Rural Development and Underdevelopment

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Marxist-inspired historians and sociologist, such as Robin Palmer and Neil Parsons (see Palmer and Parsons 1977), drew on Wilson 1941–1942 (cited under Urban Economy and Society) to view urban development and rural underdevelopment as a single process that involved the creation of reservoirs of cheap labor for the urban mining economies. Marxist-influenced studies of rural underdevelopment have been complicated by the recognition of the dynamism of the rural peasantry. In this regard, work on southern Zambia has been especially rich, as in Vickery 1986 and Cliggett 2005. Watson 1958 and Pottier 1988 provide different perspectives on the role of migrants on the rural Mambwe economy in northern Zambia during the 1950s and the 1980s, respectively. Scholars have also recognized the influential role of the state in the agrarian economy. Bates 1976 and Bratton 1980 identify forms of urban patronage among rural villagers through state agencies and the United National Independence Party (UNIP). MacMillan 2005 points out the emergence of significant rural enterprises in the hinterlands of the colonial economy, further challenging notions of homogenous rural underdevelopment.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Bates, Robert. Rural Responses to Industrialization: A Study of Village Zambia. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1976.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              A political and economic study of Kasumpa Village in the Luapula Province, which details economic strategies of villagers, including migration, and appeals to the state for support for inputs and infrastructure to support the local agricultural economy.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Bratton, Michael. The Local Politics of Rural Development: Peasant and Party-State in Zambia. Hanover, NH: University Press of New England, 1980.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Looks at the influence of UNIP and state organs in the rural Kasama District, pointing to patronage politics, and the emergence of local big men who mediate between the party-state and the peasantry.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Cligget, Lisa. Grains from Grass: Aging, Gender and Famine in Rural Africa. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2005.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  An update of work by Colson and Scudder on the Valley (Gwembe) Tonga who were displaced by the Kariba Dam. The effects of material-induced stress on kin and on survival strategies developed by old and young, respectively.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • MacMillan, Hugh. An African Trading Empire: The Story of Susman Brothers & Wulfsohn, 1901–2005. London and New York: I. B. Tauris, 2005.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    A history of the Susman Brothers and Wulfsohn business empire that began in rural western Zambia and culminated in the formation of large retail outlets throughout southern Africa. Demonstrates the broader networks, often connected to African elites, that allowed for the rise of such business empires.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Palmer, Robin, and Neil Parsons, eds. The Roots of Rural Poverty in Central and Southern Africa. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1977.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      An application of “underdevelopment” theory to the peasantry of southern Africa, with theoretical reflections on and a case study from central Zambia.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Pottier, Johan. Migrants No More: Settlement and Survival in Mambwe Villages. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press, 1988.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Studies economic activities and food security in Mambwe villages of northern Zambia. Partly a revision and restudy of Watson 1958, with greater focus on the ability of women’s activities to sustain village life and Mambwe identities even in the absence of male migrancy.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Vickery, Kenneth. Black and White in Southern Zambia: Imperialism and the Tonga Plateau Economy, 1890–1939. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1986.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Describes the successful commercial development of the Tonga peasantry despite high rates of male migrancy and competition from white farmers.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Watson, William. Tribal Cohesion in a Money Economy: A Study of the Mambwe People of Zambia. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press, 1958.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Watson argues that migrant patterns among the Mambwe of Northern Province were able to reinforce aspects of patrilineal custom, rather than contribute to tribal breakdown as claimed in Richards 1939 (cited under African Identities) for the matrilineal Bemba.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Zambia and the Southern African Region

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            After independence Zambia positioned itself against antagonistic European settler colonies to the south. Its first major regional foreign policy challenge was dealing with southern Rhodesia’s Unilateral Declaration of Independence (UDI), as recorded in detail in Anglin 1994. Zambian foreign policy was directed at achieving the liberation of surrounding countries, as in Anglin and Shaw 1979. Part of the effort to free the region from economic dependency on the “White South,” discussed in Hall 1969, involved the development of closer ties with Tanzania, especially with the construction of the Tanzania–Zambia railway (TAZARA; see Monson 2009). In 1980, as a founding member of the Southern African Development Coordinating Conference (SADCC), a group of nine southern African nations that aimed to lessen dependence on apartheid-ruled South Africa, Zambia achieved much international and regional importance due to its opposition to apartheid (Leys and Tostensen 1982). Zambia was also the headquarters of the South African National Congress, banned in and exiled from South Africa, although the literature remains limited with the exception of MacMillan 2009. After the end of apartheid, SADCC became the Southern African Development Community (in 1992), emphasizing economic cooperation between fifteen southern African countries.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Anglin, Douglas. Zambian Crisis Behaviour: Confronting Rhodesia’s Unilateral Declaration of Independence. Montreal: McGill-Queens University Press, 1994.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              A close study of Zambian decision making during the Rhodesian UDI. Anglin argues that these decisions were both rational and prescient, although of limited success in the longer run.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Anglin, Douglas, and Timothy Shaw. Zambia’s Foreign Policy: Studies in Diplomacy and Dependence. Boulder, CO: Westview, 1979.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Studies the aims and decision-making mechanisms of Zambian foreign policy to 1979, with attention to the ways that landlocked Zambia attempted to achieve independence from the south and to encourage the liberation of the south from settler colonialism.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Hall, Richard. The High Price of Principles: Kaunda and the White South. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1969.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Written by a journalist with close ties to Kaunda, this study records Zambian regional policy after the UDI by Southern Rhodesia and during the struggle for liberation for Rhodesia and South Africa. Focuses on the economic costs of Zambian support for southern African liberation.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Leys, Roger, and Arne Tostensen. “Regional Cooperation in Southern Africa: The Southern African Development Coordinating Conference.” Review of African Political Economy 23 (1982): 51–72.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    One of the few accounts that records the origins of SADCC, with details on the strategies, priorities, and financing of the regional grouping as it emerged following conferences in Arusha, Tanzania, and Lusaka, Zambia, albeit with little specific data on Zambia.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • MacMillan, Hugh. “The African National Congress of South Africa in Zambia: The Culture of Exile and the Changing Relationship with Home, 1964–1990.” Journal of Southern African Studies 35.2 (2009): 303–329.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1080/03057070902919876Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The first article of MacMillan’s ongoing project on the ANC in Zambia, with details on how ANC experiences in Zambia affected its subsequent political strategies and policies.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Monson, Jamie. Africa’s Freedom Railway: How a Chinese Development Project Changed Lives and Livelihoods in Tanzania. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2009.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        While mostly dealing with Tanzania, Monson includes Zambian archival research that records the regional political motivations that drove Zambia to encourage Chinese investment in the railway line from Kapiri Mposhi, Zambia, to Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. In particular the rail line would ensure that Zambia had alternatives to its dependence on South Africa as a route for international trade. The project also showcased socialist “south-south” cooperation.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The Invisible World

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Zambians have a range of changing beliefs, practices, and rituals that engage with a perceived invisible world. Invisible forces are thought to harm or heal living beings. In the 20th century, Mainline Christianity spread across Zambia and was often involved in the proliferation of new ways to engage the invisible world and new Christian moralities. Christian missions, movements, and churches competed between each other and both supported and resisted secular forms of authority based in the colonial and postcolonial states. Zambian churches also pioneered the use of Christian beliefs to engage with those invisible forces that harmed or healed people (see Independent Churches and Syncretism and Harming and Healing).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Harming and Healing

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The agency of the invisible forces in both harming and healing represents one of the longest-lasting features of Zambian belief. Missionaries first described such practices in detail, for example in Labrecque 1982. Richards 1968 emphasizes the role of political leaders in maintaining the health of the land and the prosperity of people. Marxist approaches, such as van Binsbergen 1981, linked such beliefs to their material economic bases. Turner 1975 details the synchronic rituals that make such invisible forces known and the symbols that represent them. Colson 2006 considers diachronic engagements between these beliefs and Christianity. Zambians often termed the harm that invisible forces caused “witchcraft” (especially when manipulated by visible beings). Auslander 1993 considers the modernity of such witchcraft accusations. Anthropologists and historians have also located these Zambian beliefs in a broader ecumene of central African religions, as in de Craemer, et al. 1976 and van Binsbergen 1981.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Auslander, Mark “‘Open the Wombs!’: The Symbolic Politics of Modern Ngoni Witchfinding.” In Modernity and Its Malcontents: Ritual and Power in Postcolonial Africa. Edited by John Comaroff and Jean Comaroff, 167–192. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Deals with witch-finding in eastern Zambia in the late 1980s, linked to crises of social and biological reproduction, which interacted with changing moralities, gender and age orders, and local and regional political economies.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Colson, Elizabeth. Tonga Religious Life in the Twentieth Century. Lusaka: Bookworld, 2006.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Reflections on Tonga beliefs, witchcraft, and engagements with Christianity over time and based on Colson’s long relationship with the Tonga people.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • de Craemer, Willy, Jan Vansina, and Renée Fox. “Religious Movements in Central Africa: A Theoretical Study.” Comparative Studies in Society and History 18.4 (1976): 458–475.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1017/S0010417500008392Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The commonalities in precolonial and syncretic religious movements across central Africa.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Labrecque, Eduoard. Beliefs and Religious Practices of the Bemba and Neighbouring Tribes. Edited and translated by Patrick Boyd. Chinsali, Zambia: Ilondola Language Center, 1982.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                A collection of the most prolific of the White Father Missionary’s early-20th-century writings about Bemba religious beliefs and practices, the more complete originals of which can be found in the White Fathers Archives (see Archival Collections).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Richards, Audrey. “Keeping the King Divine.” Proceedings of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland (1968): 23–35.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Looks at the spiritual role of the Bemba paramount, Chitimukulu, especially in relation to the maintenance of human fertility and agricultural fecundity.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Turner, Victor. Revelation and Divination in Ndembu Ritual. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1975.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Looks at the ritual of Chihamba, which makes known things that are unknown or cannot be conceptualized. Turner claims that such ritual processes are at the heart of the formation of symbolic religious systems.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • van Binsbergen, Wim M. J. Religious Change in Zambia: Exploratory Studies. London and Boston: Kegan Paul International, 1981.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      A series of essays that seeks to move beyond ethnic-specific appreciation of local religions, territorial cults, and prophetic movements to consider regional commonalities—in part by considering the economic underpinnings of religious life.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Mainline Christianity

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The history of Catholic and Protestant missionaries and the formation of Zambian churches has been covered in Garvey 1994, Bolink 1967, Hinfelaar 2004, and Taylor and Lehmann 1961. Gifford 1997, Hinfelaar 2008, Phiri 2001, and Phiri 2008 consider diverse forms of public political engagement by the church movements, especially in contesting United National Independence Party (UNIP) authority, the advent of multiparty democracy, and the “Christian Nation” declaration in 1991.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Bolink, Peter. Towards Church Union in Zambia: A Study of Missionary Co-operation and Church-Union Efforts in Central-Africa. Sneek, The Netherlands: T. Wever–Franeker, 1967.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The amalgamation of various Protestant mission societies into the United Church of Zambia is a distinctive feature of Zambian church organization. The history of that process is covered here.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Garvey, Brian. Bembaland Church: Religious and Social Change in South Central Africa. Leiden, The Netherlands: E. J. Brill, 1994.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          A history of the rise of the most influential Catholic missionary groups, the White Fathers and their missions in northern Zambia. Includes accounts of breakaways such as the Emilio Mulolani Sacred Heart movement and challenges to them, such as Alice Lenshina’s Lumpa Church.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Gifford, Paul. African Christianity: Its Public Role. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1997.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            A wide-ranging study of the public role of churches in Africa that includes Zambia as one of its four cases. In addition to a general overview of the churches’ role in postcolonial Zambian politics, there is special attention to the end of Kaunda’s regime, Chiluba’s declaration of a “Christian nation,” and its aftermath.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Hinfelaar, Hugo. A History of the Catholic Church in Zambia. Lusaka: Bookworld, 2004.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              A comprehensive history by one of its resident clergy, valuable for its details, but lacking in references and other supporting documentation.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Hinfelaar, Marja. “Legitimizing Powers: The Political Role of the Roman Catholic Church, 1972–1991.” In One Zambia Many Histories: Towards a History of Post-Colonial Zambia. Edited by Jan-Bart Gewald, Marja Hinfelaar, and Giacomo Macola, 129–143. Leiden, The Netherlands: E. J. Brill, 2008.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1163/ej.9789004165946.i-304Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Studies the engagement with UNIP and opposition to it by the Roman Catholic Church, especially around attempts to implement scientific socialism.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Phiri, Isaac. Proclaiming Political Pluralism: Churches and Political Transitions in Africa. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2001.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  A comparison of the political role of churches in four African countries. Has a lengthy chapter devoted to Zambia that outlines the role of the church in colonial times, provides details of how the churches confronted Kaunda and contributed to the rise of the Multi-Party Democracy (MMD) and Frederick Chiluba, as well as their disenchantment with him during the 1990s.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Phiri, Isabel Apawo. “President Frederick Chiluba and Zambia: Evangelicals and Democracy in the Christian Nation.” In Evangelical Christianity and Democracy in Africa. Edited by Terence O. Ranger, 95–129. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Talks about the role of the evangelical movement in campaigning for multiparty democracy, the declaration of a “Christian nation” by Frederick Chiluba, and the encouragement of evangelical political engagements.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Taylor, John V., and Dorothea A. Lehmann. Christians of the Copperbelt: The Growth of the Church in Northern Rhodesia. London: SCM, 1961.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      A study by church scholars based on original ethnographic and interview research. Contains valuable insights about the growing number of churches in the post–World War II Copperbelt.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Independent Churches and Syncretism

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The development of syncretism and independent African church movements, especially the Watchtower movement and Alice Lenshina’s Lumpa Church, has been covered in Cross 1973, Hinfelaar 1994, Fields 1985, Gordon 2009, and Ranger 1975. The Christian movements often opposed colonial and postcolonial authorities by insisting on an independent relationship with God and refusing to submit to the authorities on earth. Regardless of how their overt political roles are viewed, however, these Christian movements all mobilized Christian spirits in attempts to eradicate harmful invisible forces, as discussed in Milingo 1984 and Ter Haar 1992. Kirsch 2008 considers the relationship between these spiritual beliefs and bureaucratic forms of organization.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Cross, Sholto. “The Watch Tower Movement in South Central Africa, 1980–1945.” PhD diss., Oxford University, 1973.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The most comprehensive study of the Watchtower movement in colonial Zambia, which took several different forms, across rural and urban areas.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Fields, Karen. Revival and Rebellion in Colonial Central Africa. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1985.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          A study on how the Watchtower movement challenged the instruments and agents of colonial rule. A theoretically sophisticated study, although lacking the empirical detail and breadth of Cross 1973.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Gordon, David. “Community of Suffering: Narratives of War and Exile in the Zambian Lumpa Church.” In Recasting the Past. Edited by Derek Peterson and Giacomo Macola, 191–209. Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 2009.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            A recent account of the Lenshina’s church, with reference to previous scholarship, and a consideration of the fate of the Lumpa Church after the 1964 war between UNIP and the Lumpa. Pays special attention to the ways that church doctrines engaged with the experiences of their members to create new church narratives.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Hinfelaar, Hugo F. Bemba-Speaking Women of Zambia in a Century of Religious Change (1892–1992). Leiden, The Netherlands: E. J. Brill, 1994.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Discusses religious change sensitive to symbolic and cosmological perspectives of Bemba women. Argues that women’s spiritual agency in Bemba traditional religion was undermined by colonialism and by mainline Christianity that marginalized their spiritual roles. The church of Alice Lenshina was one attempt to restore such female agency, as was the Healing Ministry of Archbishop Milingo.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Kirsch, Thomas G. Spirits and Letters: Reading, Writing and Charisma in African Christianity. New York and Oxford: Berghahn, 2008.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                An ethnographic account of an evangelical church in the Southern Province that focuses on how spiritual practices engage with and encourage bureaucratic practices.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Milingo, Emmanuel. The World In Between: Christian Healing and the Struggle for Spiritual Survival. London: C. Hurst, 1984.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The one-time Catholic Archbishop of Lusaka, famous for his Healing Ministry during the 1970s, was a prolific writer on the healing role of Christian spirits. This is a collection of some of his most influential writings on the subject.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Ranger, Terence O. “The Mwana Lesa Movement of 1925.” In Themes in the Christian History of Central Africa. Edited by Terence O. Ranger and John Weller, 45–75. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1975.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The most notorious prophet of the early Watchtower movements, Tomo Nyirenda, claimed to be the Son of God (Mwana Lesa), and, in collaboration with Lala chiefs, killed the witches that harmed people.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Ter Haar, Gerrie. Spirit of Africa: The Healing Ministry of Archbishop Milingo of Zambia. Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press, 1992.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Archbishop Milingo’s Healing Ministry was popular among Zambian urbanites, especially women, before the Vatican forced him to end the Ministry in 1979 and relocate to the Vatican in 1982. This study examines the history of the Healing Ministry through diverse sources, including Milingo’s writings, personal letters, and newspaper accounts.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Languages

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      While English is the language of government, most Zambians speak one or more Bantu languages. There are seven official Bantu languages: ciBemba, chiKaonde, siTonga, siLozi, ciNyanja, chiLunda, and Luvale. However, many more Bantu languages exist. According to Malcolm Guthrie’s genetic classification, approximately seventy different Bantu languages can be identified in Zambia, distributed across the K, L, M, and N zones. Many of these languages have been the subject of linguistic studies, listed with details at Lee S. Bickmore’s Languages of Zambia site. The single most important published source on Zambian languages is Ohanessian and Kashoki 1978.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Languages of Zambia.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Lee S. Bickmore’s website on Zambian languages with map that links to the languages spoken in each particular region. A bibliography of sources for each language is provided.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Ohannessian, Sirarpi, and Mubanga E. Kashoki, eds. Languages in Zambia. London: International African Institute, 1978.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Here there are numerous essays by scholars on the nature of Zambian languages, the use of Zambian languages in different contexts, and the role of Zambian languages in education. A guide to scholarship on Zambian languages to the mid-1970s, it should be supplemented with the above bibliography for more recent work.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Art, Music, and Performance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Precolonial Zambian art linked to the savanna kingdoms of the Luba and Lunda is prominently displayed in museum collections. Pedridas 2008 is the most recent of a long tradition of scholarship on such art, often published in catalogues associated with special museum exhibits. The most remarkable recent performance phenomena in Zambia has been the profusion of “traditional” ceremonies, modeled in part on the Kuomboka ceremony of the Lozi, which, as Flint 2006 demonstrates, has long been molded by engagements with cultural outsiders (also see Ethnicity). Cancel 2006 considers the performance of the Mutomboko Ceremony of the Eastern Lunda. Art is often part of such performances. For example, Simbao 2006 considers the crowns worn by chiefs during the performance of the Mutomboko ceremony. The art of initiation ceremonies has been covered most recently in Jordán 1998; the engagement of a girl’s initiation with modernity and the associated art in Simbao 2010. Vail and White 1991 examines the songs and performance of spirit possession. While modern Zambian painting has received scant attention, MacMillan 1997 is a study of one of the most renowned modern Zambian painters, Stephen Kappata.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Cancel, Robert. “Asserting/Inventing Traditions on the Luapula: The Lunda Mutomboko Festival.” African Arts 39.3 (2006): 12–25, 93.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            A description of the 1997 eastern Lunda Mutomboko ceremony, with historical background and color photographs of dances and ceremonies.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Flint, Lawrence. “Contradictions and Challenges in Representing the Past: The Kuomboka Ceremony of Western Zambia.” Journal of Southern African Studies 32.4 (2006): 701–717.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1080/03057070600995483Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Looks at the struggle over cultural heritage and its broader development implications, especially the tension between development benefits through accessibility to outsiders and tourists and cultural authenticity, all through analysis of the Lozi Kuomboka ceremony.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Jordán, Manual, ed. Chokwe! Art and Initiation among Chokwe and Related Peoples. Munich: Prestel, 1998.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Collection of essays by art historians and anthropologists on the male and female initiation rituals that transform boys and girls into ideal men and women. Focuses on renowned Chokwe masks and art objects used in the initiation ceremonies.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • MacMillan, Hugh. “The Life and Art of Stephen Kappata.” African Arts 30.1 (1997): 20–31.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.2307/3337469Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Biography and description of the paintings by one of Zambia’s most successful modern artists. Kappata’s colorful and amusing paintings reflect on themes in the country’s colonial and postcolonial history. Also see pp. 93–94.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Pedridas, Constantine. Art and Power in the Central African Savanna: Luba, Songye, Chokwe, Luluwa. Cleveland, OH: Cleveland Museum of Art, 2008.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Catalogue of a museum exhibit that discusses prominent works of art from the kingdoms of the savanna of southern DRC and northern Zambia. Examples of artifacts that represented, imbued, and focused on political and spiritual forms of power.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Simbao, Ruth. “A Crown on the Move: Stylistic Integration of the Luba-Lunda Complex in Lunda-Kazembe Performance.” African Arts 39.3 (2006): 25–41.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Eastern Lunda crowns, especially in context of performance at the Mutomboko ceremony, and placed in the wider stylistic geography of Lunda and Luba crowns. Also see pp. 93–96.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Simbao, Ruth. “Dialectics of Dance and Dress.” African Arts 43.3 (2010): 64–85.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The dance, dress, ornamentation, performances, and songs of Soli girls’ initiation ceremonies from central Zambia, as witnessed by the author in 2005. Includes extensive color photographs and well-researched historical and ethnographic background.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Vail, Leroy, and Landeg White. “The Possession of the Dispossessed: Songs as History among Tumbuka Women.” In Power and the Praise Poem. By Leroy Vail and Landeg White, 231–277. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1991.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Analysis of songs associated with the vimbuza spirit possession among the Tumbuka of eastern Zambia. Vail and White argue that the songs represent the insecurities of women due to Ngoni overrule, the colonial economy, and mission Christianity.

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