Geography Geographies of Music, Sound, and Auditory Culture
by
George Revill
  • LAST REVIEWED: 19 May 2017
  • LAST MODIFIED: 28 April 2016
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199874002-0130

Introduction

Studies of music and sound within geography cover a broad range of subdisciplines; topics range from economic regeneration and globalization, cultural policy, tourism, and the representation of places, landscapes and regions, through questions of gender and identity, to studies of affect, emotion, performance and embodiment. Yet interest in music, sound, and auditory culture within geography has remained a decidedly niche interest until relatively recent phenomenon. The study of music only entered the mainstream of geographical study during the 1990s. While the study of sound, sonic environments, and auditory culture more generally is even more recent, stimulated and paralleled by the rise of “sonic studies” elsewhere in the social sciences and humanities from the early 2000s onward. However, it is possible to trace the history of geographies of music and sound much further back within the discipline. The first studies of sonic environments were made by the Finnish geographer J. G. Granö (1882–1956), while studies of music have formed an integral part of North American cultural geography since the 1960s inspired by work on cultural landscapes in the tradition of Carl Sauer (1889–1975). The development of geographies of music and sound since the 1990s has witnessed a move away from the study of “meaning” found in particular songs, works, or the output of specific artists. In recent years geographers concerned with music and sound have embraced both the emotional and more than representational qualities of listening and sonic experience. Studies of music have also helped pioneer some of the creative interdisciplinary collaborations with arts practice and public engagement characteristic of recent human geography. Yet as the following subheadings show, studies of music, sound, and auditory culture within geography continue to draw across a broad base of geographical subdisciplines while at the same time continuing to push the theoretical boundaries within human geography. To this extent, the fugitive qualities of sound as it exists only within the event of its making and the complexity of sonic spaces characterized by echoes, reverberations, and refractions, characterize relational materialities and topological spatialities that are of significant current interest for geographers. Geographies of music, sound, and auditory culture, therefore, currently provide exciting locations to trial novel ideas, concepts, and research topics.

General Overviews

Though there is no single overall guide to the broad field of geographies of music and sound for geographers, there are texts that undertake parts of this task. Leyshon, et al. 1998 sets out the field in terms of studies of music and cultural politics during the rise to prominence of “new cultural geography,” while Connell and Gibson 2002 provides an extremely useful overview of work across a broad range of topics including economies, technology, place, and identity though this is concerned only with popular music. Hudson 2006 adds an important broad ranging update to this, however there is nothing more recent specifically written by and for geographers. The chapters in Johansson and Bell 2009 explore the scope and range of geographies of popular music. Clayton, et al. 2012 is a collection of essays that sets out key issues and themes for cultural studies of music drawing on sociology, critical musicology, music history, media, and cultural studies. While the two collections, Pinch and Bijsterveld 2012 and Sterne 2012, provide an invaluable guide to the still developing interdisciplinary field of sound studies, these volumes embrace issues of, for example, environmental sound, sound art, scientific data, noise pollution, and the sociology of technology in addition to the making and experience of music in all its forms. Born 2013 is essential reading, bringing studies of sonic environments together with cultural studies of music in a way that opens up the exciting potential of this fusion in terms of geographical issues of space and place.

  • Born, G., ed. Music, Sound and the Reconfiguration of Public and Private Space. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2013.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »

    This collection of essays represents some of the best of current thinking, bringing together research from musicology and sound studies. Chapters discuss music and sound within specific settings and locations. Born’s introduction is an important agenda-setting statement for the social-spatial study of music and sound.

    Find this resource:

    • Clayton, M., T. Herbert, and R. Middleton, eds. The Cultural Study of Music: A Critical Introduction. 2d ed. London: Routledge, 2012.

      Save Citation »Export Citation »

      A wide-ranging overview that addresses histories, locations, practices, social processes, identities, experience, and subjectivities. The book also provides wide geographical coverage and chapters that give a disciplinary perspective on the interdisciplinary cultural study of music.

      Find this resource:

      • Connell, J., and C. Gibson. Sound Tracks: Popular Music, Identity and Place. London: Routledge, 2002.

        Save Citation »Export Citation »

        The first cultural geography of popular music that reviewed and set out much relevant research. The book sets out a conceptual scope for geographical study of music that remains relevant. It addresses issues of music and place, communities and identity, globalization and world music, economies, flows, mobilities, and transnationalism.

        Find this resource:

        • Hudson, R. “Regions and Place: Music, Identity and Place.” Progress in Human Geography 30.5 (2006): 626–634.

          DOI: 10.1177/0309132506070177Save Citation »Export Citation »

          A useful review of the history and current state of work in geography and music; the paper discusses music and place and identity in addition to the role of music in cultural strategies of regional and urban development.

          Find this resource:

          • Johansson, O., and T. Bell, eds. Sound, Society and the Geography of Popular Music. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 2009.

            Save Citation »Export Citation »

            A wide-ranging collection of essays covering the United States, Canada, Caribbean, Australia and the United Kingdom. Developing understandings of popular music from a spatial perspective, the authors are concerned with broader social relations and trends and with issues including identity, attachment to place, cultural economies, social activism, and politics.

            Find this resource:

            • Leyshon, A., D. Matless, and G. Revill, eds. The Place of Music. New York: Guilford, 1998.

              Save Citation »Export Citation »

              A collection of essays from the perspective of the new cultural geography. There is a useful introduction and a collection of essays giving broad geographical coverage with an emphasis on issues of cultural politics.

              Find this resource:

              • Pinch, T., and K. Bijsterveld, eds. The Oxford Handbook of Sound Studies. New York: Oxford University Press, 2012.

                Save Citation »Export Citation »

                An important introduction to the still emerging and expanding field of sound studies. The book considers sound as material form as well as culture, and the chapters examine music and sound in a range of specialist and everyday settings such as shop floors, laboratories, clinics, design studios, homes, and clubs. Essays are both historical and contemporary.

                Find this resource:

                • Sterne, J. The Sound Studies Reader. London: Routledge, 2012.

                  Save Citation »Export Citation »

                  Published in the same year as Pinch and Bijsterveld 2012 and should be read alongside it; this book provides an excellent way into the breadth and range of contemporary sound studies. It is contains pieces by many of the most important names in the field past and present.

                  Find this resource:

                  History of Research into Geographies of Music and Sound

                  A history of work in this field is yet to be written, and histories and historiographies of geography have not dealt with the subject. Yet the development of research reflects quite closely broader currents and trends within the discipline. The books and papers listed in this section provide a guide to this changing history by exemplifying particular concerns, issues, and approaches current a particular moments in the past. Where Granö 1997 represents links with classical traditions in geography related to the German school of Alexander Von Humbolt (1769–1859), Pocock 1989 for example, also concerned with broader sonic environments, shows how geographies of music and sound were interpreted by the humanistic geography of the 1970s and early 1980. The Smith 1994 is notable for making connections between this humanistic tradition and the cultural politics of “new” cultural geography. Her well cited paper introduced a loosely interpreted conception of soundscape into geography as a basis for understanding the spatiality of sound. Kong 1995 and Leyshon, et al. 1995 helped establish new cultural geography approaches to music including work on musical and cultural economies, identity, politics, nationalism and globalization. In contrast, Nash and Carney 1996 is a definitive statement of music geography understood within the traditions of North American cultural geography that have conceptual origins in the cultural landscape work of Carl Sauer (1889–1975). Representing more recent developments, Smith 2000 moves study on to consider issues of practice, performance and experience that have come to increasingly dominate the field. While Bandt, et al. 2007 is an early example of collaboration and conversation between academics and practicing artists now widely established by a multiplicity of strategies to engage publics through issue based arts practice.

                  • Bandt, R., M. Duffy, and D. MacKinnon, eds. Hearing Places: Sound Place Time Culture. Newcastle, UK: Cambridge Scholars, 2007.

                    Save Citation »Export Citation »

                    Brings together work concerning the spaces and places of music by geographers and other academics with that of sound artists and musicians. This work begins to address the increasingly prominent issues of sound art, architecture, and environment.

                    Find this resource:

                    • Granö, J. G. Pure Geography. Translated by Malcolm Hicks. Edited by Olavi Granö and Anssi Paasi. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 1997.

                      Save Citation »Export Citation »

                      The study of soundscapes and the spatiality of sonic environments is often traced back to this work. Principally influenced by the systematic research of landscape in 19th-century German geography, the Finnish geographer Granö emphasized the role of human perception in understanding of landscape. First published in 1927.

                      Find this resource:

                      • Kong, L. “Popular Music in Geographical Analysis.” Progress in Human Geography 19.2 (1995): 183–198.

                        DOI: 10.1177/030913259501900202Save Citation »Export Citation »

                        The first paper to address the geography of popular music from the perspective of the new cultural geography. It set out what became in influential agenda for the study of popular music within cultural geography.

                        Find this resource:

                        • Leyshon, A., D. Matless, and G. Revill, eds. “The Place of Music.” Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers NS 20 (1995): 423–486.

                          DOI: 10.2307/622973Save Citation »Export Citation »

                          A collection of papers that introduced to geography research grounded in music and musicology that was compatible with the concerns of new cultural geography. There is a focus on issues of cultural politics across a range of historical and geographical case studies.

                          Find this resource:

                          • Nash, P. H., and G. Carney. “The Seven Themes of Music Geography.” Canadian Geographer 40.1 (1996): 69–74.

                            DOI: 10.1111/j.1541-0064.1996.tb00433.xSave Citation »Export Citation »

                            An important review of music geography within North American cultural geography spanning the period from 1970 by two of its leading exponents. The seven major themes outlined relate to North American music geography’s focus on factors of location, diffusion, and place identity.

                            Find this resource:

                            • Pocock, D. “Sound and the Geographer.” Geography 74.3 (1989): 193–200.

                              Save Citation »Export Citation »

                              Addresses geographies of sound from a phenomenological perspective. The development of sound studies and the renewed interest within geography concerning phenomenological perspectives establish this paper as worth reading as a precursor to many present-day concerns.

                              Find this resource:

                              • Smith, S. “Soundscape.” Area 26 (1994): 232–240.

                                Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                This paper played an important part in establishing the study of music within cultural geography beyond the North American music geography tradition. It adopted the idea of soundscape as a means of interrogating the spatiality of music, its experience, and its practice.

                                Find this resource:

                                • Smith, S. J. “Performing the (Sound)World.” Environment and Planning D—Society and Space 18.5 (2000): 615–637.

                                  DOI: 10.1068/d225tSave Citation »Export Citation »

                                  A key paper introducing ideas of performance and practice to geographical studies of music. It develops ideas of embodied knowing created through intersecting political, economic, and emotional spaces made through musical performance (and listening) practices.

                                  Find this resource:

                                  Reference Resources

                                  There are an increasing range of online resources available for the study of music, sound, and auditory culture. Materials available range from digitized archive repositories of audio materials suitable for original research through to sites acting as portals that provide access to materials concerning concepts, approaches, methods, news, and views. In terms of collections of research audio archives, the British Library Sound Archive is an important resources as to is the Library of Congress. The provision of research materials online is undergoing a period of rapid expansion; the British Library, for example, is involved in the Europeana Sounds project to create a Europe-wide sound archive; this is in the early stages of development. Other useful sites provide resources for researchers and practitioners. The World Forum for Acoustic Ecology provides an essential range of material and links for those concerned with soundscape studies and sonic environments more broadly. The Noise Abatement Society provides a valuable entry point into subjects concerning the science, planning, policy, and legal dimensions of noise control. Though this is orientated toward the United Kingdom, there are similar sites providing some if not all these resources elsewhere, for example, in the United States. Sonic Terrain by contrast is aimed at academics and people in the arts, though it also provides information for ecologists and wildlife sound recordists.

                                  • British Library Sounds.

                                    Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                    A substantial and wide-ranging collection of sound recordings focused on Britain and former dependencies, The British Library has 6.5 million hours of material in its sound archive, 3,900 hours of this is currently available free online. Topics include accents and dialects, interviews with writers, architects and musicians, British wildlife recordings, and soundscapes.

                                    Find this resource:

                                    • Europeana Sounds: Europe’s Sound Heritage at Your Fingertips.

                                      Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                      This is new project to create a portal to Europe’s digitized sonic heritage. Currently under construction, it brings together over a million sound and associated digitized items from leading audio archives and libraries across Europe. The data archive includes music of different genres, languages, and dialects; oral memories; and nature and environmental sounds.

                                      Find this resource:

                                      • JISC MediaHub.

                                        Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                        Designed for UK education with academic, teaching, and research in mind, this hub brings together in one searchable database audio as well as video materials from commercial institutional and academic collections. Access is via institutional library or password.

                                        Find this resource:

                                        • Library of Congress.

                                          Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                          A major collection of recordings dating back to 1926 and including recordings collected by the Library’s Music Division and the American Folk Life Center. It includes radio broadcasts and the entire history of sound technology. The National Jukebox is one of twenty-two searchable Internet databases at the Library of Congress, which is making material available free via the Internet.

                                          Find this resource:

                                          • Noise Abatement Society.

                                            Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                            UK-based organization dedicated to raising awareness, campaigning, and sharing information about unwanted noise and sonic environments. It has useful links to materials scientific research concerning noise and sound as well as to resources and sites concerned with planning, design, law, and policy.

                                            Find this resource:

                                            • Sonic Terrain.

                                              Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                              Site dedicated to exploring sound in terms of both listening and recording. There is a wide range of information, reviews advice, and associated links aimed at a broad cross-section of lay publics, sound designers, multi-media artists, musicians, scientists, ecologists, and conservationists.

                                              Find this resource:

                                              • WFAE: World Forum for Acoustic Ecology.

                                                Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                Website of the international organization concerned with the study of acoustic ecology; it brings together national organizations from North America, Asia, Australasia, and Europe. This is an essential portal with links to material on the history, methods, and practice of soundscape recording and composition, video, audio, reviews, advice, news, and recordings themselves.

                                                Find this resource:

                                                Journals

                                                There is no one single journal aimed at geographies of music and sound; however, there are a number that have direct relevance to particular parts of the field. These include journals associated with specialist societies in addition to those associated with the developing field of sound studies. Some geography journals included relevant articles; however, there is no systematic coverage. Most usefully, Progress in Human Geography publishes papers that review specific aspects of the field as well as setting new conceptual agendas. The Journal of Cultural Geography is the best source for papers within the traditions of North American music geography. Social and Cultural Geography publishes empirical and conceptual papers that engage with contemporary theoretical debates including issues of perfomativity, affect, socio-material relationality, and arts practice engagement. Other journals such as Body and Society similarly publish papers that engage with the embodied experience of sound, and the Senses and Society publishes material concerning sound from the interdisciplinary perspective of sensory studies that ranges across social psychology, phenomenology, affective, and sociological perspectives. Also useful are journals for which issues of sound are central to their remit. Whereas the International Journal of Listening is specifically concerned with practices of listening, Organised Sound concerns itself with experimental and technologically mediated approaches to sonic based art work including both music and sound sculpture. Soundscape is the main source of material concerning soundscapes and acoustic ecology while the Journal of Sonic Studies provides the single most relevant source of material from the perspective of sounds studies.

                                                Music, Place, and Region

                                                Place and region have been a key focus for studies of music and sound within geography. Studies within the North American cultural geography tradition have been a very vibrant source of study. However work on place and region also reflects other theoretical and conceptual agendas. Where Sterne 1997 examines the sonic environment of a shopping mall and focuses on cultural politics from the perspective of sound studies, Bell 1998 adopts a clearly geographical approach to the spaces of musical production and performance. Carney 2003 provides some of the best examples of the work of authors working in the North American cultural geography tradition. The essays in Whiteley, et al. 2004 are also concerned with place and region in relation to issues of identity figured in terms of a politics of resistance to dominant and mainstream cultures. Issues of economic generation and creative cultures are often understood as Bennett and Peterson 2004 shows through the sociological lens of “musical scenes.” Daniels 2006 exemplifies the “new” cultural geography focus on cultural politics of place and the politics of aesthetics. Krims 2007 shares some of this focus on the cultural politics of place to examine what makes music distinctively urban. Festivals and festival cultures such as those discussed in McKay 2014 constitute an important dimension of musical studies of place. Recently, as exemplified by Wissman 2014, the study of music and place has broadened out to include a wider sense of sonic environment. Studies of music place and region also connect with material in the sections concerning Nations, Nationalism, and World Music, Musical Landscapes, Place, Landscape, and Sonic History, and Musical Economies.

                                                • Bell, T. “Why Seattle? An Examination of an Alternative Rock Culture Hearth.” Journal of Cultural Geography 18.1 (1998): 35–47.

                                                  DOI: 10.1080/08873639809478311Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                  Examines the emergence of the “Seattle sound” as a form of alternative rock music in the late 1980s and early 1990s. The paper argues against explicitly environmental explanations and instead argues in terms of the coincidence of creative and economic-institutional factors.

                                                  Find this resource:

                                                  • Bennett, A., and R. A. Peterson. Music Scenes, Local, Translocal and Virtual. Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press, 2004.

                                                    Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                    Adopts the sociological concept of “music scenes” as a route in to examining the place based experience of music for fans, critics, and musicians themselves. The authors distinguish between what they term local, trans-local, and virtual scenes to include both face-to-face and Internet-based social interactions.

                                                    Find this resource:

                                                    • Carney, G., ed. The Sounds of People and Places: A Geography of American Music from Country to Classical and Blues to Bop. 4th ed. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2003.

                                                      Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                      This is the single most authoritative collection of essays adopting the North American music geography approach. The book covers a wide range of genres of music characteristic of North America. There is a focus on place representations, cultural landscape, and the location of the music industry.

                                                      Find this resource:

                                                      • Daniels, S. “Suburban Pastoral: Strawberry Fields Forever and Sixties Memory.” Cultural geographies 13 (2006): 28–54.

                                                        DOI: 10.1191/1474474005eu349oaSave Citation »Export Citation »

                                                        Examines the Beatles work as a medium of memory for the 1960s. The paper develops the idea of a suburban version of the pastoral to better understand the contours of this “theater of memory.”

                                                        Find this resource:

                                                        • Krims, A. Music and Urban Geography. New York: Routledge, 2007.

                                                          Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                          Written by a musicologist, this book fuses ethnomusicology, musicology, and urban geography to explore how music is mediated in the urban environment. Its central question concerns what is unique about urban music making and how might it be studied.

                                                          Find this resource:

                                                          • McKay, G., ed. The Pop Festival: History, Music, Media, Culture. New York: Bloomsbury Academic, 2014.

                                                            Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                            An edited collection of essays that examines the history, development, and experience of pop music festivals as one of the most successful and enduring place-based features of seasonal popular culture. Examples are mainly drawn from the United Kingdom, North America, and Australia.

                                                            Find this resource:

                                                            • Sterne, J. “Sounds like the Mall of America: Programmed Music and the Architectonics of Commercial Space.” Ethnomusicology 41.1 (1997): 22–50.

                                                              DOI: 10.2307/852577Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                              A path-breaking study of the cultural politics, technology, economics, and phenomenological experience of music in a shopping mall. Sets the standard for work on sound in urban everyday life.

                                                              Find this resource:

                                                              • Whiteley, S., A. Bennett, and S. Hawkins, eds. Music, Space and Place: Popular Music and Cultural Identity. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 2004.

                                                                Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                A geographically wide-ranging collection of essays that examines a variety of urban and rural spaces in which music is experienced, produced, and consumed. This useful collection of case studies is particularly concerned with issues of identity and cultural resistance in relation to place and region.

                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                • Wissman, T. Geographies of Urban Sound. Farnham, UK: Ashgate, 2014.

                                                                  Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                  This book takes forward the study of place-based local and regional sound worlds by taking into account broader sonic environments. It argues that sound in its various manifestations as ambient noise and local music is constitutive of each city as specific experience.

                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                  Nations, Nationalism, and World Music

                                                                  This is an area of study that came to prominence during the 1990s. Much of this work is centrally concerned with issues of cultural politics, colonialism, postcolonialism and cultural hybridity, and discourses of purity and authenticity. Among studies concerned with cultural hybridity and hybridization, Lipsitz 1994 is centrally concerned with hybridity as a politics of resistance. Born and Hesmondhalgh 2000 approach the topic of cultural hybridity from a cultural sociological perspective. Revill 2000 addresses the cultural politics of nationalism in classical music from within geographical perspectives on place and landscape. Bohlman 2004 is a benchmark study of music nationalism and national identity that bridges classical and popular genres. The phenomenon of “world music” has provided profitable subject matter connecting issues of globalization and relational dynamic senses of place making with those concerning cultural heterogeneity and authenticity. Connell and Gibson 2004 provides a very useful introduction to these issues from the discipline of geography while Stokes 2004 and Guilbault 2006 provide important reviews from the perspectives of ethnomusicology and anthropology, respectively.

                                                                  • Bohlman, P. V. The Music of European Nationalism: Cultural Identity and Modern History. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-Clio, 2004.

                                                                    Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                    A definitive account tracing the role of music as part of the politics and cultural politics of the European nation state from the rise of nationalism in the 18th century through to postcolonialism, the end of communism, and the fragilities of the European Union.

                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                    • Born, G., and D. Hesmondhalgh, eds. Western Music and Its Others: Difference, Representation and Appropriation In Music. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000.

                                                                      Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                      This collection brings together leading musicologists, ethnomusicologists, and specialists in film and popular music to explore the ways European and North American musicians have drawn on or identified themselves in tension with the musical practices of others. It addresses issues of cultural heterogeneity, otherness, universalisms and globalization.

                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                      • Connell, J., and C. Gibson. “World Music: Deterritorializing Place and Identity.” Progress in Human Geography 28 (2004): 342–361.

                                                                        DOI: 10.1191/0309132504ph493oaSave Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                        Argues that the rise of “world music” exemplifies the multiple ways in which places are constructed, commodified, and contested. Though the expansion of world music exemplifies the deterritorialization of cultures, it could not have occurred without the construction and contestation of discourses of place and otherness.

                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                        • Guilbault, J. “On Redefining the ‘Local’ through World Music.” In Ethnomusicology: A Contemporary Reader. Edited by J. Post, 137–146. New York: Routledge, 2006.

                                                                          Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                          Examines the ways in which the multiple genres of world music have contributed to contemporary culture redefinitions of the local. Guilbault argues that at the same time this repositions and redistributes specific locals as valid contributors to and participants in global culture.

                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                          • Lipsitz, G. Dangerous Crossroads: Popular Music, Postmodernism and the Poetics of Place. London: Verso, 1994.

                                                                            Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                            As an important pioneering study in musical fusion and hybridity, this book considers the ways in which immigrant populations find their identity by making music that combines their own experiences with the forms of mainstream culture they have come to inhabit.

                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                            • Revill G. “Music and the Politics of Sound: Nationalism, Citizenship and Auditory Space.” Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 18 (2000): 597–613.

                                                                              DOI: 10.1068/d224tSave Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                              Drawing in the example of English art music of the period 1880–1940, Revill argues that the distinctive properties of sound give music a very particular role in the organization of social, economic, and political spaces.

                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                              • Stokes, M. “Music and the Global Order.” Annual Review of Anthropology 33 (2004): 47–72.

                                                                                DOI: 10.1146/annurev.anthro.33.070203.143916Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                This paper outlines some the main ethnographic and historical modes of engagement with what the author terms “persistent neoliberal” and other music industry inspired myth making associated with the idea of world music. He suggests an approach that contextualizes genres, styles, and practices that circulate across cultural borders in specific institutional sites and histories.

                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                Musical Landscapes

                                                                                Landscape is distinctive as a topic for studies of music because it is an area in which issues of meaning and representation can addressed as a direct response to environmental experience and imagination through the sound, structure, and symbolism of the music itself. The depiction of landscape has formed a subject matter inspiring musicians and composers in many cultures and at different times in history, and this constitutes a rich body of material that of particular interest during the 1990s when cultural geographers were most concerned with text and representation. In addition to work by cultural geographers, the representation of landscape has formed a topic of interest for musicologists and anthropologists/ethnomusicologists. Sternberg 1998 is a study of classical music that draws on the North American tradition of music geography. Matless 2005 examines the cultural politics of sound within landscape with a focus on moral geographies of appropriate and inappropriate behavior. Matless anticipates present-day interest in sonic environments more broadly conceived see Noise, Unwanted Sound, and Sonic Environments. Kruse 2005 forges links between different traditions within cultural geography, while Grimley 2006 exemplifies the treatment of landscape within present-day musicology while also referencing concepts and issues from cultural geography. Knight 2006 connects geographical approaches with the author’s personal experience as an orchestral musician, whereas Richards 2007 draws more consciously on anthropology. Revill 2013 is an interdisciplinary review of work on landscape, soundscapes, and sonic environments. Revill 2014 endeavors to find conceptual connections between landscape as representation and landscape as experience from a post-phenomenological perspective.

                                                                                • Grimley, D. Grieg: Music Landscape and Norwegian Cultural Identity. Woodbridge, UK: Boydell, 2006.

                                                                                  Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                  A critical interrogation of the contested category of landscape in the work of the composer Edvard Grieg (1843–1907). This musicological study draws on work in cultural theory and cultural geography to argue that landscape must be understood not merely in terms of imitative representation or pictorial evocation in tone painting but fundamentally as an ideological construction.

                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                  • Knight, D. B. Landscapes in Music: Space, Place and Time in the World’s Great Music. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2006.

                                                                                    Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                    By a geographer who is also an orchestral musician, this book explores orchestral music that represents real and imagined physical and cultural spaces, natural forces, and humans and wildlife.

                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                    • Kruse, R. J. “The Beatles as Place Makers: Narrated Landscapes in Liverpool, England.” Journal of Cultural Geography 22.2 (2005): 87–114.

                                                                                      DOI: 10.1080/08873630509478240Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                      Adopts an approach fusing North American music geography with post-structuralist discourse theory. A cultural landscape perspective is used to explore the ways in which the Beatles continue to affect the meaning of places in Liverpool.

                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                      • Matless, D. “Sonic Geography in a Nature Region.” Social and Cultural Geography 6.5 (2005): 742–766.

                                                                                        DOI: 10.1080/14649360500258245Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                        In important paper showing how sound highlights conflict concerning increasing visitor numbers and leisure use of the Norfolk Broads landscape. It examines the ways in which sonic judgements placing bird watching and walking as appropriate but partying as inappropriate continue to inform judgements concerning sonic landscapes into the 21st century.

                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                        • Revill, G. “Landscape, Music and the Cartography of Sound.” In Routledge Companion to Landscape Studies. Edited by P. Howard, I. Thompson, and E. Waterton, 231–240. London: Routledge, 2013.

                                                                                          Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                          Reviews work on music, sound, and landscape including national identity and landscape, soundscape studies, and environmentalism. Suggests that landscape has formed a terrain on which musical and extra-musical sounds interact, transforming conceptions of acceptable and unacceptable musical sounds in the process.

                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                          • Revill, G. “El Tren Fantasma: Arcs of Sound and the Acoustic Spaces of Landscape.” Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 29 (2014): 333–344.

                                                                                            DOI: 10.1111/tran.12034Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                            From a post-phenomenological perspective grounded in sound studies, this paper draws some parallels between sound and landscapes as modalities of inhabiting the world. It suggests some contours for a sonic approach to landscape and applies these to work by the sound artist and composer Chris Watson.

                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                            • Richards, F., ed. The Soundscapes of Australia: Music, Place and Spirituality. Ashgate, UK, Ashgate, 2007.

                                                                                              Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                              This collection of essays examines some of the ways in which composers and performers have attempted to convey a sense of the Australian landscape through musical means. The book adopts approaches of ethnomusicology, gender studies, musical analysis, performance studies, and cultural history.

                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                              • Sternberg, R. “Fantasy, Geography, Wagner, and Opera.” Geographical Review 88.3 (1998): 327–348.

                                                                                                DOI: 10.2307/216013Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                Working from the perspective of North American music geography, this paper considers how the epic operas of Richard Wagner use landscapes and urban imagery to forge spatial order on stage. The paper makes a case for the study of classical music by geographers.

                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                Place, Landscape, and Sonic History

                                                                                                One important lesson from studying sonic landscapes and environments in the past is that what is heard and how people listen changes over time. In this context, historians of sound, listening, and sonic environments have used music and sound to explore changing environmental understandings, meanings of place, and socio-spatial and spatio-political organization. Work on this theme ranges from large-scale arguments of social transformation with extensive historical scope such as Attali 1985 to studies concerned with specific periods and places in history. Works focusing on rural landscapes and locations such as Corbin 1998 are often concerned with issues of social organization, community, tradition, and yearly agricultural cycles. Smith 1999 provides a theoretically distinctive sonic approach to national identity within a particular time period. Smith 2001, for example, contrasts urban and rural sonic sensibilities to interrogate issues at a national scale. Garrioch 2003 and Thompson 2004 are concerned with urban sound and sonic environments; themes here include social mixing, the cacophony of voices, trades and leisure activities, and the numerous legal, policy, and scientific attempts to control unwanted sound. Smith 2004 provides a very useful introduction across these themes and includes a wide range of case studies.

                                                                                                • Attali, J. Noise: The Political Economy of Music. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press, 1985.

                                                                                                  Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                  A provocative and ground-breaking account giving an interpretation of Western music informed by political economy. The author understands the history of Western music in terms of a pre-modern era of sacrifice, an early modern era of representation, and a post-modern era of repetition.

                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                  • Corbin, A. Village Bells. New York: Columbia University Press, 1998.

                                                                                                    Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                    A landmark in sonic history, this book traces the sonic spaces of cultural and political change in rural France. Corbin shows how by the end of the 19th century church bells were physically louder because of new design and casting technology, but ironically much quieter in terms of their local social and cultural meaning.

                                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                                    • Garrioch, D. “Sounds of the City: The Soundscape of Early Modern European Towns.” Urban History 30 (2003): 5–25.

                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1017/S0963926803001019Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                      Argues for the need to think differently about urban soundscapes of the past. Whereas today we try to escape city noise, for the inhabitants of early modern towns sound served as a crucial source of information. Garrioch suggests that sound helped to construct identity and to structure relationships.

                                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                                      • Smith, B. The Acoustic World of Early Modern England: Attending to the O-factor. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999.

                                                                                                        Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                        A pioneering attempt to move the attention of historians away from the visual and toward attentive listening. The book reworks issues of land, landscape, politics, nationhood, and complex and heterogeneous urban and rural identities at play in this period of British history through an approach grounded in phenomenology.

                                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                                        • Smith, M. Listening to Nineteenth-Century America. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2001.

                                                                                                          Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                          A provocative study arguing that the different ways northerners and southerners perceived sounds associated with antebellum America encouraged a sectionalism hardening into antagonism as the United States moved toward the Civil War. Smith suggests that where northern elites celebrated the noises of urban modernity, southern elites valued the quiet and tranquility of the plantation.

                                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                                          • Smith, M. Hearing History: A Reader. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 2004.

                                                                                                            Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                            Mainly concerned with sonic histories of Europe and North America, this book presents a range of methodological and theoretical debates and approaches to the sonic worlds and environments of the past.

                                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                                            • Thompson, E. The Soundscape of Modernity: An Investigation of Architectural Acoustics and Listening in Early Twentieth Century North America. Cambridge, MA: MIT, 2004.

                                                                                                              Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                              Centered on New York, this study examines the transformation of urban sound through its legal control, technological measurement, and architectural and electronic design. It shows how increasing control of the soundscape transformed an unmanaged sonic landscape into the packaged and controlled urban soundtrack typical of modern life.

                                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                                              Music, Identity, and Everyday Life

                                                                                                              In modern environments, music plays an important role in everyday life, as a background to shopping and leisure activities; it permeates offices and workplaces and is played through portable technology in cars and through headphones as people walk, cycle, and use public transport. In environments surrounded by and mediated with technology, audio signals monitor activities and warn against potential problems, while cell phones allow constant audio communication with those elsewhere. People are both immersed in and saturated with sound technology at the same time audio technologies and the music they carry with them have become important means of cultural communication and social differentiation. This has become a very profitable area of study within social science, social studies of technology, and cultural studies. A useful theoretical context is set by Connor 1997 while Bull 2000 and De Nora 2000 provide pioneering studies of sound within everyday contexts such as traveling and shopping. A significant number of innovative studies have carried studies into a wide range of workplace and leisure environments; Jones 2005, for example, studies the sonic environments of factories. Xun and Tarocco 2007 explores the globalized technological culture of Karaoke and investigates the complex social worlds in which this phenomenon mixes business and pleasure, work and socialization. Pieslak 2009, on the military, and Rice 2013, concerning sound in hospitals, demonstrate the breadth of public, social, and occupational spaces now subject to sonic-based studies.

                                                                                                              • Bull, M. Sounding Out the City: Personal Stereos and the Management of Everyday Life. Oxford: Berg, 2000.

                                                                                                                Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                Examines the ways in which people use personal stereos to manage their experience of urban everyday life. Based on anthropological methods, this book paved the way for many recent ethnographic accounts of listening practices and technology in relation to mobile urban experience.

                                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                                • Connor, S. “The Modern Auditory I.” In Rewriting the Self: Histories from the Renaissance to the Present. Edited by R. Porter, 203–223. London: Routledge, 1997.

                                                                                                                  Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                  Argues that the making of identity within the modern world is a product of modernity’s communications networks. For Connor, this is characterized by an auditory dynamic that locates us within “the switch-board experience” of modern life, found initially in early telephone systems, radiophonic broadcasting, and cinematic matter.

                                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                                  • De Nora, T. Music in Everyday Life. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2000.

                                                                                                                    Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                    Uses a series of ethnographic studies including an aerobics class, karaoke evenings, music therapy sessions, and the use of background music in the retail sector to show how music is a constitutive feature of everyday life. It develops a sociological theory of music’s active role in the construction of personal and social life in late modern societies.

                                                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                                                    • Jones, K. “Music in Factories: A Twentieth Century Technique for Control of the Productive Self.” Social and Cultural Geography 6 (2005): 723–744.

                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1080/14649360500258229Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                      Discusses the historical use of music to produce more efficient, more committed industrial workers. This paper examines the practice of Music While You Work as a program broadcasting specifically for factory spaces, and how this confronted the BBC’s music policies for a national and domestic audience.

                                                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                                                      • Pieslak, J. Sound Targets: American Soldiers and Music in the Iraq War. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2009.

                                                                                                                        Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                        Based on interviews with returning veterans, the book examines the place of music in the Iraq war and contemporary American military culture in general. It describes how soldiers hear, share, use, and produce music both on and off duty and explores themes of power, chaos, violence, and survival in the metal and hip-hop music popular among the troops.

                                                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                                                        • Rice, T. Hearing and the Hospital: Sound, Listening, Knowledge and Experience. Canon Pyon, UK: Sean Kingston, 2013.

                                                                                                                          Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                          An ethnographic study showing how sound and listening produce, articulate, and mediate social relations inside hospitals. The book considers both the sensory details that underpin and undermine the production of medical knowledge and skill and the ways in which medical sounds, staff conversation, and body noises undermine senses of privacy for patients on the ward.

                                                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                                                          • Xun, Z., and F. Tarocco. Karaoke: The Global Phenomenon. London: Reaktion, 2007.

                                                                                                                            Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                            Argues that karaoke represents a singular technological tool that allows users to tap into the unrestrained energy of popular music and identify with others around them. The book comprises a set of case studies from around the world exploring karaoke cultures and its links to globalization.

                                                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                                                            Musical Economies

                                                                                                                            In the post-industrial world, music is often used either on its own or within the context of other culture industries as a catalyst for economic regeneration. Such regeneration has formed an important topic for economic studies of the geography of music; see, for instance, Hudson 1995. The technological transformation of the music industry is explored in Leyshon 2001. Whereas work on music, tourism, and entertainment—for instance, Gibson and Connell 2003—relates to other literature (see Music, Place, and Region), Studies such as Gibson and Homan 2004 and Bennett and Peterson 2004 (cited under Music, Place, and Region) have some overlap with studies of distinctive local music scenes especially with regard to issues of creativity and place identity. Yet technological developments, particularly those concerning digital technologies and the Internet, continue to radically transform the music industry. Leyshon, et al. 2005 deals with new ways of distributing music and how these transform markets. Florida 2010 provides a broad overview of the music industry in the United States and relates technological innovation back to the fortunes of specific music scenes. Watson 2012 considers the tools and technologies that network studios and sites of musical production on a global scale.

                                                                                                                            • Florida, R. “Sonic City: The Evolving Economic Geography of the Music Industry.” Urban Studies 29.3 (2010): 210–321.

                                                                                                                              Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                              Tracks the location of musicians and music establishments in US regions from 1970 to 2004. It finds that the music industry has become significantly more concentrated over time in New York, Los Angeles, and Nashville. However, the presence of clusters of musicians and music scenes in some smaller locations reflect both specific demand and technological changes.

                                                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                                                              • Gibson, C., and J. Connell. “‘Bongo Fury’: Tourism, Music and Cultural Economy at Byron Bay, Australia.” Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geographie 94 (2003): 164–187.

                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1111/1467-9663.00247Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                Examines the role of music in the tourist marketing of the Far North Coast as an “alternative” or “lifestyle” region. It considers counter urbanization, neo-tribal subcultures, and world music in transforming the image of this tourist destination. It discusses the economic impacts and cultural discourses of these trends.

                                                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                • Gibson, C., and S. Homan. “Urban Redevelopment, Live Music and Public Space.” Journal of Cultural Policy 10 (2004): 67–84.

                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1080/1028663042000212337Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                  Examines the use and promotion of popular music in inner-city spaces in Sydney. The paper is concerned with issues of gentrification in relation to affordable housing and spaces for performance. It discusses the role of local government in mediating the cultural impacts of gentrification and urban redevelopment.

                                                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                  • Hudson, R. “Making Music Work? Alternative Regeneration Strategies in a Deindustrialized Locality: The Case of Derwentside.” Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 20 (1995): 460–473.

                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.2307/622976Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                    Grounded in a study of north-west County Durham (United Kingdom) after the decline of heavy industry, this pioneering study examines the role of music-based culture industries to regenerate regional and local economies.

                                                                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                    • Leyshon, A. “Time–Space (and Digital) Compression: Software Formats, Musical Networks, and the Reorganisation of the Music Industry.” Environment and Planning A 33.1 (2001): 49–77.

                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1068/a3360Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                      Examines the geographical and organizational consequences of new software formats and Internet distribution systems. The paper concerns the relationships between technological innovation, economic competition, and the markets in an era of digital content.

                                                                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                      • Leyshon, A., P. Webb, S. French, N. Thrift, and L. Crewe. “On the Reproduction of the Musical Economy after the Internet.” Media Culture and Society 27.2 (2005): 177–209.

                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1177/0163443705050468Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                        Discusses the crisis of reproduction that beset the contemporary popular music industry from the late 1990s onward. Drawing on research undertaken within US music companies, it examines responses to the crisis in the form of three distinctive business models that represent different strategies in the face of the contemporary crisis of the musical economy.

                                                                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                        • Watson, A. “The World according to iTunes: Mapping Urban Networks of Music Production.” Global Networks 12 (2012): 446–466.

                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1111/j.1471-0374.2011.00357.xSave Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                          A social network analysis that explores and maps relational urban networks of production within the global recorded music industry. It examines the new tools and techniques for networking studios in geographically distant locations give mobile musically creative workers the ability to coordinate musical recordings on a global scale, resulting in new relational geographies of music production.

                                                                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                          Music Politics, Sound, and Protest

                                                                                                                                          Protest or political song and crowd noise, sometimes called “rough music” or “hue and cry” has long been a means by which publics make their feelings known to the powerful; see Sakolsky and Wei-Han Ho 1995. Such cultural practices can sometimes form highly explicit political statements of identity and self-determination, shown by Gibson 1998. Music and dance can be a form of resistance through more subtle cultural means as Fryer 2000 shows by studying the appropriation, modification, and the practice of African culture in Brazil. Collin 2001 also shows this in the author’s study of radio as an assertion of national and political identity and freedom in Serbia. Yet music should be is recognized as a tool of oppression as well as subversion; see Cloonan and Johnson 2002 and Nations, Nationalism, and World Music. Music has frequently been studied as a very explicit form of political expression as Jackiewicz and Craine 2009 shows in a study of the songs of the English political singer Billy Bragg. It is also important to understand sonic protest as part of the affective and embodied experience of being in a crowd as well as something more than carefully chosen words and music. This is shown by Pinkerton and Dodds 2009 (cited under Technology, Broadcasting, Politics, and Culture) in relation to broadcasting and by Waitt, et al. 2014 in relation to the behavior of crowds. The unruliness of sound itself, its capacity to resist containment, and to echo, resound, and transgress physical and social boundaries is also an important consideration. In relation to the unruliness of sound, see also Phenomenologies of Sound.

                                                                                                                                          • Cloonan, M., and B. Johnson. “Killing Me Softly with His Song: An Initial Investigation into the Use of Popular Music as a Tool of Oppression.” Popular Music 21 (2002): 27–40.

                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1017/S0261143002002027Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                            This paper starts from the assertion that popular music studies generally celebrate the power of music to empower the construction of individual and social identities, a site of positive self-realization. It examines some of the issues raised by this in terms of music’s power both to assert and silence.

                                                                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                            • Collin, M. This Is Serbia Calling: Rock ‘n’ Roll Radio and Belgrade’s Underground Resistance. London: Serpent’s Tail, 2001.

                                                                                                                                              Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                              Tells the story of radio station B92 as tale of cultural resistance in the face of nationalist propaganda during the Balkan wars of the 1990s. The author argues that radio station B29 played an important role in Serbia helping to keep alive the voices of dissent through its use of rock music, email, and the Internet.

                                                                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                              • Fryer, P. Rhythms of Resistance: African Musical Heritage in Brazil. London: Pluto, 2000.

                                                                                                                                                Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                Examines how migrants to Brazil combined the rhythms and beats of Africa with European popular music to create a unique sound and dance tradition. It focuses on the political nature of this musical crossover and the role of African heritage in the cultural identity of black Brazilians today.

                                                                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                • Gibson, C. “We Sing Our Home, We Dance Our Land’: Indigenous Self-Determination and Contemporary Geopolitics in Australian Popular Music.” Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 16 (1998): 163–184.

                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1068/d160163Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                  Considers the ways new indigenous musical networks inscribe the Australian soundscape, while at the same time challenging normative geopolitical doctrines. It argues that the emergence of a vibrant Aboriginal popular music scene requires both a rethinking of Australian music and a greater recognition of Aboriginal artists’ sophisticated geopolitical strategies.

                                                                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                  • Jackiewicz, E., and J. Craine. “Scales of Resistance: Billy Bragg and the Creation of Activist Spaces.” In Sound, Society and the Geography of Popular Music. Edited by O. Johansson and T. Bell, 33–52. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 2009.

                                                                                                                                                    Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                    This paper uses the lyrics and the folk-inspired music of Billy Bragg to demonstrate how he has become a voice that transcends geographic scales, moving from the local to the national to the global, sometimes in the same song. Direct activism has been central to Bragg’s mission as a musician.

                                                                                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                    • Sakolsky, R., and F. Wei-Han Ho, eds. Sounding Off! Music as Subversion/ Resistance/Revolution. New York: Autonomedia, 1995.

                                                                                                                                                      Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                      A set of thirty-eight essays by musicians, academics, and activists that examines the power of music to subvert and resist. Section 1 addresses issues of music and the potential for social change, while sections 2 and 3 examine the experience of artists and activists engaged in struggles concerning race, gender, and social inequality.

                                                                                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                      • Waitt, G., E. Ryan, and C. Farbotko. “A Visceral Politics of Sound.” Antipode 46.1 (2014): 283–300.

                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1111/anti.12032Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                        Using feminist theory and visceral, embodied understandings of socio-political life, the paper explores the sonic world of a climate change protest. It argues that visceral experiences of the rhythmic affordances of sounds—flow, pulse, and beat—provide us insights as to how people are mobilized into action.

                                                                                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                        Soundscape as Method

                                                                                                                                                        The term “soundscape” is sometimes used quite loosely both within geography and elsewhere within sound studies to suggest an organized sonic environment. However, the assumptions, approach, and methods of soundscape study constitute a distinctive body on literature in and of itself. Schafer 1993 and Truax 2001 provide essential guides to terms and methods as these are understood by the founders of this approach. The connections between soundscape composition, music concrete, sound sculpture, sound walks, forms of sonic art, and phenomenological/experiential studies of sonic environments have yielded very interesting and thought-provoking critiques of soundscape’s relationship with ethnographic methods and other forms of compositional practice, as in Drever 2002. Ingold 2007 takes this further to examine the conceptual basis of soundscape studies as a whole. Soundscape research has clear planning, design, and policy dimensions, and Miller 2008 shows how this can be applied in the context of a national park. Yet following the work of Ingold 2007 and others, the assumptions and methods of soundscape studies have come increasingly under scrutiny. Kelman 2010, for instance, is a thought-provoking exploration and critique of the terminology of soundscape studies. Mills 2014 provides an important methodology for the study of past soundscapes and sonic environments that should be read alongside works listed under Place, Landscape, and Sonic History.

                                                                                                                                                        • Drever, J. L. “Soundscape Composition: The Convergence of Ethnography and Acousmatic Music.” Organised Sound 7 (2002): 21–27.

                                                                                                                                                          Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                          A thoughtful exploration of the relationships between soundscape composition and acousmatic music. It argues that we need to address the making and presenting of representations of environmental sound in terms of the relationships between composition and listening. It develops methodological case for soundscape composition as ethnography.

                                                                                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                          • Ingold, T. “Against Soundscape.” In Autumn Leaves, Sound and the Environment in Artistic Practice. Edited by A. Carlyle, 10–13. Paris: Double Entendre, 2007.

                                                                                                                                                            Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                            Though a short piece, this is a very thought-provoking critique of some of the assumptions made in soundscape studies. The author is particularly concerned with the contrast between sound and vision and with the fleeting mobile qualities of sonic experience.

                                                                                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                            • Kelman, A. Y. “Rethinking the Soundscape: A Critical Genealogy of a Key Term in Sound Studies.” The Senses and Society 5 (2010): 212–234.

                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.2752/174589210X12668381452845Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                              This article takes critical issue with the well-circulated but often misapplied term “soundscape.” It argues that scholars either misapply or redefine it to suit their needs. This article traces an intellectual history or genealogy of the term to open a conversation about the term’s use, application, and utility for scholars of sound.

                                                                                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                              • Miller, N. P. “US National Parks and Management of Part Soundscapes: A Review.” Applied Acoustics 69.2 (2008): 77–92.

                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1016/j.apacoust.2007.04.008Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                Describes the questions that need to be answered for management of natural soundscapes, the types of noise issues that arise in parks, the need for quantitative data, and approaches to identifying, measuring, and collecting those data. The paper suggests an approach for developing criteria designed to effectively manage sounds in natural areas.

                                                                                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                • Mills, S. Auditory Archaeology: Understanding Sound and Hearing in the Past. Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast, 2014.

                                                                                                                                                                  Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                  Considers the potential contribution of everyday, mundane, and unintentional sounds in the past and how these may have been significant to people. Develops a methodology that provides a flexible and widely applicable set of elements that can be adapted for use in a broad range of archaeological and heritage contexts.

                                                                                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                  • Schafer, R. M. The Soundscape: Our Sonic Environment and the Tuning of the World. Rochester, VT: Destiny, 1993.

                                                                                                                                                                    Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                    This pioneering book, first published in 1977, is essential reading and set the terms and agenda for studies of soundscape. It envisages soundscape studies as a new, interdisciplinary field of research, providing methods and terminological tools for scholars as well as practitioners.

                                                                                                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                    • Truax, B. Acoustic Communication. 2d ed. Westport, CT: Ablew, 2001.

                                                                                                                                                                      Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                      Establishes a model for understanding all acoustic and aural experiences both in their traditional forms and as they have been radically altered in the 20th century as digital technology has completely redefined the listening and consumption patterns of sound. The book includes a very useful CD of the author’s edited Handbook for Acoustic Ecology (Vancouver, BC: ARC, 1978).

                                                                                                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                      Sound Art and Sonic Environments

                                                                                                                                                                      The term “sound art” covers a very wide range of art forms and practices. These range from soundscapes studies and music concrete created by sampling real world sounds, through gallery-based and site-specific sound sculpture, to increasingly interactive forms of artist practice such as sound walks and interactive sound maps. Sound art in its many and various forms has become of increasing concern for cultural geographers as interest in the discipline has moved beyond the fixation with text toward the study of a multiplicity artistic practices and experiences. Geographers and cultural geographers in particular have become increasingly interested in forms of public engagement as tools for research, dissemination, and engagement. This is also reflected in the growing body of work concerning sound art and sonic environments. Kahn 2001 provides a context to the development of sonic art within the broader currents of European culture during the early 20th century. Butler and Miller 2005 and Cameron and Rogalsky 2006 are examples of studies by geographers that critically examine sound art works through the lens of environment and site specificity. Labelle 2008 should be read alongside Kahn 2001; Labelle’s analysis of sound art practice is sympathetic to many of the issues of site specificity raised by geographers. In this context, Klein 2009 is a useful investigation of sonic art strategies within German practice with a focus on site and venue. DeSilvey 2010 explores the relationship between sound and cultural remembrance. These authors have important things to say about the conceptual and methodological and practical significance of these sound art and site specificity. In contrast Voegelin 2010 provides a thought-provoking overview of the philosophical and conceptual resources that underpin sonic art.

                                                                                                                                                                      • Butler, T., and G. Miller. “Linked: A Landmark in Sound, A Public Walk of Art.” Cultural Geographies 12 (2005): 77–88.

                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1191/1474474005eu317xxSave Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                        A personal account of the sound work “Linked” by Graeme Miller that used transmitters on lampposts to broadcast oral testimony from people who used to live where the road now runs. The paper includes and thoughtful set of reflections on some of Miller’s other sound work.

                                                                                                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                        • Cameron, L., and M. Rogalsky. “Conserving Rainforest 4: Aural Geographies and Ephemerality.” Social and Cultural Geography 7.6 (2006): 909–926.

                                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1080/14649360601055847Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                          Considers the work by David Tudor’s 1973 work titled “Rainforest 4.” It explores Tudor’s engagement with particular notions of nature and spirituality as well as the social hierarchies and conservative impulse that make the work of enduring interest.

                                                                                                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                          • DeSilvey, C. “Memory in Motion: Soundings from Milltown, Montana.” Social and Cultural Geography 11 (2010): 491–510.

                                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1080/14649365.2010.488750Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                            Examines the transformation of an industrial river landscape in western Montana and the production of a sound artwork that attempted to respond to the landscape’s unmaking with an interactive installation at a local museum. The paper is concerned with how cultural remembrance is practiced and performed in relation to processes of material disarticulation and erasure.

                                                                                                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                            • Kahn, D. Noise, Water, Meat: A History of Sound in the Arts. Cambridge, MA: MIT, 2001.

                                                                                                                                                                              Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                              An interdisciplinary history and theory of sound in the arts, it focuses on Europe in the first half of the twentieth century and the United States in the postwar years. The book explores aural activities in literature, music, visual arts, theater, and film in an endeavor to place aurality at the center of the history of the arts.

                                                                                                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                              • Klein, G. “Site-Sounds: On Strategies of Sound Art in Public Space.” Organised Sound 14.1 (2009): 101–108.

                                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1017/S1355771809000132Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                The article shows consequences and strategies of site-sound installations in three sections: first, from spatial sound to site-sound; second, public space as performance venue, and finally, public strategies (acoustic interventions, interactive installations, and participatory projects). Three examples of site-sound installations are drawn from German examples.

                                                                                                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                • Labelle, B. Background Noise: Perspectives on Sound Art. London: Continuum, 2008.

                                                                                                                                                                                  Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                  Provides an invaluable overview of the history of sound art and the rise of prominent contemporary sound art movements. These includes important discussions of important work for example by John Cage, Musique Concrete, Fluxus, Site-Specific Sound and Hidegard Westerkamp, and soundscape composition, among many others.

                                                                                                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                  • Voegelin, S. Listening to Noise and Silence: Towards a Philosophy of Sound Art. New York: Continuum, 2010.

                                                                                                                                                                                    Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                    The book connects the emerging practice of sound art with concurrent developments in theories of discourse and the philosophy of sound. It is informed by ideas from Adorno and Merleau-Ponty and it considers both historical and contemporary workers in the field of experimental sound art.

                                                                                                                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                    Environment and Ecologies of Sound

                                                                                                                                                                                    Concern with sonic environments has been a relatively longstanding concern within anthropology. This is exemplified by Feld 1990, which connects physical and cultural ecology in ways that are mutually informing and highly innovative. In terms of auditory approaches to environmental thought and politics, Manes 1992 provides a powerful argument, asserting the “silence” of environment in academic and political discourse. Starting from this premise, Coates 2005 begins the process of redressing this lack by sketching out the contours of a sonic environmental history. The idea of a sonic ecology is developed further by Atkinson 2007 in the context of urban space, while Blesser and Salter 2007 provides an alternative, though in many ways complimentary, approach to sonic architecture and urban space. The implications of this call to auditory environmental awareness for the study of music are addressed by Rehding 2009. Rehding’s findings have significance for the study of music, sound, and environment within geography and elsewhere in the humanities and social sciences. Only recently has this theme been taken up by environmental historians, social scientists environmental philosophers, and musicologists. Krause 2012 is derived from the experience and expertise of the one of the world’s leading ecologists pioneering the study of wildlife sound.

                                                                                                                                                                                    • Atkinson, R. “Ecology of Sound: The Sonic Order of Urban Space.” Urban Studies 44 (2007): 1905–1917.

                                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1080/00420980701471901Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                      Argues that sound provides an often-ignored element of our conceptualization of the urban fabric. The paper attempts to map the relative order of this unseen city and to theories its spatial and temporal patterning in the form of a sonic ecology. This is used to examine the distribution of sound and to weigh the broader social impact of these qualities.

                                                                                                                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                      • Blesser, B., and L. -R. Salter. Spaces Speak: Are You Listening? Experiencing Aural Architecture. Cambridge, MA: MIT, 2007.

                                                                                                                                                                                        Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                        Integrating contributions from architecture, music, acoustics, evolutionary theory, anthropology, cognitive psychology, audio engineering, and other disciplines, this book seeks to establish the concepts and language of aural architecture. These concepts are used to provide a guide to understanding how space enhances sense of well-being.

                                                                                                                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                        • Coates, P. A. “The strange Stillness of the Past: Toward an Environmental History of Sound and Noise.” Environmental History 10 (2005): 636–665.

                                                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1093/envhis/10.4.636Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                          An important review that seeks to establish an environmental history of sound and noise. It demonstrates how the study of sound can enrich comprehension of topics and themes central to the discipline of environmental history. It argues that this can improve appreciation of the character of environmental threats and environmentalist causes.

                                                                                                                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                          • Feld, S. Sound and Sentiment: Birds, Weeping, Poetics and Song in Kaluli Expression. 2d ed. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1990.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                            One of the most important ethnographic contributions to understanding relationships between people and environment. This study of sound as a cultural system shows how an analysis of modes and codes of sound communication leads to an understanding of life in Kaluli society.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                            • Krause, B. The Great Animal Orchestra: Finding the Origins of Music in the World’s Wildest Places. London: Profile, 2012.

                                                                                                                                                                                              Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                              Written by a leading expert in natural sound recording, this book is considers natural sounds under three headings: (i) biophony is the sound made by animals and plants; (ii) geophony is natural sound, such as wind, water, and rain; and (iii) anthrophony is human-generated sound, which affects animals, habitats, and behavior patterns.

                                                                                                                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                              • Manes, C. “Nature and Silence.” Environmental Ethics 14.2 (1992): 229–350.

                                                                                                                                                                                                Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                A provocative paper arguing that a viable environmental ethics must confront “the silence of nature,”—namely, the fact that in our culture only humans have status as speaking subjects. It argues that environmental ethics must learn a language able to hear voices other than those from the human world.

                                                                                                                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                • Rehding, A. “Eco-Musicology.” Journal of the Royal Musical Association 127.2 (2009): 305–320.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1093/jrma/127.2.305Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Critically examines the call for an eco-musicology. It discusses the implications of this in terms of current themes in musicological research in the face of a range of pressing environmental issues.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Noise, Unwanted Sound, and Sonic Environments

                                                                                                                                                                                                  The term “noise” embraces a range of meanings and definitions. Noise can be a form of environmental pollution or social incivility or it can also be understood as sound without clear and identifiable meaning. This latter sense of the word is suggested in the way the term is used by scientists and statisticians to describe interference patterns and distortions in data streams. Tannen and Saville-Trioke 1985 is a thought-provoking collection that considers issues of silence and communication. In this context noise is defined by the absence of meaning. Bailey 1996 shows how noise has a history and is defined differently in particular times and places. Noise is an issue that raises a wide range of practical planning and design issues while, at the same, engaging with concerns regarding social order, civility, and citizenship; see Bijsterveld 2008. As Stewart 2011 shows, the problem of noise, or unwanted sound as it might perhaps be better called, can be thought of as one of the most neglected environmental issues of the present age. At the same time Stewart 2011 also asks questions concerning environmental and social equity, showing how poorer groups and those in substandard housing are likely to experience higher levels of unwanted sound. Even though it is often thought that the present is noisier than the past, a number of studies have demonstrated that this assertion requires very close historical scrutiny. In this context, Schwarts 2011 provides what is probably its most definitive cultural history. However Goldsmith 2012 also provides a good general history of the problem of noise drawing on the realms of science, policy, and society. Hainge 2013 critically examines the idea of unwanted sound defined as noise.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Bailey, P. “Breaking the Sound Barrier: A Historian Listens to Noise.” Body and Society 2 (1996): 63.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1177/1357034X96002002003Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Argues that noise is a significant part of the soundscape with determinate and resistant powers and thresholds. It begins with an elementary definition and inventory of noise and examines its changing presence in modern history with a particular focus on the Victorian period.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Bijsterveld, K. Mechanical Sound: Technology Culture and Public Problems of Noise in the Twentieth Century. Cambridge, MA: MIT, 2008.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.7551/mitpress/9780262026390.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                      An important study from a science, technology, and society perspective examining the culture, science, policy, and politics of noise control in the 20th century. Case studies focus on Europe and the United States and consider industrial, traffic, neighbor, and aircraft noise. The author is particularly concerned with the spatial implications of these for control and management.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Goldsmith, M. Discord: The Story of Noise. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012.

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Written by an acoustician, this history of the science, culture, politics, and policy implications provides a very useful broad historical context. This book provides a very readable and entertaining introduction to the subject.

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Hainge, G. Noise Matters: Towards an Ontology of Noise. London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2013.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Considers the construction of noise as both an auditory and social phenomenon. Rather than something to be either rejected or celebrated, the author argues that we need a new understanding of noise that seeks to engage with noise through a range of cultural and theoretical phenomena.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Schwarts, H. Making Noise: From Babel to the Big Bang and Beyond. Brooklyn, NY: Zone, 2011.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                            This is a substantial and detailed cultural history of noise drawing on a rich and wide range of sources including written materials, ephemera, objects, and artifacts. The book traces the process by which noise today has become as powerfully metaphorical as the original Babel.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Stewart, J., ed. Why Noise Matters: A Worldwide Perspective on the Problems, Policies and Solutions. Abingdon, UK: Earthscan, 2011.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Written by environmentalist campaigners and academics, this key text makes the case that noise is “the most neglected green issue of our age” (p. 62). Drawing on evidence from around the world, it showcases policies and strategies that have worked to decrease noise pollution and offers lessons for policymakers and environmental health professionals, campaigners, and any individual affected by noise.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Tannen, D., and M. Saville-Trioke, eds. Perspectives on Silence. Norwood, NJ: Ablex, 1985.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                This book focuses attention on silence as a relatively neglected component of communication and presents research on this topic from a number of disciplines. It argues that focusing on the relationship between silence and talk helps to highlight the complex cultural practices of communication.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Performance as Spatial Practice

                                                                                                                                                                                                                The concept of performativity and related issues of performance and practice came to prominence within geographies of music and sound in the late 1990s; see Smith 2000 (cited under History of Research into Geographies of Music and Sound). The study of music and sonic experience beyond and outside text has been an important theme and so too are the performance and practice of identity and the affective experience of performance space. A significant body of work in this context has been influenced by non-representational theory; see Thrift and Dewsbury 2000. Other work, in contrast, has attempted to find ways of taking account of the semiotic meaningfulness of music practice as a form of cultural performativity; see Revill 2004. Issues of performance, identity, and affective experience are all evident in Anderson, et al. 2005. In terms of geographical work in this area, it is useful to pick out Morton 2005, a study of affective experiences of performance space, and Wood 2012, which examines the affective expressions of identity. Beyond geography, Henriques 2011 adopts an approach to the affective qualities of bodily experience able to account for culturally complexity. Kendrick and Roesner 2011 provides a different perspective grounded in phenomenologies of communication related to the study of silence. This paper therefore can be read alongside Noise, Unwanted Sound, and Sonic Environments and Listening as Practice, where authors suggest that listening itself might be thought of as a performative practice.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Anderson, B., F. Morton, and G. Revill, eds. Special Issue: Geographies of Music and Sound. Social and Cultural Geography 6.5 (2005).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  A collection of papers and an introductory essay by the editors (pp. 639–644) that address music as practice and experience through the then novel-to-geography frameworks of the non-representational theory and performativity.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Henriques, J. F. Sonic Bodies: Reggae Sound Systems, Performance Techniques and Ways of Knowing. New York: Continuum, 2011.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Examines the Jamaican reggae sound system and its associated dance hall traditions and practices. It argues that together these form a distinctive way of being in the world made through sound that can only be understood as a site of practical embodied knowledge.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Kendrick, L., and D. Roesner, eds. Theatre Noise: The Sound of Performance. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Cambridge Scholars, 2011.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Contributes to the emerging field of the aurality of theater and looks in particular at the interrogation and problematization of theater sound(s). It argues that theatre provides a unique habitat for noise characterized by a complex and contradictory set of relations between signal and receiver, between sound and meaning, between eye and ear, and between silence and utterance.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Morton, F. “Performing Ethnography: Irish Traditional Music Sessions and New Methodological Spaces.” Social and Cultural Geography 6.5 (2005): 661–676.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1080/14649360500258294Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        This paper attends to recent developments concerned with researching social practice through an examination of the performance of Irish traditional music in sessions. The paper is centrally concerned with the spaces made through the practice of performance and that are often neglected in conventional research methods.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Revill, G. “Performing French Folk Music: Non-Representational Theory and the Politics of Authenticity.” Cultural Geographies 1 (2004): 199–209.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1191/14744744004eu302xxSave Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          This paper reflects on the usefulness of non-representational theory for the study of dance. It is based on a set of personal reminiscences drawn from the author’s own experience of learning French folk dance. It argues for a conception of habit as a cultural achievement requiring a more than textual approach to the semiotic.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Thrift, N., and J. D. Dewsbury. “Dead Geographies and How to Make Them Live.” Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 18 (2000): 411–432.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1068/d1804edSave Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            A key paper for geographers concerned with performativity and the non-representational theory. The paper discusses four main “apprehensions” of performance. Grounded in the work of Judith Butler and particularly Gilles Deleuze, this paper has important findings for geographies of music, dance, and theater.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Wood, N. “Playing with ‘Scottishness’: Musical Performance, Non-Representational Thinking and the ‘Doings’ of National Identity.” Cultural Geographies 19.2 (2012): 195–215.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1177/1474474011420543Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Drawing on a non-representational-inspired study of Scottish musical performances, this article explores how a study of the ephemeral, emotionally charged moments of musical performance might shed new light on the nature and (re)production of national identities in terms of what Wood calls “the making or the doing.”

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Listening as Practice

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The passivity of hearing as a physiologically determined mode of auditory sensing can be contrasted with listening as an active mode of auditory sense making. Hearing is largely involuntary, because ears unlike eyes cannot be closed to the world. Listening, by contrast, is understood by the authors referenced here as a social and cultural practice involving both skill and judgement. This approach to listening as a skill to be cultivated also lies at the heart of those who developed and advocate the soundscapes approach such as Schafer 1993 and Truax 2001 (both cited under Soundscape as Method). Within geography, Anderson 2004 examines listening practices to radio and recorded music in the home. Green 2004 is a conceptually rich piece that considers the relationships between listening and memory. Bull 2005, in contrast, is concerned with listening on the move. Essential reading is Back 2007, which broadens out the notion of listening and makes this a key metaphor for a more sensitive and engaged social science. Nancy 2007 provides thought-provoking theoretical and philosophical meditations on the practice of listening, which have wide-ranging implications. Toop 2010 makes an important argument for conceptualizing listening across a continuum of sound extending through the range of audibility. From a specifically geographical approach Duffy and Waitt 2013 bring this broader conception of listening and meaningful sound to bear on conceptions of place and home. There are clear overlaps here with authors writing in the sections Music, Place, and Region and Music, Identity, and Everyday Life.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Anderson, B. “Recorded Music and Practices of Remembering.” Social and Cultural Geography 5.1 (2004): 1–17.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1080/1464936042000181281Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                A study of listening to music in the home. This paper identifies three practices of remembering with and through recorded music. These are, first, remembering how to choose and “fit” specific purchased music to particular socio-spatial activities; second, involuntary reminiscence; and, finally, intentional remembering in which a past is conditioned to occur as a fixed, relatively durable memory.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Back, L. The Art of Listening. Oxford: Berg, 2007.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  A landmark study that makes connections between listening as an empathetic practice and the conduct of a social science. It makes an argument for greater attentiveness to listening by social scientists to develop approaches better able to hear the heterogeneous voices of a globalized world characterized by difference, otherness and inequality.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Bull, M. “No Dead Air! The iPod and the Culture of Mobile Listening.” Leisure Studies 24.4 (2005): 343–355.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1080/0261436052000330447Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Investigates the manner in which Apple iPod users reinscribe their experiences of commuting through the use of music. The paper argues that MP3 technology gives users unprecedented power of control their experience of time and space while managing mood and orientation through the micro-management of personalized music.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Duffy, M., and G. Waitt. “Home Sounds: Experiential Practices and Performativities of Hearing and Listening.” Social Culture Geography 14 (2013): 466–481.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1080/14649365.2013.790994Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Argues that a closer attention to the everyday visceral experiences of hearing and listening offers new insights into geographies of home and practices of sustainability. The paper suggests that this approach is significant to understanding how sound helps to assemble and reassemble the relationships that comprise home.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Green, A. “Individual Remembering and ‘Collective Memory’: Theoretical Presuppositions and Contemporary Debates.” Oral History 32.2 (2004): 35–44.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        A thought-provoking piece that examines the convergence between interpretative theories of oral history and collective memory studies. It argues that if oral historians reject the capacity of individuals to engage critically and constructively with inherited ideas and beliefs, this will have profound consequences for the ways in which memory is theorized.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Nancy, J. -L. Listening. New York: Fordham University Press, 2007.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Developing a theoretical approach to listening sympathetic to recent reworkings of post-phenomenology, this book is both a fascinating meditation on the art and practice of listening and a key theoretical resource for studies of listening within geography.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Toop, D. Sinister Resonance: The Mediumship of the Listener. New York: Continuum, 2010.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Makes the provocative yet important argument that sound conceived as the entire continuum of the audible and inaudible spectrum, including silence, noise, quiet, and implicit and imagined sound can be identified as a hidden history of otherwise silent media. By focusing on the art of listening, the book seeks to excavate this unrecognized history.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Listening as Method

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            As authors in this section show, the idea of listening is a useful conceptual tool for thinking about social science method with implications and potential to transform the practice of social science. Baker 2003 and Feld and Brenneis 2004 provide very useful explorations of conceptual, methodological, ethical, and practical issues raised by the practice of sonic ethnography. Butler 2006 provides a useful discussion of the methodology of sound walks. The development of an increasingly wide range of participatory qualitative research techniques and the growing interest in arts and performance-based public engagement strategies within geography and social science more generally has produced methodological innovations that in one way or another speak to the issues raised in Back 2007 (cited under Listening as Practice). Providing a rather different perspective, Hall, et al. 2008 offers the metaphor of noise as a means of raising both methodological and interpretative issues related to sonic ethnography. Drever 2009 on soundwalking both contrasts and compliments work within geography. Within geography examples include the discussion of and sound diaries as a research methodology in Duffy and Waitt 2011 and the very useful Gallagher and Prior 2014.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Baker, S. “Auto-Audio Ethnography; Or, Pre-Teen Girls’ Capturing Their Popular Musical Practices on Tape.” Context: Journal of Music Research 26 (2003): 57–65.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Develops and discusses an innovative research methodology for popular music studies that focuses on pre-teen girls recording the details of their own use of music and discussing this with the researcher.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Butler, T. “A Walk of Art: The Potential of the Sound Walk as Practice in Cultural Geography.” Social and Cultural Geography 7 (2006): 889–908.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1080/14649360601055821Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Traces the development of the sound walk over the past one hundred years. It examines more recent examples of sound walks in London and New York and focuses on the potential of this medium to create what the author calls flowing, multi-sensory, and embodied ways for social and cultural geographers to research the environment.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Drever, J. L. “Soundwalking: Aural Excursions into the Everyday.” In The Ashgate Research Companion to Experimental Music. Edited by J. Saunders, 163–192. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 2009.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  A very useful piece by an academic and practicing sound artist. It sets out some of the methodological and conceptual resources to be taken into account by soundscape composers.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Duffy, M., and G. Waitt. “Sound Diaries: A Method for Listening to Place.” Aether: The Journal of Media Geography 7 (2011): 119–136.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Develops a methodology for understanding how relations between people and place are co-constituted through music and sounds. Using the case of Four Winds Festival in Bergmagui, New South Wales, the paper discusses the use of sound diaries as a means to better understand the role of sound in participants’ understanding of place.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Feld, S., and D. Brenneis. “Doing Anthropology in Sound.” American Ethnologist 31 (2004): 461–474.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1525/ae.2004.31.4.461Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      A conversation with one of the most recognized leaders in the field who explores the general outlines of an anthropology of sound. The conversation takes as its context the way in which sound has come to have a particular resonance in many disciplines over the past decade. The discussion focuses on using sound as a primary medium for ethnographic research.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Gallagher, M., and J. Prior. “Sonic Geographies: Exploring Phonographic Methods.” Progress in Human Geography 38.2 (2014): 267–284.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1177/0309132513481014Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        A key read for geographers, this paper reviews current approaches to sonic research within geography arguing that sonic research remains text based. It proposes that phonographic methods, including listening, audio recording, and playback, need to be developed further. It considers a range of epistemological implications and possible future directions.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Hall, T., B. Lashua, and A. Coffey. “Sound and the Everyday in Qualitative Research.” Qualitative Inquiry 14.6 (2008): 1019–1040.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1177/1077800407312054Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Addresses the question of noise in social science research. Conventional good practice for the organization and conduct of research interviews is compared with alternative approaches more open to the space of everyday sounds. The practice of soundwalking is offered as a productive context for the creative disturbance of the conventional interview.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Phenomenologies of Sound

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The experience of sound has formed an enduring topic of interest for phenomenological study. Sound’s phenomenal properties seem to make it at once both a tangible and intangible object. Sounds only exist as audible vibration in the moment of their making and mechanical or electronic reproduction yet sounds linger in the memory, provoke flights of fancy, and elaborations of thought, while seeming to take on a life of their own. Sounds therefore have distinctive forms of material and imaginal presence that makes them a problematic and intriguing subject for phenomenology. Pocock 1989 (cited under History of Research into Geographies of Music and Sound) is an early example of work concerning the phenomenology of sound within geography. To chart changing conceptual approaches to the phenomenology of sound within geography, it is useful start with Rodaway 1994. This sets out the scope of phenomenological and experiential approaches to sound within the remit of humanistic geography as this was conceived during the 1970s and 1980s. Beyond geography from an ethnomusicological perspective, Porcello 1998 makes some interesting connections conceptual links with the classical phenomenology of Alfred Schultz. However, probably the best starting points for understand the complex spatialities and effects of sound is Augoyard and Torgue 2005, an encyclopedia of sonic effects. Within geography Simpson 2009 develops an approach grounded in the sort of post-phenomenology championed by Augoyard and Torgue. Goodman 2009, on sonic warfare, provides some practical examples of the sort of sonic effects described by Augoyard and Torgue. Ihde 2012, a phenomenological study of listening, is also very important and relates closely to the work of authors considered in Listening as Practice. In terms of specific case studies relating to the phenomenology of sonic experience, Biddle and Thompson 2013 demonstrates the broad range of the topics and themes covered by phenomenological approaches. Revill 2015, like Simpson 2009, develops an approach to sonic spatiality informed by the theoretical reformulations of post-phenomenology. In much of this work there are also important conceptual links with work by Nancy (see Nancy 2007, cited under Listening as Practice), Augoyard and Torgue, and Ihde.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Augoyard, J. -F., and H. Torgue. Sonic Experience: A Guide to Everyday sounds. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2005.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            An important reference guide organized as an encyclopedia of sounds and sonic effects. The book brings together and explores the different meanings in cultural, historical, and scientific accounts of key sonic terms such as echo, reverberation, resonance, and so on.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Biddle, I., and M. Thompson, eds. Sound, Music, Affect: Theorizing Sonic Experience. New York: Bloomsbury Academic, 2013.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Organized in three sections: the first section sets out key methodological and theoretical concerns; the second section explores how reference to affect theory might change or reshape some of the ways we are able to make sense of musical materials; and the third section examines the politics and practice of sonic disruption.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Goodman, S. Sonic Warfare: Sound, Affect and the Ecology of Fear. Cambridge, MA: MIT, 2009.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Examines the ways in which sound can be deployed to produce discomfort, express a threat of create an ambience of fear. The book is concerned with the ways in which acoustic force can be used to affect and control populations.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Ihde, D. Listening and Voice: A Phenomenology of Sound. 2d ed. Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 2012.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  A classic study originally published in 1976 that opened up sound and listening as a topic for phenomenological investigation. Ihde’s text ranges across the experience of sound through language, music, religion, and silence.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Porcello, T. “‘Tails Out’: Social Phenomenology and the Ethnographic Representation of Technology in Music-Making.” Ethnomusicology 42.3 (1998): 485–510.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.2307/852851Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Drawing on the phenomenology of Alfred Schutz, this paper discusses the term “print-through” as a metaphor for cumulative listening experiences in the social spaces of musical encounter. This is used to engage with the Schutz phenomenology and particularly his two works concerned with music, which have implications for a general philosophy of intersubjectivity.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Revill, G. “How Is Space Made in Sound? Spatial Mediation, Critical Phenomenology and the Political Agency of Sound.” Progress in Human Geography (February 2015).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Develops an approach to sonic space as event drawing on concepts from post-phenomenology. It critiques conventional approaches to mediation often characterized as something that joins or moves between in order to set out some of the theoretical and conceptual resources necessary to develop a relational, processual approach to the production of sound and sonic space.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Rodaway, P. Sensuous Geographies: Body, Sense and Place. London: Routledge, 1994.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.4324/9780203306864Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        An important precursor to more recent interests in phenomenology and post-phenomenology. Though concerned with the five human senses there is important material here on sound and sensing that forms an important introduction to this topic for geographers.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Simpson, P. “‘Falling on Deaf Ears’: A Postphenomenology of Sonorous Presence.” Environment and Planning A 41 (2009): 2556–2575.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1068/a41247Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Engages with a range of conceptual agendas arising from sound studies and more recent philosophy, cultural theory, and post-phenomenology in ways that begin to set new agendas for the study of sound from a spatial perspective.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Movement, Dance, and Rhythm

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Both within and beyond geography, there is now a significant body of work exploring dance, rhythm, and movement through the twin imperatives of regulation and control and embodied expressivity. Geographers have often drawn on Lefebvre 2004 to make sense of the practice, performance, and experience of rhythm. Much work is concerned with issues of identity and place; see, for example, Savigliano 1995 and Bull 2004. The rhythms of movement, cadences of mobility, and the expressivity of dance together provide a set of powerful conceptual resources for connecting body, society, and experience through sound. To this extent work about movement, dance, and rhythm has much in common with that concerning music and performance; see, for example, Revill 2004 (cited under Performance as Spatial Practice) and Cresswell 2006. Other authors within geography are focused on issues of affective experience and questions of non-representational theory. Simpson 2008 provides a novel way of bringing together Lefebvre’s rhythmanalysis (Lefebvre 2004) with affective, non-representational theory. Authors who wish to stress the expressive, creative, and affective experience of dance and rhythm have often looked to the work of Giles Deleuze and others. From this perspective Dewsbury 2011 is key reading for geographers. However, some geographers such as Misgav and Johnson (Misgav and Johnson 2014) engage with longer standing conceptual and methodological approaches, for example, to assert the importance of gender and identity in understanding embodied experiences of dancing.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Bull, M. “Automobility and the Power of Sound.” Theory, Culture and Society 21 (2004): 243–259.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1177/0263276404046069Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Analyzes the connections between forms of driving alone and the use of mobile sound technologies in automobiles. It argues that traditional concepts of urban space underestimate the active role that the users of these technologies might have in transforming the meaning of these spaces as they pass through them.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Cresswell, T. “’You Cannot Shake That Shimmie Here’: Producing Mobility on the Dance Floor.” In On the Move: Mobility in the Modern Western World. Edited by T. Cresswell, 123–146. New York: Routledge, 2006.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Examines the regulation of ballroom dancing in England in the first four decades of the 20th century. Theoretically the paper argues for an interpretive approach to bodily movement that considers bodily movement in the context of wider contexts of cultural geographies of mobility.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Dewsbury, J. D. “Dancing: The Secret Slowness of the Fast.” In Geographies of Mobilities: Practices, Spaces, Subjects. Edited by T. Cresswell, 51–69. Farnham, UK: Ashgate, 2011.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Critically examines geographical and other work on dance. Makes an argument for an interpretation of dance as both universal and deeply worldly. The paper draws theoretically on Giles Deleuze and Alan Badiou.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Lefebvre, H. Rhythmanalysis: Space, time and everyday life. Translated by Stuart Elden and Gerald Moore. London: Continuum, 2004.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The single most important reference point for studies of rhythm within the social sciences. The book sets an agenda for the study of rhythm in everyday life and music in ways that are often used in the study of sonically induced embodied rhythmic mobility in contexts such as dance, crowd behavior, shared spaces of listening, and consumption. Originally published in 1992.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Misgav, C., and L. Johnson. “Dirty Dancing: The (Nonfluid Embodied Geographies of a Queer Nightclub in Tel Aviv.” Social and Cultural Geography 15.7 (2014): 730–748.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1080/14649365.2014.916744Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Examines the embodied geographies of a queer nightclub in Tel Aviv, Israel and draws on ethnographic methods. It shows how the nightclub is considered to be a space of sexual liberation, yet the space of the nightclub is also divided by gender and sexuality.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Savigliano, M. E. Tango and the Political Economy of Passion. Boulder, CO: Westview, 1995.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Grounded in a cultural politics perspective on dance, this book traces the translation of tango across the world from Buenos Aires to Paris, Tokyo and elsewhere. Tango is used to explore issues of gender, race, class, and national identity through concepts of colonialism, patriarchy, exoticism, and commodification.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Simpson, P. “Chronic Everyday Life: Rhythmanalyzing Street Performance.” Social and Cultural Geography 9 (2008): 807–829.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1080/14649360802382578Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Starting from criticisms of non-representational theory, the paper argues for an ecological perspective on practices and performances that is attentive to both context and event. Theoretically, this is approached through an examination of the hybrid temporalities of street performance using Lefebvre’s rhythmanalysis.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Voice and Embodiment

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Criticisms of the so-called linguistic turn within the social sciences often focus on the relationship between language and text. Yet this critique tends to forget that language is also very much an oral, affective, embodied, and emergent set of practices. Verbal communication is most often partial and open ended, and meanings are frequently fluid, context dependent, creative, and co-constructed through tacit affective interactions rather than simply articulating fixed and determinate coordinates. To this extent the spread and transformation of vocal and linguistic characteristics as much as their geographical origins and specificity is a topic that fits well within North American approaches to cultural geography; see Breton 1991. The understanding of voice as an unalienable marker for individual self-expression—a concept that might be thought to be a cornerstone of modern democratic practice—has provoked authors to examine the history, philosophy, and politics of this. Rée 2000 provides a good introduction to the cultural history of voice in Western thought. Dollar 2006 is an important theoretical and philosophical analysis of the idea of voice that engages the socio-material conception of sound developed within phenomenological and post-phenomenological approaches. Both Cavarero 2005 and Couldry 2010 provide analyses of the political implications of voice. Kanngieser 2011 makes an important contribution by drawing out the consequences of this specifically for geography. Sterne 2011 provides a useful counter-argument by critiquing arguments that fetishize orality as some form of foundational truth.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Breton, R. J. Geolinguistics: Language Dynamics and Ethnolinguistic Geography. Translated by H. Schiffman. Ottawa, ON: University of Ottawa Press, 1991.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Addresses the spatial distribution of certain language groups and their success, growth, decline, and disappearance. It includes an overview of the distribution of various languages throughout the world with a preliminary outline of what the geography of language might be like using census data from countries such as Canada, Switzerland, and Russia.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Cavarero, A. For More Than One Voice: Toward a Philosophy of Vocal Expression. Translated by P. A. Kottman. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2005.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Arguing from the perspective of feminist political philosophy, this book proposes a “politics of the voice” that privileges the spoken over the textual and the speaker over content. It develops an approach that examines the uniqueness and relationality of the voice.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Couldry, N. Why Voice Matters: Culture and Politics after Neoliberalism. London: SAGE, 2010.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Critically examines the ways in which people might speak and be heard within neoliberalism. It shows how the mainstream media fails to provide the means for people to give an account of themselves. It develops a conception of democracy based on social cooperation and offers the resources we need to build a new post-neoliberal politics.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Dollar, M. A Voice and Nothing More. Cambridge, MA: MIT, 2006.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Drawing on Derrida and Lacan, the book develops a conception of voice as an object made in process sympathetic to post-phenomenology. It examines voice as object on a number of different levels including the linguistic, the metaphysical, and the ethical. It is concerned with the paradoxical relations between voice and body and voice and politics.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Kanngieser, A. “A Sonic Geography of Voice: Towards an Affective Politics.” Progress in Human Geography 36.3 (2011): 336–353.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1177/0309132511423969Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  A thought-provoking paper that calls for a geography of voice and a politics of speaking and of listening. It explores the different characteristics of voices, their affective and ethico-political forces, and how they make public spaces.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Rée, J. I See a Voice: A Philosophical History. London: Flamingo, 2000.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    This is a cultural and philosophical history that begins by providing a fascinating history of the idea of voice before going on to consider medical and cultural discourses about the deaf since the 16th century. The book goes on to examine the multiplicity of ways in which sound is made visible.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Sterne, J. “The Theology of Sound: A Critique of Orality.” Canadian Journal of Communication 36 (2011): 207–225.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Provides an important intellectual history and critique of the concept of orality as developed by writers of the Toronto school, especially Walter Ong Marshall McLuhan. It argues for a new history of early media and for a new global anthropology of communication that does not operate under the sign of orality.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Technology, Broadcasting, Politics, and Culture

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The influence and impact of specific radio stations broadcasting particular genres of music has been a longstanding theme within North American music geography. Yet the broader implications of audio and broadcasting technology have been recognized within geography only relatively recently. There is nevertheless a rich body of material deriving from other disciplines, including cultural and media studies, musicology, film studies, and sociology. Hale 1975 for example, explores the power of radio in terms its instantaneous reach and role in propaganda broadcasting. Douglas 1999 is also concerned with issues of politics and nation building in terms of developing national imaginaries and publics. The relationship between sound and image is another important theme, and Chion 1999 is foundational in this respect. Whereas Hale and Douglas speak to the work of authors in Nations, Nationalism, and World Music and Music, Identity, and Everyday Life, Chion shares common ground with work listed under the heading Musical Landscapes Hendy 2000 provides a wide-ranging overview of the history and current extent of radio that also acknowledges the ways in which the Internet transforms its spatial reach. Geographers began to take an interest in this area with work concerning the impact of changing technologies, particularly digitization and web-based dispersed production on the location and organization of the music industry; see Muscial Economies. In this context, Sterne 2003 provides a landmark theoretically informed introduction to the history, technology, and culture of audio reproduction. Agar 2003 is a reminder that telephony and particularly the growth of the mobile phone is also an important dimension of modern auditory experience with implications for identity, identification, and socio-spatial relations. Pinkerton and Dodds 2009 shows there are important geo-political implications to the spatio-temporal reach, use, and appropriation of broadcasting technologies both in terms of radio and Internet.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Agar, J. Constant Touch: A Global History of the Mobile Phone. Cambridge, UK: Icon, 2003.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        A concise history, technology, and culture of the mobile phone. The book provides an interesting statement of thinking about this technology around the millennium. It argues that the mobile phone is a product of the 1960s social revolution, whereby centralized, hierarchical authority was gradually replaced by horizontal social networks.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Brownrigg, M. “Hearing Place: Film Music, Geography and Ethnicity.” International Journal of Media and Cultural Politics 3.3 (2007): 307–323.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Discusses the ways in which filmmakers use music to create a sense of place. It examines this in terms of instrumentation, melody, specific national music, distinctive rhythms, and dance forms.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Chion, M. The Voice in Cinema. New York: Columbia University Press, 1999.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            By a leading expert known for his work on the effects of the detached and disembodied voice (acusmatism) in cinema. It explores uniquely filmic deployments of voice including faceless and subjective voices, bonding and entrapment by telephone, voice-thieves, screams, siren calls, and the silence of mute characters.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Douglas, S. Listening In: Radio and the American Imagination. New York: Random House, 1999.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              A cultural history that explores how listening has altered day-to-day experiences and generational identities, cultivating different modes of listening in different eras. The book considers how radio has shaped views of race, gender roles, ethnic barriers, family dynamics, leadership, and the generation gap.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Hale, J. Radio Power: Propaganda and International Broadcasting. London: Paul Eleck, 1975.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Argues from the assertion that “radio is the only unstoppable medium on mass communication.” Claiming that radio is the only medium that reaches across the entire globe instantaneously, it shows how this enables it to play keeps its place as the most powerful weapon of international propaganda.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Hendy, D. Radio in the Global Age. Cambridge, UK: Polity, 2000.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Places radio in a global context, while also paying attention to the impact of the Internet, digitalization, and globalization on the political economy of radio. It examines the links between music and radio, the impact of formatting, and the broader cultural roles the medium plays in constructing identities and nurturing musical tastes.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Pinkerton, A., and K. Dodds. “Radio Geopolitics: Broadcasting, Listening and the Struggle for Acoustic Spaces.” Progress in Human Geography 33.1 (2009): 10–27.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1177/0309132508090978Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Reviews some of the interdisciplinary scholarship on radio and sound for the purposes of considering how geopolitical scholarship might reconsider its predominantly visual focus. It considers radio and its relationship to studies of propaganda, international diplomacy, and even everyday life.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Sterne, J. The Audible Past: Cultural Origins of Sound Reproduction. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2003.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1215/9780822384250Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      A landmark book blending cultural studies and the history of communication technology exploring the cultural origins of sound reproduction. It tracks connections between histories of sound and the defining features of modernity—from developments in medicine, physics, and philosophy to the tumultuous shifts of industrial capitalism, colonialism, and urbanization.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      back to top

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Article

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Up

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Down