Management Research Methods
by
  • LAST REVIEWED: 07 April 2021
  • LAST MODIFIED: 28 January 2013
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199846740-0010

Introduction

The purpose of organizational research methods is to answer questions about an organizational phenomenon through systematic gathering and analysis of relevant data to provide evidence for the phenomenon. This process is directed at exploring, describing, predicting, or explaining the phenomenon by strengthening or weakening a theory, testing a hypothesis or prediction, or replicating previous findings. To evaluate the adequacy of a research method, it is important not only to understand the logic, strengths, and limitations of the method, but also to relate it to the specific research question and the context of use. Research methods may be reviewed in terms of foundational issues, research approaches, and study designs; data-collection methods, data analyses, and statistical techniques; and various major issues and controversies regarding their use. Research methods may be distinguished in terms of qualitative and quantitative approaches. Both approaches share the common premise that empirical data are necessary for answering the research question under investigation, although they may differ in the assessment of what constitutes appropriate and useful data, the adequacy of the research method in obtaining the data, and the interpretation of the results. Qualitative approaches assume that organizational phenomena can only be understood in terms of the subjective reality as experienced by the individuals involved, which are constructed by the individuals themselves based on their past and present experiences and interpretations of the meanings of the specific situation in question, which could be highly transitory and unique in nature and therefore cannot be generalized or replicated across situations. It is further assumed that the individual’s experiences, interpretations, and meanings can only be revealed and themes can emerge through intensive studies of the specific cases and situations and that it is not possible to represent or reflect this subjective reality in statistical terms. Common qualitative research methods include case studies and ethnography. Quantitative approaches assume that organizational phenomena have objective reality that results from lawful and predictable patterns of human behavior in organizational contexts and therefore could generalize and be replicated across similar situations. It is further assumed that these regular patterns of human behavior can be discovered and assertions about the patterns can be tested for their truth or falsity and that it is possible for the researcher to construct measures to gather data and analyze them statistically to represent or reflect this objective reality. Common quantitative research methods include correlational studies and experiments.

Textbooks

Many textbooks provide comprehensive coverage of organizational research methods, including basic issues of the research process and specific expositions of different research methods. These textbooks almost always begin with an overview of the foundational issues, including the research process, research questions, hypothesis testing, sampling and generalizability, and measurement issues, including scales, reliability, and validity. The bulk of the coverage includes discussions of study designs followed by data-analytic techniques. The large majority of these textbooks have titles that refer to their social and behavioral research methods, but these texts are also directly applicable to organizational research. Within management and organizational research, Schwab 2004 is widely considered to be the most comprehensive textbook on research methods. Creswel 2009 is a popular textbook that addresses both qualitative and quantitative research approaches.

  • Creswel, John W. Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches. 3d ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE, 2009.

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    This comprehensive textbook on research design covers the approaches that use qualitative methods, quantitative methods, and a combination of both methods.

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  • Schwab, Donald P. Research Methods for Organizational Studies. 2d ed. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 2004.

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    This comprehensive textbook in organizational research methods covers all aspects of the research process, including conceptualization, design, measurement, and analysis.

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Reference Resources

Several authoritative edited handbooks provide comprehensive coverage of methodological issues in organizational research. Buchanan and Bryman 2009 and Rogelberg 2002 include chapters that elaborate on diverse methodological issues that together cover the entire research process. Denzin and Lincoln 2011 and Symon and Cassell 2012 are comprehensive handbooks on qualitative research. Research Methods Network is an active and popular website on which subscribers can engage each other in discussions of various research methodological issues.

  • Buchanan, David A., and Alan Bryman, eds. The SAGE Handbook of Organizational Research Methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE, 2009.

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    This edited handbook consists of chapters by leading scholars addressing various aspects of organizational research methods, including theoretical, methodological, and data-analytic issues.

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  • Denzin, Norman K., and Yvonna S. Lincoln, eds. The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Research. 4th ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE, 2011.

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    This edited handbook consists of chapters by leading scholars addressing the issues involved in the use of qualitative research methods in the social and behavioral sciences.

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  • Research Methods Network.

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    On this website subscribers can discuss various issues and offer resources in organizational research methods through explaining the logic and applications of specific methods and providing relevant reference materials.

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  • Rogelberg, Steven G., ed. Handbook of Research Methods in Industrial and Organizational Psychology. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2002.

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    This edited handbook covers the various aspects of the research process and contains chapters focusing on various research methods issues, such as study design, data-collection methods, data-analytic techniques, and research ethics.

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  • Symon, Gillian, and Catherine Cassell, ed. Qualitative Organizational Research: Core Methods and Current Challenges. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE, 2012.

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    This edited handbook covers the various aspects of qualitative organizational research.

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Journals

In research methods many more quantitative journals are available than qualitative journals. The two most established methods journals are Organizational Research Methods and Psychological Methods. The well-established measurement journals are Applied Psychological Measurement, Measurement: Interdisciplinary Research and Perspectives, Multivariate Behavioral Research, and Psychometrika. The well-established qualitative methods journals are Ethnography, Qualitative Research, and Qualitative Research in Psychology.

Observation

Observational methods are useful in situations in which self-report data are likely to be inaccurate and the behaviors of interest are observable or can be inferred from the observation in a valid way. The researcher may adopt a quantitative or a qualitative approach to the observation method. Quantitative approaches to observational methods often involve entering the observation situation with a priori decisions, including the conceptualization of the specific behaviors to observe, the process for recording and transcribing the observed behaviors, and the coding scheme for analysis, to prevent or minimize the influence of observer biases that may contaminate the objective situation. Qualitative approaches, on the other hand, often enter the observation situation in a much more open-ended manner, without a priori decisions or fixed ideas, to allow various unexpected possibilities to emerge and prevent or minimize the imposition of the values or assumptions of the observer or researcher on the observation and inference. Yoder and Symons 2009 is a comprehensive reference on the different approaches to and various issues in observation methods.

  • Yoder, Paul J., and Frank J. Symons. Observational Measurement of Behavior. New York: Springer, 2009.

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    This textbook provides comprehensive coverage of all aspects of observational research methods used in both single-subject and group design perspectives. The book also includes many practical exercises and access to a website with electronic media files of a sample observation session to code with multiple behavior-sampling methods.

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Focus Group

The focus group method is often used as a preliminary research strategy to explore and gather ideas on people’s views and perceptions, which a researcher could examine as inputs to the design of the main research method, such as a survey. A focus group typically consists of five to twenty persons from the population of interest or who are suitable informants who could provide information on the population of interest (e.g., human resource staff who could provide information on requests from employees). The quality of the information obtained from a focus group discussion depends very much on the skills of the facilitator moderating the discussion, the composition profile of the participants, the interpersonal dynamics of the discussion situation, and the abilities and willingness of the participants to provide relevant information. Many practical issues regarding focus groups are clearly discussed in Krueger and Casey 2000.

  • Krueger, Richard A., and Mary A. Casey. Focus Groups: A Practical Guide for Applied Research. 4th ed. Los Angeles: SAGE, 2000.

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    This book introduces the focus group discussion as a research method and provides practical guidelines on how to conduct focus group discussions to obtain high-quality data.

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Case Studies

The case study method is widely used in organizational research and related disciplines. The distinctive strength of the case study method is its ability to retain the holistic, contextual, and meaningful characteristics of the real-life events. Case studies may differ in the extent to which they are exploratory, descriptive, and explanatory in nature. Yin 2008 is a standard text on case studies research.

  • Yin, Robert K. Case Studies Research: Design and Methods. 4th ed. Los Angeles: SAGE, 2008.

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    This book provides comprehensive coverage of the design and use of the case study method and contains more than fifty case studies drawn from a wide variety of settings.

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Surveys

The survey is a systematic data-collection method for gathering self-report data on variables that will be analyzed as the focal constructs in the research question or as control or comparison variables. Surveys are probably the most widely used method of data collection in organizational research because of their relative ease of administration, including their cost-effectiveness in obtaining data from a large sample of respondents. The survey questionnaire typically contains a section of questions about the respondent’s demographics (e.g., sex and education). The substantive part of the questionnaire may contain items about the constructs or variables of interest, which could include values, beliefs, attitudes, perceptions, knowledge, and behaviors. Fowler 2008 is a popular text on survey research methods. The Survey Kit (Fink 1995) is a concise series of nine books published by SAGE and written in nontechnical language to provide a simple and practical guide for preparing and conducting surveys and analyzing and reporting the results. All of the books in this series contain instructional objectives, exercises and answers, concrete examples, and practical guidelines for use.

  • Fink, Arlene, ed. The Survey Kit. 9 vols. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE, 1995.

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    Volumes 1 and 2, both by Fink, are The Survey Handbook and How to Ask Survey Questions. Volume 3, by Linda B. Bourque and Eve P. Fielder, is How to Conduct Self-Administered and Mail Surveys. Volume 4, by James H. Frey and Sabine M. Oishi, is How to Conduct Interviews by Telephone and in Person. Volumes 5 and 6, by Fink, are How to Design Surveys and How to Sample in Surveys. Volume 7, by Mark S. Litwin, is How to Measure Survey Reliability and Validity. Volumes 8 and 9, by Fink, are How to Analyze Survey Data and How to Report on Surveys.

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  • Fowler, Floyd J., Jr. Survey Research Methods. 4th ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE, 2008.

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    This comprehensive textbook covers all aspects of survey research methods, including survey design, sampling, administration, and data analysis.

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Experimental Research

Experimental research methods are well suited to establish causal relationships. In the true experimental method, the independent variable is completely manipulated by the researcher into various experimental conditions, and participants are assigned to these conditions through random assignment that is independent of the participants. In addition, all other variables are controlled by the study design, so that there are no extraneous variables leading to confounding differences across the conditions. Hence any observed differences or changes in the dependent variable can be logically attributed to the independent variable as the causal factor. The basics of the true experimental method are covered in practically all textbooks on research methods. Kirk 2012 is an edition of the classic text on experimental methods. In certain situations, due to practical or ethical reasons, it is impossible to employ a fully random assignment of the participants to the experimental conditions, but it nevertheless is still possible to use modified versions of the true experimental method to approximate it. These modified experimental methods are called “quasi-experiments” (a term introduced in Campbell and Stanley 1963), and they may come in different forms of modified experimental designs, which are ways to attempt to rule out alternative explanations due to the lack of random assignment to conditions. Campbell and Stanley 1963 produced the classic reference for quasi-experimental methods used in organizational research and many other disciplines. This classic text was subsequently expanded in Cook and Campbell 1979 and later again in Shadish, et al. 2001.

  • Campbell, Donald T., and Julian C. Stanley. Experimental and Quasi-experimental Designs for Research. Chicago: Rand McNally, 1963.

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    This is the classic reference in which the terms “quasi-experiment,” “internal validity,” and “external validity” were introduced and the various basic study designs were discussed. Originally appeared in Handbook of Research on Teaching, edited by Nathaniel L. Gage (Chicago: Rand McNally, 1963).

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  • Cook, Thomas D., and Donald T. Campbell. Quasi-experimentation: Design and Analysis Issues for Field Settings. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1979.

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    This is the expanded version of the original version (Campbell and Stanley 1963), and the concepts of statistical conclusion validity and construct validity were added to the discussion.

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  • Kirk, Roger E. Experimental Design: Procedures for the Behavioral Sciences. 4th ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE, 2012.

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    This classic textbook on experimental designs provides detailed coverage of the rationale and technical features of the various study designs in the experimental method. It includes the linkages between the logic of the design characteristics and the specific data-analytic techniques and how different designs can be combined to form more complex designs.

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  • Shadish, William R., Thomas D. Cook, and Donald T. Campbell. Experimental and Quasi-experimental Designs for Generalized Causal Inference. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2001.

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    This is a version of the classic by Donald T. Campbell and his colleagues (Campbell and Stanley 1863, Cook and Campbell 1979). It includes an expanded discussion on causal inferences and limitations of the quasi-experimental designs.

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Meta-analysis

Meta-analysis refers to a secondary research method in which the researcher gathers the published or unpublished reports of primary studies conducted by others in an area of study, codes the reported results according to a classification scheme developed for the meta-analysis, combines and statistically analyzes the coded information, and reports the meta-analyzed results in terms of some common metric indexes to represent a relationship linking the variables of interest. The specific technique proposed in Hunter and Schmidt 1990 is one of the most popular meta-analytic methods used in organizational research. A review of the issues in using this method is Murphy 2002.

  • Hunter, John E., and Frank L. Schmidt. Methods of Meta-analysis: Correcting Error and Bias in Research Findings. Newbury Park, CA: SAGE, 1990.

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    This comprehensive textbook, popular among organizational researchers, introduces the logic of the meta-analysis method and describes how to apply the method, analyze the data, interpret the results, and report the findings.

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  • Murphy, Kevin R., ed. Validity Generalization: A Critical Review. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 2002.

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    This edited book contains chapters that review and evaluate meta-analysis in organizational research and discuss controversial issues and propose recommendations for future work to enhance the use of meta-analysis.

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Qualitative Analyses

Eby, et al. 2009 describes the misconceptions that many quantitative-oriented researchers have about qualitative research and argues that qualitative research methods and data analysis can be conducted adequately to derive valid inferences. Lee, et al. 1999 explains how qualitative research and analyses may be applied to address many issues in organizational research. The major approach to data analysis in most qualitative research is content analysis. Krippendorff 2004 is a good introduction to content analysis.

  • Eby, Lillian T., Carrie S. Hurst, and Marcus M. Butts. “Qualitative Research: The Redheaded Stepchild in Organizational and Social Science Research.” In Statistical and Methodological Myths and Urban Legends: Doctrine, Verity, and Fable in the Organizational and Social Sciences. Edited by Charles E. Lance and Robert J. Vandenberg, 219–246. New York: Routledge, 2009.

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    This article highlights several misconceptions that quantitatively oriented researchers have about the lack of rigor in the methods and analytic techniques in qualitative research studies.

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  • Krippendorff, Klaus. Content Analysis: An Introduction to Its Methodology. 2d ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE, 2004.

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    This is a comprehensive textbook on content analysis as applied to data analysis in most qualitative research methods. The book provides an introduction to the history and conceptual foundations of content analysis; the methodological issues relating to design, sampling, and coding; and practical guides to analyzing and representing the data.

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  • Lee, Thomas W., Terence R. Mitchell, and Chris J. Sablynski. “Qualitative Research in Organizational and Vocational Psychology, 1979–1999.” Journal of Vocational Behavior 55.2 (1999): 161–187.

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    This article reviews different qualitative research methods, summarizes the trends in the use of these methods, illustrates the measurement and analytic issues with examples of actual studies, and highlights the best practices. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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Quantitative Analyses

The traditional quantitative analytic techniques commonly used in organizational research, such as correlations, multiple regressions, and the analysis of variance test (ANOVA), are covered in practically all research method textbooks. Sheskin 2011 is a comprehensive reference for various quantitative analytic techniques. Aguinis, et al. 2009 shows that the advances in specific quantitative analytic techniques examined in the first decade of the journal Organizational Research Methods (cited under Journals) included multiple regression/correlation, structural equation modeling, and multilevel analysis. Landis and Kaplan 2005 reviews studies published from 1995 to 2003 in two top journals in organizational research and finds that the most commonly used quantitative analytic techniques included chi-square tests, ANOVA, correlations, multiple regression, logistic regression, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, structural equation modeling, hierarchical linear modeling/random coefficient modeling, and meta-analysis. Chan 2010 explicates several advances in quantitative analytic strategies in organizational research.

  • Aguinis, Herman, Charles A. Pierce, Frank A. Bosco, and Ivan S. Muslin. “First Decade of Organizational Research Methods: Trends in Design, Measurement, and Data-Analysis Topics.” Organizational Research Methods 12.1 (2009): 69–112.

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    This article is a review of the specific data-analytic techniques reported in the studies published in the first decade of the journal Organizational Research Methods (a total of 193 articles). Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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  • Chan, David. “Advances in Analytical Strategies.” In APA Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology. Vol. 1, Building and Developing the Organization. Edited by Sheldon Zedeck, 85–113. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2010.

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    This article discusses advances in analytic strategies for modeling relationships between constructs, multilevel phenomena, changes over time, and measurement invariance.

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  • Landis, Ronald S., and Seth A. Kaplan. “Industrial/Organizational Psychology.” In Encyclopedia of Statistics in Behavioral Science. Vol. 2. Edited by Brian S. Everitt and David C. Howell, 915–920. Chichester, UK: Wiley, 2005.

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    This article reviews the quantitative analytic techniques used in studies published from 1995 to 2003 in two top journals in organizational research methods (Journal of Applied Psychology and Personnel Psychology).

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  • Sheskin, David J. Handbook of Parametric and Nonparametric Statistical Procedures. 5th ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC, 2011.

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    This application-oriented handbook provides comprehensive and in-depth coverage in quantitative analysis in the areas of parametric and nonparametric statistics.

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Self-Report Data

Social-desirability responding refers to the tendency for individuals to present themselves in a way that makes them look positive with regard to culturally derived norms and standards. Paulhus 1984 identifies two characteristics involved in achieving social desirability: impression management and self-deception. In organizational research methods social-desirability responding is probably the most often-cited criticism of research methods (e.g., surveys) that rely heavily on the use of self-report data. Although this criticism is ubiquitous in reactions to self-report data from survey and questionnaire methods, Spector 2006 and Chan 2009 clarify the issues and explicate the truths and myths regarding the problems of self-report data. A notable advance in assessing the method effects in self-report data is the application of latent-variable modeling methods. Chan 2001, Schmitt, et al. 1996, and Williams and Anderson 1994 provide concrete examples of how latent-variable modeling approaches can be used to examine social desirability and the effects of other method factors in self-report data.

  • Chan, David. “Modeling Method Effects of Positive Affectivity, Negative Affectivity, and Impression Management in Self Reports of Work Attitudes.” Human Performance 14 (2001): 77–96.

    DOI: 10.1207/S15327043HUP1401_05Save Citation »Export Citation »

    This article uses latent-variable modeling approaches to examine the statistical and substantive effects of three variables (i.e., positive affectivity, negative affectivity, and impression management) commonly asserted to be method factors that artifactually inflate relations among self-reports of work attitudes on the relationships linking job satisfaction, perceived organizational support, organizational commitment, and intent to quit. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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  • Chan, David. “So Why Ask Me? Are Self-Report Data Really That Bad?” In Statistical and Methodological Myths and Urban Legends: Doctrine, Verity, and Fable in the Organizational and Social Sciences. Edited by Charles E. Lance and Robert J. Vandenberg, 309–336. New York: Routledge, 2009.

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    This article examines the truths and myths about social desirability in self-report data in terms of applicability to different constructs, faking, common-method variance, and malleability.

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  • Paulhus, Delroy L. “Two-Component Models of Socially Desirable Responding.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 46.3 (1984): 598–609.

    DOI: 10.1037/0022-3514.46.3.598Save Citation »Export Citation »

    This article argues that impression management and self-deception are two distinct types of social-desirability responding in self-report methods of data collection. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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  • Schmitt, Neal, Elaine D. Pulakos, Earl Nason, and David J. Whitney. “Likability and Similarity as Potential Sources of Predictor-Related Criterion Bias in Validation Research.” Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 68.3 (1996): 272–286.

    DOI: 10.1006/obhd.1996.0105Save Citation »Export Citation »

    This article uses latent-variable modeling to demonstrate how the method effects of likability and similarity could lead to predictor-criterion bias in validation research. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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  • Spector, Paul E. “Method Variance in Organizational Research: Truth or Urban Legend?” Organizational Research Methods 9.2 (2006): 221–232.

    DOI: 10.1177/1094428105284955Save Citation »Export Citation »

    This article provides a detailed examination of the issues of method variance in organizational research and argues that many alleged problems of common-method variance may be exaggerated. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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  • Williams, Larry J., and Stella E. Anderson. “An Alternative Approach to Method Effects by Using Latent-Variable Models: Applications in Organizational Behavior Research.” Journal of Applied Psychology 79.3 (1994): 323–331.

    DOI: 10.1037/0021-9010.79.3.323Save Citation »Export Citation »

    This article demonstrates how latent-variable modeling can be used to examine common-method variance in self-report data in organizational research through assessing the effects from independent measures of method factors. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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Multilevel Research

Many phenomena studied in organizational research are multilevel in nature. The central defining feature of multilevel research is that the data are hierarchically structured or nested—that is, the units of observation at one level of analysis are nested (meaning grouped) within units at a high level of analysis. When the multilevel feature of data is ignored, the conceptualization and analysis often lead to erroneous interpretations and inferences. Rousseau 1985 argues for the importance of considering multilevel issues in organizational research methods. Multilevel constructs and data bring with them complex conceptual, measurement, and data-analysis issues. Chan 2005 provides a nontechnical introduction to the major issues in multilevel research, and Chan 1998 proposes a typology that helps organizational researchers make decisions on how to aggregate data from a lower level to form constructs at a higher level of analysis. Klein and Kozlowski 2000 summarizes the multilevel issues involved in conceptualization, measurement, and data analysis.

  • Chan, David. “Functional Relations among Constructs in the Same Content Domain at Different Levels of Analysis: A Typology of Composition Models.” Journal of Applied Psychology 83.2 (1998): 234–246.

    DOI: 10.1037/0021-9010.83.2.234Save Citation »Export Citation »

    This article introduces the foundational issues of composition models in multilevel research and provides a typology of five distinct composition models that facilitate researchers to make decisions concerning aggregation of data from the lower level to form constructs at the higher level of analysis. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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  • Chan, David. “Multilevel Research.” In The Psychology Research Handbook. 2d ed. Edited by Frederick T. L. Leong and James T. Austin, 401–418. London: SAGE, 2005.

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    This article addresses the basic issues of conceptualization, measurement, data analysis, and inference in multilevel research by explicating the conceptual bases and rationale to guide decisions concerning construct definition, construct measurement, choice of analytic technique, and interpretations of results.

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  • Klein, Katherine J., and Steve W. J. Kozlowski, eds. Multilevel Theory, Research, and Methods in Organizations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2000.

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    This edited book is a comprehensive introductory resource to the foundational issues in the conceptualization, measurement, and data analysis in multilevel research.

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  • Rousseau, D. M. “Issues of Level in Organizational Research: Multi-Level and Cross-Level Perspectives.” In Research in Organizational Behavior. Vol. 7. Edited by Larry L. Cummings and Barry M. Staw, 1–37. Greenwich, CT: JAI, 1985.

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    This is one of the first articles in the organizational research literature calling attention to the importance of taking into account multiple levels of analysis when conceptualizing and measuring phenomena in organizational research.

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Cross-Cultural Research Methods

Researchers in cross-cultural organizational research have to deal with issues of methods, measurement, and data analysis that are either specific or especially relevant to cross-cultural research. Chan 2007 provides a nontechnical introduction to cross-cultural organizational research that serves as an interface between the technical writings in the methodological literature and those by cross-cultural researchers who may not be methodological or quantitative experts. In the late 20th and early 21st centuries significant advances in methodological scholarship have been made that are directly relevant to cross-cultural research, particularly in the field of measurement and data analysis. For example, Chan 1998, Chan 2000, Reise, et al. 1993, and Vandenberg and Lance 2000 provide detailed accounts of the advances in measurement invariance of item responses between groups (e.g., cultures) and across time.

  • Chan, David. “The Conceptualization and Analysis of Change over Time: An Integrative Approach Incorporating Longitudinal Means and Covariance Structures Analysis (LMACS) and Multiple Indicator Latent Growth Modeling (MILGM).” Organizational Research Methods 1.4 (1998): 421–483.

    DOI: 10.1177/109442819814004Save Citation »Export Citation »

    This article provides a detailed account, with numerical examples, of issues related to conceptualizing and analyzing changes over time, including theoretical and statistical issues of measurement invariance of item responses across groups and across time. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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  • Chan, David. “Detection of Differential Item Functioning on the Kirton Adaption-Innovation Inventory Using Multiple-Group Mean and Covariance Structure Analysis.” Multivariate Behavioral Research 35.2 (2000): 169–199.

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    This article explains and demonstrates how multiple-group mean and covariance structures analysis can be used to examine the different ways items may function similarly or differentially across groups. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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  • Chan, David. “Methodological Issues in International Human Resource Management.” In Handbook of Research in International Human Resources Management. Edited by Michael M. Harris, 53–76. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 2007.

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    This chapter focuses on the logical foundations and potential pitfalls associated with four research method issues in cross-cultural organizational studies—namely, explicating the nature of the research question; selecting appropriate designs, methods, and sampling; developing appropriate measurement; and performing appropriate data analyses.

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  • Reise, Steven P., Keith F. Widaman, and Robin H. Pugh. “Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Item Response Theory: Two Approaches for Exploring Measurement Invariance.” Psychological Bulletin 114.3 (1993): 552–566.

    DOI: 10.1037/0033-2909.114.3.552Save Citation »Export Citation »

    This article compares confirmatory factor analysis and item-response theory as psychometric methods in terms of their relative strengths and weaknesses for examining measurement invariance of item responses across groups. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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  • Vandenberg, Robert J., and Charles E. Lance. “A Review and Synthesis of the Measurement Invariance Literature: Suggestions, Practices, and Recommendations for Organizational Research.” Organizational Research Methods 3.1 (2000): 4–70.

    DOI: 10.1177/109442810031002Save Citation »Export Citation »

    This article reviews the issues of measurement invariance and provides practical guidelines for researchers to follow when examining measurement invariance in organizational research. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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