Geography Time Geography
by
Kajsa Ellegård
  • LAST MODIFIED: 27 June 2017
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199874002-0161

Introduction

Time geography is an integrative approach to studying the coordination of human activities in society and nature. It concerns environmental problems caused by humans and aims to develop knowledge about human life that may facilitate social and ecological sustainability. Time geography is interested in the idea of competition in and for time and space, and time-geographic analyses, often applying a bottom-up perspective, study how individuals’ everyday activities are arranged and coordinated in time in the context of the geographical location of important places, such as home, work, and service centers. Planning at urban and regional levels gains from knowledge of how peoples’ access to work, service, and necessary resources relates to regulations; physical, temporal, and societal structures; and capacities for social cohesion. Precisely defined locations in time and space are important for time-geographic analyses. Torsten Hägerstrand, the founder of time geography, suggested in the 1950s that places should be defined by coordinates, which is one basis for geographic information systems (GIS). Data collection on daily activities gains from technologies like the Global Positioning System (GPS) and information and communication technology (ICT) devices. Computers facilitate analyses of large data sets, which are important in many empirical time-geographical studies. The basic time-geographical assumptions that time and place are vital for understanding human life make the approach simultaneously abstract and mundane. Since it is difficult to find precise words to express such complex but self-evident phenomena, a time-geographic visual language—a notation system—gives a processual understanding of sequences of events in time and space. The main concept in this language is trajectory, or “path,” which describes an individual’s movements in time-space. All existents with corporeality are regarded as individuals—humans, animals, plants, artifacts, stones, and so on. Such a take on how individuals of various kinds compete for a place in time-space facilitates ecological analyses. However, most time-geographic studies concern human individuals. Every individual is indivisible during his or her lifetime, and the path concept underlines this inevitable corporeality. Everyone is always located somewhere, and the path reveals logical gaps in reasoning: nobody can simultaneously be located at two places or leave out an hour of the day. In its bare form, the path helps analyze peoples’ approaches and departures to and from each other, as well as the duration of activities and movements between, and stays at, places. But the path does not grant an inside perspective on peoples’ wishes and motives. Time geography differs from most social science approaches in its adherence to the indivisible individual, which implies that an individual can’t be averaged. This bottom-up perspective also implies that some meaning is expressed by the mere sequence of individuals’ daily activities. Time geography has increasingly inspired researchers in other disciplines outside geography—in health science and engineering, for example. In a social science context, time geography to some extent has inspired structuration theory.

Origins of Time-Geographic Thinking

Time geography is a theory developed by Torsten Hägerstrand and furthered by members of his research group and many others worldwide. Hägerstrand’s early works were the seeds for what later emerged as the time-geographical approach. The starting point was empirical studies of migration in Sweden and emigration to the United States from 19th-century Asby, a small parish in the southeast of Sweden. The empirical grounding was fieldwork, information about population changes from the parish registers held by the church, and maps of land use. Hägerstrand 1950 is a thorough investigation of people’s use of local resources and their movements between dwellings in Asby. It laid the ground for studies of migration and migration chains, and for the time-geographic “path” concept. These studies were published in English in Hägerstrand 1957 and Hägerstrand 1963, and Hägerstrand 1975 is a summary of these studies, and of time geography overall. Hägerstrand’s PhD thesis (Hägerstrand 1953) studied the spread of technological innovations in Asby, introducing the Monte Carlo simulation and other quantitative methods to human geography. This study laid the ground for innovation diffusion theory and was part of the quantitative revolution in human geography. Hägerstrand’s works on innovation inspired many researchers, who still reference his innovation studies in relation to time geography. Hägerstrand 1975 presents a migration chain model that clearly demonstrates how humans bring innovation when they move from one place to another. Based on concepts from Hägerstrand’s two main theoretical contributions, innovation diffusion and time geography, Pred 1978 analyzed the impact of the telegraph on peoples’ roles and life content in the 19th-century United States. Following Hägerstrand’s innovation diffusion approach, Törnqvist 2004 uses time geography to problematize the influence of places, institutions, and people on Nobel laureates. Hägerstrand 1955 points to the need to give buildings coordinates, in order to study population changes independent of administrative borders. Both researchers and administrators using the Swedish population registers were hampered by steadily ongoing mergers of municipalities, changing geographic borders and making old administrative districts useless. However, coordinates were not applied until many years later, when they formed the basis for the development of geographic information systems (GIS) and even an early National Real Estate Register in Sweden. With the empirical work from Asby Parish on migration and the diffusion of innovations in time and space, Hägerstrand laid the ground for his worldview. In 1966 Hägerstrand was awarded funding for a research project that made it possible for him develop the time-geographic approach and employ research assistants. They collected and analyzed data on contemporary everyday life in Swedish municipalities in order to investigate different conditions influencing people’s opportunities to fulfill activities, especially transportation facilities. Several reports were presented in the book series Urbaniseringsprocessen. These reports grounded publications on time geography to come in the 1970s, starting with the highly influential Hägerstrand 1970.

  • Hägerstrand, Torsten. “Torp och backstugor i 1800-talets Asby.” In Från Sommabygd till Vätterstrand. Edited by E. Hedkvist, 30–38. Linköping, Sweden: Tranås Hembygdsgille, 1950.

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    This work is a treasure for researchers interested in migration. Usually, rural populations without property moved once a year from one employer to another in order to earn their living as farmhands or maids, which caused large population movements. This rhythm helped to capture the patterns of migration.

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    • Hägerstrand, Torsten. Innovationsförloppet ur korologisk synpunkt. Lund, Sweden: Gleerupska University-bokhandeln, 1953.

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      Hägerstrand collected data in Asby on technological innovations, and he used quantitative methods to simulate the spread of these innovations by introducing simulation, lump numbers, and information fields. The book yielded much international attention when it was translated into English in the mid-1960s. However, in the 1960s Hägerstrand’s thinking had moved further, now developing the time-geographic approach. Translated into English by Allan Pred as Innovation Diffusion as a Spatial Process (Lund: C.W.K. Gleerup, 1967).

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      • Hägerstrand, Torsten. “Statistiska primäruppgifter, flygkartering och “data processing”-maskiner. Ett kombineringsprojekt.” Svensk Geografisk Årsbok (1955): 233–255.

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        This article foreshadows GIS science. When presented in the 1950s, however, there was little understanding of the use of coordinates for locational analyses, which did not become standard until much later.

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        • Hägerstrand, Torsten. “Migration and Area. Survey of a Sample of Swedish Migration Fields and Hypothetical Considerations on Their Genesis.” In Migration in Sweden: A Symposium. Edited by D. Hannerberg, T. Hägerstrand, and B. Odeving, 27–158. Lund studies in Geography, Ser. B. Human Geography, no.13. Lund, Sweden: C.W.K. Gleerup, 1957.

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          A series of maps showing immigration and emigration in rural parishes explains the dynamics of migration. Contemporary areas, with migration losses and gains, are identified. A longer time perspective is applied to show in- and out-migration to Asby Parish over a century, and logarithmic maps emphasize the dominance of migration to and from areas close by.

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          • Hägerstrand, Torsten. “Geographic Measurements of Migration: Swedish Data.” In Les déplacements humains: Aspects methodologiques de leur mésure. Edited by J. Sutter, 61–83. Monaco: Hachette, 1963.

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            An empirical investigation of peoples’ movements from and to stations is presented as a point of departure for a critique of the official statistics on migration in Sweden. The size of internal migration in the same register unit is shown to be larger than out-migration. New measures of migration and ideas to explain it are presented.

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            • Hägerstrand, Torsten. “What about People in Regional Science?” Papers of the Regional Science Association 24 (1970): 7–21.

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              This seminal theoretical article on time geography in English presents basic concepts and the notation system of the approach. Knowledge of individuals’ daily activity sequences identified by empirical studies provides grounding for the time-geographical approach.

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              • Hägerstrand, Torsten. “Survival and Arena: On the Life-History of Individuals in Relation to their Geographical Environment.” The Monadnock 49 (June 1975): 9–29.

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                Based on the studies of migration in Asby Parish, Hägerstrand presents a model of how people move not only geographically, but also between social classes in the time-space of the region. He declares his ambition to develop conceptual coherence regarding how to understand human life geographically from the home to the globe and with various time perspectives from a day to a lifetime. Also published in Timing Space and Spacing Time. Vol. 2, Human Activity and Time Geography, edited by Tommy Carlstein, Don Parkes, and Nigel Thrift (Edward Arnold, 1978), 122–145.

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                • Pred, Allan. “The Impact of Technological and Institutional Innovations on Life Content: Some Time-Geographic Observations.” Geographical Analysis 10.4 (1978): 345–372.

                  DOI: 10.1111/j.1538-4632.1978.tb00664.xSave Citation »Export Citation »

                  In the context of a techno-institutional innovation, the telegraph, the basic concepts and thoughts of time geography are employed to show the complexity of couplings and effects revealed in the life content of those who directly or indirectly are involved infrastructure-building or use of the telegraph services.

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                  • Törnqvist, Gunnar. “Creativity in Time and space.” Geografiska Annaler: Series B, Human Geography 86.4 (2004): 227–243.

                    DOI: 10.1111/j.0435-3684.2004.00165.xSave Citation »Export Citation »

                    Innovations stem from individuals active in contexts that fertilize creativity. Why do some places and social contacts result in more innovative thinking than others do? The article shows, grounded on the time-geographical path concept, the movements and sources of inspiration of Nobel laureates. It is shown that there are bundles of Nobel Prize winners at some universities, which serve as creative kernels over extended periods.

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                    • Urbaniseringsprocessen. 56 vols. Mimeo, Sweden: Lund University, 1969–1970.

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                      Volumes 3, 17, 38, and 39 in this series of reports present the material that laid the empirical grounding for time geography. The series as a whole consists of reports from one of the first big, externally funded research projects involving several departments in human geography in Sweden.

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                      Foundational Works: Torsten Hägerstrand

                      Hägerstrand summarized his theoretical works and ecological worldview in Hägerstrand 2009. The notation system is coherently presented in detail and ecological consequences of human resource use are considered. He claims that his worldview concerns the elementary and inevitable conditions shaped by Earth’s surface as home for all organisms, among them the human species with its manmade tools. Except for his PhD thesis, Hägerstrand 1953 (cited under Origins of Time-Geographic Thinking), and the final book, Hägerstrand 2009, Hägerstrand published his achievements in papers, articles, and conference proceedings. The most influential article is Hägerstrand 1970 (cited under Origins of Time-Geographic Thinking), which introduces the path concept and the constraint construct. The authority, capacity, and coupling constraints affect what is within reach of an individual at given locations in time-space. This was a step in the creation of “instruments which could help us to judge the impacts on social organization and thereby the impact on the ordinary day of the ordinary person” (Hägerstrand 1970, p. 21), much needed in the era of rapid technological developments. Hägerstrand 1972 gives a coherent understanding of population dynamics, taking the individual perspective as a point of departure. For example, he shows that, historically, a person’s birth year was decisive for educational opportunities during the person’s lifetime, and that this situation at aggregate level is mirrored in the educational level of the population as a whole. Arguments for revising the basis of human geographic thought are put forward in Hägerstrand 1973. Much of Hägerstrand’s later struggles with ecological issues, packing problems in time-space, hierarchies of human projects, and not least the importance of power, order in time, and limitations of available space-time for necessary coupling are touched upon in this book chapter. Hägerstrand 1974 presents the fundamental aim of the time-geographic approach and underlines the importance of alternating between individual and aggregate levels without losing important information. Ecological imperative worries were expressed in Hägerstrand 1976, where his aim is to “restore the links and reestablish a balance between the biophysical and the human branches of geography which are now mostly carrying on their business widely separated from each other” (p. 330). He argues, in a critique of social science, “. . . that it is very easy to dream up blue-prints for new undertakings but very hard to imagine their fate and their consequences for other legitimate processes when put into practice. Perhaps the trouble is that thought does not encounter in its own world the constraints of space and time” (p. 334). Hägerstrand 1985 is a comprehensive, philosophically grounded presentation of the fundamental time-geographical concepts used to build up a wider understanding of society.

                      • Hägerstrand, Torsten. “What about People in Regional Science?” Papers of the Regional Science Association 24 (1970): 7–21.

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                        Hägerstrand’s inaugural speech at the 1970 meeting of the Regional Science Association is the most cited work in time geography. It outlines the new approach and puts strong emphasis on the indivisibility of individuals, from which the importance of uninterrupted sequences follows. It is a critique of dominating regional science research, which neglects the indivisibility of humans and their life as a coherent sequence of events.

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                        • Hägerstrand, Torsten. Om en konsistent individorienterad samhällsbeskrivning för framtidsstudiebruk. Ds Ju 25. Stockholm: Justitiedepartementet, 1972.

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                          The Swedish government commissioned a future study from a group of researchers and policymakers, and Hägerstrand used this opportunity to use his time-geographic notation to explore changes in the population’s position over a long-term perspective. His point was to put individual conditions into the context of macrolevel societal changes over time.

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                          • Hägerstrand, Torsten. “The Domain of Human Geography.” In Directions in Geography. Edited by Richard J. Chorley, 66–87. London: Methuen, 1973.

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                            This book chapter develops a conceptual basis for furthering the scientific developments in human geography. It deals with human projects and the hierarchy among them. It also acknowledges environmental risks, namely that mankind might be threatened by the mere size and complexity of its own projects.

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                            • Hägerstrand, Torsten. “Tidsgeografisk beskrivning: Syfte och postulat.” Svensk Geografisk Årsbok 50 (1974): 86–94.

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                              The article presents the basic aim and presumptions underlying the time-geographical approach. The weave metaphor is introduced. Arguments are put forward about the importance to move from micro- to macrolevel and back without losing important information in the transition. This adds to the importance of regarding individuals as indivisible.

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                              • Hägerstrand, Torsten. “Geography and the Study of Interaction between Nature and Society.” Geoforum 7 (1976): 329–344.

                                DOI: 10.1016/0016-7185(76)90063-4Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                One of the first articles with a prominent environmental perspective. Hägerstrand points out the risk of increasing environmental problems caused by human activity. He underlines the importance for humans to care for the limited resources on Earth, and fears that problems are not handled because of scientific specialization and fragmentation.

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                                • Hägerstrand, Torsten. “Time-Geography: Focus on the Corporeality of Man, Society, and Environment.” In The Science and Praxis of Complexity, 193–216. Tokyo: United Nations University, 1985.

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                                  This is one of the most inspiring (and difficult to get a hold of) articles in which time-geographical concepts are discussed. Hägerstrand relates time geography to Carl Popper’s three worlds idea. The concept “pocket of local order” is presented, which explicitly brings a discussion of power into time geography.

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                                  • Hägerstrand, Torsten. Tillvaroväven. Stockholm: Formas, 2009.

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                                    Summarizes the theoretical testimony of Torsten Hägerstrand, with a strong environmental focus. Previously published thoughts are put in the wider context of Hägerstrand’s worldview, and the concept of the elementary event is used to deepen the understanding of time-geographic notation system.

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                                    International Diffusion of Time Geography

                                    Hägerstrand 1953 (cited under Origins of Time-Geographic Thinking) was translated into English by Allan Pred in 1967, and it influenced research in the field of innovation studies. Inspired by contacts with Hägerstrand, Pred contributed to the spread of time geography by introducing it to English-speaking researchers, editing a special issue of Economic Geography (Pred 1977), in which several articles from the time-geography research group were published. Thrift 1977, which includes many time-geographical figures previously published by Hägerstrand and his research group, introduced time geography to England. Pred 1981 is an original article on individual and societal changes in the 19th-century United States based on time geography. Miller 1982 presents historical analyses of household activity patterns. Inspired by the Asby studies, these two articles elaborate on historical data, including the perspective of women’s everyday lives. The second volume of Carlstein, et al. 1978 includes an overview of time-geographical research from the pioneering years (pp. 117–121). This helped spread time geography to other social sciences, presenting the fundamental research directions of the time-geography group. It includes two articles by Hägerstrand (pp. 122–145, 214–224), one reprinted from Hägerstrand 1975 (cited under Origins of Time-Geographic Thinking), and one short, English version of Hägerstrand 1972 (see Foundational Works: Torsten Hägerstrand). Carlstein’s essay (pp. 146–161) exemplifies how technical innovations affect the use of time and place (area) on different scales, focusing on the productivity and yield of crops. Mårtensson’s essay (pp. 181–197) presents a structural analysis of how low and high population densities lead to variation in opportunities to perform daily activity sequences. Lenntorp’s contribution (pp. 162–180) presents the prism concept, which reveals an individual’s possible future movement opportunities. Lenntorp applies his simulation model PESASP, a program evaluating the set of alternative paths, which later became influential in transportation research. Time geography was introduced to Japan by Arai, et al. 1989, an anthology including previously published original articles translated into Japanese. Chai 1998, influenced by the Japanese time-geographic researchers during his PhD studies in Japan, introduced time geography to China. Chai and his research group perform time-geographically inspired studies investigating the social consequences of the rapidly ongoing reformation of China; see Chai, et al. 2016. The time-geographic concepts and methods lend themselves to analyses of the social consequences of the transition from communities based on the Danwei system principles with relatively close distance between work, dwelling, and service, to socio-spatial segregated communities. Increased commuting is an important effect analyzed in Wang and Chai 2009 and Wang, et al. 2012. Persson and Ellegård 2012 is an overview of the global influence of time geography in terms of citations to Hägerstrand.

                                    • Arai, Yoshio, T. Kawaguchi, Kohei Okamoto, and Hiroo Kamiya. Seikatsu no Kukan toshi no Jikan. Kokon Shoin, 1989.

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                                      An in-depth introduction of time geography to the Japanese research society, with original articles translated into Japanese. Previously, glimpses of the notation system, especially related to transportation, had been published in Japanese textbooks in geography.

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                                      • Carlstein, Tommy, Don Parkes, and Nigel Thrift. Timing Space and Spacing Time. Vol. 2, Human Activity and time Geography. London: Edward Arnold, 1978.

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                                        The introduction to the time geography section of Volume 2 presents fundamental time-geographic assumptions. The section includes contributions by Hägerstrand—one on population migration in a local setting, the other the effect on population from, e.g., access to education. It also includes articles by Lenntorp on simulation of daily activity programs, Mårtensson on regional comparison of living conditions, and Carlstein on innovation and packing in time-space.

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                                        • Chai, Yanwei. “Time geography: Its origin, key concepts and applications.” Scientia Geographica Sinica 18.1 (1998): 65–72.

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                                          Introduces the time-geographic approach—its basic concepts, methods, and applications—to the Chinese research community. It demonstrates how the scope of time geography has widened from regional planning and transportation into research areas such as social, gender, and welfare geography.

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                                          • Chai, Yanwei, Ta Na, and Jing Ma. “The Socio-Spatial Dimension of Behavior Analysis: Frontiers and Progress in Chinese Behavior Geography.” Journal of Geographical Sciences 26.8 (2016): 1243–1260.

                                            DOI: 10.1007/s11442-016-1324-xSave Citation »Export Citation »

                                            An overview of behavior geography research in China, inspired by time geography, is presented, and the progress of Chinese geographers understanding of the consequences of spatial reconstruction on a microlevel is shown. Interdisciplinary theoretical and methodological frameworks are suggested for increasing the knowledge on the complexity of Chinese cities.

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                                            • Miller, Roger. “Household Activity Patterns in Nineteenth-Century Suburbs: A Time-Geographic Exploration.” Annals of the Association of American geographers 72.3 (1982): 355–371.

                                              DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-8306.1982.tb01831.xSave Citation »Export Citation »

                                              Hypothetical activity programs explore housewives’ access to various everyday activities in suburban locations before and after the introduction of horse-car transportation.

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                                              • Persson, Olle, and Kajsa Ellegård. “Torsten Hägerstrand in the Citation Time-Web.” Professional Geographer 64.2 (May 2012): 250–261.

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                                                Shows the time-space diffusion pattern of time geography by mapping the citations to Torsten Hägerstrand’s works in time-space. Three strands of research are identified: innovation studies, activity and travel, and migration. To the connoisseur of Hägerstrand’s biography, it is obvious that they all relate to the development of time geography. Underlines the importance of regarding transportation activity in the context of other daily activities.

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                                                • Pred, Allan, ed. Special Issue: Planning-Related Swedish Geographic Research. Economic Geography 53.2 (April 1977).

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                                                  In this special issue of Economic Geography the guest editor, Allan Pred, presents the time-geographic approach under the umbrella of planning research in Sweden. The issue contains several articles on time geography, of which some were previously published in Swedish.

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                                                  • Pred, Allan. “Production, Family and Free-Time Projects: A Time-Geographic Perspective on the Individual and Societal Change in Nineteenth-Century U.S. Cities.” Journal of Historical Geography 7.1 (1981): 33–36.

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                                                    Pred outlines the basic time-geographic concepts and uses them to explore the interplay between individual behavior, experience, and societal change, from the emergence of industrial production in the 19th-century United States to the impact of the societal change on families’ and individuals’ free-time activities outside the home.

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                                                    • Thrift, Nigel. An Introduction to Time-Geography. Concepts and Techniques in Modern Geography (CATMOG) 13. Norwich, UK: Geo Abstracts, 1977.

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                                                      Collects earlier published figures based on the notation system developed by the time-geographic research group. Served as one basic introduction of the approach to the English geographic community. Series produced by the Study Group in Quantitative Methods of the Institute of British Geographers.

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                                                      • Wang, Donggen, and Yanwei Chai. “The Jobs-Housing Relationship and Commuting in Beijing, China: The Legacy of Danwei.” Journal of Transport Geography 17 (2009): 30–38.

                                                        DOI: 10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2008.04.005Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                        The article shows that the transformation from the Danwei system with proximity between home and work to modern specialized housing districts has considerably affected the length of commuting and increased the travel demand.

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                                                        • Wang, Donggen, Fei Li, and Yanwei Chai. “Activity Spaces and Sociospatioal Segregation in Beijing.” Urban Geography 19 (2012): 256–277.

                                                          DOI: 10.2747/0272-3638.33.2.256Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                          The article shows, based on data from a travel behavior survey, that the inhabitants of “privileged enclaves” and those living in less privileged areas make significantly different use of urban spaces. Further research on the socio-spatial segregation of rural migrant workers is suggested and would increase the understanding of important development trends in modern China.

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                                                          Concepts and Methods in Time Geography

                                                          The time-geographic approach includes concepts and a notation system adhering to its philosophy and ontology (see Hägerstrand 1985 and Hägerstrand 2009, cited under Foundational Works: Torsten Hägerstrand) Among the ontological assumptions is the existence of time. Time is, at least in the context of human phenomena, a convenient tool to measure processes, and it also helps to coordinate activities in daily life. Time is assumed to have an irreversible direction: no time can be carried over to another day or left out, and everybody has the same amount of time during the day, week, and so on. This said, time geography of course recognizes that time can be experienced in many different ways. Three aspects of the time dimension are fundamental: past, present, and future. Among them, the present is special, since it is the constant and inevitable transformation of future into past, making the present the only time to act. There is also the assumption of the unique geographical location of all indivisible individuals. Based on these two assumptions, the time-geographical notation system and concepts are created. In Hägerstrand 1970 (under Origins of Time-Geographic Thinking), the notation system is displayed, and its basic concept, individual path, is presented. The individual path is used to describe the movements in time-space of an individual from the past to the present. The future, however, contains not only one but several opportunities for the individual, which implies that a person’s movements, described by the path, will be found somewhere within that opportunity time-space. The prism concept was developed to define such future movement possibilities in time-space. It shows where an individual can move from the present, given the constraints of speed, starting point, and a point in time in the future when the person must be located at a specific geographic location. Looking back in time, only one of the potential paths will have been realized. Lenntorp 1976 develops the prism concept in depth. Related to the prism is the analysis of people’s access to various services within the constraints set up by their many daily obligations, and the borders of their prisms. Öberg 1976 explores accessibility in regions with different population and service density. Mårtensson 1979 brings individual motivation into time geography. People are assumed to have goals in their life, they create projects to reach the goals, and they perform activities that appear in their daily activity sequence (see also Hägerstrand 1985, under Foundational Works: Torsten Hägerstrand). The everyday activity context is used to underline the activity sequence, and within this context activities related to various projects appear. Project context is used to locate all activities relating to one specific project within the everyday activity context (see Ellegård 1999). Lenntorp 2004 discusses the “p-concepts” in time geography: path, prism, project, pocket of local order, and population.

                                                          • Ellegård, Kajsa. “A Time-Geographical Approach to the Study of Everyday Life of Individuals—A Challenge of Complexity.” GeoJournal 48.3 (1999): 167–175.

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                                                            While average time use gives an overview, the sequential view of time use reveals what the indivisible individual actually does, when, and for how long. The time-geographic diary method emphasizes the importance of activity sequences to identifying how actions create meaning in everyday life. Concepts for analyzing time-geographic diaries, such as activity and geographic and social contexts, are suggested.

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                                                            • Lenntorp, Bo. “Paths in Space-Time Environments: A Time-Geographic Study of Movement Possibilities of Individuals.” PhD diss., Royal University of Lund, 1976.

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                                                              Simulates the performativity of individual-level sequential activity programs in various space-time environments. The simulation method is developed and tested with activity and travel sequences performed by individuals. Develops the prism concept, which is vital for interpreting what a person might do in the future given current location, opportunities offered, and constraints existing in the environment.

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                                                              • Lenntorp, Bo. “Path, Prism, Project, Pocket and Population: An Introduction.” Geografiska Annaler: Series B, Human Geography 86.4 (2004): 223–226.

                                                                DOI: 10.1111/j.0435-3684.2004.00164.xSave Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                A short and comprehensive presentation of the central concepts in time geography as used and furthered by the authors in this issue of the journal, published in memory of Torsten Hägerstrand. Special emphasis is put on the concept pocket of local order.

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                                                                • Mårtensson, Solveig. “On the Formation of Biographies in Space-Time Environments.” PhD diss., Royal University of Lund, 1979.

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                                                                  A person’s biography underlines the indivisibility of the individual and the experience of obstacles in the course of life. This dissertation presents three cases of change, among them workplace re-localization, which influence peoples’ biographies. It is also one of the first time-geographical works that considers in depth individuals’ experience and intentions.

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                                                                  • Öberg, Sture. “Methods of Describing Physical Access to Supply Points.” PhD diss., Royal University of Lund, 1976.

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                                                                    Specialization of production and services relates to economies of scale, but barriers encountered by employees and people who demand service are not just economical. This dissertation develops methods to show how physical distance from services like dentists and legal aid offices vary geographically in Sweden, an important aspect of regional policy.

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                                                                    Time-Geographic Diaries

                                                                    Time-geographic empirical studies of peoples’ daily lives gather data about when, where, and with whom an activity is performed. Relating these various aspects to each other is vital. Depending on the purpose of a study, other aspects might be important to add. Time geography underlines the importance of maintaining the sequence of activities in people’s daily lives and the diary-based studies among time geographers (see Urbaniseringsprocessen, cited under Origins of Time-Geographic Thinking) were pioneering. The results were criticized, however; for example, Cullen 1972 claimed that the subjective dimensions of individuals’ perceptions and experiences are lacking in time-geographic research. Cullen proposed ways to collect data about peoples’ doings combined with data on how they valuated the activities. Computer-aided diary methods now facilitate the collection of subjective data as complement to the basic time, place, and activity information. Ellegård and Nordell 1997 develops a time-geographic diary method that differs from those collected by national statistical agencies, first by recording the diarist’s own notations of exactly when activities start, and second by basing its activity categorizations on a bottom-up approach. Based on data from such time-geographic diaries, a computer program has been developed to visualize them individually (Ellegård and Nordell 2011). Erlandsson and Eklund 2001 compared diaries with other methods for collecting data on daily activities. Vrotsou, et al. 2014 develops a smart phone app, PODD, an electronic diary that uses the time-geographic diary as its role model. Complementing short-term activity diaries, Sunnqvist, et al. 2013 develops a long-term biographic time-geographic life chart. These approaches to collecting, describing, and analyzing data exemplify how time geography can be utilized for both descriptive and analytical purposes. Sunnqvist and colleagues utilize the life chart diagrams as background for discussion of suicidal behavior and the events influencing it. Orban, et al. 2012 also use time-geographic diaries as ground for reflection on peoples’ day-to-day activities. Ellegård and Vrotsou 2006 developed a program (VISUAL-TimePAcTS) for visualizing large numbers of time-geographic diaries on different levels, from individual to household to various aggregates. It is capable of alternating between individual and aggregate levels without losing important information, as pointed out by Hägerstrand 1974 (see Foundational Works: Torsten Hägerstrand). The aggregate activity patterns visualized by the program can be further analyzed with clustering and sequencing methods; such a methodology is presented by Hellgren 2015, which studies energy use as consequence of activity sequences.

                                                                    • Cullen, Ian. “Space, Time and the Disruption of Behavior in Cities.” Environment and Planning 4 (1972): 459–470.

                                                                      DOI: 10.1068/a040459Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                      The importance of considering individuals’ activity sequences in line with the time-geographic approach is underlined, while at the same time claiming the need for complementing such data with individual subjective data on feelings.

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                                                                      • Ellegård, Kajsa, and Kersti Nordell. Att byta vanmakt mot egenmakt: Metodbok. Självreflektion och förändringsarbete i rehabiliteringsprocessen. Stockholm: Johansson & Skyttmo Förlag, 1997.

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                                                                        The time-geographic diary method is presented in depth, together with principles for categorizing and visualizing when activities are performed, with whom, and the resulting physical and mental experience. An example shows an individual’s use of her diary as a reflective tool, in combination with recurrent discussions with a researcher in order to make changes in her daily activities to have a more satisfying life.

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                                                                        • Ellegård, Kajsa, and Kersti Nordell. Daily life 2011. Linköping, Sweden: Linköping University, 2011.

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                                                                          A computer program to visualize and analyze individual time-geographic diaries. It shows several contexts in which the individual is involved during a day: the activity context, the geographical context, the social context, and the emotional context. It is flexible and can be adjusted for the purpose of various studies.

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                                                                          • Ellegård, Kajsa, and Katerina Vrotsou. “Capturing Patterns of Everyday Life—Presentation of the Visualization Method VISUAL-TimePAcTS.” Paper presented at the IATUR—XXVIII Annual Conference, Copenhagen, Denmark, 16–18 August 2006.

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                                                                            A method for visualizing individuals’ daily activity sequences at aggregate levels. Can demonstrate, for example, when individuals in a population are involved in cooking or transportation. Displays timing and duration of activities along with clear gender differences.

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                                                                            • Erlandsson, Lena-Karin, and Mona Eklund. “Describing Patterns of Daily Occupations—A Methodological Study Comparing Data from Four Different Methods.” Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy 8.1 (2001): 31–39.

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                                                                              A detailed, small-scale test of four methods to collect data about daily life (diary, observation, video, and random event sampling methods). Recommends that diary methods be followed by interviews to deepen knowledge about the activities performed.

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                                                                              • Hellgren, Mattias. “Energy Use as a Consequence of everyday Life.” PhD diss. Linköping University, 2015.

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                                                                                This dissertation uses sequence analysis and clustering methods to analyze large sets of time-diary data on aggregate levels, building on the principles of VISUAL-TimePAcTS. The indivisible individuals are clustered according to the similarity of their activity sequences (aggregate activity patterns). Derives energy use from these patterns, and explores the flexibility of the activity patterns.

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                                                                                • Orban, Kristina, Anna-Karin Edberg, and Lena- Karin Erlandsson. “Using a Time-Geographical Diary Method in Order to Facilitate Reflections on Changes in Patterns of Daily Occupations.” Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy 19 (2012): 249–259.

                                                                                  DOI: 10.3109/11038128.2011.620981Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                  Time-geographical diaries and recall interviews are used together to make people reflect on their daily activity patterns.

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                                                                                  • Sunnqvist, Charlotta, Ulla Persson, Åsa Westrin, Lil Träskman-Bendz, and Bo Lenntorp. “Grasping the Dynamics of Suicidal Behaviour: Combining Time-Geographic Life Charting and COPE Ratings.” Journal of Psychiatric & Mental Health Nursing 20.4 (May 2013): 336–344.

                                                                                    DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2850.2012.01928.xSave Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                    After a suicide attempt, a time-geographic life chart showing important, self-reported events in the person’s life (the birth of siblings, changing dwelling, marriage, divorce) is created and related to the person’s coping strategies. Illuminates the pathway to suicidal behavior and might be useful for suicide prevention.

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                                                                                    • Vrotsou, Katerina, Mathias Bergqvist, Matthew Cooper, and Kajsa Ellegård. “PODD: A Portable Diary Data Collection System.” In Proceedings of the 2014 International Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces (AVI 2014), Como Italy, 381–382. New York: ACM, 2014.

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                                                                                      A time-geography-inspired method for collecting detailed data in real time by using a cell phone. The data is sent to a server where activity sequences can be visualized at individual and aggregate levels. Available online for purchase.

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                                                                                      Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Global Positioning System (GPS)

                                                                                      Technological developments based on the computers’ increasing speed, power, and memory capacity have led to considerable progress in time-geographical studies. The most obvious are the achievements in GIS (geographic information systems) and GPS (Global Positioning System). Hägerstrand 1955 (cited under Origins of Time-Geographic Thinking) noted that use of geo-coordinates for mapping buildings would help develop geography as a discipline. Lenntorp developed the prism concept in the late 1960s and early 1970s, but he did a lot of very time-consuming programming manually, since suitable software did not exist (see Lenntorp 1976, under Concepts and Methods in Time Geography). Miller 1991 elaborates on opportunities to further develop the prism concept theoretically and analytically based on novel technologies, arguing that it would bring new insights to transportation research. The interest of the transportation research community catalyzed development in the field. Miller set out on a long-term project exploring the prism with advanced computer and GIS methods. Combining GIS and time geography, Kwan 1998 developed the concept of density surface to display large samples of individual paths in urban areas, showing the daily travel and stays of people. Even in the late 1990s, the software for such an endeavor was not yet available, so Kwan did the time-consuming programming herself. In Kwan 1999, Kwan 2000, and Kwan 2004, these methods are further developed, displaying several individual paths in a three-dimensional time-space. Empirically, the studies are based on travel diaries, and the individuals’ movements clearly reveal the rhythm of urban areas, with differences regarding gender and ethnicity, which have an impact on planning and transportation in cities. Yu and Shaw 2008 presents a three-dimentional, spatio-temporal GIS model that combines virtual communication with the prism concept. Dijst 2013 discusses the state of GIScience, where the use of GPS is crucial. Long, et al. 2015 developed time-geography-based GIS methods for investigating animal movements, revealing where interactions between animals appear and transforming GPS tracks to time-geographic maps. Kwan 2008 combines quantitative and qualitative methods—GPS-tracking, GIS representation, and narratives— to study how the daily mobility of a Muslim woman is constrained by fears of violence after the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks.

                                                                                      • Dijst, Martin. “Space-Time Integration in a Dynamic Urbanizing World: Current Status and Future Prospects in Geography and GIScience.” Annals of the Association of American Geographers 103.5 (2013): 1058–1061.

                                                                                        DOI: 10.1080/00045608.2013.792171Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                        An introduction to integration of space-time with geography and GIScience (geographic information systems science), including Global Positioning System (GPS) technologies, human mobility, and time.

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                                                                                        • Kwan, Mei-Po. “Space-Time and Integral Measures of Individual Accessibility: A Comparative Analysis Using a Point-Based Framework.” Geographical Analysis 30.3 (1998): 191–216.

                                                                                          DOI: 10.1111/j.1538-4632.1998.tb00396.xSave Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                          An important contribution to the analysis of accessibility, measured by the opportunities constrained by the prism. The method is able to capture interpersonal differences such as gender, with a focus on the constraints individuals meet in time-space.

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                                                                                          • Kwan, Mei-Po. “Gender, the Home-Work Link, and Space-Time Patterns of Nonemployment Activities.” Economic Geography 75.4 (October 1999): 370–394.

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                                                                                            A network-based GIS method is used to study space-time accessibility of men and women in European American households in a county in Ohio. Shows that full-time working women with a high level of fixity constraints travel longer than men, questioning the dominant idea that the length of the journey to work is a result of low level of fixity.

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                                                                                            • Kwan, Mei-Po. “Interactive Geovisualization of Activity-Travel Patterns Using Three-Dimensional Geographical Information Systems: A Methodological Exploration with a Large Data Set.” Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies 8 (2000): 185–203.

                                                                                              DOI: 10.1016/S0968-090X(00)00017-6Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                              Presents 3-D geovisualization methods for handling human activity travel patterns. The visualizations are based on travel diary data from the Portland metropolitan area, displayed in time-space. The methods might ground the creation of more realistic computational models.

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                                                                                              • Kwan, Mei-Po. “GIS Methods in Time-Geographic Research: Geocomputation and Geovisualization of Human Activity Patterns.” Geografiska Annaler: Series B, Human Geography 86.4 (2004): 267–280.

                                                                                                DOI: 10.1111/j.0435-3684.2004.00167.xSave Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                Many useful time-geographical constructs were not implemented in analytical methods until the 1990s, and this article emphasizes the importance of GIS in implementing time-geographic constructs.

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                                                                                                • Kwan, Mei-Po. “From Oral Histories to Visual Narratives: Re-presenting the Post-September 11 Experiences of Muslim Women in the USA.” Social & Cultural Geography 9.6 (2008): 653–669.

                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1080/14649360802292462Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                  Draws the daily path of a Muslim woman before and after September 11. Along with an oral history of her days, reveals the emotional geographies emanating from fear of anti-Muslim violence.

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                                                                                                  • Long, Jeb, Stephen L. Webb, Trisalyn A. Nelson, and Kenneth L. Gee. “Mapping Areas of Spatial-Temporal Overlap from Wildlife Tracking Data.” Movement Ecology 3 (2015): 38.

                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1186/s40462-015-0064-3Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                    A new approach to identifying spatial-temporal overlap, tracking interaction between animals using the GPS tracks of deer in Oklahoma. Joint potential path areas are suggested and tested.

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                                                                                                    • Miller, Harvey J. “Modelling Accessibility using Space-Time Prism Concepts within Geographical Information Systems.” International Journal of Geographical Information Systems 5.3 (January 1991): 287–301.

                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1080/02693799108927856Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                      This influential article is among the first publications concerning the prism concept in the era of rapid GIS development. The derivation and application of GIS-based prism constructs are explored and further developments are suggested.

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                                                                                                      • Yu, Hongbo, and Shih-Lung Shaw. “Exploring Potential Human Activities in Physical and Virtual Spaces: A Spatio-temporal GIS Approach.” International Journal of Geographical Information Science 22.4 (2008): 409–430.

                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1080/13658810701427569Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                        An adjustment of the prism concept that aims to identify potential activity opportunities in virtual space from the location of communication channels in physical space. Develops a three-dimensional temporal GIS design to adjust the prism concept to accommodate the study of potential human activities and interactions in both physical and virtual spaces.

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                                                                                                        ICT-Based Technology and Data-Driven Time Geography

                                                                                                        One of the problems with empirical time geography was the difficulty getting data about individuals’ movements in time-space. Hägerstrand believed that the time-geographical approach should not be limited to empirically grounded studies, but that it was possible to generate valid results from a mere theoretical basis (see Hägerstrand 1974, cited Foundational Works: Torsten Hägerstrand). However, empirical evidence is essential for credibility in the social sciences. Since the turn of the century there has been rapid development in opportunities to gather data on human behavior, from tracks left by mobile phones, computers’ Internet connections, Internet-based payments, and various kinds of smart cards. Data of these kinds are not easily available due to ethical rules and commercial interests. However, in Estonia, for example, researchers use mobile phones to estimate peoples’ movements in time-space, both in large scale (Ahas and Mark 2005) and small scale (Zhang, et al. 2014). Birenboim 2016 uses individual tracking devices to identify the time-space movement of visitors at a festival. Vrotsou 2010 developed visualization and pattern extraction methods useful in time-geographic studies, analyzing peoples’ daily activity sequences using diary data from Swedish national time-use surveys. In spite of the many new technologies for tracking movements, little research has been presented within geography, as noted by Shoval, et al. 2014. Schwanen 2016 highlights the risks of utilizing automatically generated big data sets in social science research without reflection.

                                                                                                        • Ahas, Rein, and Ülar Mark. “Location Based Services—New Challenges for Planning and Public Administration?” Futures 37.6 (2005): 547–561.

                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1016/j.futures.2004.10.012Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                          One of the first geographic articles on the use of mobile phone positioning to investigate time-space behavior. Suggests a social positioning method that might be used in planning due to the wide spread of mobile devices. Some issues on privacy are raised.

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                                                                                                          • Birenboim, Amit. “New Approaches to the Study of Tourist Experiences in Time and Space.” Tourism Geographies 18.1 (2016): 9–17.

                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1080/14616688.2015.1122078Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                            A framework that includes the novel concept of momentary experience, which is used for analyzing students’ senses of crowdedness and security during a festival. Based on data collected by an app that uses the experience sampling method, poorly illuminated areas were shown to be experienced as less secure.

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                                                                                                            • Schwanen, Tim. “Geographies of Transport II: Reconciling the General and the Particular.” Progress in Human Geography 40.1 (2016): 126–137.

                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1177/0309132514565725Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                              Outlines arguments concerning both new opportunities and risks related to the use of big data in transportation research, along with the risk of privileging generality over particularity. Calls for deeper reflection, especially when it comes to what situatedness and variations in transportation opportunities mean at a global scale.

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                                                                                                              • Shoval, Noam, Mei-Po Kwan, Kristian H. Reinau, and Henrik Harder. “The Shoemaker’s Son Always Goes Barefoot: Implementations of GPS and Other Tracking Technologies for Geographic Research.” Geoforum 51 (2014): 1–5.

                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1016/j.geoforum.2013.09.016Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                The article, based on a meta-analysis of scientific journal articles, shows that geographers have underutilized the dramatic growth in various tracking technologies.

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                                                                                                                • Vrotsou, Katerina. “Everyday Mining: Exploring Sequences in Event-Based Data.” PhD diss, Linköping University, 2010.

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                                                                                                                  Theoretically based in the time-geographic approach, this dissertation presents, from a visualization science perspective, various methods for visualizing and analyzing time-diary data at different levels of aggregation. The method includes pattern extraction and sequence identification.

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                                                                                                                  • Zhang, Qiuju, Aidan Slingsby, Jason Dykes, et al. “Visual Analysis Design to Support Research into Movement and Use of Space in Tallinn: A Case Study.” In Special Issue: GeoSpatial. Edited by Gennady Andrienko, Natalia Andrienko, Jason Dykes, Menno-Jan Kraak, and Heidrun Schumann. Information Visualization 13.3 (2014): 187–189.

                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1177/1473871613480062.ivi.sagepub.comSave Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                    Based on tracking mobile phone data from the Tallin metropolitan area, an interactive visualization interface displays data on spatial, temporal, socioeconomic characteristics, and land use.

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                                                                                                                    Applications of Time Geography

                                                                                                                    The time-geographic approach is a source of inspiration to several areas of research, such as human exploitation of natural resources, households’ energy and water use, urban planning, division of labor in households, the development of treatment programs in occupational therapy and psychiatry, and transport research.

                                                                                                                    Resource Use and the Environment

                                                                                                                    One of the main features of time geography is its integrative approach to the coexistence of humans in society and nature, explicitly formulated in Hägerstrand 1993 and Hägerstrand 2009 (cited under Foundational Works: Torsten Hägerstrand), and in Hägerstrand 1976. One of the first applications of time geography to human behavior in relation to natural resources was Kushiya 1985, which studies how fishermen use the ocean as a resource and adjust their work to knowledge about exactly when the catch is located where in Tokyo Bay under different seasonal and weather conditions. Though only the abstract is in English, it is still possible to interpret the time-geographic visualizations, which demonstrates the potential both of the notation system as a nonverbal language and of time geography as an integrative tool when studying resources. This work was followed by Nishimura, et al. 2010, where GPS technologies are used to investigate resources and human livelihoods in economies transitioning toward industrialization. Grow 2012 is an archaeological take, a time-geography-inspired comparative study of activities and resource use during the Late Neolithic and the Early Copper Age. Anderberg 1996 is a critical evaluation of traditional flow analyses from a time-geographical perspective, with a focus on policy issues. From a household perspective, Karresand 2013 uses time geography to understand the use of electricity, developing the concept of energy orders to capture people’s micro-activities related to household chores and the home as a pocket of local order. Since electricity is embedded in daily life, time-geographic constraints help explain why energy saving is hard to pursue in daily activity sequences.

                                                                                                                    • Anderberg, Stefan. “Flödesanalys i den hållbara utvecklingens tjänst—Reflektioner kring en ‘metabolism’-studie av Rhenområdets utveckling.” PhD diss., Lund University, 1996.

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                                                                                                                      This study of the Rhine Basin aims to link the societal and natural perspectives together, applying Hägerstrand’s concept of “process landscape” to conventional flow analyses.

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                                                                                                                      • Grow, Katie. “Time Geography: A Reanalysis of Spatial Shift in the Great Hungarian Plain Institute for European and Mediterranean Archaeology, 2012.” Chronika 2 (2012): 66–74.

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                                                                                                                        Time-geographic concepts and notation are used to reanalyze data from the Late Neolithic and the Early Copper Age, analyzing the changing relations between prehistoric human groups and the dynamic landscape. Demonstrates the usefulness of the path and prism concepts for reconstructing activities and shifts.

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                                                                                                                        • Hägerstrand, Torsten. “Geography and the Study of Interaction between Nature and Society.” Geoforum 7 (1976): 329–344.

                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1016/0016-7185(76)90063-4Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                          An important work in the sustainability debate. Hägerstrand calls for integration in geographical studies, arguing that human society is part of the pattern in the tapestry of nature, woven by history. He also underlines the importance of keeping in mind that time and space are limited, constraining the opportunities to realize plans.

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                                                                                                                          • Hägerstrand, Torsten. “Samhälle och natur.” NordREFO 1 (1993): 14–59.

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                                                                                                                            Presents the time-geographic concept of “process landscape” as a tool for exploring policy’s influences on landscape. Underlines the need for an ecological perspective with a call for new policies and institutions. Journal published by Nordiska institutet för regionalpolitisk forskning.

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                                                                                                                            • Karresand, Helena. “Creating New Energy Orders: Restrictions and Opportunities for Energy Efficient Behaviour.” In Conference Proceedings 2013 ECEEE Summer Study—Rethink, Renew, Restart, 3–8 June 2013, Belambra Les Criques, Presqu’île de Giens, Toulon/Hyères, France, 2147–2158, 2013.

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                                                                                                                              This paper shows how humans use energy resources in apartments. A detailed study of the use of appliances for domestic chores in households, it shows that even with identical appliance settings, activities are performed differently, and it is not always possible to prioritize energy saving due to coupling, capacity, and authority constraints.

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                                                                                                                              • Kushiya, Keiji. “Time-Geographic Interpretation of Fisherman’s Daily Activities on Tokyo Bay, Japan.” Geographical Review of Japan, Ser A, Chirigaku Hyoron 58 (1985): 645–662.

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                                                                                                                                In this early geographic study, the intertwining of human activity and natural resources is put to the fore. The daily activities of fishermen are heavily influenced by vocational knowledge about when the catch is located at different places in the sea.

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                                                                                                                                • Nishimura, Yuishiro, Kohei Okamoto, and Somkhit Boulibam. “Time-Geographic Analysis on Natural Resource Use in a Village of the Vientianne Plain.” Southeast Asian Studies 47 (2010): 426–450.

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                                                                                                                                  Data on daily life activities are collected by GPS technology and interviews to analyze the transition of a society from total dependence on natural resources to wage earnings from work in an urban setting, causing new patterns in the daily life of the household members to arise.

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                                                                                                                                  Living Conditions in Urban Time-Space

                                                                                                                                  Time geography was developed and presented in an era of strong urban and regional planning in Sweden; thus, several studies were related to regional policy and governmental investigations. The research project Urbaniseringsprocessen (see section Origins of Time-Geographic Thinking), which financed the Hägerstrand research group in Lund, was but one exponent of this. As service supply became focused on newly urbanized areas, service supply in regions with diminishing population shrunk. Public transportation systems were in transition. At the same time, women, to an increasing extent, entered the labor market, and the need for child care became urgent. In the Swedish planning context of the 1970s, Hägerstrand and Lenntorp 1970, Hägerstrand and Lenntorp 1974, and Mårtensson 1974 analyzed these structural problems and the consequences at the individual and household level. Problems of mismatch between work schedules, public transportation opportunities, and day care for children were investigated in Japan by Okamoto 1997, Nishimura and Okamoto 2001, Kamiya, et al. 1990, Kamiya 1999 and Chai 1993. Nishimura and Okamoto 2001 put the living conditions of families with working parents in the context of Japanese work-life culture, and pointed at the restrictions on parents’ opportunities to spend time together after factory-shift work hours. Okamoto 1997 and Kamiya 1999 relate the declining birth rate in Japan to the culturally rooted division of labor in families, where women are responsible for almost all domestic chores. Chai 2013 is a take on the Chinese transition resembling that which the Swedish time-geographic researchers experienced in the early 1970s, and the questions is how urban and regional planning can take the complexity of everyday life of people into consideration when urban areas are in rapid transition.

                                                                                                                                  • Chai, Yanwei. “Daily Activity Space Of Hiroshima Citizens: A Case Study of the Citizens in their Forties.” Japanese Journal of Human Geography 46 (1993): 351–373.

                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.4200/jjhg1948.45.351Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                    Men and women are clustered according to their time-use pattern, and it is shown that women spend considerable time doing housekeeping. Different patterns of utilizing the city space are shown, depending on home location. On weekdays, people living in the city center stay in the center, while the activity space of people living in suburban areas also includes the city center.

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                                                                                                                                    • Chai, Yanwei. “Space-Time Behavior Research in China: Recent Development and Future Prospect.” Annals of the Association of American Geographers 103.5 (2013): 1093–1099.

                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1080/00045608.2013.792179Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                      Discusses methodological and theoretical challenges to research on urban developments in China. Space-time behavior research, based in time geography, is considered important for understanding the complex and diverse transition in Chinese cities. Encourages theoretical developments in the field.

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                                                                                                                                      • Hägerstrand, Torsten, and Bo Lenntorp. “Tidsanvändning och omgivningsstruktur.” In Urbaniseringen i Sverige: en geografisk analys. Statens Offentliga Utredningar (SOU) 14. Stockholm: Expertgruppen för Regional Utveckling, 1970.

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                                                                                                                                        An early example of the influence Hägerstrand’s research exerted upon the development of public policies in regional development in Sweden, published in a series of national public investigations. Suggests time-geographic constraints for urban and regional planning. Supply points and barriers are parts of the structural environment influencing individuals’ accessibility to services and places where they perform daily activities.

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                                                                                                                                        • Hägerstrand, Torsten, and Bo Lenntorp. “Samhällsorganisation i tidsgeografiskt perspektiv.” In Bilagedel 1 till Orter i regional samverkan, 221–232. Statens Offentliga Utredningar (SOU) 2. Stockholm: Arbetsmarknadsdepartement, 1974.

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                                                                                                                                          This contribution to the Swedish national public investigations series focuses on exploring the coexistence of social, technical, economic, and natural phenomena in the societal environment. The indivisibility of the individual is underlined and related to constraints for future opportunities.

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                                                                                                                                          • Kamiya, Hiroo. “Day Care Services and Activity Patterns of Women in Japan.” Geojournal 48 (1999): 207–215.

                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1023/A:1007083826157Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                            The problems of low female participation in the labor force and low birth rates in Japan are explained by analyzing data from time diaries and day-care service provision. Recommends policies such as extended day-care opening hours and relocation of day-care service to railway stations, and of offices to suburbs.

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                                                                                                                                            • Kamiya, Hiroo, Kohei Okamoto, Yoshiro Arai, and Taro Kawaguchi. “A Time-Geographic Analysis of Married Women’s Participation in the Labor Market in Shimosuwa Town, Nagano Prefecture.” Geographical Review of Japan 63.11 (1990): 766–783.

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                                                                                                                                              Based on a time-geographic analysis of opportunities for women to participate in the labor market, empirical evidence shows the need to improve the supply of nursery services. Fixed times to pick up children are “markers” in daily life, hindering mothers from working full time.

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                                                                                                                                              • Mårtensson, Solveig. “Drag i hushållens levnadsvillkor.” In Bilagedel 1 till Orter i regional samverkan, 233–265. Statens Offentliga Utredningar (SOU) 2. Stockholm: Arbetsmarknadsdepartement, 1974.

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                                                                                                                                                Investigates opportunities for individuals in households living in different urban and regional settings in Sweden to fulfill tentative daily activity programs (activities in sequence). The time needed for the programs varies substantially between the settings, and in some places the program is not possible to perform without access to a car.

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                                                                                                                                                • Nishimura, Yuichiro. “The Time-Space Transformation of Automobile Manufacturing Workers: An Analysis Based on the Concepts of Production Project and Family Project.” Japanese Journal of Human Geography 50 (1998): 232–255.

                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.4200/jjhg1948.50.232Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                  Investigates the influence changes in the production project (Toyota factory) had on the employees’ family project, especially regarding household members sharing of activities. A work time change resulted in less shared meal time, but also in men’s increased performance of household chores.

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                                                                                                                                                  • Nishimura, Yuishiro, and Kohei Okamoto. “Yesterday and Today: Changes in Workers’ Lives in Toyota City, Japan.” In Japan in the Bluegrass. Edited by P. P. Karam, 98–122. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2001.

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                                                                                                                                                    Studies the consequences in daily life from rescheduling work time in a Toyota factory, analyzing the transformation of Toyota City from an industrial city into a modern city and a center for technology based on automobile industry. Close collaboration between the local government and the Toyota Company influenced this development.

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                                                                                                                                                    • Okamoto, Kohei. “Suburbanization of Tokyo and the Daily Lives of Suburban People.” In The Japanese City. Edited by P. P. Kuran and K. Stapleton, 79–105. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1997.

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                                                                                                                                                      In the wider context of urbanization and changes in the labor market, Okamoto studies the daily life conditions of couples in suburbs. He shows how the time-space organization of work (for men and women), child care, location of homes and workplaces, and transport mode influence the living conditions and indirectly birth rates in Japan.

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                                                                                                                                                      Time Geography and Everyday Life

                                                                                                                                                      In addition to individuals’ inevitable anchoring in time-space, one fundament of time geography is the indivisible individual, which everybody experience on a daily basis in the struggle to fulfill the goals of several projects and be flexible when unexpected claims appear. However, people’s indivisibility is rarely considered in social science. Time-geographic concepts help to take the indivisibility into consideration. Ellegård 1999 (cited under Concepts and Methods in Time Geography) presents a framework to capture the complexity of daily activities into contexts that are related to the flow of time. Isaksson and Ellegård 2015 demonstrates the importance of individuals’ time-space links to each other when performing activities in projects in households is recognized. The constraint and context concepts are utilized in analyzing changes in the work organization of a workplace in Bendixen and Ellegård 2014. There is a striking similarity between several time-geographic everyday life studies as regards the focus on women’s activity space and opportunities. Pred 1981 and Miller 1982 (both cited under International Diffusion of Time Geography use historical data, while Kamiya 1999 (cited under Living Conditions in Urban Time-Space) is concerned with the daily life situation of working women in Japan. Similar approaches are used by Arai, et al. 1989 (presented under International Diffusion of Time Geography. Palm and Pred 1974 provides an early example of how women’s job opportunities depend on their household composition (the strength of coupling constraints) in the 1970s US cultural context. Scholten, et al. 2012 points to the usefulness of time geography for understanding the conditions of women’s daily life from studies of commuting. Westermark 2003 studies low-income women’s everyday life conditions in urban Colombia. The author let women write reflective diaries covering their life perspective to widen the understanding of institutional constraints for them to sustain. They also wrote time-geographical diaries, which showed the women’s daily struggle to create performable activity sequences for getting enough money to feed their families and, at the same time, to build up long-term projects for their own and other women’s sustenance.

                                                                                                                                                      • Bendixen, Hans-Jörgen, and Kajsa Ellegård. “Occupational Therapists’ Job Satisfaction in a Changing Hospital Organization: A Time-Geography-Based Study.” Work 47 (2014): 159–171.

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                                                                                                                                                        Organizational change in workplaces influence peoples’ experience of job satisfaction. This article goes deeply into the work life of occupational therapists using a combination of time-geographic diaries and interviews. Factors constraining job satisfaction are revealed, not least how individuals’ personal projects and the organization’s project collide. Sometimes the resulting work organization is not in the individual patient’s best interest.

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                                                                                                                                                        • Isaksson, Charlotta, and Kajsa Ellegård. “Dividing or Sharing? A Time-Geographical Examination of Eating, Labour and Energy Consumption in Sweden.” Energy Research & Social Science 10 (2015): 180–191.

                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1016/j.erss.2015.06.014Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                          Social science works on energy use rarely differentiate between the individual and the household. However, when policy recommendations are produced, it is vital to target the persons who perform the activities concerned, whether it is an isolated individual or individuals in a collaborative constellation. This article demonstrates how activities necessary in a household’s daily life might be shared or divided, as well as consequences of this for the formulation of energy advice.

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                                                                                                                                                          • Palm, Risa, and Allan Pred. A Time-Geographic Perspective on Problems of Inequality for Women. Institute of Urban and Regional Development Working Paper 236. Berkeley, CA: Institute of Urban and Regional Development, 1974.

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                                                                                                                                                            This early example of using time geography for analyzing women roles in US society focuses on their couplings to household chores and child care. The women’s opportunities to reach workplaces within a daily prism indicates a political potential of time geography, not least for identifying and analyzing inequalities.

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                                                                                                                                                            • Scholten, Christina, Tora Friberg, and Annika Sandén. “Re-reading Time-Geography from a Gender Perspective: Examples from Gendered Mobility.” Tijdschrift voor economische en sociale geografie 103.5 (2012): 584–600.

                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9663.2012.00717.xSave Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                              The article uses time-geographic tools in collaboration with social theory. Authors show how a time-geographic interventional approach reveals obstacles and constraints set up by time-space conditions in women’s daily lives. The daily struggles to solve coupling problems in the era of mobility are analyzed from a gender perspective.

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                                                                                                                                                              • Westermark, Åsa. “Informal Livelihoods: Women’s Biographies and Reflections about Everyday Life: A Time-Geographic Analysis in Urban Colombia.” PhD diss., University of Gothenburg, 2003.

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                                                                                                                                                                Two low-income women in Bogotá wrote both reflective and time-geographic diaries intermittently during a four-year period, and their projects related to their struggle for sustenance are analyzed from this data combined with recurrent interviews. The individuals’ life courses and daily activity perspectives are utilized to show how institutions can produce development projects that meet women’s needs.

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                                                                                                                                                                Promoting Health and Well-Being

                                                                                                                                                                Kroksmark and Nordell 2001 first pointed out the potential for using the time-geographic approach in occupational science and its practice in occupational therapy, comparing how adolescents with and without visual impairment spend their days. Young people with low vision experienced fewer opportunities usually related to adolescence. The time-geographically grounded analysis of the indivisible individual has, since the turn of the century, attracted attention from occupational scientists and therapists, and several articles were published in an issue of the Journal of Occupational Science. Works by Norwegian occupational therapists have influenced national policies; for example, Magnus 2009 studies on the conditions of daily life for students with limited physical abilities. Studying the physical activity of men after retirement, Bredland, et al. 2015 shows that physical activity is related not only to physical exercise, but also to mundane household chores, like vacuuming and walks to the store. Several PhD theses on the everyday life of people in vulnerable situations, each in various ways utilizing the time-geographical approach, have been written in Sweden. For example, Nordell 2002 tracked how women with body pain changed their daily life, using time-geographic diaries in combination with group treatment programs. Kjellman 2003 is a time-geography-inspired study of how vulnerable people—drug addicts and old people with intellectual disability—found and experienced place when cared for by social authorities. Erlandsson 2003 studies everyday life and stress among women. Sunnqvist 2009 develops a time-geographical method to understand and prevent suicide attempts. Finally, Orban 2013 investigated how to help parents with obese children change their activity pattern to avoid child obesity. Related to the problems of obesity, Widener, et al. 2015 takes on the supply of healthy food. Dijst 2014 integrates investigations of stress in different urban settings.

                                                                                                                                                                • Bredland, Ebba, Eva Magnus, and Kjersti Vik. “Physical Activity Patterns in Older Men.” Physical & Occupational Therapy in Geriatrics 33.1 (2015): 87–102.

                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.3109/02703181.2014.995855Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                  Combines time-geographic diaries with codes for metabolic equivalents (METS) to find out more about the level of physical activity of elderly men. Shows that it is important to perform daily physical activity, and could be important for developing activity programs for older men.

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                                                                                                                                                                  • Dijst, Martin. “Social Connectedness: A Growing Challenge for Sustainable Cities.” Asian Geographer 31.2 (2014): 175–182.

                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1080/10225706.2014.942947Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                    Deals with the meaning of modernization and urbanization in two societies, one individualistic (The Netherlands) and one more collective (China), presenting strategies for handling relations with social environments and regulating stress and well-being.

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                                                                                                                                                                    • Erlandsson, Lena-Karin. “101 Women’s Patterns of Daily Occupations: Characteristics and Relationships to Health and Well-Being.” PhD diss., Lund University, 2003.

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                                                                                                                                                                      In this dissertation, the time-geographic approach is indirectly visible through the visualizations and ways of discussing activity (occupational) sequences; time geography is used as a way of understanding everyday life. Together with theories in occupational science, the time-geographical approach helps understanding occupational balance and health among working women.

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                                                                                                                                                                      • Journal of Occupational Science 13.1 (2006).

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                                                                                                                                                                        In this issue, several Scandinavian occupational and social science researchers present their work in occupational science based on time-geographic diary data collection. There are conceptual, methodological, and empirical studies relating to the time-geographic approach; the usefulness for understanding daily activity (occupational) sequences is underlined.

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                                                                                                                                                                        • Kjellman, Cecilia. “Ta plats eller få plats? Studier av marginaliserade människors förändrade vardagsliv.” PhD diss., Lund University, 2003.

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                                                                                                                                                                          English title: To seize or to be given a Place? Studies of marginalized people’s changes in daily life. An interesting combination of time geography, the theory of sense of place, and socio-geographic theories of marginalization and a person’s prospects to acquire a place. Integrates experiences of people in marginalized groups with time geography.

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                                                                                                                                                                          • Kroksmark, Ulla, and Kersti Nordell. “Adolescence: The Age of Opportunities and Obstacles for Students with Low Vision in Sweden.” Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness 95.4 (April 2001): 213–225.

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                                                                                                                                                                            Adolescence is a sensitive period of life, during which young people develop independence from their parents. This article clearly shows difficulties in this process for young people with low vision. They are dependent on parents for transportation and perform fewer activities with friends in their daily activity sequence compared to sighted young people.

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                                                                                                                                                                            • Magnus, Eva. “Student som alle andre: En studie av hverdagslivet til studenter med nedsatt funksjonsevne.” PhD diss., Norges Teknisk-Naturvitenskapelige Universitet, 2009.

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                                                                                                                                                                              In this dissertation, time-geographical constraints are used to explore the total time students with disabilities use for studies and what other daily activities they have to sacrifice. The results are useful for policymakers who strive for equal opportunities among students.

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                                                                                                                                                                              • Nordell, Kersti. “Kvinnors hälsa—En fråga om medvetenhet, möjligheter och makt. Att öka förståelsen för människors livssammanhang genom tidsgeografisk analys.” PhD diss., Gothenburg University, 2002.

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                                                                                                                                                                                Approaches the question of how women with body pain can improve their everyday life with a combination of time-geographic diaries and treatment programs. The women in the study are helped by the visualizations of their diaries, individually and in groups. They find that the visualizations represent their own daily life, which makes them more motivated to realize changes in order to get better control over their health.

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                                                                                                                                                                                • Orban, Kristina. “The Process of Change in Patterns of Daily Occupations among Parents of Children with Obesity—Time Use, Family Characteristics and Factors Related to Change.” PhD diss., Lund University, 2013.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  In this study of patterns of shared daily occupations of parents with obese children, the time-geographic diary method is used to facilitate parents’ reflections on their daily doings. Based on a new understanding of daily occupations, the aim was to see if a one-year intervention made them spend more time with their children.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  • Sunnqvist, Charlotta. Life Events, Stress and Coping: Suicidal Patients in a Time-Perspective. PhD diss., Lund University, 2009.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    The first psychiatric study to utilize time geography as a means to understand suicidal behavior. A time-geographical life chart is developed, investigating the individual’s life with a focus on social and burdensome events.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    • Widener, Michael, Steven Farber, Tijs Neutens, and Mark Horner. “Spatio-temporal Accessibility to Supermarkets Using Public Transit: An Interaction Potential Approach in Cincinnati, Ohio.” Journal of Transport Geography 42 (2015): 72–83.

                                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2014.11.004Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                      Earlier research focused on the supply of healthy food near peoples’ homes. This piece shows that when people commute by public transit, they have more potential supply points where healthy food can be purchased. Intersecting prisms in commuting trips reveal the opportunities.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      Mobility and Transportation Studies

                                                                                                                                                                                      Time-geographic research concerns processes described as movements in -time-space. Since time is regarded as a continuous dimension, time-geographic research in transportation is well suited to explore why people move between places rather than simply the movement as such. There is much literature on transportation, travel, and mobility with references to time geography, and a small fraction is presented in the special issues of the Journal of Transport Geography (Shaw 2012) and the Annals of the American Association of Geographers (Kwan and Schwanen 2016). Time-geographic concepts are of importance to research on individuals’ movements in time and space: the individual path reveals what has happened in the past, and the prism shows the potential area a path might move in the future. Empirical studies based on travel data are bound to the past, while policymakers attempt to change the transportation system to meet peoples’ future travel needs. Kwan 2000 analyzes gender differences regarding the fixity of daily activities, based on a combination of activity travel diaries and a short questionnaire. Miller 2005 develops an analytical theory for measurement of basic entities in time geography: the individual path, prism, composite path-prisms, stations, bundling, and intersections. Miller suggests definitions to enable statements about error and uncertainty in time-geographic measurement and analysis. Farber, et al. 2013 develops a method of prism analysis to discover the interaction of potential of individuals in a geographic area. The result reveals the potential time-space in which people interact. Long, et al. 2015, cited under Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Global Positioning System (GPS), applies a similar approach to wildlife. The method is based on the prism concept and shows, based on GPS tracks, how potential path areas overlap in time-space. Shoval, et al. 2015 develops sequence analysis methods to show how tourists explore a city during their visit. Ellegård, et al. 1977 is an early attempt to underline the importance of taking daily activities into consideration when modeling transportation. From the organization of daily life in families, a model is developed to show how daily travel is generated by the activities performed. Frändberg 2008 illustrates transnational mobility among youth, utilizing the time-geographic individual path as a tool.

                                                                                                                                                                                      • Ellegård, Kajsa, Bo Lenntorp, and Torsten Hägerstrand. “Activity Organization and the Generation of Daily Travel: Two Future Alternatives.” Economic Geography 53.2 (April 1977): 126–152.

                                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.2307/142721Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                        Travel requirements are derived from assumptions concerning the daily scheduling of work and educational activities in relation to households. From the results, some general observations are made regarding the transport sector and societal development.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        • Farber, Steven, Tijs Neutens, Harvey J. Miller, and Xiao Li. “The Social Interaction Potential of Metropolitan Regions: A Time-Geographic Measurement Approach Using Joint Accessibility.” Annals of the Association of American Geographers 103.3 (2013): 483–504.

                                                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1080/00045608.2012.689238Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                          Develops a method for measuring peoples’ social interaction potential in a metropolitan region, based on the time-geographic concept of joint accessibility. It reveals when and where individuals’ after-work prisms intersect, and can be used in urban planning.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          • Frändberg, Lotta. “Paths in Transnational Time‐Space: Representing Mobility Biographies of Young Swedes.” Geografiska Annaler: Series B, Human Geography 90.1 (2008): 17–28.

                                                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-0467.2008.00273.xSave Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                            Based on biographic notions and interviews, used individual paths to understand young peoples’ transnational mobility from a qualitative perspective. Also investigates the relation between migration and temporary mobility, relating travel behavior to experiences and life-course transitions.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            • Kwan, Mei-Po. “Gender Differences in Space-Time Constraints.” Area 32.2 (2000): 145–156.

                                                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1111/j.1475-4762.2000.tb00125.xSave Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                              Based on travel diary data, gender differences and constraints in population subgroups are analyzed, with a focus on the home-work relation. The conclusion is that women’s fixity constraints are higher than men’s, and that increasing female participation in the labor market does not change ingrained gender roles and household division of labor.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              • Kwan, Mei-Po, and Tim Schwanen, eds. Special Issue: Mobility. Annals of the American Association of Geographers 106.2 (March 2016).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                The special issue includes a collection of articles on aspects of mobility in daily life, like politics and inequalities. Also discusses how to conceptualize and analyze mobility, and what new data collection methods might imply.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                • Miller, Harvey J. “A Measurement Theory for Time Geography.” Geographical Analysis 37.1 (January 2005): 17–45.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1111/j.1538-4632.2005.00575.xSave Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Develops and presents a time-geographic measurement theory aimed at defining time-geographic entities and relationships, and on improving opportunities to compare results from different analyses. Focus is on path, prism, composite path-prisms, stations, bundling, and intersections.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Shaw, Shih-Lung, ed. Special Issue: Time Geography.” Journal of Transport Geography 23 (2012).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                    This special issue contains articles on theoretical and analytical developments and applications of the time-geographic approach in transportation research. It shows the width of the approach in a research field where the importance of spatial mobility is obvious.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Shoval, Noam, Bob McKercher, Amit Birenboim, and Erica Ng. “The Application of a Sequence Alignment Method to the Creation of Typologies of Tourist Activity in Time and Space.” Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 42.1 (2015): 76–94.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1068/b38065Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Defines tourist types empirically from applying a sequence alignment method. The empirical base is the daily sequence of movements of tourists in Hong Kong collected by GPS. This new method gives information to tourist destinations when producing information for visitors.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                      Communication and New Technologies

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Information and communication technology (ICT) has had a major influence on time-geographical methods and measures, and on devices for collecting sequential data. It also influences peoples’ everyday lives. Mobile phones, tablets, laptops, and small electronic measurement devices change activity patterns. Just a few decades ago, adolescence was characterized by access to a single family telephone, but nowadays every family member has his or her own device, bringing it wherever he or she is. In a longitudinal study on young Swedes, Thulin and Vilhelmson 2012 uses time-geographic diaries and interviews to investigate the effect of ICT in social and spatial contexts. They show a variety of ways ICT is used; for example, individuals with heavy daily ICT communication and large social networks travel a lot. Dijst, et al. 2009 studies changes in market activities because of increased use of e-shopping. Another direction for ICT-related time-geographic research calls for new concepts and ways of thinking. Couclelis 2009 argues that because activities are increasingly performed digitally, researchers have hit the limits of traditional time geography. Miller 2005 suggests a people-centered measurement to complement and enhance traditional place-based measurements, in order to better capture individual activity patterns in space and time. This prepares researchers for investigating activity patterns in a society where ICT is prevalent. Shaw and Yu 2009 argues that the time-geographic approach should be extended so it can handle the virtual world as well the physical. Yin, et al. 2011 illustrates the prevalence of face-to-face meetings for individuals with different levels of mobile phone access, presenting an extended time-geographic analytical framework for the purpose.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Couclelis, Helen. “Rethinking Time Geography in the Information Age.” Environment and Planning A 41 (2009): 1556–1575.

                                                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1068/a4151Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Suggests a re-examination of the prism in light of the fact that ICT loosens the traditional links between activity, place, and time. Presents a new conceptual model that models peoples’ activities in a multidimensional space, with the power of traditional time geography in mind.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Dijst, Martin, Mei-Po Kwan, and Tim Schwanen. “Decomposing, Transforming, and Contextualising (e)-Shopping.” Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 36 (2009): 195–203.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1068/b3602gedSave Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                          ICT-devices drive e-shopping, wherein a greater variety of products can be browsed before purchase. This article sets the scene for a number of contributions to the special issue and encourages reflection over the effects of e-shopping on the physical realm.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Miller, Harvey J. “Place-Based versus People-Based Accessibility.” In Access to Destinations. Edited by David M. Levinson and Kevin J. Krizek, 63–89. Amsterdam and Boston: Elsevier, 2005.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                            Discusses enhancing and complementing traditional place-based measures of accessibility with time-geographically grounded people-based measures, advocating the new measures for research in the face of new technologies.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Shaw, Shih-Lung, and Hongbo Yu. “A GIS-Based Time-Geographic Approach of Studying Individual Activities and Interactions in a Hybrid Physical-Virtual Space.” Journal of Transport Geography 17.2 (2009): 141–149.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2008.11.012Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Information and communication technologies change human activity and travel patterns and may have significant implications on everyday life and the human use of space. This article calls for an extension of classical time geography to represent and analyze interactions in hybrid physical-virtual space, and offers an analytical environment to study modern society.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Thulin, Eva, and Bertil Vilhelmson. “The Virtualization of Urban Young People’s Mobility Practices: A Time-Geographic Typology.” Geografiska Annaler: Series B, Human Geography 94.4 (December 2012): 391–403.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1111/geob.12005Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Four types of mobility practices (virtual and physical) are identified among young Swedes from their communicative actions, identified from time-geographic diaries and interviews. Three of the four types are heavy users of Internet and/or mobile phones, and one type rarely use ICTs.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Yin, Ling, Shih-Lung Shaw, and Hongbo Yu. “Potential Effects of ICT on Face-to-Face Meeting Opportunities: A GIS-Based Time-Geographic Approach.” In Special Issue: Geographic Information Systems for Transportation. Edited by Shih-Lung Shaw. Journal of Transport Geography 19.3 (2011): 422–433.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2010.09.007Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  This article suggests an extended time-geographic analytical framework to illustrate how face-to-face meeting opportunities are impacted by access to phones. The framework and scenarios are implemented in time-GIS.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Influence and Criticism of Time Geography

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Time geography has inspired researchers in many disciplines, such as sociology. Giddens 1984, on structuration theory, refers frequently to time geography, though the author is not convinced about time geography’s method for handling the time dimension. Carlstein, et al. 1978 (cited under International Diffusion of Time Geography), combines time geography and social theory. Asplund 1983 uses time geography to illuminate the intricate and often hidden relations between the individual and society. Many PhD theses in sociology also utilize time geography as an analytical tool. Schwanen 2007 suggest that time geography take inspiration from social theory, integrating it with actor-network theory. In the late 1970s, Hägerstrand and Buttimer collaborated in the Dialogue Project, which videotaped interviews of university professors on their knowledge journeys, scientific endeavors, and life experiences (see Buttimer 1993). They were interested not only in their professional life, but also in their life as a whole. This was an attempt to include the subjective in time-geographic biographies. Though no one doubts the power of its conceptual framework, time geography is still criticized. Much time-geographic research has an analytical, methodological, or empirical touch, but the philosophical groundings of time geography are less elaborated. Baker 1979 criticizes time geography for ignoring power and for equating spatial organization with geography. Thrift and Pred 1981 debates these points, especially the latter. According to Thrift and Pred, the time-geographic notation system is sometimes understood as the entirety of the time-geographic approach. Humanistic geographers agreed with this line of argument, critiquing time geography for not considering individual’s subjective world of meaning (in Hägerstrand 2006, p. xi, Buttimer calls the individual path “a dance macabre”). Hägerstrand himself called his early thinking reducationist in the context of efforts to integrate time geography and humanistic geography. In the wake of the ICT explosion, time geography has also been criticized for not adding the virtual world into its notation system (see Miller 2005, Couclelis 2009 and Shaw and Yu 2009, all cited under Communication and New Technologies). Rose 1993 points out the missing female experience in the time-geographic research, which the feminist geographer characterizes as a form of “social science masculinity” (p. 40). Though this piece is often cited as a critique of time geography, Rose wrote in the same book that “time geography shares the feminist interest in the quotidian paths traced by people, and again like feminism, links such paths, by thinking about constraints, to the larger structures of society” (p. 18). She refers to Miller 1982 (under International Diffusion of Time Geography), which studied the conditions for women’s mobility in changing American society. Palm and Pred 1974 (under Time Geography and Everyday Life), Pred 1981 (under International Diffusion of Time Geography), Friberg 1990, Kwan 1998 and Kwan 1999 (under Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Global Positioning System (GPS)), and Kwan 2000 (under Mobility and Transportation Studies) focus on gender in studies of daily mobility. Scholten, et al. 2012 (under Time Geography and Everyday Life), shows that time geography provides “gender studies with a close, empathic and micro-levelled interventional approach that makes obstacles and constraints due to spatio-temporal conditions visible and thereby changeable” (p 584).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Asplund, Johan. Tid, rum, individ och kollektiv. Kontenta. Stockholm: Liber Förlag, 1983.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Links social-psychological thinking with the time-geographic approach for the first time. Focuses on the relations between the individual, collective, and societal, and presents several intricate examples of power relations.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Baker, Alan. “Historical Geography—A New Beginning?” Progress in Human Geography 3 (1979): 560–570.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Criticizes time geography for equating spatial organization with geography, and for failing to take human agency into consideration. Underlines the role of ideology in historical geography, concluding that historical geographers should adopt a Marxian humanism to make a better history and geography.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Buttimer, Anne. Geography and the Human Spirit. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 1993.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Analysis of the interviews in the Dialogue Project. Concludes that three main themes characterize the development of an individual’s professional thinking: meaning (vocational skills), metaphor (cognitive style) and milieu (issues of public interest raised by researchers).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Dialogue Project. Lund: University Library Archive, Lund University, 1977–1985.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Designed and performed by Torsten Hägerstrand and Anne Buttimer, who conducted more than 150 interviews with influential university professors, aiming at dismantling the inspiration behind their creative scientific works. The videotaped interviews are digitalized.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Friberg, Tora. “Kvinnors vardag: Om kvinnors arbete och liv. Anpassningsstrategier i tid och rum.” PhD diss. Lund University Press, 1990.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Everyday life is regarded as the driving force for societal change, and in this perspective the position and conditions for women in the Swedish society are explored, combining time geography with life-form theory. Concludes women are still behind men in the labor market, in spite of efforts to nurture gender equality.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Giddens, Anthony. The Constitution of Society: Outline of the Theory of Structuration. Cambridge, UK: Polity, 1984.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                              In the chapter on time, space, and regionalization, there are several references to time geography as one of the important inspiration sources for structuration theory. Presents an alternative way to visualize movements in time and space. This book is probably the main source to acquaint researchers outside geography with time geography.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Hägerstrand, Torsten. “Foreword.” In By Northern Lights: On the Making of Geography in Sweden. Edited by A. Buttimer and T. Mels, xi–xiv. Ashgate Publishing Group, 2006.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hägerstrand elaborates on his struggle to integrate the physical and human branches of geography, and responds to Buttimer’s critique of his writings.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Rose, Gillian. Feminism and Geography: The Limits of Geographical Knowledge. Cambridge, UK: Polity, 1993.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Criticizes time geography for not overtly taking a gender perspective. This book has been influential and is frequently referenced as a major critique of time geography. However, time geography is also recognized for its potential for gender analyses here.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Scholten, Christina, Tora Friberg, and Annika Sandén. “Re-Reading Time-Geography from a Gender Perspective: Examples from Gendered Mobility.” Tijdschrift voor economische en sociale geografie 103.5 (2012): 584–600.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9663.2012.00717.xSave Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Time-geographic tools are used in to collaboration with social theory, showing how an interventional approach reveals obstacles and constraints in time-space conditions. Analyzes daily struggles to solve coupling problems in the era of mobility from a gender perspective.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Schwanen, Tim. “Matter(s) of Interest: Artefacts, Spacing and Timing.” Geografiska Annaler: Series B, Human Geography 89.1 (2007): 9–22.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-0467.2007.00236.xSave Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      For analyzing artifacts and their space-time relations, a heterogeneous time geography is suggested. It leans upon a combination of the time-geographical approach and the actor-network approach, introducing uncertainty and novelty in existing orders.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Thrift, Nigel, and Allan Pred. “Time-Geography: A New Beginning.” Progress in Human Geography 5 (June 1981): 277–286.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1177/030913258100500209Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        An answer to the critique of Baker 1979. Shows how to conceive the points criticized from a deeper time-geographic perspective.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Towards the Future

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The future of time geography is in the minds and hands of the researchers utilizing its concepts and methods. While some researchers claim that time geography is an outdated approach that does not deliver new concepts and theoretical advances, others insist that time geography is a vivid approach, fruitful for thinking about human resource use on an overtaxed planet. There are several examples of what might be the future directions of time geography, like the ecological or topo-ecological take, emphasize on peoples’ everyday emotions and experiences, fragmentation of people’s daily projects, and the availability of big data. Hägerstrand 1974 (cited under Foundational Works: Torsten Hägerstrand) argues that time geography makes it easier to analytically investigate phenomena without the need for much empirical work. Big data and algorithm-based research now offers possibilities to realize this idea, though Kwan 2016, like Schwanen 2016 (cited under ICT-Based Technology and Data-Driven Time Geography), states that this might lead to knowledge that is more algorithmic than the data itself. Schwanen 2016 (cited under ICT-Based Technology and Data-Driven Time Geography) points out that this is a huge development for information and visualization science, although urging caution when using big data in social science. Alexander, et al. 2011 discusses the fragmentation of everyday activities in modern society resulting from new ICT-devices. Several disciplines in health research, such as psychiatry, occupational therapy, and physiotherapy, as well as human geography and social work, draw on central time-geographic concepts and connect different contexts in people’s daily life to personal experience and emotions. Dijst 2014 (under Promoting Health and Well-Being) advocates a relational time geography that integrates different aspects of daily life. Wang, et al. 2012 (under International Diffusion of Time Geography), is strongly inspired by time geography, shedding new light on coupling restrictions, division of labor in households, and the use of urban spaces by people with different resources in rapidly transitioning economies like modern China’s. Hägerstrand 2004 points out that time geography cannot yet adequately conceptualize the disparate perspectives of nature and society in human life. This reflects a larger issue in geography as a whole: human and physical geography are very seldom in correspondence with each other. Climate change and overuse of limited resources makes such communication essential. Hägerstrand 2004 suggests the idea of topoecology, a combination of the material world, the world of ideas, and the cultural world, in order make Earth a sustainable habitat. Hägerstrand’s final book, Hägerstrand 2009 (cited under Foundational Works: Torsten Hägerstrand), underlines the importance of such an ecological perspective in research, insisting that time-geographic thinking, methods, and concepts are important for mastering the problems arising from the rapid urbanization, increasing inequality of income and health, population growth, and the increasing divide between everyday lives and the processes providing food, shelter, clothes, transportation, and information. Air pollution is one ecological problem caused by human production, transportation and consumption of resources to make a living. The urgent need for reduction of urban emissions lends itself to time-geographic studies of how exposure to polluted air influences people’s health in the course of the day, based on various living, working, and daily travel patterns. Time geography is a powerful approach for moving society in a sustainable direction.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Alexander, Bayarma, Christa Hubers, Tim Schwanen, Martin Dijst, and Dick Ettema. “Anything, Anywhere, Anytime? Developing Indicators to Assess the Spatial and Temporal Fragmentation of Activities.” Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 38 (2011): 678–705.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1068/b35132Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Weakened associations between activity, time, and place caused by ICT make activities appear as fragments. The authors develop ways to measure activity fragmentation and apply them to paid work. The results indicate multiple facets of activity fragmentation, and also a limited spatial activity fragmentation.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Hägerstrand, Torsten. “The Two Vistas.” Geografiska Annaler: Series B, Human Geography 86.4 (2004): 315–323.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1111/j.0435-3684.2004.00170.xSave Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            From historic philosophical arguments, Hägerstrand identifies a gap in the scientific endeavor that concerns the fact that humans live both of and together with other species. He proposes the concept of topoecology as a guide sustainability.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Kwan, Mei-Po. “Algorithmic Geographies: Big Data, Algorithmic Uncertainty, and the Production of Geographic Knowledge.” Annals of the American Association of Geographers 106.2 (2016): 274–282.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Big data has brought algorithms into geography, especially regarding mobility. Since algorithms influence results, algorithm-driven geography is suggested instead of data-driven geography. Calls for critical reflection when it comes to knowledge production, as well as algorithms and big data.

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