Management Human Resource Management
by
Debra J. Cohen, Alexander Alonso, Montrese Hamilton, David S. Geller
  • LAST REVIEWED: 15 March 2019
  • LAST MODIFIED: 29 September 2015
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199846740-0058

Introduction

Human resource management (HRM) is a professional field consisting of both academic study and practitioners. The HRM profession is responsible for the interface between employees in an organization and the policies and procedures of that organization, overseeing everything from staffing to compliance, to performance management, to total rewards, to a myriad of other workforce issues and processes. In addition to the day-to-day workforce issues covered by HRM, there is also a strong strategic component to the function. HRM professionals operate as strategic business partners in an organization, providing guidance, advice, and direction that add value to organizational processes. The study of HRM has increased since the late 20th century, as has research of specific HRM issues. However, significant gaps in research exist in many areas of HRM practice.

Textbooks

HRM textbooks generally follow the same dominant framework that is used to organize the field itself and to partition it into subfields. More precisely, textbooks tend to devote coverage to the history and environment of the field, then focus on six major areas: (1) strategic management; (2) workforce planning, which includes selection and recruitment; (3) organizational development; (4) labor relations; (5) total rewards; and (6) risk management. In the late 20th and early 21st centuries these textbooks have gone on to focus on additional topics, such as HRM competencies for HRM practice in an organization and human resource information systems (HRIS) work. Mathis and Jackson 2014 offers a comprehensive look at HRM topics with relevant examples from research and practice. Noe, et al. 2013 discusses HRM practices with an emphasis on sustainability, technology, and globalization. Dessler 2014 provides an accurate overview of the responsibilities and roles taken on by the HRM professional in the modern business setting.

Reference Resources

The field of HRM has a number of textbooks and a fair number of journals in which HRM articles appear. Much of the theory behind HRM is derived from other fields, such as psychology, organizational behavior, sociology, and even economics. A few handbooks and annual editions are worth noting. The Occupational Outlook Handbook (US Bureau of Labor Statistics 2010–2011) provides a comprehensive source for training and education needed, earnings, job prospects, what workers do on the job, and working conditions. A similar occupational directory is O*NET OnLine. This online adaptation of the Dictionary of Occupational Titles offers the most comprehensive framework of job families. A number of handbooks have been published since the late 20th century. Two that are particularly comprehensive and that provide a compilation from a range of global experts are from Oxford University Press and SAGE. Boxall, et al. 2008 is a handbook of trends in HRM in the context of research. Similarly, Wilkinson, et al. 2010 brings together scholarly perspectives across an array of HRM topics while accounting for the international community. The Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management series (Martocchio, et al. 2000–2014) is an excellent source for a wide range of authoritative accounts on a myriad of HRM topics. There are handbooks and volumes that cover many “slices” of HRM as well, such as WorldatWork 2007.

  • Boxall, Peter, John Purcell, and Patrick Wright, eds. The Oxford Handbook of Human Resource Management. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008.

    DOI: 10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199547029.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This handbook brings together leading scholars from around the globe and from a range of disciplines to give an expert account of trends and developments. The handbook is divided into four parts: “Foundations and Frameworks,” “Core Processes and Functions,” “Patterns and Dynamics,” and “Measurement and Outcomes.”

    Find this resource:

  • Martocchio, Joseph, Hui Liao, and Aparna Joshi, eds. Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management. Bingley, UK: Emerald, 2000–2014.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Published annually since 1983 and since 2000 by Emerald, this series, which contains papers by some of the very best scholars in the field, is designed to promote theory and research on methodological topics in HRM. One of the most respected publications, it is a primary resource for both individuals and libraries.

    Find this resource:

  • O*NET OnLine.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Online adaptation of the Dictionary of Occupational Titles. Offers a search engine for job families based on tasks, duties, and responsibilities and knowledge, skills, and abilities.

    Find this resource:

  • US Bureau of Labor Statistics. Occupational Outlook Handbook. Indianapolis, IN: JIST Works, 2010–2011.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Provides an anthology of career information and trends in the workplace related to national job data. Gives clear descriptions of a wide range of jobs and job families.

    Find this resource:

  • Wilkinson, Adrian, Nicolas Bacon, Tom Redman, and Scott Snell, eds. The SAGE Handbook of Human Resource Management. Los Angeles: SAGE, 2010.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This is a comprehensive reference that brings together contributions from international scholars in a broad and influential collection that combines both global and interdisciplinary perspectives.

    Find this resource:

  • WorldatWork. The WorldatWork Handbook of Compensation, Benefits, and Total Rewards: A Comprehensive Guide for HR Professionals. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2007.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Collaborative effort from WorldatWork. This is a comprehensive guide to all aspects of compensation and employee benefits, including the regulatory environment. The handbook discusses all aspects of total rewards and tries to show how to develop the appropriate mix of base pay, benefits, and other rewards.

    Find this resource:

Journals

Journals are a commonly used reference source in HRM. There is some overlap with other fields, such as organizational behavior. Whereas there are a few good journals focused solely on HRM, other prominent journals feature articles about HRM and other management topics. Leading journals, such as those published by the Academy of Management or the American Psychological Association, provide high-quality outlets for some current and cutting-edge thinking in HRM. Other journals in HRM and in specific aspects of HRM are more recent additions to the ranks of quality journals covering HRM issues. The Academy of Management Journal is a core journal for HRM researchers looking for empirical evidence of HRM initiative success. The Academy of Management Review offers a review of theoretical and practice pieces for managers. Human Resource Management bridges the gap between science and practice in a manager-oriented manner. Human Resource Management Journal features theoretical perspectives designed to influence HRM practice. Human Resource Management Review presents a review of large-scale practice initiatives on a series of critical topics. Industrial and Labor Relations Review is interdisciplinary and international and covers a wide variety of work and labor relations issues. Personnel Psychology is the seminal journal for industrial-organizational psychology with an extreme emphasis on empirical works. Public Personnel Management gives insight into theory and practice of HRM in the US public sector, including works from HRM researchers in the government.

History and Trends

Early HRM had its roots in social welfare, when work began moving from an agricultural to a manufacturing focus and when there was a tremendous amount of immigration to the United States. In the 1900s researchers began studying and documenting how work was accomplished, but the “personnel” function was characterized primarily by transactional work. The work of Fredrick W. Taylor (scientific management) and Elton Mayo (human relations) drew attention to productivity and the intersection between tasks and people. In the early 21st century the profession is characterized by deep research, a strategic orientation coupled with comprehensive policies and practices; many cutting-edge activities are associated with HRM.

History of the Profession and Future Directions

The term “human resource management” has almost completely replaced the term “personnel” in reference to dealing with all employee and employment-related issues. The term, according to Vitor M. Marciano (“The Origins and Development of Human Resource Management,” Academy of Management Proceedings 1 [1995], p. 224), was originally coined by Peter Drucker in 1954. In the early 21st century some have tried unsuccessfully to replace “human resource management” with the term “human capital.” Kaufman 2002 discusses the impact of industrial labor relations movements on the HRM era. Kaufman 2001 addresses the major milestones in HRM over the 20th century with specific emphasis on employee relations. Cohen 2015 briefly discusses where the profession has come from and then discusses the future of the profession with a focus on HR Competencies. A more recent publication, Kaufman 2014, includes a discussion of not only the United States but also seventeen countries as well in which contributors report on the history of HRM in their own country.

Human Resource Management Competencies

Understanding what traits are needed for success in HRM is a long-standing stream of research. The first major study in this area, Ulrich, et al. 2008, is the primary source of strategic business partner competencies with an emphasis on the key roles played by senior HRM professionals. This longitudinal study, although restricted by its stress on the senior levels of the profession, represents a well-established set of competencies. Subsequent studies have examined the concepts of competency modeling and competencies for success at all levels of the profession. Campion, et al. 2011 provides an overview of best practices in competency modeling. Mansfield 1996 offers a guide for HRM professionals seeking the best methods for developing competency models in the workplace. The most comprehensive of these studies, Strobel, et al. 2015, presents a competency model for HRM professionals based on the specific knowledge and behavioral components needed at each stage of the HRM career.

  • Campion, Michael A., Alexis A. Fink, Brian J. Ruggeberg, Linda Carr, Geneva M. Phillips, and Ronald B. Odman. “Doing Competencies Well: Best Practices in Competency Modeling.” Personnel Psychology 64.1 (2011): 225–262.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-6570.2010.01207.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This article provides best practices for competency modeling based on lessons learned from major perspectives on the topic, including two companies, a consulting firm, a university, and the Society for Industrial Organizational Psychology (SIOP) task force. Definitions, key advantages, and uses of competency models also are provided. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

    Find this resource:

  • Mansfield, Richard S. “Building Competency Models: Approaches for HR Professionals.” Human Resource Management 35.1 (1996): 7–18.

    DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1099-050X(199621)35:1%3C7::AID-HRM1%3E3.0.CO;2-2Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Mansfield offers an overview of competency modeling, including a glossary of relevant terms, the process of creating a competency model, how to interpret relevant criteria, and advantages and disadvantages. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

    Find this resource:

  • Strobel, Kari, James N. Kurtessis, Debra J. Cohen, and Alexander Alonso. Defining HR Success: 9 Critical Competencies for HR Professionals. Alexandria, VA: Society for Human Resource Management, 2015.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Delivers the most comprehensive guidance and only criterion-related evidence for HR competencies ever. Builds a clear case for developing oneself as an HR professional through a competency-based approach linked to job performance and success.

    Find this resource:

  • Ulrich, Dave, Wayne Brockbank, Dani Johnson, Kurt Sandholtz, and Jon Younger. HR Competencies: Mastery at the Intersection of People and Business. Alexandria, VA: Society for Human Resource Management, 2008.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This book was the first to examine fully the concept of HRM professional competencies. In addition, the book highlights seminal research identifying the roles of a strategic business partner and HRM champion for stakeholders.

    Find this resource:

Business Case for Human Resource Management

Historically, HRM has needed to justify its purpose and value to the business. Although this process is common for any business unit, it is slightly more difficult for HRM, because it requires linking people, strategy, and business outcomes. Despite this difficulty, researchers have been able to draw connections between HRM performance and organizational performance. Huselid 1995 delineates the link between HRM performance and outcomes. Schuler and Jackson 1987 ties HRM practices to competitive business strategies. Today it is a well-established fact that HRM practices can positively influence a firm’s performance. Bacon, et al. 2013 discusses these relationships relative to private equity situations, while Buller and McEvoy 2012 provides a more developed strategy discussion. But some works, such as Charan 2014, question the strategic and tactical relationships in HR. Kim and Ployhart 2014 discusses HR issues and firm performance in light of issues related to a recession.

Context and Environment for Human Resource Management

The role of HRM in organizations has shifted throughout history. Initially, its emphasis was on employee relations and ensuring a legal workplace for personnel. Subsequently the goal became to examine the utility and impact of strategic HRM, as seen in Huselid 1995 and Lepak, et al. 2006 (cited under Strategic Human Resource Management). In the future HRM will focus primarily on global contexts for organizational success and the mitigation of risk factors. It should also be noted that the practice of HRM can differ dramatically in small versus large organizations.

Legal Environment

Understanding of the legal environment in human resources rests squarely on the appropriate selection, promotion, and development of workers. In addition, the body of publications in this area relies heavily on case law and important governmental regulations for these processes. Several resources provide comprehensive views of the legal environment. These include Littler Mendelson 2010 and Corbanie, et al. 2012. Rossein 2001–2014 provides a deep overview of US employment law.

Strategic Human Resource Management

Strategic HRM research has focused primarily on the examination of the business equation and the return on investment in HRM processes and practices. Several researchers have focused their efforts on examining the impact of proper HRM practices on outcomes, including turnover, productivity, and overall performance. Huselid 1995 examines the impact of HRM practices on three key outcomes for organizations. Cardon and Stevens 2004 investigates the application of HRM practices in small- to midsize organizations relative to larger organizations. Lepak, et al. 2006 provides an overview of evidence supporting the use of several components of HRM systems. More recently, Kaufman 2012; Marler 2012; Marler and Fisher 2013; and Mitchell, et al. 2013 look at historical and evidence-based perspectives of strategic HR as it relates to firm performance. Andersen and Minbaeva 2013 and Chatterji and Patro 2014 look at some specific examples and apply a capability framework to explore strategic HR issues.

  • Andersen, Torben J., and Dana Minbaeva. “The Role of Human Resource Management in Strategy Making.” Human Resource Management 53.5 (2013): 809–827.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This paper uses illustrative experiences from Chr. Hansen, a global supplier of bioscience-based ingredients to the food, health, and animal feed industries, to argue that HR’s strategic role lies in providing support for both centralized and decentralized strategy making by offering aspirations for strategic decisions and by gathering various sources of inspiration for strategy discussions.

    Find this resource:

  • Cardon, Melissa S., and Christopher E. Stevens. “Managing Human Resources in Small Organizations: What Do We Know?” Human Resource Management Review 14.3 (2004): 295–323.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.hrmr.2004.06.001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    More people are employed in small- and medium-size organizations than in large organizations. As a result, it is important to consider the differences in how HRM is practiced in small organizations and what is known about these differences. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

    Find this resource:

  • Chatterji, Aaron, and Arun Patro. “Dynamic Capabilities and Managing Human Capital.” Perspectives 28.4 (2014): 395–408.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This paper applies the dynamic capabilities framework to explore the management of human capital, with particular emphasis on the process of “acqui-hiring.”

    Find this resource:

  • Huselid, Mark A. “The Impact of Human Resource Management Practices on Turnover, Productivity, and Corporate Financial Performance.” Academy of Management Journal 38.3 (1995): 635–672.

    DOI: 10.2307/256741Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Seminal article that influenced the discussion of HRM by demonstrating that it can have an impact on firm performance. Comprehensive evaluation of high-performance work systems (HPWS) and firm performance. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

    Find this resource:

  • Kaufman, Bruce E. “Strategic Human Resource Management Research in the United States: A Failing Grade after 30 Years?” Perspectives 26.2 (2012): 12–36.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This paper examines thirty years of predominantly American research literature on strategic human resource management from three dimensions: (1) development of theory with predictive accuracy and robust conclusions, (2) production of actionable and value-added managerial principles, and (3) accurate portrayal of the historical origins and development of this area of management scholarship and practice.

    Find this resource:

  • Lepak, David P., Hui Liao, Yunhyung Chung, and Erika E. Harden. “A Conceptual Review of Human Resource Management Systems in Strategic Human Resource Management Research.” In Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management. Vol. 25. Edited by Joseph J. Martocchio, 217–271. Bingley, UK: Emerald, 2006.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Seminal chapter on the basic value of HRM systems and their effect on overall organizational effectiveness. Provides an overview of extant research on HRM systems.

    Find this resource:

  • Marler, Janet H. “Strategic Human Resource Management in Context: A Historical and Global Perspective.” Perspectives 26.2 (2012): 6–11.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This symposium provides a new perspective for strategic human resource management (SHRM) scholarship by expanding the contexts in which this scholarship has typically been framed.

    Find this resource:

  • Marler, Janet H., and Sandra L. Fisher. “An Evidence-Based Review of e-HRM and Strategic Human Resource Management.” Human Resource Management Review 23.1 (2013): 18–36.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.hrmr.2012.06.002Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The goal of this paper is to examine the research on e-HRM to provide evidence-based guidance to researchers and practitioners on the relationship between e-HRM and strategic HRM. It reviews forty studies published from 1999 to 2011 using integrative synthesis as our evidence-based methodology.

    Find this resource:

  • Mitchell, Rebecca, Shatha Obeidat, and Mark Bray. “The Effect of Strategic Human Resource Management on Organizational Performance: The Mediating Role of High-Performance Human Resource Practices.” Human Resource Management 52.6 (2013): 899–921.

    DOI: 10.1002/hrm.21587Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This paper investigates the impact of a strategic role for human resource management (HRM) on organizational financial performance using survey data from 118 financial and manufacturing organizations in Jordan, analyzed to investigate a moderated mediated pathway between a strategic role for HRM and organizational financial performance.

    Find this resource:

Risk Management

A great many HRM activities come with inherent risks. One example of this is the selection and promotion process used for all positions in the organization. Risks can be mitigated by using validated measures and assessment tools for selecting personnel. In the early 21st century authors such as John Stevens have focused on defining the risk areas for each HRM activity (Stevens 2005). In addition, risk and compliance professionals have begun to examine the role of HRM activities in mitigating risks. Risk is no longer associated primarily with compliance in the HRM arena; the concern and discussion have broadened considerably. Burke and Signal 2010 provides an overview of workplace safety programs, including one chapter on the HRM perspective in supporting workplace safety. George Lekatis’s Understanding Risk Management and Compliance offers a discussion on compliance with risk management policies from the human resource manager’s perspective. Stevens 2005 is the seminal work on managing risk as an HRM professional with a specific emphasis on strategy and the relationship between risk factors and HRM outcomes. An overview of the issue of risk management and employee relations can be found in the chapter Mathis and Jackson 2012. Boudreau and Cascio 2014 discusses the full potential of HR to contribute to this discussion.

  • Boudreau, John W., and Wayne F. Cascio. “Human-Capital Strategy: It’s Time for Risk Optimization.” Employment Relations Today 41.1 (2014): 33–39.

    DOI: 10.1002/ert.21441Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The full potential for HR to contribute to the management of strategic risk will be realized through an evidence-based perspective on risk optimization and a clear explanation of the role of human capital in achieving it. Fortunately, existing theories and frameworks from HR and from other traditional disciplines offer great potential to inform and develop this point of view.

    Find this resource:

  • Burke, Michael J., and Sloane M. Signal. “Workplace Safety: A Multilevel, Interdisciplinary Perspective.” In Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management. Vol. 29. Edited by Hui Liao, Joseph J. Martocchio, and Aparna Joshi, 1–47. Bingley, UK: Emerald, 2010.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Chapter integrating local and national public health policy perspectives into HRM systems. Gives the human resource manager perspective for assessing the multilevel issues associated with workplace safety.

    Find this resource:

  • Lekatis, George, ed. Understanding Risk Management and Compliance. Washington, DC: International Association of Risk and Compliance Professionals, 2015.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A newsletter that examines risks to the organization and strategies for mitigating risks. Discusses HRM compliance and risk management.

    Find this resource:

  • Mathis, Robert L., and John Jackson. “Risk Management and Employee Relations.” In Human Resource Management: Essential Perspectives. 6th ed. Edited by Robert L. Mathis and John Jackson, 198–222. Mason, OH: Cengage Learning, 2012.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This chapter discusses how human resource practices can help protect an organization and contribute to the bottom line by managing risks and maintaining a safe and healthy work environment. Specific topics covered include ensuring that worker health, safety, and security are consistently addressed; having employee relations, rights, and responsibilities addressed by HR policies and practices; and controlling and measuring employee absenteeism as well as using discipline appropriately.

    Find this resource:

  • Stevens, John, ed. Managing Risk: The Human Resources Contribution. London: LexisNexus Butterworths, 2005.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Sets out a strategic approach to understanding, implementing, and managing HRM risks. Provides insight into how managing people risks will benefit the organization.

    Find this resource:

Staffing

“Staffing” is a general term for core activities under human resources. Staffing focuses on areas ranging from workforce planning to recruitment and selection and to organizational development. The body of research concerning HRM planning is centered on topics of workforce planning for the various business needs in the short and the long terms. Recruitment and selection research areas study the optimization of selection processes and instruments, whereas performance management considers optimization of employee performance. Career planning researchers put their efforts into linking career progressions. Change management and organizational development researchers have examined the role of HRM in serving as a cultural steward for change management. Total rewards research explores the role of HRM in establishing proper levels of base pay and incentives to allow for competitive involvement in the employer market.

Human Resource Management Planning

HRM planning represents the essential elements of workforce planning for meeting organizational employment demands. Anderson 2004 examines the key metrics needed for gauging the impact of an organizational workforce forecast. Dries 2013 reviews the literature on talent management and offers insights to its future. Huselid 1993 reviews the impact of environmental volatility on workforce planning strategies over the course of various terms. Nyberg, et al. 2014 reviews literature on leveraging unit-level human capital resources and the paradigm shift in strategic HRM. Wright, et al. 2001 reports research on the role of HRM in managing all resources available to the professional services firm.

  • Anderson, Martin W. “The Metrics of Workforce Planning.” Public Personnel Management 33.4 (2004): 363–378.

    DOI: 10.1177/009102600403300402Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Examines the variety of methods used to develop workforce planning metrics in American public sector organizations. The paper discusses key elements the sample organizations use to conduct analyses to illustrate the range of metrics and the sometimes divergent correlation between workforce planning and business outcomes.

    Find this resource:

  • Dries, Nicky. “The Psychology of Talent Management: A Review and Research Agenda.” Human Resource Management Review 23.4 (2013): 272–285.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.hrmr.2013.05.001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This paper identifies a number of discrepancies (i.e., between practitioner and academic interest, and between talent management discourse and practice), theoretical perspectives (i.e., talent as capital, talent as individual difference, talent as giftedness, talent as identity, talent as strength, and talent as the perception of talent), tensions (i.e., object–subject, inclusive–exclusive, innate–acquired, input–output, transferable–context-dependent), and assumptions (i.e., about intuition versus data, about the effects of being labeled “talented,” about the effects of differential treatment), which we argue can serve as a basis for theory building, methodological advances, and new empirical work.

    Find this resource:

  • Huselid, Mark A. “The Impact of Environmental Volatility on Human Resource Planning and Strategic Human Resource Management.” Human Resource Planning 16.3 (1993): 35–51.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    One of the first papers to look at the circumstances under which organizations choose to combine human resource planning and strategic HRM for improved firm performance. Provides data to support the argument for involving senior HRM professionals in the organization’s business planning at the highest level.

    Find this resource:

  • Nyberg, Anthony J., Thomas P. Moliterno, and David P. Lepak. “Resource-Based Perspectives on Unit-Level Human Capital: A Review and Integration.” Journal of Management January 40 (2014): 316–346.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Scholarly paper exploring how the power of leveraging resource-based theory to explore the unit-level human capital resource (HCR) is undergoing a paradigmatic shift in the strategy and strategic human resource management (HRM) literatures.

    Find this resource:

  • Wright, Patrick M., Benjamin B. Dunford, and Scott A. Snell. “Human Resources and the Resource Based View of the Firm.” Journal of Management 27.6 (2001): 701–721.

    DOI: 10.1177/014920630102700607Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    An important paper that studies strategy and strategic HRM as separate domains and then integrates their respective roles into a dynamic model for human resource planning and greater organizational performance. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

    Find this resource:

Recruitment and Selection

Recruitment and selection represent two critical activities in HRM designed to ensure that organizations attract and choose personnel effectively. The body of research in these areas focuses on the best methods for attracting and selecting employees. To that end, studies such as Backhaus and Tikoo 2004 have explored the concept of employer branding. Other works, such as Levashina, et al. 2014 and Schmidt and Hunter 1998, are devoted to establishing the validity of selection tools and instruments. Lievens and Highhouse 2003 examines the role of selection systems on the perceived employer value proposition. Marr and Cable 2014 explores the role of an interviewer’s selling orientation on the accuracy and validity of dispositional judgments. Reilly and Chao 1982 provides an overview of uncommon selection instruments from a fairness and perceived justice perspective. Stahl, et al. 2012 closes this section with a discussion of global talent management. Future research is likely to document the dramatic impact of social media on recruitment and selection.

  • Backhaus, Kristin, and Surinder Tikoo. “Conceptualizing and Researching Employer Branding.” Career Development International 9.5 (2004): 501–517.

    DOI: 10.1108/13620430410550754Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    An important work developing an employer branding theory that opens new lines of inquiry for management research and that offers practical implications for human resource professionals.

    Find this resource:

  • Levashina, Julia, Christopher J. Hartwell, Frederick P. Morgeson, and Michael A. Campion. “The Structured Employment Interview: Narrative and Quantitative Review of the Research Literature.” Personnel Psychology 67.1 (2014): 241–293.

    DOI: 10.1111/peps.12052Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This paper summarizes and critically examines this literature by focusing on the eight main topics that have been the focus of attention: (a) the definition of structure; (b) reducing bias through structure; (c) impression management in structured interviews; (d) measuring personality via structured interviews; (e) comparing situational versus past-behavior questions; (f) developing rating scales; (g) probing, follow up, prompting, and elaboration on questions; and (h) reactions to structure.

    Find this resource:

  • Lievens, Filip, and Scott Highhouse. “The Relation of Instrumental and Symbolic Attributes to a Company’s Attractiveness as an Employer.” Personnel Psychology 56.1 (2003): 75–102.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-6570.2003.tb00144.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Using the marketing domain’s instrumental-symbolic framework, this article concludes that a firm’s appeal as an employer is a combination of job features, organizational factors, and traits inferred by potential applicants. Some of the most compelling traits are innovativeness and competence. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

    Find this resource:

  • Marr, Jennifer C., and Dan M. Cable. “Do Interviewers Sell Themselves Short? The Effects of Selling Orientation on Interviewers’ Judgments.” Academy of Management Journal 57.3 (2014): 624–651.

    DOI: 10.5465/amj.2011.0504Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Drawing on alternative perspectives about the automaticity of dispositional judgments, this paper examines whether motivation to attract the other (i.e., selling orientation) in interpersonal first meetings (e.g., job interviews) helps or hinders the accuracy and validity of dispositional judgments.

    Find this resource:

  • Reilly, Richard R., and Georgia T. Chao. “Validity and Fairness of Some Alternative Employee Selection Procedures.” Personnel Psychology 35.1 (1982): 1–62.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-6570.1982.tb02184.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Written in light of legal mandates in the United States, this article identifies two employee selection techniques (bio data and peer evaluations) with validity on a par with standardized tests and somewhat less adverse impact on minority candidates. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

    Find this resource:

  • Schmidt, Frank L., and John E. Hunter. “The Validity and Utility of Selection Methods in Personnel Psychology: Practical and Theoretical Implications of 85 Years of Research Findings.” Psychological Bulletin 124.2 (1998): 262–274.

    DOI: 10.1037/0033-2909.124.2.262Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Important paper in the canon of applicant selection validity research. Among the methods evaluated, combinations of general mental ability tests, integrity tests, and structured interviews proved higher in validity and practicality for use with entry-level and experienced candidates. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

    Find this resource:

  • Stahl, Günter, Ingmar Bjorkman, Elaine Farndale, et al. “Six Principles of Effective Global Talent Management.” Sloan Management Review 53.2 (2012): 25–42.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A critical paper on the source of competitive advantage coming primarily from designing and implementing best practices but rather from the proper internal alignment of various elements of a company’s talent management system, as well as their embeddedness in the value system of the firm, their links to business strategy, and their global coordination.

    Find this resource:

Performance Management

Human resources are means through which an organization achieves its objectives. However, for such objectives to be met, human resources must provide effort and output (i.e., they must perform on the job). Performance management practices seek to maintain and enhance employees’ contributions to the achievement of organizational objectives in measurable ways. In addition to appraisal and evaluation, performance management includes training and development, career planning, employee relations, change management, and the measurement of outcomes. Brown and Warren 2011 examines the pitfalls of performance management methods in unionized settings. DeNisi and Sonesh 2011 reviews the extant body of research on performance appraisal systems in the context of talent management. Haines and Haines 2012 examines the importance of culture, climate, and strategic integration of human resource management in performance management. Smither and London 2009 offers a comprehensive overview of performance appraisal strategies put into practice for evaluation purposes. Wildman, et al. 2011 explores the multilevel approach to measuring work performance. Aguinis 2012 offers a comprehensive discussion of performance management as a continuous process, including a look at team issues related to performance management.

  • Aguinis, Herman. Performance Management. 3d ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2012.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Provides a comprehensive discussion of performance management covering such topics as reward systems, strategic planning, measuring results, legal issues, and employee development. Also contains a chapter on performance management and team issues.

    Find this resource:

  • Brown, Travor C., and Amy M. Warren. “Performance Management in Unionized Settings.” In Special Issue: New Developments in Performance Management. Edited by Marie-Hélène Budworth and Sara L. Mann. Human Resource Management Review 21.2 (2011): 96–106.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.hrmr.2010.09.005Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Unionized employees are a fairly small percentage in the private sector; however, in many organizations at least some portion of the employee base consists of unionized employees. Examines performance management in unionized settings. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

    Find this resource:

  • DeNisi, Angelo S., and Shirley Sonesh. “The Appraisal and Management of Performance at Work.” In APA Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology. Vol. 2, Selecting and Developing Members for the Organization. Edited by Sheldon Zedeck, 255–279. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2011.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This chapter reviews the history and best practices in performance appraisal and management in the work setting.

    Find this resource:

  • Haines, Victor Y., and Sylvie S. Haines. “Performance Management Effectiveness: Practices or Context?” International Journal of Human Resource Management 23 (2012): 1158–1175.

    DOI: 10.1080/09585192.2011.561230Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Paper underscoring the relevance of three contextual variables—culture, climate, and the strategic integration of human resource management—as they are also related to more positive performance management outcomes. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

    Find this resource:

  • Smither, James W., and Manuel London, eds. Performance Management: Putting Research into Action. Professional Practice. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2009.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Comprehensive book dealing with a wide range of topics in performance management, including chief executive officers, multinational corporations, teams, coaching, forced rankings, technology, goal setting, and best practices.

    Find this resource:

  • Wildman, Jessica L., Wendy L. Bedwell, Eduardo Salas, and Kimberly A. Smith-Jentsch. “Performance Measurement at Work: A Multilevel Perspective.” In APA Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology. Vol. 1, Building and Developing the Organization. Edited by Sheldon Zedeck, 303–341. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2011.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Looks at the unique considerations required for the measurement of work at multiple levels in an organization, including the individual level, the team level, and the organizational level.

    Find this resource:

Training and Development

Employees who do not possess the proper knowledge, skills, abilities, or other necessary job-related characteristics can gain such qualities through training and development programs. Training and development can occur through formal means, such as organizational training, or through informal means, such as developmental activities. Caligiuri 2006 discusses specific considerations when developing leaders in a cross-cultural context, and Noe, et al. 2010 studies employee motivation to receive training. Tharenou, et al. 2007 examines how training and development relate to organizational performance. Prieto-Pastor and Martin-Perez 2015 explores the connection between HRM and a firm’s ambidextrous learning.

  • Caligiuri, Paula. “Developing Global Leaders.” In Special Issue: The New World of Work and Organizations. Edited by Ronald J. Burke and Cary L. Cooper. Human Resource Management Review 16.2 (2006): 219–228.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.hrmr.2006.03.009Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Review of training and development needs for global leaders. Producing effective leaders relies heavily on offering the appropriate training and development opportunities. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

    Find this resource:

  • Noe, Raymond A., Michael J. Tews, and Alison McConnell Dachner. “Learner Engagement: A New Perspective for Enhancing Our Understanding of Learner Motivation and Workplace Learning.” Academy of Management Annals 4.1 (2010): 279–315.

    DOI: 10.1080/19416520.2010.493286Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This article provides a comprehensive perspective on the role that employee motivation to learn plays in the training domain. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

    Find this resource:

  • Prieto-Pastor, Isabel, and Victor Martin-Perez. “Does HRM Generate Ambidextrous Employees for Ambidextrous Learning? The Moderating Role of Management Support.” International Journal of Human Resource Management 26.5 (2015): 589–615.

    DOI: 10.1080/09585192.2014.938682Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Presents a discussion of organizational ambidexterity as a central research stream in management science investigating how organizations manage to remain successful over time. Shows that the concept can be defined as the simultaneous pursuit of exploratory learning and exploitative learning. In this study, the authors bring HRM into the forum by introducing and testing how human resource (HR) systems affect the firm’s ambidextrous learning.

    Find this resource:

  • Tharenou, Phyllis, Alan M. Saks, and Celia Moore. “A Review and Critique of Research on Training and Organizational-Level Outcomes.” Human Resource Management Review 17.3 (2007): 251–273.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.hrmr.2007.07.004Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Offers a thorough understanding of the effects of training on organization-level outcomes by reviewing the results of previous studies that have investigated the relationship between training and HRM, performance, and financial outcomes. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

    Find this resource:

Career Planning

Employees do not necessarily intend to hold the same positions throughout their entire careers. Rather, an employee’s career likely will include multiple lateral, vertical, or diagonal moves or a combination of these. Career planning is the strategic consideration of how an employee can achieve his or her preferred career path. Baruch 2006 looks at different perspectives on career management. Chandler, et al. 2011 presents a discussion of the role of mentoring in helping an employee achieve career objectives. Hall and Chandler 2005 studies the influence of an employee’s perspective in defining career success. Wanberg, et al. 2003 offers an overview of mentoring research based on career-coaching strategies. Litano and Major 2015 discusses the concept of a “whole-life” approach to career development. Lyons, et al. 2014 explains demographic shifts in the labor force, with a focus on a framework for the shifting nature of careers.

  • Baruch, Yehuda. “Career Development in Organizations and Beyond: Balancing Traditional and Contemporary Viewpoints.” In Special Issue: The New World of Work and Organizations. Edited by Ronald J. Burke and Cary L. Cooper. Human Resource Management Review 16.2 (2006): 125–138.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.hrmr.2006.03.002Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Challenges researchers who conclude that the evolving workplace has completely redefined traditional elements of career management. Offers a perspective on how changes are reflected in the individual and organizational understanding of career. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

    Find this resource:

  • Chandler, Dawn E., Kathy E. Kram, and Jeffrey Yip. “An Ecological Systems Perspective on Mentoring at Work: A Review and Future Prospects.” Academy of Management Annals 5.1 (2011): 519–570.

    DOI: 10.1080/19416520.2011.576087Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Perhaps the first paper to examine the interdependence of the mentoring relationship and larger organizational and societal systems. Helpful for researchers and practitioners seeking to expand their conceptualization beyond mentor and protégé. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

    Find this resource:

  • Hall, Douglas T., and Dawn E. Chandler. “Psychological Success: When the Career Is a Calling.” In Special Issue: Reconceptualizing Career Success. Edited by Hugh P. Gunz and Peter A. Heslin. Journal of Organizational Behavior 26.2 (2005): 155–176.

    DOI: 10.1002/job.301Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Insight into the role of personal fulfillment in defining subjective career success and the implications for objective attainment. Advances understanding of the conditions in which the employee’s sense of calling may flourish. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

    Find this resource:

  • Litano, Michael L., and Debra A. Major. “Facilitating a Whole-Life Approach to Career Development: The Role of Organizational Leadership.” Journal of Career Development (February 2015).

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Focuses on the “whole-life” approach to career development. Reviews the ways in which career paths have been conceptualized over time and demonstrates that increasing consideration has been given to nonwork factors (i.e., personal life and family life) in defining careers. Addresses how leaders across organizational levels, including executive-level leaders and first-line supervisors, can foster whole-life career development.

    Find this resource:

  • Lyons, Sean T., Eddy S. Ng, and Linda Schweitzer. “Changing Demographics and the Shifting Nature of Careers: Implications for Research and Human Resource Development.” Human Resource Development Review 13.2 (2014): 181–206.

    DOI: 10.1177/1534484314524201Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Offers a conceptual framework for examining shifting careers, which accounts for important demographic shifts occurring in the labor force. Research framework provides a comprehensive set of career-related variables (including career expectations, experience, and outcomes) for investigation.

    Find this resource:

  • Wanberg, Connie R., Elizabeth T. Welsh, and Sarah A. Hezlett. “Mentoring Research: A Review and Dynamic Process Model.” In Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management. Vol. 22. Edited by Joseph J. Martocchio and Gerald R. Ferris, 39–124. Bingley, UK: Emerald, 2003.

    DOI: 10.1016/S0742-7301(03)22011-9Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Provides an overview of mentoring research with specific emphases on strategies for effective development and coaching.

    Find this resource:

Change Management and Organization Development

Change management has become a critical skill for HRM practitioners and has been shown to have a significant influence on the success of such things as mergers and acquisitions, global growth, and product expansion. The ability of HRM to manage change and champion development is important. Storey 1996 is the leading educational resource for using strategic HRM to manage effective change. Younger, et al. 2011 examines two critical skills required for effective change managers. Alfes, et al. 2010 investigates the empirical evidence behind the role of HRM in effective change management.

Employee and Labor Relations

A great many traditional HRM efforts focus on the employer-employee relationship. Specifically, these efforts have been related to labor unionization and the advent of collaborative bargaining agreements in the United States and other nations. With the rise of employee rights came a myriad of labor relations acts and laws and organizations designed to mediate these potential areas of conflict. The National Labor Relations Board is an example of one such agency to which employers and unions bring their potential problems for resolution. Budd 2013 provides a review of critical labor relations topics and offers strategies for striking balance. Rau 2012 discusses factors internal and external to organizations that influence the adoption of certain HR practices by labor unions. Society for Human Resource Management 2011 offers the most comprehensive HRM-oriented view of employee relations laws and processes.

  • Budd, John W. Labor Relations: Striking a Balance. 4th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Irwin, 2013.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Reviews existing case law and legislative regulations around labor relations topics. Offers conflict negotiation strategies for mitigating the damage associated with labor relations.

    Find this resource:

  • Rau, Barbara L. “The Diffusion of HR Practices in Unions.” Human Resource Management Review 22.1 (2012): 27–42.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.hrmr.2011.06.001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This paper identifies and discusses internal organizational characteristics and external environmental factors that may influence the adoption of more sophisticated HR practices by labor unions.

    Find this resource:

  • Society for Human Resource Management. The SHRM Learning System: An Educational Resource for Today’s HR Professional. Vol. 4, Employee Relations. Alexandria, VA: Society for Human Resource Management, 2011.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This module is part of a comprehensive learning system that has been developed to help HRM professionals and academicians study for and pass HRM certification examinations offered by the HR Certification Institute. The module specifically provides an overview of labor relations law and policy in the United States.

    Find this resource:

Performance Appraisal

Modern organizations engage in some form of performance measurement in an effort to determine how well employees are performing their jobs. This allows organizations to maximize the efficiency of their use of human resources, and it allows employees to focus their efforts. DeNisi and Sonesh 2011 provides an account of the evolution of performance appraisal practices and specific considerations of the appraisal process. Pichler 2012 reviews and meta-analyzes the literature on the social context of performance appraisal.

  • DeNisi, Angelo S., and Shirley Sonesh. “The Appraisal and Management of Performance at Work.” In APA Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology. Vol. 2, Selecting and Developing Members for the Organization. Edited by Sheldon Zedeck, 255–279. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2011.

    DOI: 10.1037/12170-000Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This chapter reviews all modes of performance appraisal from beginning to end with a special emphasis on trends found over the course of HRM history.

    Find this resource:

  • Pichler, Shaun. “The Social Context of Performance Appraisal and Appraisal Reactions: A Meta-analysis.” Human Resource Management 51.5 (2012): 709–732.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This study reviews and meta-analyzes the literature on the social context of performance appraisal.

    Find this resource:

Measuring Outcomes

An understanding of various metrics of work outcomes enables an organization to assess the strength of its organizational processes. HRM professionals can contribute to such an understanding of the organization’s performance by developing sound measurement systems. Huselid 1995 gives an account of how HRM can play such a role, and Edwards, et al. 2000 discusses the evolution of work design and outcome measurement. Becker, et al. 2001 is the definitive resource for linking people, strategy, and outcomes. Fitz-enz 2009 explores the return on investment in human capital strategies. Flamholtz 1999 is a definitive resource on linking HRM initiatives to the bottom line. Jiang, et al. 2012 provides meta-analytic insight regarding how HR systems impact financial outcomes, employee motivation, voluntary turnover, and operational outcomes. Dulebohn and Johnson 2013 provides a classification framework for HR metrics and decision support.

  • Becker, Brian E., Mark A. Huselid, and David Ulrich. The HR Scorecard: Linking People, Strategy, and Performance. Boston: Harvard Business School, 2001.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Providing a deep exploration of the “balanced scorecard” concept as applied to HRM, this book details how HRM professionals can align their systems with the organization’s business strategy and evaluate effectiveness.

    Find this resource:

  • Dulebohn, James H., and Richard D. Johnson. “Human Resource Metrics and Decision Support: A Classification Framework.” Human Resource Management Review 23.1 (2013): 71–83.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Article provides a framework that describes the data needs, decision characteristics, and HR metrics for different levels of HR activity and decision making.

    Find this resource:

  • Edwards, Jeffrey R., Judith A. Scully, and Mary D. Brtek. “The Nature and Outcomes of Work: A Replication and Extension of Interdisciplinary Work-Design Research.” Journal of Applied Psychology 85.6 (2000): 860–868.

    DOI: 10.1037/0021-9010.85.6.860Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This article discusses the evolution of work design and outcome measurement. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

    Find this resource:

  • Fitz-enz, Jac. The ROI of Human Capital: Measuring the Economic Value of Employee Performance. 2d ed. New York: AMACOM, 2009.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Authored by one of the first researchers to define and popularize modern human capital metrics, this book explores both methodology and techniques for evaluating the relationship between organizational strategy and human resource objectives.

    Find this resource:

  • Flamholtz, Eric G., ed. Human Resource Accounting: Advances in Concepts, Methods, and Applications. 3d ed. Boston: Kluwer, 1999.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Updated edition of a foundational text that presents accounting-based methods for measuring the value of an organization’s human capital. The editor is careful to provide methods for calculating monetary and nonmonetary elements of HRM.

    Find this resource:

  • Huselid, Mark A. “The Impact of Human Resource Management Practices on Turnover, Productivity, and Corporate Financial Performance.” Academy of Management Journal 38.3 (1995): 635–672.

    DOI: 10.2307/256741Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This seminal article gives an overview of the impact HRM practices can have on organizational performance objectives. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

    Find this resource:

  • Jiang, Kaifeng, David P. Lepak, Jia Hu, and Judith Clark. “How Does Human Resource Management Influence Organizational Outcomes? A Meta-analytic Investigation of Mediating Mechanisms.” Academy of Management Journal 55.6 (2012): 1264–1294.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This seminal review covers the three dimensions of HR systems related to financial outcomes both directly and indirectly influencing human capital and employee motivation, as well as voluntary turnover and operational outcomes in sequence.

    Find this resource:

Total Rewards

All the tools an organization uses to attract, motivate, and retain employees create total rewards. This includes everything an employee perceives to be valuable that results from employment with the organization.

Compensation and Base Pay

Compensation is pay provided by an employer to an employee for services rendered. Dulebohn and Werling 2007 provides an account of the evolution of compensation research. By contrast, Martocchio 2011 examines the role of strategic rewards in compensation planning and gives a history of rewards-based compensation. Xavier 2014 offers some potential avenues for future research in the field of compensation and benefits.

Base pay is the initial compensation an employee receives independent of incentive pay, bonuses, or other compensation increases. Base pay is typically in the form of an annual salary or an hourly rate of compensation. There is a fair amount of research covering specific aspects of compensation and total rewards, though less exists that explores base pay as it relates to organizations in general. Executive pay, incentives, and other innovative pay structures often receive a lot of attention in the literature. For a general understanding of pay, texts and chapters are offered as a starting point along with research articles that delve into various aspects of base pay. Although not a heavy research volume, Berger and Berger 2008 is a comprehensive text of fifty chapters divided into eight sections; section 2 specifically covers base pay. Gerhart and Rynes 2003 offers a research-based discussion of compensation and base pay. Gupta, et al. 2012 attempts to provide construct clarity to the topic of pay variation, and Gupta and Shaw 2014 discusses the need for more research in the area of compensation. Mitra, et al. 2011 details a measurement-focused method for comparing pay plans, including traditional and performance-based pay. Judge, et al. 2010 presents a meta-analysis of numerous studies to provide a true score relation between pay and job satisfaction. Giancola 2014 explores the relationship between pay satisfaction and employee knowledge of pay policies, programs, salary ranges, and average pay increase amounts.

  • Berger, Lance A., and Dorothy R. Berger. The Compensation Handbook: A State-of-the-Art Guide to Compensation Strategy and Design. 5th ed. New York: McGraw Hill, 2008.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A comprehensive guide for all aspects of compensation. This handbook provides simple and direct answers and assistance for a variety of compensation issues.

    Find this resource:

  • Dulebohn, James H., and Stephen E. Werling. “Compensation Research Past, Present, and Future.” In Special Issue: The Status of Theory and Research in Human Resource Management; Where Have We Been and Where Should We Go from Here? Edited by Dianna L. Stone. Human Resource Management Review 17.2 (2007): 191–207.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.hrmr.2007.03.002Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Discusses future directions for compensation research and in so doing lays out a comprehensive outline of compensation topics and issues and covers what is generally known in each area. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

    Find this resource:

  • Gerhart, Barry, and Sara L. Rynes. Compensation: Theory, Evidence, and Strategic Implications. Foundations for Organizational Science. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE, 2003.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Offers a comprehensive look at how compensation decisions are made by combining theory and research from a variety of disciplines.

    Find this resource:

  • Giancola, Frank L. “What the Research Says about the Effects of Open Pay Policies on Employees’ Pay Satisfaction and Job Performance.” Compensation & Benefits Review 46.3 (2014): 161–168.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Explores whether or not pay satisfaction improves when employees are informed about company pay policies, programs, salary ranges, and average pay-increase amounts.

    Find this resource:

  • Gupta, Nina, Samantha A. Conroy, and John E. Delery. “The Many Faces of Pay Variation.” Human Resource Management Review 22.2 (2012): 100–115.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This paper reviews the lack of construct clarity regarding pay variation, and attempts to provide clarification by distinguishing among the sources and types of pay variation.

    Find this resource:

  • Gupta, Nina, and Jason D. Shaw. “Employee Compensation: The Neglected Area of HRM Research.” Human Resource Management Review 24.1 (2014): 1–4.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This paper offers a plea for more research in the area of compensation. The reasons why compensation research is important are discussed. The introduction also provides an overview of the papers in this issue. It suggests the kinds of questions that are in critical need of comprehensive answers.

    Find this resource:

  • Judge, Timothy A., Ronald F. Piccolo, Nathan P. Podsakoff, John C. Shaw, and Bruce L. Rich. “The Relationship between Pay and Job Satisfaction: A Meta-analysis of the Literature.” Journal of Vocational Behavior 77.2 (2010): 157–167.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Results from ninety-two samples suggest that pay is only moderately related to job satisfaction, despite popular theorizing. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

    Find this resource:

  • Martocchio, J. J. “Strategic Reward and Compensation Plans.” In APA Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology. Vol. 1, Building and Developing the Organization. Edited by Sheldon Zedeck, 343–372. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2011.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This chapter provides a comprehensive history and review of reward and compensation programs.

    Find this resource:

  • Mitra, Atul, Nina Gupta, and Jason Shaw. “A Comparative Examination of Traditional and Skill-Based Pay Plans.” Journal of Managerial Psychology 26.4 (2011): 278–296.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Compares different types of pay plans across a series of key features and user-based criteria.

    Find this resource:

  • Xavier, Baeten. “Shaping the Future Research Agenda for Compensation and Benefits Management: Some Thoughts Based on a Stakeholder Inquiry.” Human Resource Management Review 24.1 (2014): 31–40.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Article includes multiple stakeholder perspectives and highlights some potential avenues for future research in the field of compensation and benefits.

    Find this resource:

Incentives

Incentives represent a different mechanism, compensating employees for their extensive efforts or exemplary performance. Research on incentives has focused on two primary areas: (1) the role of incentives in motivating performance and (2) the most effective ways of providing incentives. Hume 1995 is a guidebook for managing rewards in all contexts. Both that work and Hale and Bailey 1998 examine the critical features of successful reward programs. Larkin and Gino 2012 explores holes in agency theory as a framework for analyzing compensation.

  • Hale, Jamie, and George Bailey. “Seven Dimensions of Success Reward Plans.” Compensation Benefits Review 30.4 (1998): 71–77.

    DOI: 10.1177/088636879803000409Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Reviews the key characteristics of successful reward plans, including data from Watson Wyatt Worldwide organizations. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

    Find this resource:

  • Hume, David A. Reward Management: Employee Performance, Motivation, and Pay. Oxford: Blackwell, 1995.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A guidebook for managing rewards for employee performance. Assists HRM professionals in the development of strategies for incentives. Examines the concepts of motivation and team versus individual incentives.

    Find this resource:

  • Larkin, Ian, Lamar Pierce, and Francesca Gino. “The Psychological Costs of Pay-for-Performance: Implications for the Strategic Compensation of Employees.” Strategic Management Journal 33 (2012): 1194–1214.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Focuses on the strategic compensation of nonexecutive employees, arguing that while agency theory provides a useful framework for analyzing compensation, it fails to consider several psychological factors that increase costs from performance-based pay.

    Find this resource:

Employee Benefits

Organizations may offer noncash compensation to provide employees with valuable rewards for their relationship with the organization. Dulebohn, et al. 2009 gives a comprehensive outline of employee benefits. Sauser and Sims 2012 calls for organizations to tailor HRM practices to reflect younger generations.

  • Dulebohn, James H., Janice C. Molloy, Shaun M. Pichler, and Brian Murray. “Employee Benefits: Literature Review and Emerging Issues.” In Special Issue: Emerging Trends in Human Resource Management Theory and Research. Edited by Diana L. Deadrick and Dianna L. Stone. Human Resource Management Review 19.2 (2009): 86–103.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.hrmr.2008.10.001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Gives a comprehensive outline of employee benefits issues and discusses where research exists and where it is needed. Although an important area, there has been limited research on employee benefits. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

    Find this resource:

  • Sauser, William I., Jr., and Ronald R. Sims. “Employee-Friendly Policies and Development Benefits for Millennials.” In Managing Human Resources for the Millennial Generation. By William I. Sauser Jr. and Ronald R. Sims, 201–228. Charlotte, NC: Information Age, 2012.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    In this chapter, the authors take the stance that the changing demographics of the workforce call for organizations to tailor HRM practices to reflect the younger generations. As such, this chapter discusses millennial attitudes toward traditional and nontraditional benefits such as child care, adoption assistance, parental and military leave, domestic partnership coverage, and wellness programs. This chapter also lays out various benefit policy and program alternatives as they relate to the unique needs of younger workers.

    Find this resource:

Workforce Issues and Processes

Workforce issues and processes represent key concerns relevant to the modern workplace. These issues can range from the design of work all the way to social issues, such as corporate social responsibility (CSR). Critical issues are also associated with processes, such as mergers and acquisitions or downsizing. The nature of these processes lends them to critical analysis, because they have a direct impact on HRM outcomes, including turnover, employee engagement, and performance.

Job Analysis and Job Design

An organization must ensure that employees understand what is required and expected of them in their jobs. This includes communicating the tasks and responsibilities of the job and ways the job is to be performed in relation to other organizational agents. Job analysis is the process through which the behaviors and responsibilities of a job are determined, and job design is the structure of the job. Sanchez and Levine 2012 gives a history and detailed account of job analysis. Flanagan 1954 offered the first performance example-based methodology for characterizing work with the critical incident technique. Ilgen and Hollenbeck 1992 defines the structure of work by looking specifically at the job characteristics design model. Brannick and Levine 2002 is the seminal work on job analysis, reviewing all possible methodologies and assessing the implications of their use on validation and employment litigation. This list provides a comprehensive account of the importance of job analysis and job design. Truxillo, et al. 2012 offers a lifespan perspective on job design, and Cohen 2013 offers a model of the process of job design regarding how tasks are bundled into and across jobs.

  • Brannick, Michael T., and Edward L. Levine. Job Analysis: Methods, Research, and Applications for Human Resource Management in the New Millennium. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE, 2002.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The authoritative source on job analysis and job design methods. Serves as a reference resource, examining trends in job analysis, including future-oriented analyses. Chapter topics include identifying the goal for job design and analyses, using the proper methodology given the resources available, and developing a sound system for updating and classifying jobs.

    Find this resource:

  • Cohen, Lisa E. “Assembling Jobs: A Model of How Tasks are Bundled into and across Jobs.” Organization Science 24.2 (2013): 432–454.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This article offers a model of the process of job design that looks at how tasks are bundled into and across jobs within organizations; model is developed using a multisite qualitative study of task allocation.

    Find this resource:

  • Flanagan, John C. “The Critical Incident Technique.” Psychological Bulletin 51.4 (1954): 327–358.

    DOI: 10.1037/h0061470Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This article reaches back to the 1800s and tracks the evolution of the critical incident technique through the decades. The author looks at practical applications and value across multiple domains, including job design and analysis. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

    Find this resource:

  • Ilgen, Daniel R., and John R. Hollenbeck. “The Structure of Work: Job Design and Roles.” In Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology. 2d ed. Vol. 2. Edited by Marvin D. Dunnette and Leaetta M. Hough, 165–207. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists, 1992.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The authors take up the challenge of developing clear distinctions between “job” and “role” behaviors in the organization. Establishing separate frameworks can facilitate better decision making about matters ranging from incumbent motivation to job design.

    Find this resource:

  • Sanchez, Juan I., and Edward L. Levine. “The Rise and Fall of Job Analysis and the Future of Work Analysis.” Annual Review of Psychology 63.1 (2012): 397–425.

    DOI: 10.1146/annurev-psych-120710-100401Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Provides a review of historical trends in job analysis and competency modeling. Highlights areas of change when dealing with the nature of work. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

    Find this resource:

  • Truxillo, Donald M., David M. Cadiz, Jennifer R. Rineer, Sara Zaniboni, and Franco Fraccaroli. “A Lifespan Perspective on Job Design: Fitting the Job and the Worker to Promote Job Satisfaction, Engagement, and Performance.” Organizational Psychology Review 2 (2012): 340–360.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    In the present paper, lifespan development perspectives on the interaction between job characteristics and age are examined.

    Find this resource:

Mergers and Acquisitions

Organizations can combine forces with other organizations, or they can acquire or be acquired by other organizations. The former is a merger, the latter an acquisition. Either case will require reevaluation of organizational strategies and policies to assess the fit with the new operating conditions. Bagdadli, et al. 2014 examines the form of a merger or acquisition and the involvement of HRM through a focus on case studies; and Faia, et al. 2013 offers insights on the role of HRM centrality in mergers and acquisitions. Schuler and Jackson 2001 explores the two processes in depth. Lastly, Weber, et al. 2012 aims to develop a knowledge-based theory of merger and acquisition integration. This list presents key personnel issues to consider when engaging in a merger or an acquisition.

  • Bagdadli, Silva, James C. Hayton, and Osvaldo Perfido. “Reconsidering the Role of HR in M&As: What Can Be Learned from Practice.” Human Resource Management 53.6 (2014): 1005–1025.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This paper explores the significance of different forms of M&A for the scope and intensity of involvement of the human resource management function by examining a set of three cases of different M&As conducted by a single firm in Italy.

    Find this resource:

  • Faia, Manuela Correia, Rita Campos e Cunho, and Marc Scholten. “Impact of M&As on Organizational Performance: The Moderating Role of HRM Centrality.” European Management Journal 31 (2013): 323–332.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The study offers new insights about the role of HRM centrality, and suggests that mergers and acquisitions should be studied as differentiated ownership change processes.

    Find this resource:

  • Schuler, Randall, and Susan Jackson. “HR Issues and Activities in Mergers and Acquisitions.” European Management Journal 19.3 (2001): 239–253.

    DOI: 10.1016/S0263-2373(01)00021-4Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Provides a straightforward introduction to mergers and acquisitions and then offers a model that would more thoroughly integrate effective human capital practices. Includes guidance for human resource professionals involved in mergers and acquisitions at all stages. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

    Find this resource:

  • Weber, Yaakov, Dalia Rachman-Moore, and Shlomo Yedida Tarba. “HR Practices during Post-Merger Conflict and Merger Performance.” International Journal of Cross Cultural Management 12 (2012): 73–99.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This paper aims to develop a knowledge-based theory of M&A integration, drawing upon research on HR practices in M&A, the resource-based view of the firm, and international management.

    Find this resource:

Human Resource Information Systems

Human resource information systems (HRIS) integrate human resource practices with information technology, providing a technological system for handling issues such as payroll, attendance, performance appraisals, benefits, recruitment, training, performance record management, employee services, and scheduling. Dulebohn and Johnson 2013 provides research propositions and discusses implications of a classification framework for HR metrics and decision support. Kavanagh, et al. 2012 and Parry 2011 discuss technological advances in HRIS. Kapoor and Sherif 2012 discusses factors driving the increasing prevalence of globalization. Zhou, et al. 2013 compares two particular HRIS on their ability to influence firm innovation and performance.

  • Dulebohn, James H., and Richard D. Johnson. “Human Resource Metrics and Decision Support: A Classification Framework.” Human Resource Management Review 23.1 (2013): 71–83.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.hrmr.2012.06.005Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This paper provides a number of research propositions and implications of the model. We finish the paper with a discussion of the implications that this framework has for how HR decisions are made, the types of data used in support of these decisions, and the metrics used.

    Find this resource:

  • Kapoor, Bhushan, and Joseph Sherif. “Human Resources in an Enriched Environment of Business Intelligence.” Kybernetes 41 (2012): 1625–1637.

    DOI: 10.1108/03684921211276792Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The paper discusses the fact that the increasing prevalence of globalization is driven by a number of factors including growing consumers in developing countries, technological progress, and worldwide workforce diversity.

    Find this resource:

  • Kavanagh, Michael J., Mohan Thite, and Richard D. Johnson. Human Resource Information Systems: Basics, Applications, and Future Directions. 2d ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE, 2012.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Comprehensive textbook valuable for the variety of perspectives from which contributing writers analyze HRIS. The book also considers the implication of broader technological trends for HRIS.

    Find this resource:

  • Parry, Emma. “An Examination of e-HRM as a Means to Increase the Value of the HR Function.” International Journal of Human Resource Management 22.5 (2011): 1146–1162.

    DOI: 10.1080/09585192.2011.556791Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This article is one of a small number examining research on the growing influence of web-based technologies on the work of human resource professionals. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

    Find this resource:

  • Zhou, Yu, Ying Hong, and Jun Liu. “Internal Commitment or External Collaboration? The Impact of Human Resource Management Systems on Firm Innovation and Performance.” Human Resource Management 52.2 (2013): 263–288.

    DOI: 10.1002/hrm.21527Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Complementing previous research that showed a positive effect of general human resource management (HRM) systems on general firm performance, this article undertakes an integrative approach to compare the main effects and to examine the interaction effects of two particular HRM systems on influencing firm innovation and performance.

    Find this resource:

Outsourcing

Outsourcing is a critical process for resolving immediate demand for workforce and determining the core elements of the business. In HRM outsourcing often moves the assignment of core activities to an external vendor. Common activities include compensation, benefits administration, and organizational development. Caruty, et al. 2013 presents a hierarchy of kinds of activities necessary for successful outsourcing. Fisher, et al. 2008 defines the key characteristics of work eligible for outsourcing. Gilley and Rasheed 2000 delineates the benefits and advantages of outsourcing work and where exactly efficiencies can be realized. Quinn and Hilmer 1994 presents a framework for basing outsourcing decisions. Glaister 2014 compares organizations that outsource HR functions with those that maintain HR fully in-house. Butler and Callahan 2014 investigates the association between administrative HRO, firm-level capital market, operating performance, and financial performance.

  • Butler, Maureen G., and Carolyn M. Callahan. “Human Resource Outsourcing: Market and Operating Performance Effects of Administrative HR Functions.” Journal of Business Research 67.2 (2014): 218–224.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.jbusres.2012.09.026Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Study tests the association between administrative HRO and firm-level capital market and long-run operating performance, with archival financial data controlling for endogeneity and outsourcing decision optimality. Results demonstrate that the equity capital market responds positively to client firms announcing administrative HRO, particularly service firms and those outsourcing transactional HR tasks.

    Find this resource:

  • Caruty, Donald L., Stephanie S. Pane Haden, and Gail D. Caruth. “Critical Factors in Human Resource Outsourcing.” Journal of Management Research 13.4 (2013): 187–195.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    In this article, the authors present some key elements necessary for successful outsourcing by establishing a hierarchy of the kinds of activities that lend themselves to outsourcing. The authors discuss the advantages and disadvantages of outsourcing various human resource functions as well as the conditions needed for outsourcing to be successful.

    Find this resource:

  • Fisher, Sandra L., Michael E. Wasserman, Paige P. Wolf, and Katherine Hannan Wears. “Human Resource Issues in Outsourcing: Integrating Research and Practice.” In Special Issue: With Breaking Barriers for Purposes of Inclusiveness, Part Two. Edited by Lynn Perry Wooten. Human Resource Management 47.3 (2008): 501–523.

    DOI: 10.1002/hrm.20229Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The authors define five elements of outsourced work and their implications for HRM. The framework provides useful insight into challenges for HRM professionals on both sides of the client-provider relationship and offers thoughtful questions for further research. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

    Find this resource:

  • Gilley, K. Matthew, and Abdul Rasheed. “Making More by Doing Less: An Analysis of Outsourcing and Its Effects on Firm Performance.” Journal of Management 26.4 (2000): 763–790.

    DOI: 10.1177/014920630002600408Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    In addition to outlining the debate surrounding outsourcing and firm performance, this article presents empirical research indicating that any benefit of outsourcing may be realized by the functional area(s) most directly affected. Broader gains may emerge as organizations adopt different strategic performance models and operate in dynamic environments. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

    Find this resource:

  • Glaister, Alison J. “HR Outsourcing: The Impact on HR Role, Competency Development and Relationships.” Human Resource Management Journal 24 (2014): 211–226.

    DOI: 10.1111/1748-8583.12031Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Examines, through semistructured interviews, senior HR professionals, comparing HR departments engaged in HR outsourcing with those maintaining full in-house HR provision. Findings indicate that HR outsourcing stymies HR role transformation. Authors suggest that an “internal” HR community is better placed to enhance HR departmental roles.

    Find this resource:

  • Quinn, James Brian, and Frederick G. Hilmer. “Strategic Outsourcing.” MIT Sloan Management Review 35.4 (1994): 43–55.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Presents an early framework on which to base outsourcing decisions. The authors illustrate the potential benefit gained by evaluating processes to determine which are within an organization’s core competencies and then selecting activities outside the strategic domain for outsourcing. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

    Find this resource:

Corporate Social Responsibility and Sustainability

Following the corporate ethical morass of the 2000s, organizations began establishing mechanisms for ensuring CSR and long-term sustainability. CSR entails moderating corporate practices to make certain the company adheres to ethics, laws, regulations, and standards. The goal is to embrace responsibility for the company’s actions and to promote a positive impact through its activities concerning the environment, consumers, employees, communities, and stakeholders. Similarly, organizations began examining the issue of sustainability to guarantee a long-term, lasting impact on society and the community. Armstrong 2014 reviews the importance of ROI in corporate social responsibility programs. De Jong 2011 looks at the role of HRM in globalizing CSR programs. Kramar 2014 reviews how strategic HRM has emerged as a dominant approach to HRM. Research like Porter and Kramer 2006 continues to study the competitive edge gained by implementing sustainability and CSR programs. Quigley and Hambrick 2015 focuses on the rise of CSR programs in organizations. Rodell 2013 reviews the impact of volunteering on job absorption; and Rothenberg, et al. 2015 presents a framework for managing CSR programs.

  • Armstrong, Peter. “Limits and Possibilities for HRM in an Age of Management Accountancy.” In New Perspectives on Human Resource Management. Edited by John Storey, 154–166. New York: Routledge, 2014.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This article reviews the importance of ROI in corporate social responsibility programs.

    Find this resource:

  • de Jong, Dirk Johan. “International Transfer of Employee-Oriented CSR Practices by Multinational SMEs.” In Special Issue: Occupational Health and Safety in Small Enterprises; The Need for a Diversity of Strategies. Edited by Peter Hasle and Hans Jørgen Limborg. International Journal of Workplace Health Management 4.2 (2011): 123–139.

    DOI: 10.1108/17538351111143303Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    One of only a few research efforts looking at CSR in small and medium-size multinational enterprises. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

    Find this resource:

  • Kramar, Robin. “Beyond Strategic Human Resource Management: Is Sustainable Human Resource Management the Next Approach?” International Journal of Human Resource Management 25 (2014): 1069–1089.

    DOI: 10.1080/09585192.2013.816863Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A review of strategic human resource management (SHRM) emerged as a dominant approach to human resource management (HRM) policy during the late 20th century. Sustainable HRM can be understood in terms of a number of complementary frameworks.

    Find this resource:

  • Porter, Michael E., and Mark R. Kramer. “Strategy and Society: The Link between Competitive Advantage and Corporate Social Responsibility.” Harvard Business Review 84.12 (2006): 78–92.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Develops a framework for fostering integration of CSR into an organization’s core business vision while clarifying the difference between traditional and strategic CSR postures. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

    Find this resource:

  • Quigley, Timothy J., and Donald C. Hambrick. “Has the ‘CEO Effect’ Increased in Recent Decades? A New Explanation for the Great Rise in America’s Attention to Corporate Leaders.” Strategic Management Journal 36.6 (2015): 821–830.

    DOI: 10.1002/smj.2258Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This paper focuses on the rise of corporate social responsibility programs with an emphasis on CEOs as the keepers of corporate sustainability.

    Find this resource:

  • Rodell, Jessica B. “Finding Meaning through Volunteering: Why Do Employees Volunteer and What Does it Mean for Their Jobs?” Academy of Management Journal 56.5 (2013): 1274–1294.

    DOI: 10.5465/amj.2012.0611Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This seminal article reviews the impact of volunteering on job absorption but not job interference, and, subsequently, job performance. Discusses implications of these findings for future theorizing on volunteering.

    Find this resource:

  • Rothenberg, Sandra, Clyde E. Hull, and Zhi Tang. “The Impact of Human Resource Management on Corporate Social Performance Strengths and Concerns.” Business and Society (2015).

    DOI: 10.1177/0007650315586594Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Develops a framework for managing CSR programs through the decentralized HR delivery model.

    Find this resource:

Downsizing

Downsizing is a common reality for organizations operating in a fluctuating economy. Downsizing is a process for reducing the size of a workforce to match economic demand. Although this represents a reduction in force, research in the late 20th and early 21st centuries has focused on optimizing downsizing efforts to ensure effective employee transition to new work. Karren and Sherman 2012 discusses factors that influence stigmatization and discrimination. Rousseau 1995 provides insight into the psychological contract between employer and employee and its impact on the downsizing process. Trevor and Nyberg 2008 outlines potential side effects of a reduction in force effort.

  • Karren, Ronald, and Kim Sherman. “Layoffs and Unemployment Discrimination: A New Stigma.” Journal of Managerial Psychology 27 (2012): 848–863.

    DOI: 10.1108/02683941211280193Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This is a conceptual paper that addresses the factors that affect stigmatization and resulting discrimination against laid-off individuals such as minority status, age, labor markets, job level, and length of unemployment.

    Find this resource:

  • Rousseau, Denise M. Psychological Contracts in Organizations: Understanding Written and Unwritten Agreements. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE, 1995.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Deep exploration of a behavioral theory describing the relationship between individuals and the organizations for which they work. Written in an era of intense corporate restructuring, this work provides valuable insight into the rapidly changing terms on which a psychological contract is based.

    Find this resource:

  • Trevor, Charlie O., and Anthony J. Nyberg. “Keeping Your Headcount When All about You Are Losing Theirs: Downsizing, Voluntary Turnover Rates, and the Moderating Role of HR Practices.” Academy of Management Journal 51.2 (2008): 259–276.

    DOI: 10.5465/AMJ.2008.31767250Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The authors draw interesting conclusions about the unintended consequences of downsizing and what human resource professionals can do to mitigate the impact in advance of restructuring events.

    Find this resource:

Diversity and Inclusion

Diversity and inclusion clearly remain factors when looking at employee engagement. In the modern HRM department a chief concern is building a culture of diversity and inclusion. The HRM team is responsible for the diversity of backgrounds, thoughts, and ideas in the modern workforce. In addition, it is the team’s role to enhance concepts of diversity and inclusion by establishing workforce processes and practices that support integration. Boehm, et al. 2014 investigates the emergence of an age diversity climate at the organizational level and provides practical recommendation for establishing a positive age diversity climate. Cox and Blake 1991 was among the first works to examine the concept of cultural diversity and inclusion for the purpose of organizational competitiveness. Kooij, et al. 2013 draws from theories of lifespan development and self-regulation to distinguish between HR practices that help individual workers reach higher levels of functioning and those that help workers maintain current performance levels. Mor Barak 2011 is a key resource for managing diversity and handling unanticipated hiccups along the way. Story, et al. 2014 offers insight for organizational leaders to work through challenges of a global workforce; Swart and Kinnie 2014 discusses networks in organizations; and Lyons, et al. 2012 examines the job-based demand for HR certifications.

  • Boehm, Stephan A., Florian Kunze, and Heike Bruch. “Spotlight on Age-Diversity Climate: The Impact of Age-Inclusive HR Practices on Firm-Level Outcomes.” Personnel Psychology 67 (2014): 667–704.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This study investigates the emergence and the performance effects of an age-diversity climate at the organizational level of analysis. The paper concludes with practical recommendations on how to establish and make use of a positive age-diversity climate.

    Find this resource:

  • Cox, Taylor H., and Stacy Blake. “Managing Cultural Diversity: Implications for Organizational Competitiveness.” Executive 5.3 (1991): 45–56.

    DOI: 10.5465/AME.1991.4274465Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Among the first efforts to make explicit the facets of managing cultural diversity and outline research literature for clues to the impact of cultural diversity on competitive advantage. Available online by subscription.

    Find this resource:

  • Kooij, Dorien T. A. M., David E. Guest, Mike Clinton, Terry Knight, Paul G. W. Jansen, and Josje S. E. Dikkers. “How the Impact of HR Practices on Employee Well-Being and Performance Changes with Age.” Human Resource Management Journal 23 (2013): 18–35.

    DOI: 10.1111/1748-8583.12000Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This paper draws on theories on lifespan development and self-regulation to distinguish two bundles of HR practices: development HR practices that help individual workers reach higher levels of functioning (e.g., training), and maintenance HR practices that help individual workers maintain their current levels of functioning in the face of new challenges (e.g., performance appraisal).

    Find this resource:

  • Lyons, Brian D., Lorin M. Mueller, Melissa L. Gruys, and Aaron J. Meyers. “A Reexamination of the Web-Based Job Demand for PHR and SPHR Certifications in the United States.” Human Resource Management 51.5 (2012): 769–788.

    DOI: 10.1002/hrm.21496Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This paper reexamines the base rate of HR job announcements that require or prefer certification.

    Find this resource:

  • Mor Barak, Michàlle E. Managing Diversity: Toward a Globally Inclusive Workplace. 2d ed. Los Angeles: SAGE, 2011.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This updated work explores the psychology, practices, and laws of the inclusive workplace in a manner that sustains relevance across geographic boundaries.

    Find this resource:

  • Story, Joana S. P., John E. Barbuto Jr., Fred Luthans, and James A. Bovaird. “Meeting the Challenges of Effective International HRM: Analysis of the Antecedents of Global Mindset.” Human Resource Management 53.1 (2014): 131–155.

    DOI: 10.1002/hrm.21568Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Seminal article on international human resource management (IHRM) to better understand and develop multinational organizational leaders to meet the challenges.

    Find this resource:

  • Swart, Juani, and Nicholas Kinnie. “Reconsidering Boundaries: Human Resource Management in a Networked World.” Human Resource Management 53.2 (2014): 291–310.

    DOI: 10.1002/hrm.21551Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Paper drawing on a decade of empirical research in cross-boundary contexts to identify: (1) three types of networks (interactive, interwoven, and integrated) that vary according to their boundary properties, the focus of the work activity, and the prominent identification; (2) the particular structural, relational, and knowledge-based tensions that are inherent in each networked context; and (3) three HRM models (buffering, borrowing, and balancing) that are appropriate to sustain networked working in these contexts.

    Find this resource:

back to top

Article

Up

Down