African Studies Conflict Management and Resolution
by
Brandon D. Lundy, Edwin Njonguo
  • LAST MODIFIED: 27 March 2019
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199846733-0207

Introduction

Conflict management and resolution are processes for dealing with discord or facilitating peaceful and satisfactory cessations to conflict, and even potentially its transformation. Ideas and actions about how disputes are handled within various historical, geographic, political, economic, and cultural contexts and structures come from a range of positions, people, and institutions, with some approaches having empirical, experiential, precedential, authoritative, or intuitive support. The aggregation, analysis, and dissemination of these processes have led to the development of related fields within peace and conflict studies. Identified approaches to conflict management and resolution include, but are not limited to, alternative dispute resolution (negotiation, facilitation, mediation, case analysis, early neutral evaluation, conciliation, and arbitration), peacebuilding, and diplomacy. As an interdisciplinary field, scholarship is drawn from a broad range of academic disciplines, including social psychology, law, economics, and political science. These theories and processes are often systematically designed toward specific ends (e.g., management, analysis, resolution, transformation) and get applied at the individual, community, institutional, regional, state, and/or international levels. Through an analysis of the extant African studies resources focusing on conflict management and resolution, emergent themes fall into two broad categories: applied mechanisms of conflict management and resolution, and conflict issues affecting the continent. The African continent has seen its fair share of violent and intractable conflicts, both intra- and interstate. From the Arab Spring in Tunisia, Egypt, and Libya beginning in 2010 to the Niger Delta conflict and Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria, Kenyan presidential election violence, or South African water shortages, conflict and the need for its management, analysis, and resolution are abundant. Engagement (not isolation) and active dialogue, collaboration, and conflict sensitivity (i.e., do no harm) are essential keys to studying, managing, resolving, and transforming the diverse range of conflict situations found throughout Africa. External, internal (i.e., indigenous or localized), and hybrid models can open and sustain pathways to peace. Many scholars now argue that conflict management, analysis, and resolution must address root causes, take an interdisciplinary approach, not conflate conflict and violence, use multiscalar perspectives (i.e., individual, group, state, interstate), and employ multicultural sensitivities attuned to cultural contexts and global sources of conflict. Scholars and practitioners must investigate and better understand the origins, causes, resolution, and consequences of conflicts in contemporary Africa in relation to their postcolonial contexts. Concerns include ethnic, religious, political, and environmental conflict factors, as well as demographic pressures. The stakeholder roles in post-conflict reconciliation and reconstruction should also be determined and continually evaluated to ensure effectiveness in African conflicts.

General Overviews

Conflict management and resolution is both a practice-oriented and a theoretically driven field, with significant scholarship such as Ramsbotham, et al. 2011 and other sources building empirical and semi-transportable models and frameworks based on contextually embedded cases and comparative studies. The 1980s saw a long-emerging field codify with works like Burton and Sandole 1986, which proposed a “generic theory” of conflict resolution that was inclusive-oriented to all stakeholders, while Sandole and Sandole-Staroste 1987 took on issues of scale in conflict management from the interpersonal to the international, and how they relate to each other. Another significant step forward for conflict resolution thinking and practice was the incorporation of culture and context in Avruch 1998. Avruch’s anthropological training primed his thinking about how engaging with the local contexts, symbolic patterns, and broader human conditions were necessary if better understandings about how conflict is resolved and transformed were to be found. Published by SAGE, Bercovitch, et al. 2008 is a compendium that advanced and expanded the field of conflict resolution through innovative insights and the proposition of future directions in the field. Published that same year, Nhema and Zeleza 2008 is a conflict management and resolution collection focused solely on the African context. The contributors argued that durable solutions to peace and security dilemmas on the continent needed to embrace the reciprocal nature of peace and development cycles, with each impacting the other in significant ways; in other words, without good governance, no development; and without development, no good governance. After decades of empirical research and lessons learned in conflict management and resolution being tested around the world, Jeong 2009 and Hansen 2013 are practitioner-friendly works that present best practices in preventing, managing, and resolving various types of conflicts using a proposed toolkit that includes negotiation, mediation, facilitation, and reconciliation. Jeong 2017 goes further to recognize the importance of peace studies in improving human well-being by connecting conflict studies with peace studies.

  • Avruch, Kevin. Culture and Conflict Resolution. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace Press, 1998.

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    This book was the first to insist that culture matters when facilitating an end to conflict. Culture indicates historical and contemporaneous intersections of meaning and meaningfulness for local actors while analysts work to recognize unified patterns within these discrete struggles. Culture requires both broad and restrictive forms of conflict resolution to engage local contexts and larger swaths of humanity and the human condition.

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    • Bercovitch, Jacob, Victor Kremenyuk, and I. William Zartman, eds. The SAGE Handbook of Conflict Resolution. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE, 2008.

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      An anthology of conceptual, methodological, and substantive elements of conflict resolution commissioned by household names in conflict resolution, loaded into thirty-five compelling chapters by well-known contributors. The volume is full of deep insights, important analyses, compelling cases, and informed speculation. Contributors present a knowledgeable discussion of the current state-of-affairs, and a prediction of where the field is going. A great companion for scholars, researchers, and practitioners.

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      • Burton, John W., and Dennis J. D. Sandole. “Generic Theory: The Basis of Conflict Resolution.” Negotiation Journal 2.4 (1986): 333–344.

        DOI: 10.1007/BF00999000Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

        Burton and Sandole, two very popular names in the field of conflict resolution, were among the first to advance evidence and assert that the theory of conflict resolution should be treated as a generic theory that advances behavioral sciences. They suggested research and curriculum content for resolving conflicts inclusively, as opposed to power-based and authoritative approaches, making their work especially beneficial to academics.

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        • Hansen, Toran. The Generalist Approach to Conflict Resolution: A Guidebook. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2013.

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          Draws on and outlines a generalist approach to conflict resolution for social work. Hansen uniquely contrasts generalist scholarship and practice against specialized ways of conducting conflict resolution. Especially designed to equip scholar-practitioners in conflict resolution.

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          • Jeong, Ho-Won. Conflict Management and Resolution: An Introduction. New York: Routledge, 2009.

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            An examination of the best ways to prevent, manage, and resolve various types of conflicts, from interstate to intergroup, in a way that expands existing theories in conflict management and resolution. Equips scholars with theoretical knowledge, while at the same time improving practical skills in conflict management and resolution approaches—negotiation, mediation, facilitation, and reconciliation.

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            • Jeong, Ho-Won. Peace and Conflict Studies: An Introduction. E-book. New York: Routledge, 2017.

              DOI: 10.4324/9781315247236Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

              This highly cited book is arguably the most authoritative introduction to the field of conflict and peace studies since the end of the Cold War. While upholding peace as indispensable in the betterment of human well-being and posterity, Jeong not only analyzes the sources of violence and conflict, but also demonstrates how to manage and prevent them. The book discusses a variety of themes, including, inter alia, alternative security policies, methods of peaceful settlement, human rights, self-determination, environmental politics, global governance and nonviolence. First published in 2000 by Ashgate.

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              • Nhema, Alfred, and Paul Tiyambe Zeleza, eds. The Resolution of African Conflicts: The Management of Conflict Resolution and Post-Conflict Reconstruction. Oxford: James Currey, 2008.

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                Analysts seek the causes of conflict to achieve peace and security in Africa. The peace-development cycle highlights barriers to both conflict resolution and the reconstruction of post-conflict societies. Theories and praxis must engage the reciprocal relationship between peace and development as co-requisites to durable solutions.

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                • Ramsbotham, Oliver, Hugh Miall, and Tom Woodhouse. Contemporary Conflict Resolution: The Prevention, Management and Transformation of Deadly Conflicts. 3d ed. Malden, MA: Polity Press, 2011.

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                  These renowned authors literally “wrote the book” on conflict resolution. This highly cited, fully revised and expanded work is a comprehensive look at the concept of conflict resolution and its foundations, including a treatment of preventing, containing, and ending violent conflict, with additional chapters on postwar reconstruction, peacebuilding, and reconciliation. There is also a theoretical overview and eight topical chapters.

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                  • Sandole, Dennis J. D., and Ingrid Sandole-Staroste, eds. Conflict Management and Problem Solving: Interpersonal to International Affairs. New York: New York University Press, 1987.

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                    A unique perspective on conflict resolution through the interdisciplinary lenses of theorists, researchers, and practitioners, who explore constructive alternatives to the traditional approaches in dealing with conflict. Dissects violent conflicts, and their influences, that exist at various levels across the world, and ways to address them. Useful to all professionals and policymakers in the business of human relations.

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                    Edited Works

                    Conflict management and its resolution in the African context requires an all-hands-on-deck approach utilizing the most advanced skills and ideas from diverse academic and practitioner perspectives. Therefore, the most effective works of scholarship are multifocal and multivocal. Aall and Crocker 2016 and Aall and Crocker 2017 exemplify this approach as two of the most recent and groundbreaking Africa-focused peace and conflict analysis volumes. Furley and May 2006, Nhemba and Zeleza 2008, and Deng and Zartman 1991 collaboratively help set the stage in treating transitional conflict cases, including foci on colonial roots, post-independence, democracy, and contemporary issues around conflict causes, engagement, solutions, and continued and future research needs. Chabal, et al. 2005 provides additional cases to theorize conflict prevention on the continent. The collection of papers in Abu-Nimer 2001 provides insights into post-settlement reconciliation, while McCandless and Abu-Nimer 2004, a special issue of the Journal of Peacebuilding and Development, engages the intersections of agency, poverty, structural challenges, and conflict drivers in Africa. Lundy and Adebayo 2016 take a wider-angle human security lens to analyze and help transform conflicts through advancing sustainable livelihoods. The majority of these edited books and journal special issues resulted from symposia, conferences, and workshops held around the world to promote practitioner-expert dialogues to understand better the conflict contexts throughout the African continent over time, and to offer up evidence-based potential solutions to protracted challenges based on the long-term engagement, experiences, and analyses of the various participants and contributors.

                    • Aall, Pamela, and Chester A. Crocker, eds. Minding the Gap: African Conflict Management in a Time of Change. Waterloo, ON: CIGI Press, 2016.

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                      A central piece, by reputable contributors from across Africa, North America, and Europe, that examines, in-depth, Africa’s capacity to diagnose and efficiently manage and resolve violent conflicts by engaging peacekeeping, mediation, and other appropriate means. This is a “must-read” for conflict resolution students, academics, practitioners, civil society, and political leaders.

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                      • Aall, Pamela, and Chester A. Crocker, eds. The Fabric of Peace in Africa: Looking beyond the State. Waterloo, ON: CIGI Press, 2017.

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                        Leading experts in the field of conflict resolution consider the social terrains of Africa embedded with institutions and groups that can either enhance cohesion and resilience or exacerbate tensions. Social groups drive conflict, become victims of it, fix it, and resist and recover from it within these social environments beyond state structures. This book and its counterpart are must-reads in the field.

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                        • Abu-Nimer, Mohammed, ed. Reconciliation, Justice, and Coexistence: Theory and Practice. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2001.

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                          Dedicated to peacebuilding practitioners and scholars, this collection of eighteen papers by leaders in the field resulted from the conference “Promoting Justice and Peace through Reconciliation and Coexistence Alternatives,” hosted by American University’s Center for Global Peace. This edited volume was the first work to focus comprehensive attention on the post-settlement context, with an emphasis on comparable cases of post-agreement reconciliation.

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                          • Chabal, Patrick, Ulf Engel, and Anna-Maria Gentili, eds. Is Violence Inevitable in Africa?: Theories of Conflict and Approaches to Conflict Prevention. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill Academic, 2005.

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                            A collection of reviews and cases theorizing conflict prevention and resolution in Africa that connect topical foci with extant literatures. Theory, policy, and application contributions enrich the offerings. Firsthand African perspectives and stronger overall syntheses between chapters could have provided more nuanced insights into Africa’s conflict context, however. The introduction analyzes violence, power, and rationality in contemporary Africa.

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                            • Deng, Francis M., and I. William Zartman, eds. Conflict Resolution in Africa. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 1991.

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                              An early collection of papers on conflict causes and resolution strategies in Africa culled from the first Africa program conference at the Brookings Institution. International contributors with diverse backgrounds and perspectives seriously examine the underlying and multifaceted causes of conflicts in Africa, their plausible solutions, and future directions for continued engagement and research. The conclusion stipulates that Africa needs a new realism.

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                              • Furley, Oliver, and Roy May, eds. Ending Africa’s Wars: Progressing to Peace. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 2006.

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                                A collection of issues and cases published at a moment of transition for Africa from post-independence to democratic rule. The authors take stock of the continent’s major conflicts as they work toward reconciliation, reconstruction, and reintegration on their march to sustainable peace. Divided into two sections: the first, on general issues, has four chapters and studies Africa’s wars; the second, with case studies in nine chapters, explores solutions toward peace.

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                                • Klute, Georg, and Birgit Embaló, eds. The Problem of Violence: Local Conflict Settlement in Contemporary Africa. Cologne, Germany: Rüdiger Köppe Verlag, 2011.

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                                  Drawn from forty scholars’ research presented at a conference on “Violence and Non-State Local Conflict Management in West Africa and Beyond” held in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau, in December 2008, this collection primarily addresses the role of nonstate actors in democratization processes and conflict resolution, especially in instances of authoritarianism or an absentee state. Contributions in English and French primarily address issues of heterogeneity in law, politics, and local geographies.

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                                  • Lundy, Brandon D., and Akanmu G. Adebayo, eds. Special Issue: Sustainable Livelihoods and Conflict. Journal of Global Initiatives: Policy, Pedagogy, Perspective 10.2 (2016).

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                                    A collection of nine articles covering Nigeria, Cameroon, and Uganda that examines threats to human security in seven key areas (economic, food, health, environment, personal, community, political) and then provide evidence-based recommendations to transform conflict and renew well-being and sustainable livelihoods.

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                                    • McCandless, Erin, and Mohammed Abu-Nimer, ed. Special Issue: Critical Thinking and Constructive Action at the Intersections of Conflict, Development and Peace.” Journal of Peacebuilding & Development 2.1 (2004).

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                                      An editorial, four articles, and four briefings call for leveled engagements (i.e., local to international) around the limits of agency and inequitable structural barriers such as poverty to better understand drivers of conflict and war on the African continent. The editorial, “Building Socially Accountable Peace and Development in Africa,” and the first article, “Economic Policy and Conflict in Africa,” by Yash Tandon, jointly form a good window into this edited special issue.

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                                      • Nhemba, Alfred, and Paul Tiyambe Zeleza, eds. The Roots of African Conflicts: The Causes and Costs. Oxford: James Currey, 2008.

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                                        Colonial history, contemporary global conflict phenomena such as the “war on terror,” and the political economy and cultural ecology of warfare in Africa highlight critical aspects of struggle on (and off) the continent, and also what comes next. Collaborations between interdisciplinary scholars highlight ongoing problems from multifaceted perspectives, clarify root causes, and propose possible routes to reconciliation and unity. The introduction, which examines the causes and costs of war in Africa, the prologue that presents an overview of conflict in Africa, and chapter 8, which discusses conflicts and implications for poverty and food security policies in Africa, best capture the central argument in this collection.

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                                        Journals

                                        A cadre of respected and interdisciplinary academic journals have emerged in the field of peace and conflict studies and regularly publish important research articles, editorials, book reviews, briefings, policy dialogues, and more on conflict management and resolution from an African perspective. Beginning post-WWII with the fledgling field emerging onto the international stage, several generalist and now venerable journals heeded the call for disseminating ideas and research about drivers of and solutions to conflict, violence, and war, including the Journal of Conflict Resolution and the Journal of Peace Research. As the academic field took form and conflict became a more serious object of study and area of practice, additional publication venues emerged, such as Conflict Resolution Quarterly. The post-independence and postcolonial era brought renewed challenges and conflicts to Africa’s doorstep, which produced a new generation of Africa-focused peace and conflict academic journals aimed at bringing global attention to these local, regional, national, and international conflict dilemmas. These early Afro-centric journals included the African Journal on Conflict Resolution, African Journal of Legal Studies, and African Journal of Political Science and International Relations. Looking beyond conflict as political and juridical, subsequent journals, including Conflict, Security and Development and Journal of Peacebuilding and Development, took a more holistic approach, privileging peacebuilding, security, and development. The most recent Africa-focused conflict management and resolution journals are again prioritizing peace and peacebuilding, although sometimes from a more theoretical and thematically specialized perspective, as in the Journal of African Conflicts and Peace Studies, which began publication in 2008. The African Conflict and Peacebuilding Review, which published its first issue in 2011, is one of the newest academic dissemination outlets in the area of conflict management and resolution. The fact that this latest journal is a review indicates that the field has matured to the point where it can critically reflect on itself to find trends, generalizations, successes, and failures that can now be rethought, leading to new research insights and lines of future inquiry.

                                        Dissertations

                                        A wave of new-generation scholars have built on the work of their predecessors, with impressive PhD dissertations that significantly advance the theory and practice of conflict management, analysis, and resolution. Programs that best exemplify the enhanced scholarship in the field include, but are not limited to, George Mason University’s School for Conflict Analysis and Resolution; Kennesaw State University’s School of Conflict Management, Peacebuilding and Development; Syracuse University’s Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs; and Uppsala University’s Department of Peace and Conflict Research. Zeroing in on Africa, which has been hardest hit by post–Cold War conflicts, a critical examination of the continent has inspired contributions toward managing and resolving issues in key thematic areas such as governance, land and boundary crises, identity conflicts, gender issues, political crises, and civil wars, among others. Preventive measures, peacemaking, peacekeeping, peacebuilding, and appropriate dispute resolution initiatives have dominated the literature, practice, and policy arenas in unearthing, managing, resolving, and transforming these conflicts at micro, meso, and macro levels. Governance and land issues are among the most prevalent challenges plaguing post-independence Africa. Bansah 2017 investigates the extent to which actors go to ensure land protection and rights in Ghana. While Elfversson 2017 asserts that central politics affects local peacemaking, Makahamadze 2018 finds that regime types with legacies of violence tend to repress nonviolent movements, thereby investing in negative peace. Chukwunaru 2016 researches the remote and immediate causes of violent conflicts, with a focus on the Darfur conflict. Danso 2017 studies how relationships can be rebuilt after the ordeal of civil wars in order to reintegrate ex-combatants. Odera 2016 asserts the importance of gender roles in peacebuilding. Maru 2016 and Agbehonou 2014 examine the importance of preventive initiatives and timely responses in the event of conflict outbreak. Maralack 2010 finds sports crucial in nation-building and advocates for inclusiveness in formulating policies for more durable outcomes. According to Ogaji 2014, a hybrid of alternative dispute resolution and indigenous practices is indispensable in fetching lasting resolution.

                                        Mechanisms of Conflict Management and Resolution

                                        The repercussions of conflict—from slavery through colonialism to neocolonialism, the world wars, the Cold War and post–Cold War era, and numerous waves of civil war—have continued to haunt Africa and hamper peace and security on the continent. To manage and resolve these conflicts, creative endogenous and exogenous mechanisms have come into play. These conflict management and resolution mechanisms include dispute resolution, peace approaches, indigenous conflict management strategies, leadership and communication, and conflict early warning and early response. The success of most, if not all, conflict management and resolution mechanisms employed are largely contingent upon the timing as well as the goodwill of the parties involved, whether they are direct, first parties, or third parties. While factors such as weak institutions, natural resources curse, greed of political leadership and grievance of the populace, and Africa’s asymmetric relationship with other, more powerful continents often account for conflict recidivism across the continent, the hope of the creativity of academics, practitioners, and policy experts is making slow and steady progress toward managing, resolving, and even transforming Africa’s conflicts and relationships, as evident in the significant decrease in civil wars in the last two decades. However, there is still more that needs to be done. The growing field and practice of conflict management and resolution holds promise. Dispute resolution approaches such as direct negotiation between conflicting parties, mediation, facilitation, and third-party interventions, usually by third-party neutrals, have seen a rise in their use, and impact, in African conflicts. Contributors observe that the same holds true for peace approaches such as peacemaking, peacebuilding, and peacekeeping. Equally important are indigenous conflict management and resolution strategies such as African cultural and traditional practices, as well as the conflict early warning and early responses mostly used by international organizations, aimed at securing sustainable peace.

                                        Dispute Resolution

                                        The lower the cost, and the less time consumed, the better the outcomes of dispute resolution processes over power-based and litigation approaches to managing and resolving conflicts. Achankeng 2006 and Achankeng 2012 advocate for third parties to intervene in both salient and latent conflicts to either resolve them or prevent them from escalating. Contributors to Adebayo 2014 argue for a multifaceted negotiation that goes beyond just the Western fabric of principled negotiation. Grande 1999 makes a case for alternative dispute resolution as a relief system to the courts. While Keethaponcalan 2017 introduces students to third-party intervention through a generalist approach, Bercovitch and Rubin 1992 extends the potentials for resolution by making a case for mediation, which the authors argue does not get enough credit and remains under-researched. Koko 2013 adds a religious spin to mediation as a useful approach toward peacemaking in Africa. Lyons and Gilbert 2008 and Zartman 1989 find the timing for negotiation and mediation or third-party involvement, respectively, crucial in the outcome of the conflict. For Africa’s conflicts to be managed or resolved in a timely, cost-effective, and durable manner, Jackson 2000 argues that bilateral negotiations are more successful than mediations, although difficult to initiate in the case of violent conflicts, hence the utility of both.

                                        • Achankeng, Fonkem I. “Third-Party Intervention in the Mbindia Enthronement Conflict: Containment or Transformation?” African Journal on Conflict Resolution 6.1 (2006): 9–27.

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                                          The author, a traditional chief and scholar, analyzes the intervention of a third party in the conflict around the appointment of a local chief. A year after the conflict was “resolved,” he researches the impact of what was a power-based third-party intervention, and studies it against an inclusive third-party intervention process. This article is particularly relevant for third-party interventions toward a sustainable resolution. Available online with subscription.

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                                          • Achankeng, Fonkem I. “‘Mutual Hurting Stalemates,’ ‘Ripe Moments’ and Third-Party Intervention: Implications for the ‘Southern Cameroons’ Restoration of Statehood’ Conflict.” The Round Table 101.1 (2012): 53–69.

                                            DOI: 10.1080/00358533.2012.656025Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                            In this novel work, the author ingeniously applies Zartman’s concepts of “mutual hurting stalemate” and “ripe moments” to a latent conflict that has otherwise not attracted intervention from the international community. The article calls for powerful third parties to use their power to intervene in deep-rooted conflicts, irrespective of whether or not they are violent, as all conflicts have potential for destruction. Policy experts can draw lessons from this article.

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                                            • Adebayo, Akanmu G., ed. Special Issue: Negotiation: Dispute Resolution and Conflict Management in Nigeria and Cameroon. Journal of Global Initiatives: Policy, Pedagogy, Perspective 9.2 (2014).

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                                              A collection of academics, researchers, and practitioners address the theme of negotiation in theory and practice, in the context of extensive case studies from Nigeria and Cameroon, engaging with historical and contemporary politics. The exploration of the state of research in negotiation, questioning of the premise of “principled negotiation,” and proposing a multifaceted approach toward understanding complex negotiations makes this special issue relevant at interpersonal, intergroup, and international levels.

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                                              • Bercovitch, Jacob, and Jeffrey Z. Rubin, eds. Mediation in International Relations: Multiple Approaches to Conflict Management. New York: St. Martins, 1992.

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                                                Bercovitch and Rubin, two very prominent scholars in conflict management and resolution, discuss the paradox of the importance of mediation and the relatively little scholarship addressing mediation in international relations. This classic work systematically analyzes the various agencies in international mediation, from individuals to multilateral organizations, and their contributions toward enhancing the effectiveness of mediation as an international conflict management method.

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                                                • Grande, Elisabetta. “Alternative Dispute Resolution, Africa, and the Structure of Law and Power: The Horn in Context.” Journal of African Law 43.1 (1999): 63–70.

                                                  DOI: 10.1017/S002185530000872XSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                  Critically investigates whether alternative dispute resolution is an institution that can easily be transplanted to Africa, where the transplantation of the Western state system has largely failed. Argues for alternative dispute resolution as a modern legal institution that originates with the retreat of the state from some of its traditional functions.

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                                                  • Jackson, Richard. “Managing Africa’s Violent Conflicts.” Peace & Change 25.2 (2000): 208–224.

                                                    DOI: 10.1111/0149-0508.00151Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                    This novel research utilizes an original data set on cases of negotiation and mediation to compare their effectiveness in African conflict management in the period between 1945 and 1995. Interestingly establishes that bilateral negotiations in Africa are more successful than mediations, but difficult to initiate in violent conflicts, which are archetypical of Africa, hence the need to improve mediation effectiveness.

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                                                    • Keethaponcalan, S. I. Conflict Resolution: An Introduction to Third Party Intervention. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2017.

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                                                      A generalist textbook aimed at teaching university students about third-party intervention. Topics include agency, motivations, decision-making processes, party roles, mediation, arbitration, problem-solving, peacekeeping, timing, and ethics.

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                                                      • Koko, Jacques. “A Theology of Mediation for Peacemaking in Africa.” Journal for Peace and Justice Studies 23.1 (2013): 23–43.

                                                        DOI: 10.5840/peacejustice20132312Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                        Examines the role of the Catholic Church in essential mediations from fifty Catholic parishes throughout twelve African countries to articulate effective church engagement in peacemaking activities.

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                                                        • Lyons, Terrence, and Gilbert M. Khadiagala, eds. Conflict Management and African Politics: Ripeness, Bargaining, and Mediation. New York: Routledge, 2008.

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                                                          Taking I. William Zartman’s ripeness theory as a starting point, nine contributors to this volume use his theoretical toolkit of sequencing and timing of negotiations, mediator leverage, and state and regional contexts to enhance conflict management themes in the African studies domain.

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                                                          • Zartman, I. William. Ripe for Resolution: Conflict and Intervention in Africa. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989.

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                                                            A world-acclaimed conflict resolution expert engages with the causes of local conflicts in Africa and the rest of the world, the role the United States and other foreign powers can play toward resolving the conflicts, and what the ripe moment is for intervention. A compelling read, critical to policy experts especially, that focuses on how foreign powers can contribute productively to the management and resolution of conflicts without resorting to military force.

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                                                            Peace Approaches

                                                            Peace approaches, particularly Western-style approaches, gained currency in Africa in the advent of the post-Cold War era when the continent started experiencing most of its civil wars. Achankeng 2013, Adebajo 2011, and Ewusi 2014 object to the Western, colonial master-style, peacekeeping approaches, which they argue were never meant for the African context. Contributors in Mekenkamp, et al. 1999 reflect on avenues paved to overcome the colonial legacy. Brock-Utne 2004 argues for the importance of peace research and traditional African values like harmony, dialogue, and unity in managing and resolving African conflicts. Van der Merwe and Chapman 2008 finds truth and reconciliation commissions like that of South Africa to be largely challenged in striking the right balance between finding the truth and reconciling relationships, although, according to the authors, it remains more desirable than alternative peacekeeping approaches. Agbu 2006; Galtung 1996; and Lederach, et al. 2007 advocate for preventive measures such as peacebuilding in finding sustainable solutions to conflicts—a view similar to Koko 2008, which sees national conferencing as a strategy for African conflict transformation and peacemaking. Dayton and Kriesberg 2009 defaults to conflict negotiation for transformation and peacebuilding in Africa. For its part, Stephan and Chenoweth 2008 posits that nonviolent resistance is more successful than the use of violence, which has been found to engender further armed retaliation.

                                                            • Achankeng, Fonkem. “Conflict and Conflict Resolution in Africa: Engaging the Colonial Factor.” African Journal on Conflict Resolution 13.2 (2013): 11–37.

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                                                              A well-published author on conflict management and resolution in Africa revisits the colonial factors to enhance understanding of the ineffectiveness of conflict management efforts in overcoming the disasters that originated conflicts on the African continent. He indicts the heavy hand of former colonial powers and powerful organizations for maintaining and applying colonial-style approaches such as turn-by-turn peacekeeping to African conflicts at the expense of finding durable (re)solutions. Available online with subscription.

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                                                              • Adebajo, Adekeye. UN Peacekeeping in Africa: From the Suez Crisis to the Sudan Conflicts. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2011.

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                                                                This is a needed critique of UN peacekeeping actions in Africa over the last five decades, from an African perspective. Described as showing both the range and pitfalls of UN peacekeeping operations on the continent, Adebajo uses his historically informed approach and clear voice to trace key factors that shaped fifteen different UN missions and their outcomes.

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                                                                • Agbu, Osita. West Africa’s Trouble Spots and the Imperative for Peace-Building. Dakar, Senegal: Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa (CODESRIA), 2006.

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                                                                  This compelling work examines a cross-section of conflicts across West Africa and necessitates the use of preventive measures such as peacebuilding in fetching sustainable solutions to conflicts. The author makes a case for revisiting existing conflict resolution mechanisms in West Africa by asserting that efforts in addressing conflicts have suffered from a lack of attention to the post-conflict imperatives of building peace in order to ensure sustainable peace.

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                                                                  • Brock-Utne, Birgit. “Peace Research with a Diversity Perspective: A Look to Africa.” International Journal of Peace Studies 9.2 (2004): 109–123.

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                                                                    The African roots of peace research paradigms that focus on community reintegration over punishment are provided. Harmony, dialogue, and unity are essential philosophies of traditional African conflict management and resolution.

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                                                                    • Dayton, Bruce W., and Louis Kriesberg, eds. Conflict Transformation and Peacebuilding: Moving from Violence to Sustainable Peace. New York: Routledge, 2009.

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                                                                      An important book that presses groups to swap violent struggles for engagement in nonviolence. The edited volume considers why negotiated settlements sometimes fail while other sustained political actions achieve satisfactory outcomes. Chapters address unique aspects of the conflict transformation process from specific cases of intrastate conflict to topical, practical, and theoretical considerations by distinguished scholars and a host of up-and-comers in conflict transformation and peacebuilding.

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                                                                      • Ewusi, Samuel Kale, ed. Peacebuilding in Sub-Saharan Africa: African Perspectives. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: University for Peace, Africa Programme, 2014.

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                                                                        This edited volume is an important counterpoint and neocolonial critique of liberal peace paradigms incubated in Western contexts and applied liberally to structurally disadvantaged settings. Human security challenges on the continent are great; an all-African cast of nineteen contributors provides gravitas to the up-close-and-personal analyses of peace and security cases treated in the volume.

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                                                                        • Galtung, Johan. Peace by Peaceful Means. London: SAGE, 1996.

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                                                                          A panorama of the underlying assumptions, theories, and ideas that form the foundation on which the study of peace and peacebuilding is built, presented by one of the leading founders and highest authority in the study of modern peace and conflict studies. The four parts of the volume explore peace theory and the epistemological assumptions of peace, conflict theory and creative nonviolent ways of handling conflict, developmental theories examining structural violence, and civilization theory, respectively.

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                                                                          • Koko, Jacques L. National Conference as a Strategy for Conflict Transformation and Peacemaking: The Legacy of the Republic of Benin Model. London: Adonis & Abbey, 2008.

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                                                                            This novel approach of conceptualizing national conference as a multitrack diplomacy tool, as opposed to the traditional categorization as a prelude to political transition or coup d’état, builds on theories of conflict and conflict resolution to expand the scope of strategies for peacemaking in transforming national crises.

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                                                                            • Lederach, John Paul, Hal Culbertson, and Reina Neufeldt. Reflective Peacebuilding: A Planning, Monitoring and Learning Toolkit. Notre Dame, IN: Joan B. Kroc Institute for International Peace Studies, 2007.

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                                                                              Written by, among other renowned contributors, one of the founding fathers and foremost scholars in conflict transformation, John Paul Lederach, this useful and practical, yet also simple, toolkit generates deep insights about peacebuilding impact, change, and effectiveness by exploring the interconnections between peacebuilding and development.

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                                                                              • Mekenkamp, Monique, Paul van Tongeren, and Hans van de Veen, eds. Searching for Peace in Africa: An Overview of Conflict Prevention and Management Activities. Utrecht, The Netherlands: European Platform for Conflict Prevention and Transformation, 1999.

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                                                                                Not easily accessible, this optimistic collection of essays focuses on the African Renaissance, including the continent’s potential after the turmoil and conflict of the 1990s. Coming out of ten major conflicts in twenty-five years, with millions of casualties, the contributors reflect on avenues paved to overcome the colonial legacy, ongoing regional challenges and their possible solutions, and the role African and international organizations are playing in the search for peace.

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                                                                                • Stephan, Maria J., and Erica Chenoweth. “Why Civil Resistance Works: The Strategic Logic of Nonviolent Conflict.” International Security 33.1 (2008): 7–44.

                                                                                  DOI: 10.1162/isec.2008.33.1.7Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                  These authors fashioned a nonviolent and violent conflict data set from major known cases between 1900 and 2006. This aggregate reveals that, overall, nonviolent resistance gains widespread support and legitimacy, increases the likelihood of eventual adversary loyalty, and defuses opponents’ forces, while the use of violence engenders further armed retaliation, precludes the changing of hearts and minds, and activates a violent minority slow to abate.

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                                                                                  • van der Merwe, Hugo, and Audrey R. Chapman, eds. Truth and Reconciliation in South Africa: Did the TRC Deliver? Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2008.

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                                                                                    Well researched over six years, this study comprehensively evaluates the process and impact of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission with the most expansive mandate, that of South Africa. It finds that the commission raises crucial questions about South Africa’s experience, and criticizes all truth commissions and their ability to deliver their mandates because of the difficulties associate with striking the right balance between truth finding and reconciliation.

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                                                                                    Indigenous Conflict Management Strategies

                                                                                    The continual seeking of alternative and critical approaches to conflict management and resolution beyond Western retributive ones is an exciting and recent key aspect of the field. Contributors to Adebayo, et al. 2014 and Adebayo, et al. 2015 identify Africa as a key site to indigenous conflict management strategies. These volumes build on the groundbreaking collection Zartman 2000. Bottom-up work, including Lundy and McGovern 2008, as well as localized perspectives, such as Uwazie 2014, are valued as viable alternatives for achieving justice and reconciliation. Attah-Poku 1998 and Teitel 2003 unearth options to peace and conflict studies through rigorous and comparative work, while others, such as Mamdani 2002, Nader 2001, and Nader and Grande 2002, do so through deconstructive methodologies. Tuso and Flaherty 2016 take the approach of reiterating the essence of indigenous processes of peacemaking by filling the lacuna in scholarship that has mostly focused on ritual, Western perspectives. Collectively, these works point to the valuing of empathetic and communal mechanisms to facilitate reconciliation, reintegration, and the restoration of relationships to the satisfaction of primary and secondary stakeholders.

                                                                                    • Adebayo, Akanmu G., Jesse J. Benjamin, and Brandon D. Lundy, eds. Indigenous Conflict Management Strategies: Global Perspectives. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2014.

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                                                                                      An assemblage of indigenous approaches, criticisms, and valuations of conflict management brought into dialogue. Scholars and practitioners review how indigenous societies realign, change, and inform institutionalized approaches to managing peace and conflict in multiple contexts.

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                                                                                      • Adebayo, Akanmu G., Brandon D. Lundy, Jesse J. Benjamin, and Joseph Kingsley Adjei, eds. Indigenous Conflict Management Strategies in West Africa: Beyond Right and Wrong. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2015.

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                                                                                        Contributors localize and discuss conflict through cultural foundations of custom and tradition where reconciliation, social organization, and spiritual alignment trump punitive actions. The path to restorative conflict management in Africa meanders through experience, concession, ritual, prudence, and embeddedness.

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                                                                                        • Attah-Poku, Agyemang. African Ethnicity: History, Conflict Management, Resolution, and Prevention. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1998.

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                                                                                          A detailed discussion of history, conflict management, resolution, and prevention as it pertains to ethnicity in Africa. About seven hundred ethnic entities in Africa are grouped into six categories, and engaged through three main explanatory paradigms (imperial, liberal, and Marxist) to investigate why ethnicity has become more destructive in contemporary Africa. Attah-Poku examines African and foreign conflict management efforts, and recommends preventive measures over conflict management and resolution approaches.

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                                                                                          • Lundy, Patricia, and Mark McGovern. “Whose Justice? Rethinking Transitional Justice from the Bottom Up.” Journal of Law and Society 35.2 (2008): 265–292.

                                                                                            DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-6478.2008.00438.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                            This piece argues that divided societies after conflict are complex sites of ongoing discord in need of active and participatory approaches to justice, as well as local agency to set palatable post-conflict agendas for all stakeholders. Particular attention is given to minority and powerless “voices from below.” The paper comprehensively assesses transitional justice from historical, critical, and revisionist stances.

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                                                                                            • Mamdani, Mahmood. “Amnesty or Impunity? A Preliminary Critique of the Report of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of South Africa (TRC).” Diacritics 32.2 (2002): 33–59.

                                                                                              DOI: 10.1353/dia.2005.0005Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                              Mamdani provides an important critique of the most famous truth and reconciliation process now emulated in other post-conflict situations. Individualizing victims and perpetrators without operationalizing them narrowed the TRC’s perspective, losing sight of the mandated aims of national unity and reconciliation. Mamdani argues that the commission failed because it was delinked from the victimization of communities, dehistoricized, and decontextualized, which short-circuited its ability to see systematic abuses and structural violence.

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                                                                                              • Nader, Laura. “The Underside of Conflict Management—in Africa and Elsewhere.” IDS Bulletin 32.1 (2001): 19–27.

                                                                                                DOI: 10.1111/j.1759-5436.2001.mp32001003.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                A push for constraint over consensus where a grounded approach to conflict management means speaking truth to power and tossing out the one-size-fits-all techniques for conflict resolution. Long-term solutions engage the conflict context and avoid idealized conflict management paradigms.

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                                                                                                • Nader, Laura, and Elisabetta Grande. “Current Illusions and Delusions about Conflict Management—In Africa and Elsewhere.” Law & Social Inquiry 27.3 (2002): 573–594.

                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1111/j.1747-4469.2002.tb00816.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                  Alternative dispute resolution (ADR) as an imported dispute resolution paradigm that loses significance in the African context is evaluated. ADR interests through modular mechanisms and techniques interfere with community security by overlooking deep-seated local issues.

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                                                                                                  • Teitel, Ruti G. “Transitional Justice Genealogy.” Harvard Human Rights Journal 16 (2003): 69–94.

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                                                                                                    Drawing heavily on South Africa’s Truth and Reconciliation Commission as a contemporary illustration, the article embeds a half-century of transitional justice within its historical and political contexts. The post–Cold War turn sees both the normalization and fragmentation of these approaches primarily working their way into aspects of humanitarian law as alternatives to prosecution that still offer a path to truth and culpability.

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                                                                                                    • Tuso, Hamdesa, and Maureen P. Flaherty, eds. Creating the Third Force: Indigenous Processes of Peacemaking. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2016.

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                                                                                                      One of the rare books to transcend the Western-dominated ethnocentric philosophy of peacemaking, which mostly overlooked indigenous approaches that fit within the realm of alternative dispute resolution. Explores the major steps of peacemaking processes that peacemakers follow in dislodging antagonists from the stage of hostile confrontation to peaceful resolution of disputes and subsequent reconciliation. While the introduction examines why peacemaking is of interest now, chapters 1 and 23 revisit, respectively, neglected peacemaking methods and some common features in indigenous processes of peacemaking.

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                                                                                                      • Uwazie, Ernest, ed. Alternative Dispute Resolution and Peace-Building in Africa. Tyne, UK: Cambridge Scholars, 2014.

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                                                                                                        This collection resulted from the 2011 Third International Africa Peace and Conflict Resolution Conference in Accra, Ghana, centered around the theme “ADR and Peace Studies in Africa, 15 Years Later: Lessons and Future Directions.” The editor ably assembled a cast of African contributors to take stock of and advance the original African ADR mandate. The search for peace, development, and social justice continues in capable hands.

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                                                                                                        • Zartman, I. William, ed. Traditional Cures for Modern Conflicts: African Conflict “Medicine.” Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2000.

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                                                                                                          Offerings provide insights on traditional methods of conflict management fashioned, imparted, and revised on the African continent. Zartman compares and applies these approaches to modern techniques found elsewhere. Key characteristics of African conflict management highlight relevant contributions from Africa to the peace and conflict studies canon.

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                                                                                                          Leadership and Communication

                                                                                                          The prospects for peace and stability in Africa rest largely on the shoulders, the will, and the commitment of African political leadership. As Reynolds 2002 observes, whereas getting the democratic institutions right may not guarantee success, getting them wrong has resulted in violent collapse in many socially divided states. Most African leaders tend to be more powerful than the institutions they work for, hence the likelihood of conflicts. Eifert, et al. 2010 adds that ethnic identities in Africa are useful in the competition for political power. Jackson 2002 proposes a framework for understanding and diagnosing the causes of Africa’s multiple internal conflicts, which are rooted in the everyday politics and discourse of weak states. Oetzel and Ting-Toomey 2006, the first work of its kind that brings together avenues of conflict communication, asserts “the message” of peace and conflict theories, practices, and research. To make sense of it all, Adejimola 2009 argues that language and communication are essential parts of any nonviolent conflict resolution approach.

                                                                                                          • Adejimola, Amuseghan Sunday. “Language and Communication in Conflict Resolution.” Journal of Law and Conflict Resolution 1.1 (2009): 1–9.

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                                                                                                            This full-length research paper was the first submission to be published in the Journal of Law and Conflict Resolution. The Nigerian author argues that language and communication are essential parts of any nonviolent conflict resolution approach, including negotiation, dialogue, mediation, adjudication, arbitration, and the use of mass media.

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                                                                                                            • Eifert, Benn, Edward Miguel, and Daniel N. Posner. “Political Competition and Ethnic Identification in Africa.” American Journal of Political Science 54.2 (2010): 494–510.

                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1111/j.1540-5907.2010.00443.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                              An ambitious empirical investigation conducted using data from over 35,000 respondents in 22 public opinion surveys in 10 countries, to show the relationship between political competition and ethnic identities in Africa. Marrying an innovative multinomial logit empirical methodology with situational theories of social identification, this research asserts that ethnic identities matter in Africa for instrumental reasons—they are useful in the competition for political power.

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                                                                                                              • Jackson, Richard. “Violent Internal Conflict and the African State: Towards a Framework of Analysis.” Journal of Contemporary African Studies 20.1 (2002): 29–52.

                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1080/02589000120104044Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                Articulates a framework for understanding and diagnosing the causes of Africa’s multiple internal conflicts, which are rooted in the everyday politics and discourse of weak states. Argues for the direction of effective conflict resolution to be embedded in reconfiguring local politics and reconstructing the malformed African state as opposed to the belabored “saving failed states” approaches.

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                                                                                                                • Oetzel, John G., and Stella Ting-Toomey, eds. The SAGE Handbook of Conflict Communication: Integrating Theory, Research, and Practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE, 2006.

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                                                                                                                  A comprehensive SAGE Handbook of more than 800 pages, this collection of 26 chapters is the first of its kind that brings together avenues of conflict communication that focus on “the message” of peace and conflict theories, practices, and research. The volume is divided into sections covering interpersonal conflict, organizational culture, community conflict, and intercultural and international conflict.

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                                                                                                                  • Reynolds, Andrew, ed. The Architecture of Democracy: Constitutional Design, Conflict Management, and Democracy. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002.

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                                                                                                                    This collection of research blends theory and case study evidence to inform practitioners, policy experts, and scholars that whereas getting the democratic institutions right may not guarantee success, getting them wrong has resulted in violent collapse in many socially divided states.

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                                                                                                                    Conflict Early Warning and Early Response

                                                                                                                    Conflict management and resolution is most effective when enacted early, often, and directly. This precept fostered mechanisms now labeled conflict early warning and early response. Many lessons learned from the earliest attempts to systematize these efforts after World War II informed subsequent iterations, including Alker, et al. 2001. The AU initiated a continental system that has a complex history, described in Albert 2007, that began to be written even as the AU’s Peace and Security Council was ratified and went into effect. Levitt 2003 traced and analyzed this ratification process. Souaré and Handy 2013 thoroughly evaluates the system’s effectiveness, while Williams 2011 considers the role of the US government in supporting the Peace and Security Council’s initiatives, including conflict early warning and early response. Other works, such as O’Bannon 2012, consider what kinds of data are necessary for conflict early warning and early response to be effective, while Mwaûra and Schmeidl 2002 considers these mechanisms from a regional perspective. There is also new and exciting work (see Maru 2016, cited under Dissertations) that considers the breakdown between conflict early warning and early response experts and their political counterparts within the Peace and Security Council and AU more broadly.

                                                                                                                    • Albert, Isaac Olawale. “The African Union and Conflict Management.” Africa Development 32.1 (2007): 41–68.

                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.4314/ad.v32i1.57154Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                      A Nigerian thought-leader on African peace and conflict studies, Albert describes, evaluates, and proposes revisions to the AU’s conflict management mechanisms. He proposes that effectiveness starts at home, with a need for the AU to begin with the assessment and removal of its own organizational barriers that prevent effective intervention. Commitments to positive peace among African leadership and continued inadequate funding are further identified obstacles to continental peacebuilding initiatives.

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                                                                                                                      • Alker, Hayward R., Ted Robert Gurr, and Kumar Rupesinghe, eds. Journeys through Conflict: Narratives and Lessons: A Study of the Conflict Early Warning Systems Research Project of the International Social Science Council. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2001.

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                                                                                                                        This book provides an annotated history of the value added by the Conflict Early Warning Systems (CEWS) project in the attempt to improve data networks and integration into significant information sites. The goal, a laudable one, was to find alternatives to violence in evolving conflicts at all levels, by discovering and sharing real-time, data driven-driven options for conflict managers.

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                                                                                                                        • Levitt, Jeremy I. “Peace and Security Council of the African Union: The Known Unknowns.” Transnational Law and Contemporary Problems 13 (2003): 109–137.

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                                                                                                                          Written just before the protocol to establish the AU’s Peace and Security Council (PSC) went into effect as the continent’s first collective security system, this article outlines the PSC’s value to the continent, organizational structure, operationalization, and potential challenges. Levitt calls for PSC ratification and its amendment to address identified issues, the “Known Unknowns.”

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                                                                                                                          • Mwaûra, Cirû, and Susanne Schmeidl, eds. Early Warning and Conflict Management in the Horn of Africa. Lawrenceville, NJ: The Red Sea Press, 2002.

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                                                                                                                            This edited book documents a collaborative Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) project to progress a conflict early warning and response mechanism (CEWARN) sponsored by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and the German Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) for the horn of Africa (Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan, Uganda). The work is dedicated to CEWARN’s conceptual framework emphasizing institutional effectiveness, not the analysis of conflict.

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                                                                                                                            • O’Bannon, Brett R. “‘Monitoring the Frog’ in Africa: Conflict Early Warning with Structural Data.” Global Responsibility to Protect 4.4 (2012): 449–474.

                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1163/1875984X-00404004Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                              Taking cues from conservation biology, this fascinating study uses a “species” of conflict (i.e., low intensity herder-farmer conflict) to introduce proxy variables for difficult to access structural data that can help predict potential violent conflict even sooner than the often used triggers and accelerators variables that are more immediate indicators of impending conflict.

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                                                                                                                              • Souaré, Issaka, and Paul-Simon Handy. “The State of Conflict Early Warning in Africa: Theories and Practice.” African Security Review 22.2 (2013): 1–10.

                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1080/10246029.2013.792553Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                This editorial essay introduces a special issue of African Security Review on “The State of the Art in Conflict Early Warning in Africa.” The essay confronts three objectives: to define early warning, to study the evolving trajectory of conflict early warning systems in Africa, and to examine the significant divergence between early warning and immediate action. The contributors take a realist approach, acknowledging early warning system limitations.

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                                                                                                                                • Williams, Paul D. The African Union’s Conflict Management Capabilities. CFR Working Paper. New York: Council on Foreign Relations, 2011.

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                                                                                                                                  This working paper enlists Williams to evaluate the US government’s role and responsibilities in assessing and supporting the AU’s Peace and Security apparatus. The author punctuates deficiencies stemming from three major challenges: bad timing for AU reforms, a lack of sufficient resources, and entanglements with other international agencies. Williams concludes with six steps that the US government should pursue to shore up the AU’s conflict management capabilities.

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                                                                                                                                  Issues in Conflict Management and Resolution

                                                                                                                                  The review and analysis of conflict management and resolution scholarship in African studies revealed eight issues of significance. First, gender, religious, ethnic, and national identities play an important role in both identity-based conflicts on the continent and their management and resolution. Governance and globalization relate to discussions and research around colonialism, corruption, neocolonialism, state-building, and post-conflict reconstruction with the assistance or hindrance of regional, continental, and international organizations. The category of refugees and migration deals with issues related to population displacement from violent conflict, economic deprivation, or natural disasters that force people to leave their homes and move either within or beyond their borders. These displacements pit hosts and guests against each other in competitive resource conflicts that either escalate or lessen when empathetic and cooperative approaches are pursued. Humanities and the arts focus on conflict and their management from narrative, literary, theatrical, creative, or other cathartic or consciousness-raising perspectives. Sustainable livelihoods and technology examine the environment-conflict-human nexus, treating the concerns of deprivation and mismanagement that are often conflict-inducing. Human rights and human security are holistic approaches to assessing and treating human needs within complex contexts that suffer from the “limited good” phenomenon that promotes loser-take-all over win-win strategies. Peacekeeping efforts highlight the various conflict situations that ebb and flow throughout the continent and its history, while African regional and subregional organizations are often tasked with advocacy and conflict management and resolution missions that are constrained by resource limitations, policies, and sovereignty.

                                                                                                                                  Sociocultural Identity

                                                                                                                                  Identity-based issues in conflict management and reconciliation, while culturally constructed, are often quite significant indicators of either affinity or difference that can be employed to either help mitigate conflict or enflame it. Rothchild 1997 and Lake and Rothchild 1996 take on ethnic-based fears and how these can be handled by finding common ground between competing interest groups that encourage cooperation over conflict, a similar finding to that in LeFebvre 2013 and Lundy 2012 about the topic a decade later. Lundy, et al. 2018 argues that religion can be mobilized as a force to reconcile differences and resolve violent conflict or as a rallying cry used to pit faith-based communities against one another. Marsden 2016 is a massive collection of essays focused only on the positive role religious actors can play in conflict management and resolution. From a gendered lens, Tripp 2015 shows how violent conflict can in some ways move women to the fore, opening up previously inaccessible public spaces to women, while Turshen 2016 uses similar cases to argue that gendered violence, no matter the conflict stage, overwhelmingly disrupts the well-being and livelihoods of women. Avruch 2016 contributes to the identity-based peace and conflict discourse by reeling identity politics back into its wider cultural contexts to show how social boundaries are formed and enacted. According to Avruch, conflict resolution theory and practice must emplace and work within the broader sociocultural habitus to be effective.

                                                                                                                                  • Avruch, Kevin. Context and Pretext in Conflict Resolution: Culture, Identity, Power, and Practice. New York: Routledge, 2016.

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                                                                                                                                    Avruch disarticulates identity politics and culture to help establish the larger context of conflict resolution theory and practice. He argues that agents mobilize social categories as agenda-advancing or -stunting tropes of culture. Cultural markers establish social boundaries that distinguish persons into affinity groups.

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                                                                                                                                    • Lake, David A., and Donald Rothchild. “Containing Fear: The Origins and Management of Ethnic Conflict.” International Security 21.2 (1996): 41–75.

                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1162/isec.21.2.41Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                      “Difficult-to-resolve strategic dilemmas” that trigger security fears within competing groups are credited with instigating ethnic conflicts in this classic and often cited essay, an abridged version of two chapters in the authors’ edited book, Ethnic Fears and Global Engagement: The International Spread and Management of Ethnic Conflict (IGCC, 1996).

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                                                                                                                                      • LeFebvre, Rebecca K. “Interests and Identities in Peace Negotiations: Nigeria, Cameroon, and the Bakassi Peninsula.” African Social Science Review 6.1 (2013): 83–94.

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                                                                                                                                        A careful examination of the resolution of the border dispute between Cameroon and Nigeria over the Bakassi peninsula uncovers shortcomings of conflict resolution mechanisms that embrace neoliberal political models at the expense of cooperative sustainable outcomes. LeFebvre points out that political claims of conflict-resolution success turned out to be identity crises for indigenes, hence the need for a more sustainable approach (see also Daley 2006, cited under Peacekeeping).

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                                                                                                                                        • Lundy, Brandon D. “Ethnic Encounters and Everyday Economics in Kassumba, Guinea-Bissau.” Ethnopolitics 11.3 (2012): 235–254.

                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1080/17449057.2011.632959Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                          Ethnocultural coexistence strategies such as hospitality, crosscutting interrelationships, and niche-based economics demonstrate ethnic cooperation over conflict in resource-poor environments.

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                                                                                                                                          • Lundy, Brandon D., Akanmu G. Adebayo, and Sherrill Hayes, eds. Atone: Religion, Conflict, and Reconciliation. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2018.

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                                                                                                                                            Works to reconcile the complex relationships between religion and conflict, viewing religion as both a potential trigger for violent conflict and a source for peacebuilding potentials within societies. Religion can shape discord, guide appeasement, and institutionalize conflict management and resolution within faith-based communities. Contributors include academics, practitioners, and faith-based leaders.

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                                                                                                                                            • Marsden, Lee, ed. The Ashgate Research Companion to Religion and Conflict Resolution. London: Routledge, 2016.

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                                                                                                                                              Originally published in 2012 by Ashgate and copyrighted by Marsden, this extensive collection of twenty-three essays sees religion as a significant force able to be mustered to help resolve conflict. The handbook attracted leading scholars on religious traditions, international relations and security, and making peace. According to Marsden, the volume advances insights of “the positive role religious actors can play” in a more just and peaceful world.

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                                                                                                                                              • Rothchild, Donald. Managing Ethnic Conflict in Africa: Pressures and Incentives for Cooperation. Washington, DC: Brookings Institute Press, 1997.

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                                                                                                                                                Clashes of interests and institutions between societal groups and political centers necessitate direct and indirect opportunities for mediation and negotiation built on established relationships, equitable communication, and incentives for cooperation. Constant engagement through intermediary leadership can often achieve consensus even in the most difficult circumstances. Security dilemmas reify the dialectic between collective goals or violent actions around identity-based interests.

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                                                                                                                                                • Tripp, Aili Mari. Women and Power in Post-conflict Africa. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2015.

                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1017/CBO9781316336014Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                  This book demonstrates how major conflicts can have what Tripp calls a “disruptive, egalitarian effect,” moving women closer to the centers of power because of their responsibilities in the conflicts themselves. Attitudinal changes in some women propel them into leadership, combatant, household-head, and advocacy positions that are more socially valued. The rigorously researched book treats Uganda, Liberia, and Angola in depth through cross-national analysis and process tracing.

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                                                                                                                                                  • Turshen, Meredeth. Gender and the Political Economy of Conflict in Africa: The Persistence of Violence. London: Routledge, 2016.

                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.4324/9781315758565Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                    Through three case studies—the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Sierra Leone, and Tanzania—Turshen shows how violence disrupts women’s lives no matter the stage of the conflict life cycle, including the political and economic ramifications of gendered violence.

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                                                                                                                                                    Governance and Globalization

                                                                                                                                                    The remnants of colonialism in Africa are far from faded away. More than ever before, the exchanges of people, resources, and wares across national borders have significantly eroded boundaries between nation-states. This comes with prospects and challenges. According to Adebayo 2012, Alemazung 2010, and Blanton, et al. 2001, some of the governance and globalization challenges facing African countries include, but are not limited to, violent democratic elections, postcolonialism, colonial legacies resulting in postcolonial ethnic conflicts, and “grand” corruption, which Kofele-Kale 2016 dubs “patrimonicide.” One of the biggest challenges facing the international community in the 21st century is the intervention of one sovereign state within the territory of another for the purpose of managing or resolving conflicts. Deng, et al. 1996 revises the mission of nation-state sovereignty from protectionism and internal security accountable to citizens’ welfare to coming to the aid of other sovereign nations and citizenry in crisis. From macro-level solutions, de Waal 2002 finds dashed hopes in the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD), which de Waal calls too ambitious. Touray 2005 criticizes Africa’s security arrangements, which have been mostly focused on the AU’s security mechanism. According to Cochrane 2000, community-based, Track-Two initiatives are equally viable in reaching and sustaining peace, and should be given more recognition.

                                                                                                                                                    • Adebayo, Akanmu G. Managing Conflicts in Africa’s Democratic Transitions. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2012.

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                                                                                                                                                      Engages with the questions of why democratic elections in Africa often turn violent, and how elections-related conflict be managed. Authors explore transitions in state leadership as they proceed hopefully without incident or erupt into chaos—described in one of the chapters as “dreams and nightmares.” Peace paradigms inform management strategies, while experts consider amnesty, pardons, and forgiveness as part of the post-election violence toolkit.

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                                                                                                                                                      • Alemazung, Joy Asongazoh. “Post-colonial Colonialism: An Analysis of International Factors and Actors Marring African Socio-economic and Political Development.” Journal of Pan African Studies 3.10 (2010): 62–84.

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                                                                                                                                                        Alemazung makes an empirical investigation of the legacies of colonialism, postcolonial aid, and other handouts from the West, and how these affect politics in Africa. This article advances the idea that the blend of colonial legacies, autocracy, and tyrannical leadership in Africa continue to plunge Africa into more harm, and it therefore calls on colonial masters to win Africa of dependence, while tasking African elites to prioritize the collective well-being of Africans.

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                                                                                                                                                        • Blanton, Robert, T. David Mason, and Brian Athow. “Colonial Style and Post-colonial Ethnic Conflict in Africa.” Journal of Peace Research 38.4 (2001): 473–491.

                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1177/0022343301038004005Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                          Through empirical investigation, the authors test the impact of colonial legacy on two facets of ethnic conflict: rebellious actions and civil war. Researching two colonial powers, this study shows that the distinctive colonial styles of the British and French created fundamentally different systems of ethnic stratification, which left contrasting legacies for postcolonial ethnic conflict.

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                                                                                                                                                          • Cochrane, Feargal. “Beyond the Political Elites: A Comparative Analysis of the Roles and Impacts of Community-Based NGOs in Conflict Resolution Activity.” Civil Wars 3.2 (2000): 1–22.

                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1080/13698240008402436Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                            This article goes beyond elite-level, Track-One diplomacy through an analysis showcasing the importance of community-based Track-Two initiatives, which are essential in building and sustaining peace processes, as empirically evidenced in the cases of Northern Ireland, South Africa, and Israel/Palestine.

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                                                                                                                                                            • Deng, Francis M., Sadikiel Kimaro, Terrence Lyons, Donald Rothchild, and I. William Zartman. Sovereignty as Responsibility: Conflict Management in Africa. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 1996.

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                                                                                                                                                              Five authors—heavy hitters in sub-Saharan African international affairs—revise the mission of nation-state sovereignty from protectionism and internal security accountable to their citizen’s welfare, to managing the affairs of the state with external constituencies; in other words, coming to the aid of other sovereign nations and citizenry in crisis. This is an important theoretical and practical contribution to what it means to be a nation-state, particularly on the African continent.

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                                                                                                                                                              • de Waal, Alex. “What’s New in the ‘New Partnership for Africa’s Development’?” International Affairs 78.3 (2002): 463–475.

                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1111/1468-2346.00261Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                Critique of the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) as constrained and overly ambitious. Promises of African economic transformation may become another unrealized grand plan; NEPAD holds great potential as a continental voice within the global community.

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                                                                                                                                                                • Kofele-Kale, Ndiva. The International Law of Responsibility for Economic Crimes: Holding State Officials Individually Liable for Acts of Fraudulent Enrichment. New York: Routledge, 2016.

                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.4324/9781315556635Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                  Kofele-Kale, a professor of international law, is one of the first and among just a handful to have lent voices to the debate on “Grand” corruption in a way that attracts international attention. Kofele-Kale argues for the elevation of the crime of corruption, which he terms “indigenous spoliation” or “patrimonicide,” to the status of a crime of universal interest, which entails individual responsibility and punishment, and is subject to universal jurisdiction.

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                                                                                                                                                                  • Touray, Omar A. “The Common African Defence and Security Policy.” African Affairs 104.417 (2005): 635–656.

                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1093/afraf/adi066Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                    Cogently uncovers the limitations of Africa’s collective security arrangements, which have mostly focused on the AU’s Peace and Security Council and the Central Organ of the Organization of African Unity, which preceded it. Asserts that the former is only an implementation organ of the broader Common African Defense and Security Policy framework, which confronts many challenges ranging from general theoretical and normative questions to specific issues such as funding and practical implementation matters.

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                                                                                                                                                                    Refugees and Migration

                                                                                                                                                                    Levitt 2001 identifies ineffective international laws and under-resourcing that exacerbate humanitarian crises, which often result in the displacement of persons from their homes throughout Africa. Bariagaber 2016 uses the horn of Africa as a case study to illustrate the persistent refugee dilemma. Displacement, or what Betts 2013 refers to as “survival migration,” has only worsened throughout the African continent, as those forced to move or attempting to move due to natural disaster or conflict, illustrated nicely in Brzoska and Fröhlich 2016, have led to migration crises that prioritize national securitization over relieving human suffering. For example, Andersson 2016 shows how Europe’s efforts to keep people out are failing, and instead propping up an exploitative border security industry. Hayes, et al. 2016 is the editorial introduction to a special issue of the Journal of Peacebuilding and Development on “Transformative Approaches to Addressing Challenges Involving Migrants and Refugees” that generalizes drivers of conflict-induced migration and speaks to how development and peacebuilding initiatives and policy reforms are essential if these cycles of African population displacement are to be managed and resolved.

                                                                                                                                                                    • Andersson, Ruben. “Europe’s Failed ‘Fight’ against Irregular Migration: Ethnographic Notes on a Counterproductive Industry.” Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 42.7 (2016): 1055–1075.

                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1080/1369183X.2016.1139446Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                      Through ethnographic work along the Spanish-African migration routes and borders, Andersson argues that the border protection regimes of Europe have failed to keep people out leading up to and during the European refugee crisis. The cycle of failure worsens as policymakers feed the extensive economies of the border security industry, revealing a clear picture of winners and losers.

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                                                                                                                                                                      • Bariagaber, Assefaw. Conflict and the Refugee Experience: Flight, Exile, and Repatriation in the Horn of Africa. E-book. London: Routledge, 2016.

                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.4324/9781315573373Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                        Routledge subsequently released this book in 2016 as an e-book after Ashgate Publishing first published it in 2006. It traces the continuities and changes of the refugee problem, using the horn of Africa to illustrate and contextualize persistent dilemmas. Is there a path to an effective refugee management policy applicable in diverse settings as the problem worsens globally? Bariagaber advances a holistic approach to the study of the refugee experience to find out.

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                                                                                                                                                                        • Betts, Alexander. Survival Migration: Failed Governance and the Crisis of Displacement. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2013.

                                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.7591/cornell/9780801451065.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                          Available open access from the OAPEN Library, this book explores Zimbabwean influxes in South Africa and Botswana, the expulsion of Congolese from Angola and their treatment in Tanzania, the Kenyan containment of Somalis, and Yemen’s response to Somali and Ethiopian sojourners. This book advances the concept of “survival migration,” where home countries cannot ensure human rights for displaced people, who also fall outside the framework of the refugee regime.

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                                                                                                                                                                          • Brzoska, Michael, and Christiane Fröhlich. “Climate Change, Migration and Violent Conflict: Vulnerabilities, Pathways and Adaptation Strategies.” Migration and Development 5.2 (2016): 190–210.

                                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1080/21632324.2015.1022973Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                            Supported by the German Research Community (DFG), this study questions expected links between climate change, migration, and conflict. The authors develop a robust model that accounts for inherent complexity in the “environment-migration-conflict nexus,” which includes considering mobility from the perspectives of both needs and adaptation.

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                                                                                                                                                                            • Hayes, Sherrill, Brandon D. Lundy, and Maia Carter Hallward. “Conflict-Induced Migration and the Refugee Crisis: Global and Local Perspectives from Peacebuilding and Development.” Journal of Peacebuilding and Development 11.3 (2016): 1–7.

                                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1080/15423166.2016.1239404Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                              This insightful editorial introduces a special issue on “Transformative Approaches to Addressing Challenges Involving Migrants and Refugees.” The editorial team emphasizes the significant contributions in six articles, five briefings, a policy dialogue, and a book review. What drives conflict-induced migration, and how are associated challenges overcome through development, peacebuilding, and policy reform? The editors offer up eight essential questions from theoretical and practical stances to engage the relevant issues.

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                                                                                                                                                                              • Levitt, Jeremy. “Conflict Prevention, Management, and Resolution: Africa—Regional Strategies for the Prevention of Displacement and Protection of Displaced Persons: The Cases of the OAU, ECOWAS, SADC, and IGAD.” Duke Journal of Comparative & International Law 11 (2001): 39–79.

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                                                                                                                                                                                Essentially, this article argues that international humanitarian law does not have the necessary teeth to protect displaced persons in Africa fleeing armed conflicts across national borders. Furthermore, the glaring lack of resources to establish and maintain regional conflict management and resolution systems puts already suffering displaced populations in further jeopardy.

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                                                                                                                                                                                Humanities and the Arts

                                                                                                                                                                                In a traditionally realist world order, where power-based approaches have mostly dominated peace efforts, the role of humanities and the arts, both theoretically and practically, in managing and resolving African conflicts cannot be overemphasized. Evident in the empirical findings of Newbury 2009, Skyllstad 1997, and Woodward, et al. 2007, photography and music have significantly advanced research, informed theory, and resolved conflicted relationships in South Africa, Norway, and the United States, respectively. In addition, Sorens 2012 finds identities, interests, and strategies are always evolving and often at odds, thereby challenging states that call for secession; it argues for governments to provide secessionist movements with options. Tunbridge and Ashworth 1996 shows that, in the event that conflicts degenerate to dissonance heritage, genuine interpretations of heritage can present actual history without alienating viewers.

                                                                                                                                                                                • Newbury, Darren. Defiant Images: Photography and Apartheid South Africa. Pretoria, South Africa: Unisa Press, 2009.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  This pioneering book-length historical study of photography in apartheid South Africa makes a significant contribution to research on documentary photography through substantial primary research, which includes interviews with photographers, editors, and curators, and analyzes photographs held in collections and displayed in museums. Newbury addresses the significance of 20th-century photography in South Africa.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  • Skyllstad, Kjell. “Music in Conflict Management: A Multicultural Approach.” International Journal of Music Education 1.29 (1997): 73–80.

                                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1177/025576149702900111Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                    Skyllstad presents a lucid assessment of a program introducing multicultural music by foreigners to host primary schools, conducted as a case study in Norway. The study shows remarkable results of reduced harassment and ethnic tension in schools, lessons that can be drawn by other communities toward peacebuilding and conflict prevention.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    • Sorens, Jason. Secessionism: Identity, Interest, and Strategy. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2012.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      Sorens comprehensibly engages innovative methods to analyze advanced democracies and developing countries, and shows that central governments can alleviate or increase ethnic minority demands for regional autonomy. He finds that violence is less likely when countries treat secession as negotiable and provide movements with legal tracks rather than prohibiting independence. Governments and secessionists stand to benefit equally from this work.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      • Tunbridge, John E., and Gregory John Ashworth. Dissonant Heritage: The Management of the Past as a Resource in Conflict. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, 1996.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        Exemplified by a consideration of heritage dissonance and its management in central Europe, Canada, and post-apartheid South Africa, this coherent philosophical, theoretical, and practical guide to the creation of a genuine interpretation of heritage demonstrates how sensitivity and ethical approaches can be developed to present the actual history of concentration camps, atrocities, disease, death, and oppression without alienating the observer.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        • Woodward, Sheila C., Julia Sloth-Nielsen, and Vuyisile Mathiti. “South Africa, the Arts and Youth in Conflict with the Law.” International Journal of Community Music 1.1 (2007): 69–88.

                                                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1386/ijcm.1.1.69_0Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                          A distinctive, evidence-based study of community music and multicultural music education across communities in South Africa and the United States, with both the acquisition of skills and reintegration into society as a win-win outcome. Woodward and colleagues find that teaching, mentoring, and intercultural exchanges offer opportunities for healthy diversions from crime, while at the same time helping in successful reintegration into society.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          Sustainable Livelihoods and Technology

                                                                                                                                                                                          The human-environment-conflict nexus often affects how conflict management and resolution in Africa is enacted in significant ways. Approaches range from environmental cooperation assuaging conflict to environmental issues provoking it. Conflicts can directly affect the natural environment and conflict can have often unintended and sometimes beneficial effects on the environment. Alao 2007 reviews the often overused “resource curse” theory of conflict, showing that sound resource governance is usually lacking in conflict situations and is the real culprit in natural resource conflicts. Peters 2004 sees social divisions in society playing out around land management. Buckles 1999 brings together contributions that focus on natural resources such as land, water, and forests to support Alao’s governance claims, showing how collaborative modes of resource management can be quite effective. Ali 2007 takes this idea further, suggesting that transnational governance efforts can help manage significant resources even across national borders through what he and the book’s contributors refer to as “peace parks.” Beswick and Jackson 2015 also provides an international perspective by connecting significant conflict economic topics to the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Bond 2008, however, warns that the neoliberal agenda pervades proposed broad reforms, and that if not carefully monitored, well-intentioned reforms become “looting” by those at the top. Behrends, et al. 2014 presents a “travelling model” for how conflict management ideas and practices are transmitted and changed within localized contexts, thus affecting their overall effectiveness. Warren 2015 and James 2015 consider media and cell phone communication across settings to show how environmental on-the-ground conditions can promote safety and security for some while simultaneously fragmenting people and their affinity groups, which can actually increase the occurrence of collective violence. Technology as a tool can both advance and set back conflict management and resolution initiatives in Africa, depending on processes of adaptation, alienation, and association within the broader environmental and cultural contexts.

                                                                                                                                                                                          • Alao, Abiodun. Natural Resources and Conflict in Africa: The Tragedy of Endowment. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press, 2007.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            A critique of the “resource curse” as a primer and prolonger of violent conflict in Africa. The real culprit of violent conflict around natural resources, according to the argument, is the lack of sound resource governance (e.g., policies and enforcement) to effectively manage actor and stakeholder competition.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            • Ali, Saleem Hassan, ed. Peace Parks: Conservation and Conflict Resolution. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2007.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              A pioneering collection of essays rooted in environmental security discourse: specifically, how focusing on ecological issues in conflict zones can contribute to peacebuilding and peace-sustaining efforts such as careful reforms and community engagement. Committed area specialists with years of conservation and conflict resolution experience take up the importance of transboundary conservation efforts and “peace parks” that emphasize cooperative resource management and globalized thinking.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              • Behrends, Andrea, Sung-Joon Park, and Richard Rottenburg, eds. Travelling Models in African Conflict Management: Translating Technologies of Social Ordering. Boston: Brill, 2014.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                Based on six years of collaborative research between PhD candidates and German and African scholars, this Volkswagen Foundation–funded initiative employed long-term and multi-sited field research and analytically employed the concept of a “travelling model” to show how conflict management as an object has been translated and received in variable contexts. Foci of this model include expert interventions, political institutions, and social organizations.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                • Beswick, Danielle, and Paul Jackson. Conflict, Security and Development: An Introduction. 2d ed. New York: Routledge, 2015.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  The expanded second edition of this textbook views the world post–Arab Spring. This perspective leads the authors to emphasize the peace- and state-building efforts of fragile states. The authors also prioritize post-conflict agendas, including security and justice. They connect their discussion to the UN SDGs and deal with a plethora of conflict economic topics, such as reconstruction, war economics, unemployment, and the management of natural resources.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Bond, Patrick. “Global Uneven Development, Primitive Accumulation and Political-Economic Conflict in Africa: The Return of the Theory of Imperialism.” Journal of Peacebuilding & Development 4.1 (2008): 1–14.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1080/15423166.2008.860644160568Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Probes intellectual links between political economy and security disciplines to explain Africa’s economic stagnation, amplified uneven development, and financial volatility, worsening primitive accumulation (i.e., “looting”) and socioeconomic conflict. Wittily debunks the conflict resolution reforms proposed at the global level and actions by local elites as ineffectual, and as instead reinforcing looting. Echoes the need for a far-reaching critique of capitalist social relations as crucial for social movements in transcending neoliberal political analysis.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Buckles, Daniel, ed. Cultivating Peace: Conflict and Collaboration in Natural Resource Management. Ottawa, ON: International Development Research Centre (IDRC), 1999.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                      This presentation of original case studies from Africa, Asia, and Latin America grounds theory with extensive practice to showcase important experiences about moving from conflicts over natural resources—such as land, water, and forests—to collaborative modes of management. Particularly useful to researchers, practitioners, and scholars focused on natural resource-based conflicts.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                      • James, Jeffrey. “Mobile Phones and Safety in Developing Countries: Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa.” Geoforum 62 (2015): 47–50.

                                                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1016/j.geoforum.2015.03.020Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Extensive cell phone use tracked in eleven different sub-Saharan African countries is shown to promote welfare when used for safety-related purposes. James explains these findings based on correlations between poverty, inequality, and crime.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Peters, Pauline E. “Inequality and Social Conflict over Land in Africa.” Journal of Agrarian Change 4.3 (2004): 269–314.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1111/j.1471-0366.2004.00080.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Access to land is fraught with conflict as customary landholding, management, and use thought to be negotiable and adaptive help reveal ongoing social divisions.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Warren, T. Camber. “Explosive Connections? Mass Media, Social Media, and the Geography of Collective Violence in African States.” Journal of Peace Research 52.3 (2015): 297–311.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1177/0022343314558102Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                            This study shows that mass communication technologies in Africa, such as radios, promote state-community integration where centralized authorities can appeal to nationalism, promoting an imagined community, while social communication technologies (i.e., cell phones) serve to segregate people into more fragmented identity groups, thus increasing the likelihood of collective violence.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                            Human Rights and Human Security

                                                                                                                                                                                                            The human security trope encompasses personal, food, economic, health, community, environmental, and political safekeeping. This expansion of the security concept promotes a holistic approach to conflict management and resolution in Africa. To illustrate, Collinson and Macbeth 2014 is a collection of cross-disciplinary perspectives about food security and humanitarian interventions in conflict zones. Izarali, et al. 2016 focuses on the role of education as a human right, and a possible counter to extremist ideologies, which is the approach taken in Ghosh, et al. 2017. Using northern Kenya as a case and continental proxy, Kumssa, et al. 2011 shows how the conflict and human security framework can be employed to help resolve protracted peace and security challenges. Questioning the practicality of the human security model, Abubakar, et al. 2010 highlights the intrinsic conflict between the security needs of the state and its people. Manby 2004 argues that state weakness within the AU and NEPAD could potentially be overcome through a rights-based development approach—in other words, securing the needs of the people to promote the effectiveness of institutions.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Abubakar, Jamila J., Kenneth Omeje, and Habu Galadima, eds. Conflict of Securities: Reflections on State and Human Security in Africa. London: Adonis and Abbey, 2010.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                              Not easily accessible, this book incorporates the state into the human security dilemma playing out in the Global South. The premise of the thirteen chapters, largely authored by African contributors, is the inherent conflict between the security of the state and the security of the people.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Collinson, Paul, and Helen Macbeth, eds. Food in Zones of Conflict: Cross-Disciplinary Perspectives. New York: Berghahn Books, 2014.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                Warfare disrupts daily lives, affecting the essential needs of human survival. Case studies examine food security, food and conflict, and humanitarian interventions, showing the resilience of embattled peoples in conflict zones and their limits. Disruptions to production, supply, and access to food become weapons of war that transcend geography and reflect poverty, underdevelopment, environmental change, and power struggles.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Ghosh, Ratna, W. Y. Alice Chan, Ashley Manuel, and Maihemuti Dilimulati. “Can Education Counter Violent Religious Extremism?” Canadian Foreign Policy Journal 23.2 (2017): 117–133.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1080/11926422.2016.1165713Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The authors argue for the countering of the psychological, emotional, and intellectual appeal of terrorism with education efforts—using soft power (i.e., education) to counter soft power (i.e., recruitment). Undercutting the appeal of fundamentalism, extremism, radicalism, and terrorism should be effectuated at all levels of the social-ecological model.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Izarali, M. Raymond, Oliver Masakure, and Edward Shizha, eds. Security, Education and Development in Contemporary Africa. London: Routledge, 2016.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                    This book, in four parts, treats the security-education-development nexus by examining the theoretical underpinnings and then country cases of security and development before moving to how security either impedes or promotes educational development. The fourth section presents country cases focused on the intersections of security and education. The primary thesis to which all contributors speak is that lack of education and abundant underdevelopment exacerbate security issues throughout the continent.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Kumssa, Asfaw, James Herbert Williams, and John F. Jones, eds. Conflict and Human Security in Africa: Kenya in Perspective. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Using northern Kenya as a proxy for sub-Saharan African poverty challenges, the edited volume uses a conflict and human security framework to engage with ongoing and deep-seated challenges that affect the African continent disproportionately compared to the rest of the world.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Manby, Bronwen. “The African Union, NEPAD, and Human Rights: The Missing Agenda.” Human Rights Quarterly 26.4 (2004): 983–1027.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1353/hrq.2004.0051Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Promoting rights-based development, ending the impunity of corrupt leadership, monitoring resource-exacerbated conflict, slowing health-related epidemics, and protecting citizenship rights and population mobility are highlighted as the necessary agendas of the AU and NEPAD. The demonstrated institutional effectiveness of these bodies could counteract state weakness on the continent.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Peacekeeping

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Africa has witnessed the most peacekeeping operations in the world. Host to the largest single peacekeeping mission, that of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Africa’s current peacekeeping operations surpass that of the rest of the continents combined. However, the peacekeeping operations have recorded mixed results, thereby raising questions around their utility (see Achankeng 2013, Adebajo 2011, and Ewusi 2014, all cited under Peace Approaches). While Copnall 2014 analyzes what the author calls the “bitter-sweet” separation between Sudan and South Sudan, Ali and Matthews 1999 investigates the reasons for the failure to resolve Africa’s longest civil war, the Darfur conflict. To Grono 2006, the international community has conspicuously failed to apply the much-celebrated 2005 Responsibility to Protect (R2P) standards in protecting the people of Darfur. For its part, Agoagye 2004 researches the challenges facing the AU’s first peacekeeping operation in Burundi. Daley 2006 argues that for conflict management and resolution in Africa to be durable, it should transcend Western approaches and be inclusive, emancipating the humanity in African traditional approaches. For instance, De Jong 2005 shows how Senegal reifies tradition to perform national identity in diversity. In addition, Hansen 2005 shows that lessons can be drawn from the Gacaca courts’ practice in post-genocide Rwanda to manage and resolve the recurrent conflicts across Africa. These views are consistent with Ewusi 2012 and Giroux, et al. 2009, which present a unique interdisciplinary regional conflict perspective on issues of peace, governance, and conflict transformation in Africa. The analysis of modes of persuasion through gossip, songs, and divination in Rasmussen 1991 shows how power can transform conflicts.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Agoagye, Festus. “The African Mission in Burundi: Lessons Learned from the First African Union Peacekeeping Operation: Peacekeeping.” Conflict Trends 2 (2004): 9–15.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                          A succinct assessment of the first AU Peacekeeping operation in Burundi. Agoagye draws lessons from the rationale for the establishment, mandate, concept of operations, and strategic and operational challenges of the African Mission in Burundi (AMIB) to make policy recommendations to the UN system in Burundi, and for the capacity of the AU system in future peace operations. Particularly useful for practitioners, particularly the UN and AU systems.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Ali, Taisier M., and Robert O. Matthews, eds. Civil Wars in Africa: Roots and Resolution. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 1999.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                            A selection of handpicked authors combine their efforts to explore the causes and reasons behind the repeated failure to resolve Africa’s longest civil war—the conflicts that have plagued Sudan since its independence in 1956. They comparatively study Sudan’s civil war against other civil wars across Africa, and draw lessons from conflicts resolved by coercion versus conflicts resolved through negotiation, to recommend better ways of resolving Africa’s conflicts.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Copnall, James. A Poisonous Thorn in Our Hearts: Sudan and South Sudan’s Bitter and Incomplete Divorce. London: C. Hurst, 2014.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Copnall, a British Broadcasting Corporation correspondent, presents a detailed account and analysis of the separation between Sudan and South Sudan in 2009. His rare access to journalists, diplomats, politicians, rebels, and civil society organizations makes his intricate account of what he terms the “bitter and incomplete divorce” more insightful. This is a useful guide for all with a curiosity on the complexities and causes of Sudan’s crises.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Daley, Patricia. “Challenges to Peace: Conflict Resolution in the Great Lakes region of Africa.” Third World Quarterly 27.2 (2006): 303–319.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1080/01436590500432564Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Transcends efforts that have solely relied on contemporary conflict resolution models—with standard formulae of peace negotiations, trajectory agreements, transitional governments, demilitarization, constitutional reforms, and ending with democratic elections—to advocate for a more inclusive approach to peace, founded on emancipation of African humanity. Essential to scholars and practitioners on conflict resolution in the Great Lakes region of Africa.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • De Jong, Ferdinand. “A Joking Nation: Conflict Resolution in Senegal.” Canadian Journal of African Studies/La Revue Canadienne des Études Africaines 39.2 (2005): 391–415.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1080/00083968.2005.10751322Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The largely Jola insurgency of the Mouvement des Forces Démocratiques de Casamance (MFDC) acknowledged a Serer intervention in the conflict due to the existence of a traditional “joking relationship” in which bloodshed was not permitted between the two ethnic groups. The Senegalese State is argued to appropriate and reify traditions to “perform national identity in diversity” (p. 411).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Ewusi, Samuel Kale. Weaving Peace: Essays on Peace, Governance and Conflict Transformation in the Great Lakes Region of Africa. Bloomington, IN: Trafford, 2012.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Academics and practitioners from eight partner institutions of the UN-mandated University for Peace in the Great Lakes region of Africa present a unique interdisciplinary perspective on issues of peace, governance, and conflict transformation in the region. The nuanced perspective of the complexity of the peace and conflict dynamics of the region underscores its importance to scholars and policymakers seeking a more indigenous, context-based approach to conflicts in the region.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Giroux, Jennifer, David Lanz, and Damiano Sguaitamatti. The Tormented Triangle: The Regionalisation of Conflict in Sudan, Chad, and the Central African Republic. Crisis States Research Centre Working Papers Series 2, 47. London: Crisis States Research Centre, London School of Economics and Political Science, 2009.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      A deconstruction of the “Darfurization thesis,” using a generic analytical framework to examine conflicts in the three case study countries of Sudan, Chad, and the Central African Republic. Logically distinguishes between the conflict dynamics (actions and events) and the more profound calculations of conflict parties, to establish the “tormented triangle” as one “system of conflict,” as opposed to three distinct conflicts. Holds policy implications for regional conflict management and resolution.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Grono, Nick. “Briefing: Darfur: The International Community’s Failure to Protect.” African Affairs 105.421 (2006): 621–631.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1093/afraf/adl036Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        An acknowledgement of R2P providing the long-sought and widely accepted criteria for international responses to conflict and wide-scale atrocities, yet a condemnation of the international community’s conspicuous failure to apply the standards in protecting the people of Darfur. Fashioned in 2005, R2P faced its first challenge and first application failure in the Darfur crises. The UN and practitioners stand to benefit from this article.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Hansen, Toran. “The Gacaca Tribunals in Post-genocide Rwanda.” St. Paul, MN: Center for Restorative Justice & Peacemaking, 2005.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          This vivid account of the Rwandan genocide—detailing the background leading to the conflict, its causes, and consequences—upholds the Gacaca tribunal as the best option for dealing with overcrowded prisons in a way that projects the voices of the masses, and honors Rwandan’s self-determination. Researchers and policymakers stand to draw practical lessons from this indigenous conflict management strategy.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Rasmussen, Susan J. “Modes of Persuasion: Gossip, Song, and Divination in Tuareg Conflict Resolution.” Anthropological Quarterly 64.1 (1991): 30–46.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.2307/3317834Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Examines the shaping of public opinion around grievances through discourse and spiritual tools. Interests are on display and members of the community disagree and align as transformations or the status quo reveal social expressions of power dynamics among the Kel Ewey Tuareg. Arguments are political acts of community struggle and conflict.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            African Regional and Subregional Organizations

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            African regional and subregional organizations are continually faced with a plethora of challenges in their attempt to manage and resolve conflicts across the continent. These attempts are mostly stifled by challenges such as conflict recidivism and limited resources. Ikejiaku and Dauda 2011 studies, in depth, the causes of African conflicts and stresses the need for the AU to focus on governance as a key remedy to Africa’s conflicts. Aning and Bah 2009 finds that the intertwining of political agendas, terrorist groups, and criminal organizations are key challenges facing regional organizations in the West African subregion. Adebajo 2005 and Dersso 2010 dissect aspects of Africa’s security actors, such as the financial and logistical weaknesses, lack of political consensus, controversial hegemonic peacekeeping roles, centrality of the UN’s peacekeeping role, and the need for role clarification. The continuous presence and takeover of certain peacekeeping operations in Africa by the UN depicts the continuing weaknesses of Africa’s regional organizations. Although Olayode and Ukeje 2017 argues that peacebuilding challenges are too great in West Africa for states to go it alone, the AU’s ideology toward international partnerships and South-South cooperation, as Makinda, et al. 2016 states, is largely unpopular. Recommendations such as those advanced in Kabia 2009 would therefore go a long way toward enhancing the capacities and results of African regional and subregional organizations in their efforts to manage and resolve conflicts across the continent.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Adebajo, Adekeye. “The Curse of Berlin: Africa’s Security Dilemmas.” Internationale Politik und Gesellschaft 4 (2005): 83–98.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              A critical analysis of Africa’s evolving security architecture, from the AU’s conflict management role through the security actors and dynamics in sub-Sahara Africa. It dissects the financial and logistical weaknesses, lack of political consensus, controversial hegemonic peacekeeping roles, centrality of UN peacekeeping role, and the need for role clarification among Africa’s security actors, to establish that the return of UN peacekeepers depicts the continuing weaknesses of Africa’s regional organizations.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Aning, Kwesi, and Sarjoh A. Bah. ECOWAS and Conflict Prevention in West Africa: Confronting the Triple Threats. New York: New York University, Center on International Cooperation, 9 September 2009.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Two senior analysts assess West Africa’s critical transnational “triple threats.” The intertwining of political agendas, terrorist groups, and criminal organizations in the West African subregion threaten regional security and stability. The report makes seven governance-related recommendations to the ECOWAS Peace and Security apparatus, six recommendations for effective security sector reform, five recommendations to combat drug trafficking, and five recommendations to halt the proliferation of small arms and light weapons.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Dersso, Solomon A. “The Role and Place of the African Standby Force within the African Peace and Security Architecture.” Institute for Security Studies Papers 209 (2010): 1–24.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  A detailed analysis and reflection on the African Peace and Security Architecture, with particular emphasis on the African Standby Force, identifies the role and place of the latter within the AU’s conflict prevention, management, and resolution scheme and processes. Critically examines the potentials and limitations of the African Standby Force as a crucial organ in the AU’s response to conflicts.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Ikejiaku, Brian-Vincent, and Jubril Dauda. “African Union, Conflict, and Conflict Resolution in Africa: A Comparative Analysis of the Recent Kenya and Zimbabwe Conflicts.” International Journal of Development and Conflict 1.1 (2011): 61–83.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1142/S2010269011000105Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Carefully employs Hobbesian realism and Burton’s human needs theory to diagnose the most common factors accounting for Africa’s conflicts: ethnicity, elections, colonial manipulation of Africa’s boundary, and enduring land-struggle. The case of Kenya and Zimbabwe reiterates the need for the AU to stress the improvement of governance in Africa to respond to the basic needs of the populations.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Kabia, John M. Humanitarian Intervention and Conflict Resolution in West Africa: From ECOMOG to ECOMIL. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 2009.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Situates the peacekeeping operations of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) within an expanded post–Cold War conceptualization of humanitarian intervention, examines the capacity of the organization to protect civilians at risk in civil conflicts, and to facilitate the processes of peacemaking and postwar peacebuilding. This empirical inquiry on the organization, and the challenges posed by complex political issues to humanitarian intervention most especially, informs policy experts and researchers.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Makinda, Samuel M., F. Wafula Okumu, and David Mickler. The African Union: Addressing the Challenges of Peace, Security, and Governance. 2d ed. New York: Routledge, 2016.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The AU’s ideology is questioned as it moves toward an era of international partnerships and agenda-setting that must continue to stabilize the three pillars of continental development in Africa: peace, security, and governance. As a follow-up to a 2008 Routledge volume, this book examines AU successes, missteps, and future potentials.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Olayode, Kehinde, and Charles Ukeje. “South-South and Regional Cooperation for Peace building in West Africa.” Modern Africa: Politics, History and Society 5.1 (2017): 33–54.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          This work argues that peacebuilding challenges are too great in West Africa for states to go it alone. An integrated regional model in which South-South and triangular cooperation enhance outcomes through the auspices of the multilateral ECOWAS platform is advocated for. However, this regional framework continues to face real political and economic barriers to achieving “a rising tide” capable of “lifting all boats.”

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