Management Global and Comparative Leadership
by
Mary Ann Von Glinow, William D. Schneper
  • LAST REVIEWED: 19 May 2017
  • LAST MODIFIED: 30 November 2015
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199846740-0051

Introduction

The body of research related to global leadership is both vast and confounding. Some observers trace the field’s domain back thousands of years to the first rulers and military commanders with worldwide aspirations or to religious and spiritual figures such as Abraham, Laozi, Gautama Buddha, Confucius, Jesus, and Muhammad. Within the business context, the literature is considerably younger but still includes some of the earliest international management classics, such as Perlmutter 1969 (cited under Global Mindset) and Levitt 1983 (cited under Globalization). Despite the accomplishments of past research, critics contend that our understanding of global leadership has progressed too slowly. Joyce Osland, in Osland 2008 (cited under Developing Global Leaders and Ensuring Effectiveness), compares the state of the field to the earliest phases of domestic leadership scholarship. Indeed, the bulk of the literature remains conceptual, normative, and prescriptive. There is a scarcity of rigorous ethnographic work, and quantitative studies often focus more on measuring and comparing rather than developing and testing complex theory. Even the definition of global leadership is uncertain. This is partially due to the breadth and diversity of leadership research in general. As Ralph Stogdill noted as far back as 1974, “there are almost as many definitions of leadership as there are persons who have attempted to define the concept” (Handbook of Leadership, New York: Free Press, p. 259). Hollenbeck 2009 (cited under Traditional Leadership Theories) finds global leadership to be “even more mysterious, with something about the term that beckons interested writers and researchers to offer their own definitions. There is a temptation to dance on the head of a definitional pin” (p. 5). In other words, the definition of global leadership depends on one’s personal inclinations and theoretical starting point. Global leadership means something different to managers and policymakers, as it does for scholars in organizational behavior, strategy, or psychology. To encompass such diverse perspectives, we define global leadership broadly as the capacity to bring about change and enhance organizational performance across national borders. This capacity in turn requires the skills and acumen to influence and energize employees, business partners, and other organizational stakeholders. Closely related and overlapping with the study of global leadership, the cross-country or comparative leadership field explores the similarities and differences in leadership traits and practices across countries, which helps explain the aspects of leadership that are generally universal across countries, or largely dependent upon the unique institutional and country context.

Textbooks

While few observers dispute the growing impact of globalization and the internationalization of markets since the early 1980s, international topics continue to be relegated to a lone chapter or appendix in many management textbooks. Aside from notable exceptions such as Moran, et al. 2014 and Lane and Maznevski 2014, there are few textbooks adequate for an advanced undergraduate-level course on global leadership. Bartlett and Beamish 2014 examines a broad range of topics in global leadership and global strategy. Northouse 2012 and Yukl 2013 are among the best and most popular general textbooks on leadership. Adler and Gundersen 2008 explores international aspects of organizational behavior. McShane and von Glinow 2014 is a more general textbook on organizational behavior but still maintains a strong emphasis on international business. Brett 2014 focuses specifically on the topic of cross-cultural negotiation.

  • Adler, Nancy J., and Allison Gundersen. International Dimensions of Organizational Behavior. 5th ed. Mason, OH: Thomson/South-Western, 2008.

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    Focuses on issues of organizational behavior related to cross-border management; ideal for an advanced elective course. In addition to a chapter dedicated to leadership, several other chapters are relevant, including ones on cross-cultural communication and negotiation, managing multicultural teams, and motivating people from various cultures.

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  • Bartlett, Christopher A., and Paul W. Beamish. Transnational Management: Text, Cases, and Readings in Cross-Border Management. 7th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2014.

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    While the emphasis is decidedly on strategy, this popular textbook on international management (originally written by Christopher Bartlett and the late Sumantra Ghoshal) dedicates considerable attention to global leadership. Includes several relevant case studies and writings by corporate managers.

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  • Brett, Jeanne M. Negotiating Globally: How to Negotiate Deals, Resolve Disputes, and Make Decisions across Cultural Boundaries. 3d ed. San Francisco: John Wiley, 2014.

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    Appropriate for courses on cross-cultural negotiation, dispute resolution, and influence. Following a chapter-long introduction to basic negotiation theory, the book explains the impact of culture on bargaining and negotiation. Special attention is placed on negotiating in teams, social adjustment, and negotiations among governments and foreign direct investors.

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  • Lane, Henry W., and Martha Maznevski. International Management Behavior: Global and Sustainable Leadership. 7th ed. Chichester, UK: John Wiley, 2014.

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    At less than three hundred pages in the paperback version, this textbook provides a reasonably concise introduction to many of the main threats and opportunities confronting global managers.

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  • McShane, Scott L., and Mary Ann von Glinow. Organizational Behavior: Emerging Knowledge, Global Reality. 7th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2014.

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    Coauthored by one of the writers of this article, this textbook covers the broad topic of organizational behavior, including leadership, stressing the need for adopting a global perspective.

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  • Moran, Robert T., Neil Remington Abramson, and Sarah V. Moran. Managing Cultural Differences. 9th ed. Abingdon, UK: Routledge, 2014.

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    Strong coverage of fundamental topics relating to cross-cultural management and global leadership; includes a large section discussing culture and leadership issues of specific countries from all major geographic regions of the world.

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  • Northouse, Peter G. Leadership: Theory and Practice. 6th ed. Los Angeles: SAGE, 2012.

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    Best-selling textbook on general leadership; highly readable, provides an excellent account of the development of the field and critiques on the leading contemporary approaches. The single chapter on global leadership focuses mostly on the Global Leadership, Organizational Behavior and Effectiveness (GLOBE) research initiative but also includes three short case studies and a self-scoring survey instrument for evaluating the subject’s attitudes and beliefs about culture.

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  • Yukl, Gary A. Leadership in Organizations. 8th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson, 2013.

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    Another fine general leadership textbook. Inexperienced students may find this one more dense and daunting than Northouse 2012; a good choice for advanced students.

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Reference Resources

There are many excellent book series and edited volumes that address global leadership and comparative leadership issues. The best book series dedicated to all aspects of global leadership is Advances in Global Leadership, currently published about once a year. Advances in International Management is a more general title that also frequently examines global leadership issues. Mendenhall, et al. 2008 is one the finest edited volumes on global leadership. Nohria and Khurana 2010, a handbook, is a more general leadership resource, but several chapters are especially valuable to students of global leadership. Peterson 1993, Gannon and Pillai 2013, and Kessler and Wong-MingJi 2010 are books with individual chapters dedicated to different countries. Each book provides distinct but complementary insights on a variety of national cultural, managerial, and leadership characteristics. The Kozai Group is a consulting and research organization that profiles books and articles written or edited by its members on its website.

  • Advances in Global Leadership. Bingley, UK: Emerald Group, 1999–.

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    This book series, which collects original empirical, conceptual, and review papers on global leadership, is up to its seventh volume as of 2012. A good starting point for new students of this field, as well as more-established scholars who wish to monitor current trends in global leadership.

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  • Advances in International Management. Bingley, UK: Emerald Group, 2002–.

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    The scope of this annual book series is obviously broader than Advances in Global Leadership but often covers topics related to global leadership concerns.

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  • Gannon, Martin J., and Rajnandini Pillai, eds. Understanding Global Cultures: Metaphorical Journeys through 31 Nations, Clusters of Nations, Continents, and Diversity. 5th ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE, 2013.

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    The authors identify a single cultural artifact for each country, which serves as the basis for a metaphorical discussion of that society’s culture. French wine, for instance, is used to convey values relating to pureness, classification, composition, and suitability. Other cultural metaphors include the Nigerian marketplace, Russian ballet, Brazilian samba, the Chinese family altar, the Japanese garden, the traditional British house, and American football.

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  • Kessler, Eric H., and Diana J. Wong-MingJi, eds. Cultural Mythology and Global Leadership. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar, 2010.

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    Another interesting book that is in the same spirit as Gannon and Pillai 2013. The myths and legends from twenty countries are described in order to explore how preferred leadership styles and archetypes may have emerged. The editors cleverly point out that the unique and universal characteristics of each country’s myths may have helped contribute to the similarities and differences in leadership styles that exist across countries.

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  • Kozai Group.

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    The research section of this consulting and research group’s website provides details on recent publications by organizational associates (which include a number of well-known global leadership researchers). In addition to global leadership, topics of publications include international human resource management, expatriate productivity, and Japanese human resource management.

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  • Mendenhall, Mark E., Joyce S. Osland, Allan Bird, Gary R. Oddou, and Martha L. Maznevski, eds. Global Leadership: Research, Practice, and Development. Routledge Global Human Resource Management. London and New York: Routledge, 2008.

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    Highly recommended. A rigorous review and critique of research on global leadership, written by some of the topic’s leading researchers.

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  • Nohria, Nitin, and Rakesh Khurana, eds. Handbook of Leadership Theory and Practice. Boston: Harvard Business School, 2010.

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    Excellent collection of articles on leadership, contributed by many prominent business scholars. While just one chapter is dedicated specifically to global leadership (Rosabeth Moss Canter, “Leadership in a Globalizing World,” pp. 569–610), the chapters discussing psychological, sociological, and economic perspectives on leadership can also be especially helpful to researchers of global leadership.

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  • Peterson, Richard B., ed. Managers and National Culture: A Global Perspective. Westport, CT: Quorum, 1993.

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    Fascinating though somewhat dated book on how the traditional role of the business manager differs depending on the country context. The book includes chapters on fifteen countries from Asia, Europe, and North America, as well as an integrative chapter offering thoughtful analysis on how globalization is transforming the management function throughout the world.

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Journals

Most new academic research in global leadership and cross-country comparative leadership is published in journals, as is the norm both in management and international business. High-quality research in this field can be found most easily in journals dedicated to a broader range of topics than simply global leadership. Academic journals focusing generally on international business (Journal of International Business Studies), leadership (Leadership Quarterly), and management (Academy of Management Journal) all have served as excellent venues for research on global leadership. Since global leadership is such a popular topic among managers and the general public, there are also many first-rate articles published in practitioner-oriented journals (especially Harvard Business Review, Thunderbird International Business Review, and Academy of Management Perspectives). Leading journals dedicated to organization theory (such as Administrative Science Quarterly) and psychology (Journal of Applied Psychology) may also publish research that is highly relevant to scholars of global leadership.

Special Issues of Journals

In addition to the eight journals listed under Journals, these six other journals merit attention for their publication during recent years of a special issue dedicated to global leadership, or a closely related theme. The European Journal of International Management and Management and Organization Review emphasize different global regions, whereas the Journal of Business Ethics and Journal of Corporate Citizenship are both highly recognized in the areas of applied ethics, social responsibility, and business and society. Industrial and Organizational Psychology is the official journal of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology. People & Strategy (now spelled People + Strategy) is primarily oriented toward human-resource management professionals.

Interviews

Interviews with individuals who are already considered by many to be skillful global leaders can offer unique insights not easily obtainable from other sources. The interviews highlighted in this section were chosen because they are among the most noted and are relatively easily accessible. Bingham, et al. 2000; Emerson 2001; and Stahl and Brannen 2013 are all print interviews of single individuals, whereas McKinsey 2009 offers a collection of video interviews with different top executives.

  • Bingham, Chris, J. Stewart Black, and Tepo Filin. “An Interview with John Pepper: What It Takes to Be a Global Leader.” Human Resource Management 39.2–3 (Summer–Fall 2000): 287–292.

    DOI: 10.1002/1099-050X(200022/23)39:2/3<287::AID-HRM16>3.0.CO;2-VSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    John Pepper was the former chief executive officer and current board chair for Procter & Gamble at the time of this interview article. The authors conclude that the points emphasized by Pepper are consistent with the findings in the literature that global leadership requires the development of competencies related to (1) dealing with uncertainty, (2) knowing customers, (3) balancing tensions, and (4) appreciating diversity.

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  • Emerson, Victoria. “An Interview with Carlos Ghosn, President of Nissan Motors, Ltd. and Industry Leader of the Year (Automotive News, 2000).” Journal of World Business 36.1 (2001): 3–10.

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    Q&A-style print interview with Carlos Ghosn, who is often described as an archetypal global leader. Born in Brazil from a family that had emigrated from Lebanon, he received degrees in engineering in France. This interview takes place shortly after the start of the alliance between France-based Renault and Japan-based Nissan, in which he would ultimately become chief executive and board chair of both companies simultaneously.

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  • McKinsey. “McKinsey Conversations with Global Leaders.” Online video series. New York: McKinsey, 2009.

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    The McKinsey consulting company provides a “special package” of video interviews of top managers of global companies. The link provided here goes to the first interview in the series with John Chambers (Cisco Systems, Inc.), but the other videos in the series can also be accessed directly from this web page.

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  • Stahl, Günter K., and Mary Yoko Brannen. “Building Cross-Cultural Leadership Competence: An Interview with Carlos Ghosn.” Academy of Management Learning & Education 12.3 (2013): 494–502.

    DOI: 10.5465/amle.2012.0246Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Another, more recent print interview with both Renault and Nissan’s top leader. Ghosn stresses the importance of cross-cultural management education in multinational corporations.

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Theoretical and Practical Foundations of Global Leadership Research

From one perspective, global leadership constitutes a subtopic of the overall leadership field. Thus, it is not surprising that many studies on global leadership draw upon concepts and theories originally introduced in the traditional (i.e., non-country-specific) leadership literature (see Traditional Leadership Theories), sometimes referred to as the “domestic” literature. What is striking, however, is the extent to which researchers in global leadership have strayed from the path laid out for them by traditional theories. Global leadership has evolved into a distinctive area of inquiry with its own set of concepts and frameworks (albeit, still often in a primitive stage of development). One reason for this outcome has to do with concerns by international business researchers about the generalizability of traditional leadership theories, which were often formulated and tested in the United States without adequate consideration of the cultural or institutional context. Another reason for global leadership’s distinctive research character has been its emphasis on Globalization and other challenges unique to multinational firms (see Challenges Specific to Multinational Companies). While replications and extensions of traditional leadership theories will probably always be a part of research on global leadership, some of the most promising and exciting developments are the result of these other influences.

Traditional Leadership Theories

While the writings covering traditional leadership theories are quite expansive, the portion most commonly drawn upon by global leadership is comparatively modest. The general leadership framework that has been applied most frequently to global research theory is Bernard Bass’s distinction between transformational and transactional leadership. We include two of his earliest published formulations of these concepts: Bass 1985 and Bass 1990. Implicit leadership theory served as an important theoretical inspiration for the project on Global Leadership, Organizational Behavior and Effectiveness (GLOBE), one of the global leadership field’s most important research initiatives. Therefore, we next include the seminal book on implicit leadership theory (Lord and Maher 1991). A large portion of global leadership research has also sought to identify the individual traits and attributes associated with leadership success: Zaccaro 2007 offers a review of leadership literature’s long history with trait-based research. While research on global leadership has often neglected the power-based approach, the concepts of power and leadership remain inescapably linked. Kotter 1985, a classic book, is an introduction to the power-based perspective on leadership for its analysis on how the critical sources of power and influence within business organizations have shifted over time. Zaleznik 1977, an article in Harvard Business Review, is also included for its famous explanation about the differences between managers and leaders. We conclude with reviews in Mendenhall 2008 and Hollenbeck 2009 that include assessments of how traditional leadership research has influenced writings on global leadership.

  • Bass, Bernard M. Leadership and Performance beyond Expectations. New York: Free Press, 1985.

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    Famous for its detailed comparison of transactional versus transformational leadership. Bass’s theories were inspired by James MacGregor Burns’s earlier description of transforming and transactional leadership (see Burns’s 1978 book Leadership, published by Harper).

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  • Bass, Bernard M. “From Transactional to Transformational Leadership: Learning to Share the Vision.” Organizational Dynamics 18.3 (Winter 1990): 19–31.

    DOI: 10.1016/0090-2616(90)90061-SSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Offers further elaboration on transactional versus transformational leadership. “Transactional” leadership relies on managing by exception (taking corrective action when certain rules or standards are not met) and offering some agreed-upon reward for a fixed amount of work. “Transformational” leaders provide a strong sense of purpose, promote creativity, and set high standards, which they expect to be surpassed.

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  • Hollenbeck, George P. “A Serendipitous Sojourn through the Global Leadership Literature.” In Advances in Global Leadership. Vol. 2. Edited by William H. Mobley and Morgan W. McCall Jr., 15–47. Bingley, UK: Emerald, 2009.

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    Originally published in 2001. An engaging essay reviewing the global leadership literature, including its connections to traditional leadership research; Hollenbeck points out how global leadership was shaped by prior scholarly inquiries related to questions about strategy, cross-cultural differences, expatriates, competencies, leadership, and adult learning. Another good starting point for those new to the field.

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  • Kotter, John P. Power and Influence: Beyond Formal Authority. New York: Free Press, 1985.

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    Written for a general audience, but well cited in the leadership literature. Kotter argues that the exercise of power has become increasingly important for individual and organizational success. At the same time, formal sources of power and authority have become less effective. Therefore, individuals must increasingly rely on “unofficial” sources of power such as social capital and leadership skills. Kotter’s advice is both insightful and builds on prior research on the bases and sources of power, such as the classic “Bases of Social Power,” by John French and Bertram Raven, in Studies in Social Power, edited by Dorwin Cartwright (Ann Arbor: Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, 1959), pp. 150–167.

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  • Lord, Robert G., and Karen J. Maher. Leadership and Information Processing: Linking Perceptions and Performance. People and Organizations 1. Boston: Unwin Hyman, 1991.

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    Best known for its formulation of implicit leadership theory, the idea that individuals hold informal beliefs, schemas, and stereotypes about how leaders ought to behave and what attributes they will possess. Successful leadership requires conformity with the follower’s implicit assumptions. This theory was one of the main theoretical building blocks for the GLOBE Project, as well as other international business scholars interested in how leadership archetypes compare across countries.

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  • Mendenhall, Mark E. “Leadership and the Birth of Global Leadership.” In Global Leadership: Research, Practice, and Development. Edited by Mark E. Mendenhall, Joyce S. Osland, Allan Bird, Gary R. Oddou, and Martha L. Maznevski, 1–17. Routledge Global Human Resource Management. London and New York: Routledge, 2008.

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    A concise yet informative review of the traditional leadership literature. Following Yukl 2013 (cited under Textbooks), Mendenhall divides traditional leadership research into five approaches (trait, behavior, situational, power-influence, and integrative) and comments on their relative impact on global leadership.

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  • Zaccaro, Stephen J. “Trait-Based Perspectives of Leadership.” American Psychologist 62.1 (January 2007): 6–16.

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    The study of whether various personal traits and attributes contribute to effective leadership has had, in Zaccaro’s words, “a long but checkered history” (p. 6). This review provides an introduction to the trait-based tradition in leadership research.

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  • Zaleznik, Abraham. “Managers and Leaders: Are They Different?” Harvard Business Review 15 (May–June 1977): 67–78.

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    Describes the respective roles of managers and leaders in stark contrast. Successful organizations require both managers and leaders. By definition, managers occupy a formal position within the administrative hierarchy, but leaders can emerge from anywhere within the organization. Despite these important distinctions, most leadership research (including international work) continues to focus on the persons fulfilling formal management roles.

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Globalization

Sociologist and international business scholar Mauro Guillén (Guillén 2001) defines globalization as “a process leading to greater interdependence and mutual awareness (reflexivity) among economic, political, and social units in the world, and among actors in general” (p. 235). Some observers suggest the growing tendency among researchers to use the term “global” rather than “international” or “cross-national” signifies a shift in perceived importance away from nation-states and toward the world as a whole. The books and articles listed in this section explore the implications of globalization, including the threats and opportunities posed to business managers and leaders. Levitt 1983 was one of the first articles that advised business managers on how to respond to globalization. Vernon 2001 provides an early account on how multinational enterprises are helping to bring about globalization. Friedman 2007 describes how the nature of globalization has changed over time. Both Guillén 2001 and Osland 2003 offer broad-based reviews of the globalization literature. Both Rhinesmith 1996 and Ghemawat 2011 bridge the gap between globalization and global leadership, by offering prescriptive advice to managers. Ghemawat 2011 is also noteworthy for challenging many widely held beliefs on globalization.

  • Friedman, Thomas L. The World Is Flat: A Brief History of the Twenty-First Century. New York: Picador, 2007.

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    Popular best seller by Pulitzer Prize–winning journalist; Friedman describes how global integration is bringing about a more level economic playing field, which benefits previously disadvantaged countries such as India and China. Identifies key factors that have served as “world flatteners,” including advances in computers and telecommunications; suggests how managers and workers should respond to this new form of globalization.

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  • Ghemawat, Pankaj. “The Cosmopolitan Corporation.” Harvard Business Review 89.5 (May 2011): 92–99.

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    Arguing the world is not as globalized as commonly presumed, Ghemawat recommends that international managers must embrace cross-national differences. Provides advice on how to develop global leaders through the use of assessment instruments, international assignments, and participation in cross-country projects; advocates using conceptual models such as Ghemawat’s own CAGE (Cultural, Administrative, Geographic, Economic) framework to improve understanding about national differences.

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  • Guillén, Mauro F. “Is Globalization Civilizing, Destructive or Feeble? A Critique of Five Key Debates in the Social Science Literature.” Annual Review of Sociology 27.1 (2001): 235–260.

    DOI: 10.1146/annurev.soc.27.1.235Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Highly influential review of the globalization literature; Guillén applies Hirschman’s three-category framework on market economies for evaluating the extent to which globalization is beneficial or harmful, as well as the degree to which the effects of globalization are being felt by various societal groups. This paper is frequently noted for its discussion on whether globalization is contributing to a convergence of practices and ideologies across countries.

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  • Levitt, Theodore. “The Globalization of Markets.” Harvard Business Review (May–June 1983): 92–102.

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    Famous article that helped popularize the term “globalization.” Argues that firms must seek out opportunities and develop standardized products and services suitable for a global audience. Many of the Levitt’s assertions remain as audacious and provocative today as when they were written. Nationalist practices, for instance, are described as “the last violent death rattle of an obsolete institution” (p. 101).

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  • Osland, Joyce S. “Broadening the Debate: The Pros and Cons of Globalization.” Journal of Management Inquiry 12.2 (2003): 137–154.

    DOI: 10.1177/1056492603012002005Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Another well-cited review of the globalization literature, this one places emphasis on the multinational firm’s relationship with governments, labor, and society.

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  • Rhinesmith, Stephen H. A Manager’s Guide to Globalization: Six Skills for Success in a Changing World. 2d ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1996.

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    Originally published in 1992 and targeted to a broad audience, this book remains highly cited in the scholarly literature on global leadership. Rhinesmith argues that personal and organizational success in the global environment requires the ability to manage competitiveness, complexity, organizational alignment, organizational change, multicultural teams, and learning.

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  • Vernon, Raymond. Sovereignty at Bay: The Multinational Spread of U.S. Enterprises. London: Routledge, 2001.

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    One of the earliest international business classics, originally published in 1971 (New York: Basic Books); ten years after its initial publication, the author lamented that most of it readers remember the title but not its contents. Suggests that the flexibility multinational firms enjoy in being able to transfer activities across national borders has brought about a fundamental shift in power away from nation-states and toward large corporations.

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Challenges Specific to Multinational Companies

While the consequences of globalization affect both domestic and multinational firms, there are certain challenges largely unique to firms operating internationally. One of the first of these challenges to receive systematic scholarly attention was the need for expatriate employees to adjust to a new country and societal culture.

Culture Shock, Expatriate Acculturation, and Development

Early research on culture shock, expatriate acculturation, and development went on to help shape the literature on global leadership, since leaders of multinational firms not only are often expatriates themselves but are also called upon to motivate and guide others who are working abroad. Oberg 1960 is famous for its elaboration on culture shock and inspiring other researchers to examine the acculturation process. Mendenhall and Oddou 1985 offers a well-known literature review on expatriate acculturation and adjustment, whereas Mendenhall and Stahl 2000 examines the related topic of training and developing individuals for expatriate work.

  • Mendenhall, Mark, and Gary Oddou. “The Dimensions of Expatriate Acculturation: A Review.” Academy of Management Review 10.1 (January 1985): 39–47.

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    Expert review of the early research on expatriate acculturation and adaptation. Successful expatriate acculturation is argued to depend on four factors: self-oriented, others-oriented, perceptual, and cultural toughness dimensions. Helped to shape scholarly opinions on characteristics contributing to global leadership performance.

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  • Mendenhall, Mark, and Günter K. Stahl. “Expatriate Training and Development: Where Do We Go From Here?” Human Resource Management 39.2–3 (2000): 251–265.

    DOI: 10.1002/1099-050X(200022/23)39:2/3%3C251::AID-HRM13%3E3.0.CO;2-ISave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Builds upon the review of expatriate acculturation research in Mendenhall and Oddou 1985 and provides prescriptive advice on how to improve expatriate performance through training and human resource management.

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  • Oberg, Kalervo. “Culture Shock: Adjustment to New Cultural Environments.” Practical Anthropology 7 (1960): 177–182.

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    Sometimes mistakenly credited for introducing the term “culture shock.” (The honor apparently belongs to anthropologist Clara DuBois.) Presents famous four-stage model of cultural adaptation (honeymoon, culture shock, recovery, adaptation). Widely used in its own right, this framework provided the inspiration for more-nuanced formulations, including five-stage variants by Peter Adler and Paul Pedersen and Stephen Rhinesmith’s ten-stage model.

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Identifying and Responding to Cross-Border Differences

Research on the expatriate experience can be viewed more generally as an example of one of the most fundamental tasks in international business; namely, identifying and responding to cross-country differences. Lilienthal 1960 offers an early treatment on how the problems faced by multinational corporations are distinct from those of domestic firms. As Ghemawat 2007 suggests, strategy scholars often stress that cross-border differences provide not only difficulties but also opportunities. Eden and Miller 2004 and Berry, et al. 2010 highlight complementary international business research on institutional distance, which focuses on many of the same types of cross-national differences emphasized by scholars in global leadership.

  • Berry, Heather, Mauro F. Guillén, and Nan Zhou. “An Institutional Approach to Cross-National Distance.” Journal of International Business Studies 41.9 (December 2010): 1460–1480.

    DOI: 10.1057/jibs.2010.28Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Presents and validates a new set of time-varying measures for nine categories of cross-national distance (economic, financial, political, administrative, cultural, demographic, knowledge, connectedness, and geographic). The data, which have been calculated for up to forty-five years and nearly all country combinations, are freely available for download on the Faculty Research page of the Penn Lauder CIBER website.

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  • Eden, Loraine, and Stewart R. Miller. “Distance Matters: Liability of Foreignness, Institutional Distance and Ownership Strategy.” Advances in International Management 16 (2004): 187–222.

    DOI: 10.1016/S0747-7929(04)16010-1Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Offers a thorough review of research on institutional distance and examines the relationship between institutional distance and the earlier-introduced concepts of “cost of doing business abroad” and “liability of foreignness.”

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  • Ghemawat, Pankaj. “Managing Differences: The Central Challenge of Global Strategy.” Harvard Business Review 85.3 (March 2007): 58–68.

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    Provides insights from a strategic management perspective on how the role of management and leadership in multinational firms is fundamentally different from that in purely domestic organizations. Argues that cross-country differences often require adaptation but can also be a source of advantage, by generating new knowledge and market opportunities, enhancing flexibility, and managing costs.

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  • Lilienthal, David E. “The Multinational Corporation.” In Management and Corporations, 1985: A Symposium Held on the Occasion of the Tenth Anniversary of the Graduate School of Industrial Administration, Carnegie Institute of Technology. Edited by Melvin Anshen and George Leland Bach, 119–158. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1960.

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    Arguably a “lost” international business classic; participants at a 1960 conference were tasked with describing what business corporations would be like twenty-five years into the future. Lilienthal’s speech is recorded here. Business historians trace the term “multinational corporation” back to Lilienthal’s presentation, but this chapter is also notable for outlining many of the challenges that international managers still confront today.

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Current Topics and Trends

The history of research on global leadership has followed a fascinating progression. The earliest contributions to this literature (such as Perlmutter 1969, cited under Global Mindset) drew more from the types of international business ideas and concerns discussed above than from traditional leadership theory. As global and cross-cultural leadership research began to coalesce and emerge as a major area of inquiry, however, researchers increasingly turned toward established traditional leadership frameworks. Stronger ties with mainstream leadership research may have provided global leadership with the enhanced legitimacy often required by a newly emerging academic field. More recently, the trend appears to have begun to reverse itself toward greater separation from traditional leadership theories. Following renewed interest in global mindset and the availability of some large-scale international datasets, research on global leadership has again been paying increasing attention to what is truly unique about the multinational enterprise. Replications and extensions of traditional theories will likely always play an important role in global leadership, but studies on Developing Global Leaders and Ensuring Effectiveness, Global Mindset, Managing Global Stakeholders, and Large-Scale Comparative Studies, as well as Single-Country and Region-Specific Studies, are starting to bring about a broader perspective on leadership.

Applications of Traditional Leadership Theories

As previously discussed, Bass’s transformational/transactional paradigm has been applied more often in research on comparative and global leadership than has probably any other traditional leadership theory. Both Bass 1997 and Jung, et al. 1995 discuss the prospects for the framework’s generalizability across countries. Chen and Fahr 2001 and Kirkman, et al. 2009 serve as laudable examples taken from the large number of quantitative studies that have applied transformational and transactional leadership concepts on a cross-country or comparative basis. Some other traditional leadership theories have also begun to gain relatively more attention. Holmberg and Åkerblom 2006 is a fine empirical study using Global Leadership, Organizational Behavior and Effectiveness (GLOBE) Project data that also provides an excellent discussion of the conceptual link between that project and implicit leadership theory. Bledow, et al. 2011 reflects the growing interest both in strategy and leadership research about how some managers switch effectively between seemingly contradictory leadership styles, depending on organizational and environmental contingencies.

  • Bass, Bernard M. “Does the Transactional-Transformational Leadership Paradigm Transcend Organizational and National Boundaries?” American Psychologist 52.2 (1997): 130–139.

    DOI: 10.1037/0003-066X.52.2.130Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Reviews the literature on the transactional versus transformational leadership framework, arguing there is strong empirical evidence for its broad applicability across countries. The specific ways that transformational and transactional leadership styles are expressed may differ, however, due to cultural and organizational factors.

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  • Bledow, Ronald, Michael Frese, and Verena Mueller. “Ambidextrous Leadership for Innovation: The Influence of Culture.” In Advances in Global Leadership. Vol. 6. Edited by William H. Mobley, Ming Li, and Ying Wang, 41–69. Bingley, UK: Emerald, 2011.

    DOI: 10.1108/S1535-1203(2011)0000006006Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The concept of ambidextrous leadership suggests that managers should adjust their leadership style depending on whether the timing and context are appropriate to encourage or discourage certain behaviors. Extending this idea to global leadership, the authors offer guidance on when leaders of innovation processes ought to promote or suppress the cultural tendencies of various countries.

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  • Chen, Xiao-Ping, and Jiing-Lih Fahr. “Transformational and Transactional Leader Behaviors in Chinese Organizations: Differential Effects in the People’s Republic of China and Taiwan.” In Advances in Global Leadership. Vol. 2. Edited by William H. Mobley and Morgan W. McCall Jr., 101–126. Bingley, UK: Emerald, 2001.

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    Finds that transformational leadership behaviors have a greater positive influence on various organizational outcomes than transactional behaviors, both in China and Taiwan. However, the specific transformational and transactional behaviors found to be significant were different between the two countries, suggesting that neither transactional nor transformational leadership should be viewed as a uniform set of behaviors that can be deployed identically across countries.

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  • Holmberg, Ingalill, and Staffan Åkerblom. “Modelling Leadership—Implicit Leadership Theories in Sweden.” Scandinavian Journal of Management 22.4 (December 2006): 307–329.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.scaman.2006.10.002Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Interesting application of implicit leadership theory, comparing attitudes of Swedish middle managers with those of their counterparts in sixty-one other countries. Important leadership qualities in Sweden included those that were nearly universally endorsed across countries as well as others that were more distinctive. “Self protective” was found to be a distinctive factor presumed to inhibit good leadership.

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  • Jung, Dong I., Bernard M. Bass, and John J. Sosik. “Bridging Leadership and Culture: A Theoretical Consideration of Transformational Leadership and Collectivistic Cultures.” Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies 2.4 (1995): 3–18.

    DOI: 10.1177/107179199500200402Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Conceptual article suggesting that transformational leadership is consistent with the values and beliefs of collectivist societies, even though the theoretical framework was first developed in the individualist United States.

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  • Kirkman, Bradley J., Gilad Chen, Jiing-Lih Fahr, Zhen Xiong Chen, and Kevin B. Lowe. “Individual Power Distance Orientation and Follower Reactions to Transformational Leaders: A Cross-Level, Cross-Cultural Examination.” Academy of Management Journal 52.4 (2009): 744–764.

    DOI: 10.5465/AMJ.2009.43669971Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Well-constructed empirical study exploring the relationship between employee-level power distance orientation, group-level perceptions of transformational leadership, procedural justice perceptions, and organizational citizenship behavior. The model was tested both in China and the United States, with no significant differences in findings.

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Developing Global Leaders and Ensuring Effectiveness

Books and articles on the development and effectiveness of global leadership compose the largest portion of the literature. Since this topic also enjoys a large popular audience, many managers and consultants have authored insightful works in this area. However, the sheer number of publications can make it difficult to separate the wheat from the chaff. We concentrate below mostly on publications directed toward academic researchers, but also include some other titles frequently cited in the scholarly literature. While not strictly an application of formal traditional leadership theories, much work in the area follows the trait or behavioral tradition (see Zaccaro 2007, cited under Traditional Leadership Theories), where scholars attempt to uncover the traits, attributes, competencies, behaviors, and practices contributing to effective global leadership. Osland 2008 provides an extensive discussion on prior research, focusing on global leadership traits. Yeung and Ready 1995 provides an early empirical study aimed at identifying preferred leadership characteristics across several countries. Both Spreitzer, et al. 1997 and Roth 1995 provide quantitative tests exploring connections between leadership characteristics and various performance outcomes. We conclude this section with four conceptual works that have made a significant impact on managers and on researchers in global leadership alike. Adler and Bartholomew 1992 offers guidance on how human resource management can contribute to global leadership and corporate-level strategy. Bartlett and Ghoshal 1992 provides a convincing case against trying to identify a single group of attributes that are appropriate for all global managers regardless of their role within the firm. McCall and Hollenbeck 2002 provides advice to executives, based on extensive interviews across a large number of countries. Kanter 1997, helped conceptualize the concept of cosmopolitanism, which has frequently been identified as an important global leadership attribute.

  • Adler, Nancy J., and Susan Bartholomew. “Managing Globally Competent People.” Academy of Management Executive 6.3 (August 1992): 52–65.

    DOI: 10.5465/AME.1992.4274189Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Frequently cited conceptual paper arguing that the human resource management strategies of many transnational firms are not sufficiently global; offers suggestions on how to modify practices and systems of human resource management to provide a better fit with business strategy. Recruitment, retention, formal training, and the composition of top management teams are among the topics addressed.

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  • Bartlett, Christopher A., and Sumantra Ghoshal. “What Is a Global Manager?” Harvard Business Review 70.5 (September–October 1992): 124–132.

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    Classic practitioner-oriented article arguing there is no single type of global manager. The skill sets required to be a successful business manager, country manager, or functional manager all are dramatically different. The corporate manager must act as a leader who develops, guides, and motivates these other groups.

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  • Kanter, Rosabeth Moss. World Class: Thriving Locally in the Global Economy. New York: Touchstone, 1997.

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    Targeted to a broad audience, but frequently cited by researchers in global leadership. Well known for its distinction between “cosmopolitan” and “local” worldviews, Kanter’s book provides recommendations both for business executives and community leaders on how to respond to globalization.

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  • McCall, Morgan W., Jr., and George P. Hollenbeck. Developing Global Executives: The Lessons of International Experience. Boston: Harvard Business School, 2002.

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    Highly recommended for students, practitioners, and researchers, this engaging book draws on a study of 101 executives across 36 countries and 16 firms. Provides rich detail of the expatriate experience.

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  • Osland, Joyce S. “An Overview of the Global Leadership Literature.” In Global Leadership: Research, Practice, and Development. Edited by Mark E. Mendenhall, Joyce S. Osland, Allan Bird, Gary R. Oddou, and Martha L. Maznevski, 34–63. Routledge Global Human Resource Management. London and New York: Routledge, 2008.

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    An excellent review of the overall literature on global leadership, with emphasis placed on competencies. Drawing on an earlier unpublished paper with Mark Mendenhall, Osland identifies fifty-six global leadership, competencies along six categories (cross-cultural relationship skills, traits, global business expertise, global organizing expertise, cognitive orientation, and visioning) that have been proposed in the literature.

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  • Roth, Kendall. “Managing International Interdependence: CEO Characteristics in a Resource-Based Framework.” Academy of Management Journal 38.1 (February 1995): 200–231.

    DOI: 10.2307/256733Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Empirical study proposing that the degree of a firm’s international interdependence helps determine which CEO characteristics are most critical for organizational success. CEO characteristics explored include locus of control, international experience, and information evaluation style.

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  • Spreitzer, Gretchen M., Morgan W. McCall Jr., and Joan D. Mahoney. “Early Identification of International Executive Potential.” Journal of Applied Psychology 82.1 (1997): 6–29.

    DOI: 10.1037/0021-9010.82.1.6Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Well-crafted empirical study that develops a fourteen-category instrument used to predict the performance of managers in international assignments; the instrument’s validity is tested based on the current performance of managers from six multinational firms across twenty-one countries.

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  • Yeung, Arthur K., and Douglas A. Ready. “Developing Leadership Capabilities of Global Corporations: A Comparative Study in Eight Nations.” Human Resource Management 34.4 (1995): 529–547.

    DOI: 10.1002/hrm.3930340405Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    One of the first empirical studies to explore leadership competencies on a cross-country, comparative basis; the authors identify six leadership capabilities valued across all countries studied. They further suggest that the relative importance of these factors differs across countries, due to cultural differences.

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Global Leadership Assessment Instruments

Research on global leadership competencies has contributed to the development of a number of assessment instruments. Oftentimes, these tools are owned by research institutes or consulting firms that charge substantial fees for their use. Bird 2008 provides a superb critique of several of these assessment instruments. Jokinen 2005 not only offers excellent review of the work done on global leadership competencies but describes how various assessment instruments have been used in quantitative research. We also include a current list of some of the most popular and influential instruments used for assessing global leadership. While these and other global leadership instruments are sometimes viewed as substitutes, there are important differences, and the use of multiple tools can offer complementary information. The Cross-Country Adaptability Inventory is one of the oldest and best-established global leadership assessment tools, dealing specifically with an individual’s ability to fit in with a different culture. The Cultural Intelligence Center CQ Assessments seek to measure another one of the most widely known attributes associated with global leadership. By comparison, both the Global Competencies Inventory and the Global Executive Leadership Inventory were designed to evaluate a broader range of leadership characteristics.

Global Mindset

Javidan and Teagarden 2011 defines “global mindset as an individual’s ability to influence individuals, groups, organizations, and systems that are unlike him or her or his or her own” (p. 14). While this concept could be regarded as just one of the many potentially important leadership competencies, the body of work on global mindset is so large and central to the field of global leadership that it is often treated as a separate research area. Researchers have investigated the impact of global mindset on more types of practices, strategies, and outcomes in multinational firms than any other cognitive dimension. The idea of global mindset—along with the inspiration for many of the earliest writings on global leadership—can be traced back to Perlmutter 1969, a classic article on ethnocentric, polycentric, and geocentric cultural attitudes. Perlmutter later supplemented this model by adding a fourth category called regiocentric, which was one the acknowledgements in the literature that regional geographic clusters constitute an important unit of analysis for research on international business and global leadership. Kobrin 1994 helped draw attention to Perlmutter’s framework among quantitative researchers by including the results of one of the first empirical tests on geocentric mindset. The encyclopedia article Schneper and von Glinow 2013 discusses the connection between Perlmutter’s ideas and the more recent research on global mindset. Levy, et al. 2007 and Javidan and Teagarden 2011 provide reviews emphasizing different aspects of research on global mindset. Bartlett and Ghoshal 2008, a seminal book on “the transnational solution,” offers a strategic management perspective on global mindset. The authors argue that business success at the worldwide level depends even more on fostering the correct managerial mindset than on formal organizational structure or management control systems. Murtha, et al. 1998 develops a survey instrument and includes the results of an empirical test that built on Bartlett and Ghoshal’s work. We conclude this section with information on the Global Mindset Inventory assessment instruments offered by Global Mindset Institute at the Thunderbird School of Global Management.

  • Bartlett, Christopher A., and Sumantra Ghoshal. Managing across Borders: The Transnational Solution. 2d ed. Boston: Harvard Business School, 2008.

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    Hugely influential book, originally published in 1989, exploring the importance of multinational managerial mindset from a global strategy perspective. Within Bartlett and Ghoshal’s parlance, the “transnational” mentality supplants Perlmutter’s geocentricism as the ideal worldview for global leaders. The authors argue that organizational success at the global level requires that firms must balance conflicting needs for local responsiveness and worldwide efficiency.

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  • Global Mindset Inventory.

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    Developed by the Global Mindset Institute at the Thunderbird School of Global Management, this instrument is designed to measure three types of capital associated with global mindset (intellectual, psychological, social). Both peer-based assessments and self-assessments are available; the institute provides representative (but not actual) questions associated with each form of capital on its website.

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  • Javidan, Mansour, and Mary B. Teagarden. “Conceptualizing and Measuring Global Mindset.” In Advances in Global Leadership. Vol. 6. Edited by William H. Mobley, Ming Li, and Ying Wang, 13–39. Bingley, UK: Emerald, 2011.

    DOI: 10.1108/S1535-1203(2011)0000006005Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Another expert review of research on global mindset, this one focusing on the various ways the construct has been operationalized and used in empirical tests.

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  • Kobrin, Stephen J. “Is There a Relationship between a Geocentric Mind-Set and Multinational Strategy?” Journal of International Business Studies 25.3 (1994): 493–511.

    DOI: 10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8490209Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    One of the first empirical studies using Perlmutter’s notion of geocentric managerial mindset. The paper helped promote the legitimacy of Perlmutter’s framework and foster interest in multinational managerial mindsets among academics, as quantitative research methods increasingly came to dominate international management research.

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  • Levy, Orly, Schon Beechler, Sully Taylor, and Nakiye A. Boyaçigiller. “What We Talk About When We Talk About ‘Global Mindset’: Managerial Cognition in Multinational Corporations.” Journal of International Business Studies 38.2 (March 2007): 231–258.

    DOI: 10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8400265Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Detailed review of the literature on global mindset, from cultural, strategic, and multidimensional perspectives. Two constructs (cosmopolitanism and cognitive complexity) are argued as underlying global mindset.

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  • Murtha, Thomas P., Stefanie Ann Lenway, and Richard P. Bagozzi. “Global Mind-Sets and Cognitive Shift in a Complex Multinational Corporation.” Strategic Management Journal 19.2 (February 1998): 97–114.

    DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0266(199802)19:2%3C97::AID-SMJ943%3E3.0.CO;2-2Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Proposes and validates a survey instrument used to measure global mindset, based on integration, responsiveness, and country coordination expectations. The authors’ treatment of global mindset draws heavily on Bartlett and Ghoshal’s strategic management approach rather than on more-cultural and psychological treatments.

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  • Perlmutter, Howard V. “The Tortuous Evolution of the Multinational Corporation.” Columbia Journal of World Business 4.1 (January–February 1969): 9–18.

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    Landmark article that has made an enduring impact on several strands of international business research, including international human resource management, global strategy, and global leadership; proposed that that multinational firms could be categorized based on the cultural attitudes (worldviews) of their top executives. Perlmutter proposed that three fundamental worldviews (ethnocentric, polycentric, geocentric) represented a progression observable within many multinational firms.

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  • Schneper, William D., and Mary Ann von Glinow. “Cultural Attitudes in Multinational Corporations.” In Encyclopedia of Management Theory. Edited by Eric H. Kessler, 173–176. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE, 2013.

    DOI: 10.4135/9781452276090Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Discusses the relationship between Perlmutter’s original theoretical framework and more recent research on managerial mindset; explores cultural and strategic approaches to the study of global mindset.

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Managing Global Stakeholders

One of the central challenges facing all top-level business managers is finding a way to respond to the often-conflicting demands of the firm’s various stakeholders. This situation can be especially complex for managers and leaders of global companies since they must deal with stakeholders at local, international, and global levels. Such stakeholders typically include home and host-country governments and their citizens, customers, suppliers, shareholders and other investors, and international NGOs. Some theorists even consider the natural environment to be a special class of stakeholder that imposes its own unique set of demands and pressures. Given the difficulty of this challenge, it may not be surprising that the global leadership literature is placing increasing attention on stakeholder management. Mitchell, et al. 1997 is a foundational paper in stakeholder management research, and equally relevant both to global and nonglobal firms. Its underlying rationale pervades nearly all research on stakeholder management, if sometimes just implicitly. Schneper, et al. 2013 describes how culture and stakeholder demands can lead to organizational underperformance, and offers global leadership as a potential solution. Osland and Osland 2007 and Reade, et al. 2008 provide case-based research on stakeholder management issues involving the same corporate controversy.

  • Mitchell, Ronald K., Bradley R. Agle, and Donna J. Wood. “Toward a Theory of Stakeholder Identification and Salience: Defining the Principle of Who and What Really Counts.” Academy of Management Review 22.4 (1997): 853–886.

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    Theoretical paper that seeks to explain how organizational decision makers assign priority to the competing claims of various stakeholders. The authors propose that priority is determined by three stakeholder attributes: (1) power, (2) legitimacy, and (3) urgency. A seminal article in stakeholder management theory.

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  • Osland, Asbjorn, and Joyce Osland. “Aracruz Celulose: Best Practices Icon but Still at Risk.” International Journal of Manpower 28.5 (2007): 435–450.

    DOI: 10.1108/01437720710778411Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Case study involving the Brazilian firm Aracruz Celulose, which holds title to land claimed by impoverished indigenous communities. The case chronicles the firm’s dealings with various stakeholder groups in order to resolve this controversy. The case provides a more detailed account of the events described in Reade, et al. 2008 (discussed in this section). This article can serve as an effective follow up to the simulation exercise outline in Reade, et al. 2008.

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  • Reade, Carol, Anne Marie Todd, Asbjorn Osland, and Joyce Osland. “Poverty and the Multiple Stakeholder Challenge for Global Leaders.” Journal of Management Education 32.6 (December 2008): 820–840.

    DOI: 10.1177/1052562908317445Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Academic case study involving a controversy surrounding the Brazilian firm Aracruz Celulose; provides materials to conduct an in-class simulation; demonstrates the importance of stakeholder communications. For more detailed information on the events covered by the simulation, see Osland and Osland 2007.

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  • Schneper, William D., David A. Wernick, and Mary Ann von Glinow. “Stakeholder Voice, Corporate Dysfunction and Change: An Organizational Learning Perspective.” In Voice and Whistleblowing in Organizations: Overcoming Fear, Fostering Courage and Unleashing Candour. Edited by Ronald J. Burke and Cary L. Cooper, 113–137. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar, 2013.

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    Conceptual piece that explores the relationship between organizational learning and firm performance. It is argued that organizational learning depends upon stakeholder feedback, the firm’s ability to change and adapt, and effective goal setting. These factors, in turn, can all be affected by national cultural differences and the degree of stakeholder power. The article places emphasis on how organizational dysfunction can be resolved through effective leadership.

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Gender and Global Leadership

While certain reviews of leadership research (including this one) begin by spotlighting a litany of famous male leaders, it is important to note that several of history’s most prominent political, spiritual, and business leaders have been women. Despite the accomplishments of Indra Nooyi, Meg Whitman, Anita Roddick, Margaret Thatcher, Hillary Rodham Clinton, Eleanor Roosevelt, and Mother Teresa, to name just a few, leadership research has focused more frequently on men (see discussions in Adler 1997, Adler 1998, and Adler 2002). The papers described below examine the relationship between gender and global leadership. We spotlight the work of Nancy Adler, since she has been the most influential contributor to this topic. In addition, Ngunjiri and Madsen 2015 is an exemplary edited volume on women and global leadership, covering a variety of topics and issues. Paris, et al. 2009 examines differences in the preferred leadership styles of male and female leaders, across a large country sample.

  • Adler, Nancy J. “Global Leadership: Women Leaders.” Management International Review 37.1 (1997): 171–196.

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    Highly cited article that has been reprinted in several edited volumes. Adler documents the increasing number of women who became global business leaders from the 1950s into the 1990s. She argues that this trend is occurring at the same time that certain skills and values associated with femininity (including empathy, interpersonal sensitivity, nurturance, and an emphasis on cooperation and egalitarianism) have become widely viewed as elements of preferred global leadership style.

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  • Adler, Nancy J. “Did You Hear? Global Leadership in Charity’s World.” Journal of Management Inquiry 7.2 (1998): 135–143.

    DOI: 10.1177/105649269872008Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Powerful essay examining Charity Ngilu, the first women to run for president in Kenya. (She was ultimately defeated.) Adler discusses Ngilu’s career, leadership style, and rise to prominence, finding parallels with women leaders in the global business world.

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  • Adler, Nancy J. “Global Managers: No Longer Men Alone.” International Journal of Human Resource Management 13.5 (2002): 743–760.

    DOI: 10.1080/09585190210125895Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Explores the reasons global firms give for selecting female managers compared to the reasons offered for selecting their male counterparts. Adler argues that organizational expectations of women managers depend on the degree to which the firm values diversity and whether decision makers believe men and women possess different yet complementary managerial and leadership competencies.

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  • Ngunjiri, Faith Wambura, and Susan R. Madsen, eds. Women as Global Leaders. Charlotte, NC: Information Age, 2015.

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    Interesting collection of new articles on women as global leaders; contains two fine introductory articles, one by Nancy Adler and the other by Joyce Osland; the topic of women as global leaders is explored from a variety of theoretical lenses, including cultural intelligence and authentic leadership. Considerable attention is also placed on strategies for developing women as global leaders. The final section includes stories and cases on several female leaders and public personalities.

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  • Paris, Lori D., Jon P. Howell, Peter W. Dorfman, and Paul J. Hanges. “Preferred Leadership Prototypes of Male and Female Leaders in 27 Countries.” Journal of International Business Studies 40.8 (October–November 2009): 1396–1405.

    DOI: 10.1057/jibs.2008.114Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Interesting cross-country study that finds that women leaders are more likely to prefer charismatic, participative, and team-oriented leadership approaches. No significant differences were found between male and female preferences for humane orientation. The researchers observed some country-level differences, but industry variation was even greater.

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Corporate Social Responsibility, Ethics, and Global Leadership

Increased attention to corporate social responsibility has been an important trend in many areas of business research, and global leadership is no exception. The literature on corporate social responsibility and global leadership shares some similarities, in that both fields have traditionally been dominated by conceptual and prescriptive treatises. Given these considerations and especially the limited availability of data on cross-country corporate social responsibility, the two papers identified in this section are particularly admirable. Waldman, et al. 2006 seeks to identify which leadership characteristics are related to corporate social responsibility across countries. Euwema, et al. 2007 confines its attention to within the firm, by examining how leadership styles of managers influence the organizational citizenship behavior of their subordinates. Pless, et al. 2011 examines the relationship between service learning and global leadership.

  • Euwema, Martin C., Hein Wendt, and Hetty van Emmerik. “Leadership Styles and Group Organizational Citizenship Behavior across Cultures.” Journal of Organizational Behavior 28.8 (2007): 1035–1057.

    DOI: 10.1002/job.496Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Utilizes data both from GLOBE and Geert Hofstede, along with an impressive data set measuring leadership styles (supportive versus directive) and organizational citizenship behavior of 20,336 managers and 95,893 group members across 33 countries. The researchers find no direct relationship between national culture and group organizational citizenship behavior (GOCB) but discover that individualism and power distance moderated the relationship between leadership style and GOCP.

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  • Pless, Nicola M., Thomas Maak, and Günter K. Stahl. “Developing Responsible Global Leaders through International Service Learning Programs: The Ulysses Experiences.” Academy of Management Learning & Education 10.2 (2011): 237–260.

    DOI: 10.5465/AMLE.2011.62798932Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Chronicles the results of a service-learning program that placed teams into developing countries to work with social entrepreneurs, NGOs, or other international organizations. Content analysis of the interviews of seventy participants suggests learning in six areas: (1) responsible mindset, (2) ethical literacy, (3) cultural intelligence, (4) global mindset, (5) self-development, and (6) community building.

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  • Waldman, David A., Mary Sully de Luque, Nathan Washburn, Robert J. House, et al. “Cultural and Leadership Predictors of Corporate Social Responsibility Values of Top Management: A GLOBE Study of 15 Countries.” Journal of International Business Studies 37.6 (2006): 823–837.

    DOI: 10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8400230Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    National cultural values of institutional collectivism and power distance were found to be positively associated with values of corporate social responsibility among top managers. At the managerial level, visionary leadership and integrity had a similarly positive impact. The authors argue that corporate social responsibility is a multidimensional construct involving concern for shareholders, stakeholders, and the state, but that organizational leaders differ in their level of commitment to these various groups.

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Large-Scale Comparative Studies

Geert Hofstede’s work on national cultural dimensions values and the project on Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness (GLOBE) can be rightfully labeled as the “big two” large-scale, cross-country international business initiatives. Their impact on global leadership and, more generally, international management has been enormous. Among their many theoretical and practical implications, these studies have provided insights on the degree to which leadership styles and practices are transferrable across countries. The main elements of Hofstede’s theory and approach are detailed in his two seminal books, discussed below (Hofstede 1980, Hofstede 1991). The theoretical foundations and initial findings of the GLOBE Project are discussed in House, et al. 2004, titled Culture, Leadership, and Organizations. House, et al. 2002; and Gupta, et al. 2002 are journal articles addressing different aspects of GLOBE research. Chhokar, et al. 2007 is the second major book produced by GLOBE. This work complements the project’s early quantitative emphasis, with greater use of qualitative methods including structured interviews. Given the prominence both of Hofstede’s research and the GLOBE Project, it shouldn’t be surprising that both initiatives have faced considerable criticism, especially for their methodological limitations. Smith 2006 provides insightful commentary on these critiques. The World Values Survey is another major large-scale comparative study. This initiative has traditionally had less of an impact on global leadership research, perhaps due to its emphasis on general rather than work-related values. However, its influence in international management appears to be growing, as evidenced by its recent incorporation in Hofstede’s research on cultural dimensions.

  • Chhokar, Jagdeep S., Felix C. Brodbeck, and Robert J. House, eds. Culture and Leadership across the World: The GLOBE Book of In-Depth Studies of 25 Societies. Lea’s Organization and Management Series. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 2007.

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    This is the second book produced directly as a result of GLOBE. By focusing on a smaller group of countries and societies, this effort provides a more detailed examination (including extensive qualitative research) of individual cultures and serves to validate GLOBE’s earlier cultural indices and empirical findings.

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  • Gupta, Vipin, Paul J. Hanges, and Peter Dorfman. “Cultural Clusters: Methodology and Findings.” Journal of World Business 37.1 (2002): 11–15.

    DOI: 10.1016/S1090-9516(01)00070-0Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    An article detailing early GLOBE findings and focusing on the identification of the ten cultural clusters: Anglo cultures, Latin Europe, Nordic Europe, Germanic Europe, eastern Europe, Latin America, Sub-Saharan Africa, Arab cultures, South Asia, and Confucian Asia.

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  • Hofstede, Geert H. Culture’s Consequences: International Differences in Work-Related Values. Cross-Cultural Research and Methodology 5. Beverly Hills, CA: SAGE, 1980.

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    Describe’s Hofstede’s four original cultural indices of work-related values: power distance, individualism versus collectivism, masculinity versus femininity, and uncertainty avoidance. A fifth dimension, called long-term orientation, was added in 1991, based on additional research conducted by Michael Bond. Despite various ongoing methodological criticisms, Hofstede’s measures are still widely used by scholars of global leadership and international business.

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  • Hofstede, Geert H. Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind. London and New York: McGraw-Hill, 1991.

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    While covering much of the same ground as Hofstede 1980, this book devotes more attention to the management and leadership implications of Hofstede’s famous measures. The 2010 edition uses research by Michael Minkov and data from the World Values Survey to extend cultural values scores to ninety-three countries and to add a sixth dimension, labeled indulgence versus restraint.

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  • House, Robert J., Paul J. Hanges, Mansour Javidan, Peter W. Dorfman, and Vipin Gupta. Culture, Leadership, and Organizations: The GLOBE Study of 62 Societies. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE, 2004.

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    Landmark book describing the development of a pool of 753 questionnaire items used across organizations in 62 societies to identify 9 cultural dimensions. One of the most important findings reported in the book is the identification of twenty-one “first order” factors and subscales thought to be characteristic of various leadership styles across the world (see Table 8.4 on p. 131).

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  • House, Robert, Mansour Javidan, Paul Hanges, and Peter Dorfman. “Understanding Cultures and Implicit Leadership Theories across the Globe: An Introduction to Project GLOBE.” Journal of World Business 37.1 (2002): 3–10.

    DOI: 10.1016/S1090-9516(01)00069-4Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Compared to the rather imposing 818 pages that compose House, et al. 2004, this article offers a more gentle and succinct introduction to GLOBE’s central concepts and findings. Similar to other GLOBE publications, the article proposes that certain leadership attributes are either universally endorsed or condemned, whereas the favorability of others is culturally contingent.

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  • Smith, Peter B. “When Elephants Fight, the Grass Gets Trampled: The GLOBE and Hofstede Projects.” Journal of International Business Studies 37.6 (2006): 915–921.

    DOI: 10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8400235Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Balanced account of the methodological concerns most frequently raised both about Hofstede’s cultural values and GLOBE research. Smith discusses the pros and cons of each framework, in a thoughtful manner, and cautions against an overreliance on either approach.

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  • World Values Survey.

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    The World Values Survey (WVS) has compiled survey data on values dating back to 1981, with information now covering ninety-seven countries. Data are available for download or online analysis via the WVS homepage. The website also provides links to several research publications that have used data on world values.

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Single-Country and Region-Specific Studies

Single-country and smaller-scale cross-country comparative studies are another important part of research on global leadership. These studies can assist in what Thomas Kuhn termed “normal science” by validating and extending established theories (see p. 10 of his 1962 book, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Chicago: University of Chicago Press). They can also provide new insights on whether specific leadership principles are universal or culturally contingent, as well as on the difficulties leaders face when confronting unfamiliar countries. In rare instances, this research might help generate new theories or assist in the identification of leadership styles not easily evident in settings such as the United States—for example, the promising work on Asian paternalism in Redding 1993 and in other works cited under Asia and the Pacific Rim. While the references included in this section are generally not considered by most experts on global leadership to be core readings in their field, they are nonetheless part of an essential and often-fascinating area of global leadership. This section offers a broad sampling of single-country and regional research in the Americas, Asia, Europe, and Africa and the Middle East.

The Americas

As previously described, the United States has provided the setting for the majority of leadership research. By comparison, the two contiguous neighbors of the United States have received scant attention. Kwantes and Chung-Yan 2012 contributes to the leadership scholarship on Canada and address how prospects for effective global leadership in that country are affected by ties with the United States. Martínez and Dorfman 1998 investigates some of the unique aspects of business leadership in Mexico. In contrast, Osland, et al. 1999 argues that US-based management and leadership principles and theories shouldn’t be readily dismissed when considering Latin American countries. Cavazotte, et al. 2012 reflects the growing interest by scholars in Brazilian business and leadership practices. Finally, we include Kessler 2010, a book chapter on US leadership style, for its emphasis on similarities and differences with other countries.

  • Cavazotte, Flavia, Valter Moreno, and Mateus Hickmann. “Effects of Leader Intelligence, Personality, and Emotional Intelligence on Transformational Leadership and Managerial Performance.” Leadership Quarterly 23.3 (2012): 443–455.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.leaqua.2011.10.003Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A recent application of the transformational leadership paradigm, this time using a sample of mid-level managers from a large Brazilian firm; finds a strong relationship between transformational leadership and firm performance.

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  • Kessler, Eric H. “Cultural Mythology and Global Leadership in the United States.” In Cultural Mythology and Global Leadership. Edited by Eric H. Kessler and Diana J. Wong-MingJi, 31–48. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar, 2010.

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    While there is no scarcity of leadership studies focusing on the United States, Kessler’s chapter adopts a comparative approach by exploring what is distinct and novel about the American leadership. He argues that examining the culture’s most popular comic book superheroes provides helpful insights on preferred American leadership archetypes. Batman exemplifies innovation, creativity, and judgment under uncertainty, for instance, whereas Captain America stands for courage, commitment, and loyalty.

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  • Kwantes, Catherine T., and Greg A. Chung-Yan. “Developing a Global Mindset for Leaders: The Case of the Canadian Context.” In Advances in Global Leadership. Vol. 7. Edited by William H. Mobley, Ming Li, and Ying Wang, 295–320. Bingley, UK: Emerald, 2012.

    DOI: 10.1108/S1535-1203(2012)0000007017Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The authors evaluate the prospects for global mindset amongst the citizens north of the “world’s longest undefended border.” They argue that Canadian values encouraging diversity, egalitarianism, deference to authority, and a balance between individualism and collectivism promote global mindset, while strong social, political and economic ties with the United States may inhibit it.

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  • Martínez, Sandra M., and Peter W. Dorfman. “The Mexican Entrepreneur: An Ethnographic Study of the Mexican Empressario.” International Studies of Management and Organization 28.2 (Summer 1998): 97–124.

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    Suggests that since the extent literature on leadership focuses on professional managers, much of this research may not be directly applicable to the Mexican context. Seeks to contribute to a culture-specific theory of Mexican leadership, by examining the role of “empressario” (manager-entrepreneur) in Mexican business.

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  • Osland, Joyce S., Silvio De Franco, and Asbjorn Osland. “Organizational Implications of Latin American Culture: Lesson for the Expatriate Manager.” Journal of Management Inquiry 8.2 (June 1999): 219–234.

    DOI: 10.1177/105649269982018Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The authors contend that managerial and workplace practices in the United States and Latin America are not as different as often presumed. They conclude the management and leadership theories developed primarily in the United States should still have relevance in Latin America, but that managers and researchers must remain mindful of cultural and institutional variations.

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Asia

Aside from US-based research, Asia has provided the setting for more leadership studies than any other region, probably due in part to the scholarly fascination in differences between Western and Eastern ideologies and business practices. Japan first began to receive systematic attention by management and leadership scholars during the 1980s, following the country’s rise to economic prominence. Both Ouchi 1981 and Pascale and Athos 1981 offer classic accounts of the traditional Japanese management model, while Pudelko and Mendenhall 2007 gives a more contemporary report. Beechler, et al. 2004 is a solid empirical paper that studies the relationship between managerial global mindset and employee outcomes within the Japanese context. Not surprisingly, recent comparative research has turned its emphasis on current economic miracles such as India and China. Capelli, et al. 2010 represents one of the most comprehensive analyses of the Indian business style, including leadership practices. Redding 1993 helped draw attention to Asian paternalism, a leadership style that appears most prevalent in China and other Asian countries. Pellegrini and Scandura 2008 reviews the research on paternalism both within and outside of Asia. The authors suggest that this topic may be one of the most promising areas for future research on comparative leadership. Shalhoop and Sanger 2012 is especially notable for its comparison of leadership styles in state-owned enterprises and multinational corporations in China.

  • Beechler, Schon, Orly Levy, Sully Taylor, and Nakiye A. Boyaçigiller. “Does It Really Matter if Japanese MNCs Think Globally?” Advances in International Management 17 (2004): 261–288.

    DOI: 10.1016/S0747-7929(04)17011-XSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Examines whether employee perceptions about organizational structures, the geocentricism of the human resources policies, and the top management team’s global orientation positively influence employee commitment and excitement. The results generally support the researchers’ model.

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  • Capelli, Peter, Harbir Singh, Jitendra Singh, and Michael Useem. The India Way: How India’s Top Business Leaders Are Revolutionizing Management. Boston: Harvard Business School, 2010.

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    Offers expert commentary on a broad range on Indian business practices and strategies, including human resource management, business strategy, corporate governance, and leadership. The authors suggest that employee engagement, holistic thinking, and a strong sense of mission are key characteristics of the Indian leadership style.

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  • Ouchi, William G. Theory Z: How American Business Can Meet the Japanese Challenge. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1981.

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    Ouchi borrowed the term “Theory Z” to describe the Japanese management system, arguing that American firms should strive to adopt many of the same leadership and management practices. Theory Z was a tremendous popular success at the time of its publication, and Ouchi’s website reports that as of 2012, the book is the seventh most widely held title in a network of more than four thousand US libraries.

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  • Pascale, Richard T., and Anthony G. Athos. The Art of Japanese Management: Applications for American Executives. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1981.

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    Published in the year following Ouchi’s Theory Z (Ouchi 1981), this book further challenged Western managers and scholars to broaden their search for effective administrative approaches and leadership strategies. Some organizational researchers, including Kathryn Baker, have credited this book (along with Ouichi’s Theory Z, Deal and Kennedy’s Corporate Cultures, and Peters and Watermen’s In Search of Excellence) for helping to bring about widespread interest in organizational culture starting in the early 1980s.

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  • Pellegrini, Ekin K., and Terri A. Scandura. “Paternalistic Leadership: A Review and Agenda for Future Research.” Journal of Management 34.3 (2008): 566–593.

    DOI: 10.1177/0149206308316063Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Comprehensive review of paternalistic leadership research, most of which has focused on Asian countries. While paternalistic leadership styles have been discussed by Western scholars at least as far back as Max Weber, the authors characterize the paternalistic style observed in traditional Asian organizations as a unique phenomenon.

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  • Pudelko, Markus, and Mark E. Mendenhall. “The Japanese Management Metamorphosis: What Western Executives Need to Know about Current Japanese Management Practices.” Organizational Dynamics 36.3 (2007): 274–287.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.orgdyn.2007.04.006Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Reexamines the Japanese management model in the wake of the country’s “lost decade.” Pudelko and Mendenhall argue that Japanese firms are undergoing a rapid transformation, and they speculate which traditional management and leadership practices will endure.

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  • Redding, S. Gordon. The Spirit of Chinese Capitalism. De Gruyter Studies in Organization 22. Berlin and New York: de Gruyter, 1993.

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    Building on Robert H. Silin’s Leadership and Value: The Organization of Large-Scale Taiwanese Enterprises (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1976), this book brought broader awareness of the paternalistic leadership style that appears characteristic in Asian countries. Redding describes paternalism as a system that combines strong authority with benevolence and expectations of filial obedience.

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  • Shalhoop, Jarrett H., and Michael R. Sanger. “Understanding Leadership in China: Leadership Profiles of State-Owned Enterprises, Multinational Corporations, and Major Economic Trading Partners.” In Advances in Global Leadership. Vol. 7. Edited by William H. Mobley, Ming Li, and Ying Wang, 321–348. Bingley, UK: Emerald, 2012.

    DOI: 10.1108/S1535-1203(2012)0000007018Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Recent study using three popular personality assessments instruments (Hogan Personality Inventory, a Big Five personality inventory, and the Hogan Development Inventory) to compare managers in Mainland China with those from Australia, Germany, and the United States. The study also reports differences in personality traits between Chinese managers of state-owned enterprise and multinational corporations.

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Europe

Many leadership studies have also been conducted in Europe. Countries such as France, the United Kingdom, and Germany offer interesting settings for replications and extensions of traditional leadership research, due to their similarities with the United States in terms of economic development coupled with their salient cultural and institutional differences. Like many European studies, Brodbeck, et al. 2002 and Brodbeck et al. 2000 draw upon GLOBE findings. While the former focuses on German leadership, the latter compares leadership archetypes across a large set of European countries. Among Scandinavian countries, Sweden has received a comparatively large amount of attention for its leadership style and practices. Some management scholars (including the authors of Zander and Zander 2010) have even pointed out how Jack Welch once remarked that “pound for pound, Sweden probably has more good managers than any other country.” Zander and Zander 2010 reviews the leadership literature on Sweden, and Holmberg and Åkerblom 2001 provides an especially well-crafted example of this work. Finally, Littrell and Valentin 2005 examines leadership preferences in three European countries, drawing attention to potential differences between developed and transitional economies.

  • Brodbeck, Felix C., Michael Frese, Staffan Åkerblom, et al. “Cultural Variation of Leadership Prototypes across 22 European Countries.” Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology 73.1 (2000): 1–29.

    DOI: 10.1348/096317900166859Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Another GLOBE study, providing detailed information on leadership prototypes across European country clusters.

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  • Brodbeck, Felix C., Michael Frese, Mansour Javidan, and Frank J. Kroll. “Leadership Made in Germany: Low on Compassion, High on Performance.” Academy of Management Executive 16.1 (February 2002): 16–30.

    DOI: 10.5465/AME.2002.6640111Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Characterizes traditional German leadership as “tough on the issue, tough on the person” (p. 16). While this approach may have contributed to German prosperity during the latter half of the 20th century, the authors question its continuing efficacy, given the global economic realities of the new century. The article includes an insightful executive commentary by Frank Kroll of Siemens AG.

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  • Holmberg, Ingalill, and Staffan Åkerblom. “The Production of Outstanding Leadership—An Analysis of Leadership Images in the Swedish Media.” Scandinavian Journal of Management 17.1 (2001): 67–85.

    DOI: 10.1016/S0956-5221(00)00033-6Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Interesting paper using a methodology of ethnographic semantics; Holmberg and Åkerblom analyze statements about leadership reported by the Swedish press. Based on their results, they propose twelve implicit themes constituting the Swedish leadership style.

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  • Littrell, Romie F., and Lapadus N. Valentin. “Preferred Leadership Behaviours: Exploratory Results from Romania, Germany, and the UK.” Journal of Management Development 24.5 (2005): 421–442.

    DOI: 10.1108/02621710510598445Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Examines leadership prototypes in three European countries. While these researchers relied on a different data source, findings were comparable to similar studies using GLOBE data.

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  • Zander, Lena, and Udo Zander. “Cultural Mythology and Global Leadership in Sweden.” In Cultural Mythology and Global Leadership. Edited by Eric H. Kessler and Diana J. Wong-MingJi, 166–186. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar, 2010.

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    Another standout chapter in this edited volume (see Kessler and Wong-MingJi 2010, cited under Reference Resources); Lena and Udo Zander provide a detailed review of the Swedish leadership literature, drawing parallels with Norse and Swedish mythology.

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Africa and the Middle East

Along with Latin America, Africa and the Middle East remain the most-underrepresented regions in leadership research. Australia has also received relatively little attention, perhaps due to assumptions of similarities with the United States and United Kingdom. The description of leadership in Kenya and a review of the scant literature on this topic in Walumbwa and Ndege 2010 prove to be both interesting and illuminating. Mbigi 2005, on African leadership, appears to be written for managers, but students and researchers may also find this source to be helpful. Kuada 2010 provides a more researcher-oriented assessment of African leadership. Ayman and Chemers 1983 and Neal, et al. 2007 are empirical studies that contribute to our understanding of leadership in different Middle Eastern countries. Neal, et al. 2007 also provides details on similar research conducted in Europe. Sarros, et al. 2005 reports on a prominent leadership survey conducted in Australia.

  • Ayman, Roya, and Martin M. Chemers. “The Relationship of Supervisory Behavior Ratings to Work Group Effectiveness and Subordinate Satisfaction among Iranian Managers.” Journal of Applied Psychology 68.2 (1983): 338–341.

    DOI: 10.1037/0021-9010.68.2.338Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Impressive early empirical investigation of leadership behaviors in a Middle East setting. Researchers found a strong link between perceived leader behavior and group performance as well as employee satisfaction. Comparisons with similar studies in the United States and Europe are discussed.

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  • Kuada, John. “Culture and Leadership in Africa: A Conceptual Model and Research Agenda.” African Journal of Economic and Management Studies 1.1 (2010): 9–24.

    DOI: 10.1108/20400701011028130Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Admirable attempt to review and integrate the limited leadership literature involving Africa. The author’s recommendations for future scholarship include the study of leadership development strategies and the relationship between leadership and performance in African organizations.

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  • Mbigi, Lovemore. The Spirit of African Leadership. Randburg, South Africa: Knowres, 2005.

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    Written by a Zimbabwe-born business consultant with US business training; suggests that US and Western leadership theories have limited applicability in Africa. He describes African leadership from a historical and cultural perspective and argues that its study can provide important lessons to managers worldwide.

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  • Neal, Mark, Jim L. Finlay, Gh. Alexandru Catana, and Doina Catana. “A Comparison of Leadership Prototypes of Arab and European Females.” International Journal of Cross Cultural Management 7.3 (December 2007): 291–316.

    DOI: 10.1177/1470595807083375Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Unique study comparing leadership attitudes of young, business-educated women in two Arab countries (Lebanon and Oman) and in two regions of Europe (England and southeastern Europe). The researchers use a sample of women business students, so the generalizability to business organizations is uncertain. The authors’ cultural and historical explanations for the different findings across countries are interesting nonetheless.

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  • Sarros, James C., Judy Gray, Iain Densten, Ken Perry, Anne Hartican, and Brian Cooper. The Australian Business Leadership Survey #3: Leadership, Organizational Culture, and Innovation of Australian Enterprises. Melbourne: Australian Institute of Management and Monash University Department of Management, 2005.

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    Details the findings of a major, ongoing survey of business members of the Australian Institute of Management; preferred leadership styles and archetypes are discussed.

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  • Walumbwa, Fred O., and George O. Ndege. “Cultural Mythology and Global Leadership in Kenya.” In Cultural Mythology and Global Leadership. Edited by Eric H. Kessler and Diana J. Wong-MingJi, 225–241. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar, 2010.

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    Fred Walumbwa has been one of the most active scholars on leadership in equatorial Africa. This chapter, coauthored with African historian George Ndege, provides a concise review of the literature on Kenyan leadership, including applications of transformational and authentic leadership theories.

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