Chinese Studies Chinese Nationalism
by
James Leibold
  • LAST MODIFIED: 26 April 2018
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199920082-0146

Introduction

Nationalism is an analytical chameleon that belies a range of communal cleavages (spatial, class, ethnic, kinship, and other competing identities) that have long disrupted an enduring sense of “Chineseness.” As a result, scholarship on this protean phenomenon is both diverse and extensive. Generally speaking, we can identify five reasonably distinct approaches to the study of Chinese nationalism: first, there is the statist narrative of national becoming that is taught in Chinese schools today. This is a linear, progressive story of national unfolding, with the Chinese nation enduring the “century of humiliation” at the hands of the West before reemerging under the Chinese Communist Party. Second, following the development of Chinese studies as a distinct, multidisciplinary field of study in the West, scholars started to question China’s “failure to response to the West” and how the “Chinese worldview” prevented the timely development of nationalism in China. The influential “culturalism-to-nationalism” paradigm led scholars to chart the vicissitudes and tardy development of Chinese nationalism well into the 1980s. Third, during the post-Mao “reform and opening up” period, scholars informed by postmodern and cultural studies theory questioned the narrative of a single, linear path of Chinese national development; instead, they sought to “deconstruct the nation” by exploring alternative national forms while offering critical perspectives on the statist narrative. Today scholars are increasingly interested in the “fragments of the nation” and the processes of writing and performing the nation. Fourth, beginning in the early 2000s, international relations theory developed alongside the conservative turn of “new nationalism” in post-1989 China. Here scholars probe nationalist ideologies and sentiments to understand China’s actions on the global stage. Finally, building on these previous works, scholars continue to explore different shades of the nationalist palette in China, uncovering the complex ways nationalism (as a fluid basket of ideas, ideologies, and sentiments) becomes intertwined with a range of diverse issues in contemporary Chinese society, from gender inequality to prehistoric archeology. In what follows, I adopt an intentionally broad purview of the study of nationalism in China, one that transcends the orthodox analysis of an undifferentiated “Chinese nation” or “Chinese people” to reveal the unstable national forms and identities that frequently complicate our understanding of “Chinese nationalism.” My focus is chiefly on the English language literature, with the inclusion of some major Chinese language works. In sum, this entry introduces both the more orthodox scholarship on Chinese nationalism as well as the multiple nationalisms that intersect with other identities and subject positions in modern China.

Essential Starting Points

The dynamic nature of Chinese nationalism requires diverse points of entry. The following works are excellent points of departure, yet mere launching pads for penetrating the different lines of inquiry that scholars of modern Chinese nationalism have pursued. The three best book-lengthen studies of the emergence of nationalism in modern China are Harrison 2001, Zhao 2004, and Zheng 1999, with Harrison exploring the early history of Chinese nation-building while Zhao and Zheng probe Chinese nationalism from the perspective of political science and international studies respectively. Li 1981 contains a wonderful collection of Chinese language essays on turn-of-the-century nationalist figures, such as Sun Yat-sen and Liang Qichao, whose ideas continue to inform nationalist thought today. The diverse approaches of the Dittmer and Kim 1993 and Unger 1996 edited volumes underscore some of the divergent approaches to the study of modern Chinese nationalism. Most of the essays in Dittmer and Kim, particularly the introduction and conclusion, take the existence and singularity of the Chinese nation for granted and focus on state-defined nationalism while the essays in the Unger volume seek to “deconstruct the nation” by uncovering its narrativization in daily politics and how this process forecloses alternative formations. The collection of essays in Carlson, et al. 2016 pushes the study of Chinese nationalism even further afield, calling for less focus on high-level nationalist politics and more on the processes and categories of national identity formation. Finally, Liu 2006 offers a sharp critique of “hyper-nationalism” on the Chinese mainland today, and how the Party-state manipulates nationalist sentiment to stay in power.

  • Carlson, Allen, Anna Costa, Prasenjit Duara, et al. “Nations and Nationalism roundtable discussion on Chinese nationalism and national identity.” Nations and Nationalism 22.3 (2016): 415–446.

    DOI: 10.1111/nana.12232Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    An excellent collection of short essays that emerged out of a debate between Allen Carlson and Anna Costa over whether collective political identities in China are best studied under the conceptual framework of “nationalism” or “national identity,” with contributions and original insight by some of the leading scholars of Chinese nationalism today.

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    • Dittmer, Lowell, and Samuel S. Kim. China’s Quest for National Identity. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1993.

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      This disparate collection of essays by political scientists marks the reemergence of nationalism as a key topic of study in the post-Mao period. Yet the chiefly functionalist approach adopted by its authors, where Chinese identity is depicted as both unitary and linear, contrasts sharply with the deconstructivists approach adopted by Duara 1996 (cited under Competing Terms for the Nation) and many of the authors in Unger 1996.

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      • Harrison, Henrietta. China: Inventing the Nation. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.

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        An essential staring points for the study of modern Chinese nationalism. Building on Harrison 2000 (cited under Republican Period), this book argues (à la Benedict Anderson’s “imagined communities” thesis) that the nation was “invented” through various state- and nation-building processes in early 20th century China, and in a fashion that was not too dissimilar to European nations.

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        • Li Guoqi 李國祁, ed. Jindai Zhongguo sixiang renwu lun minzuzhuyi (近代中國思想人物論: 民族主義). Taibei: Shibao wenhua chuban shiye youxian gongsi, 1981.

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          Arguably the single best collection of Chinese language essays on the history of nationalist thought and the emergence of modern Chinese nationalism.

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          • Liu Xiaobo 刘晓波. Dan ren du jian: Zhongguo minzuzhuyi pipan (单刃毒剑—中国民族主义批判). Taibei: Boda chubanshe, 2006.

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            A biting critique of the link between hyper-nationalism and political authoritarianism in the People’s Republic of China today from the 2010 Nobel Peace Prize winner Liu Xiaobo, who recently passed away in prison while servicing a sentence for “inciting subversion of state power.”

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            • Unger, Jonathan, ed. Chinese Nationalism. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1996.

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              One of the best collections of essays on Chinese nationalism, which covers a diverse range of topics from a multidisciplinary set of perspectives. Most of these articles first appeared in the China Journal (formerly the Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs).

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              • Zhao, Suisheng. A Nation-State by Construction: Dynamics of Modern Chinese Nationalism. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2004.

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                Excellent overview of the dynamics of Chinese nationalism across the full sweep of the 20th century, with a useful (albeit overly rigid) typology of four distinct forms of Chinese nationalism—ethnic nationalism, liberal nationalism, state nationalism, and pragmatic nationalism—which leaves out what other authors identify as “popular” or “grassroots” nationalism.

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                • Zheng, Yongnian. Discovering Chinese Nationalism in China: Modernization, Identity, and International Relations. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1999.

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                  A pioneering study of post-Mao Chinese nationalism that explores the tension between official and popular expressions of nationalism in an era when national dignity replaced revolution and class struggle as the raison d’être of the Party-state.

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                  Competing Terms for the Nation

                  The idioms associated with the “nation” (minzu民族) in modern China are both polysemic and ambiguous, and by exploring the etymology and uses of these terms, we can uncover some of the tensions that haunt China’s national form. Fei 1989 provides what is now the orthodox story of multiethnic national becoming, and it should be read alongside the masterful deconstruction of state-defined nationalism in Duara 1996. The Fairbank 1968 volume established an influential framework for thinking about the uniqueness of the “Chinese world order,” while the Levenson 1968 trilogy argues this “all under heaven” (Tianxia 天下) cosmology, or what came to be called “culturalism,” gave way to nationalism following the arrival of Western imperialism in the post-Opium War period. Townsend 1992 offers a sophisticated critique of the conceptual and empirical limitations of this “culturalism-to-nationalism” thesis while proposing an equally influential alternative that highlights the multiplicities of nation and nationalism in modern China. Dirlik 2015 and Matten 2012 deconstruct two key concepts as they relate to expressions of Chinese nationalism—China and minzu—demonstrating the contingent and constructed nature of these two super-signs, and the linguistic-cultural anxiety at the core of modern Chinese identity. Finally, Wang 2003 traces the origins of the minzu neologism back to late 19th century Japan and its view of the nation as a cultural/racial community.

                  • Dirlik, Arif. “Born in Translation: ‘China’ in the Making of ‘Zhongguo.’” Boundary 2, 29 July 2015.

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                    A brilliant deconstruction of the China/Zhongguo 中国 super-sign at the heart of China’s nationalist project, with Dirlik demonstrating not only its recent invention but also its co-constitution with Western ideas of “China.”

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                    • Duara, Prasenjit. Rescuing History from the Nation Questioning Narratives of Modern China. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996.

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                      This theoretically sophisticated and influential book unravels the linearity of a unitary, undifferentiated “Chinese nation” by “recusing” alternative identities and subaltern nationalisms from the linear Enlightenment narrative of a single nation moving seamlessly through time.

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                      • Fairbank, John, ed. The Chinese World Order. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1968.

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                        Argues the imperial Chinese order was based on an assumption of Chinese cultural superiority that is markedly dissimilar from Western notions of competing sovereign states, bounded national territories, and diplomatic equality.

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                        • Fei Xiaotong 费孝通. Zhonghua minzu duoyuan yiti geju (中华民族多元一体格局). Beijing: Zhongyang minzu xueyuan chubanshe, 1989.

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                          Fei’s much discussed and debated “plurality and unity” formulation has shaped the way Chinese elites think about the “Chinese nation” and its diversity today. The book originated as a series of lectures at Hong Kong University in 1988, with an official English translation of the lectures available for free online.

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                          • Levenson, Joseph Richmond. Confucian China and Its Modern Fate: A Trilogy. 3 vols. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1968.

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                            Levenson’s now-classic three-volume study puts forward what is now called the “culturalism-to-nationalism” thesis, which asserts that China’s traditional cosmology of “culturalism” (a sort of universalist civilizational chauvinism) was incompatible and eventual ceded to “modern nationalism” (territorial-bound sovereignty set with a nation-state system) following the arrival of Western imperialism.

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                            • Matten, Marc A. “‘China Is the China of the Chinese’: The Concept of Nation and Its Impact on Political Thinking in Modern China.” Oriens Extremus 51 (2012): 63–106.

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                              Fascinating study of the rich fluidity that undergirds the central concept of minzu (民族) in Chinese nationalism, with Matten offering a detailed “conceptual history” of minzu in late Qing and Republican China by demonstrating its altering relationship to social structures.

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                              • Townsend, James. “Chinese Nationalism.” Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs 27 (1992): 97–130.

                                DOI: 10.2307/2950028Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                A masterful essay on the protean character of Chinese nationalism, which should be one of the starting points for any study of the topic. Townsend offers a sophisticated critique of the “culturalism-to-nationalism” thesis, most clearly articulated in Levenson 1968, and identifies four competing Chinese nations in contemporary China: state nationalism, ethnic nationalism, greater China nationalism, and diasporic nationalism.

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                                • Wang Ke 王柯. “‘Minzu’ yige laizi riben de wuhui” (“民族”,一个来自日本的误会). Ershiyi Shiji二十一世纪, 6 (2003): 73–83.

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                                  A meticulously researched etymology of minzu (民族) that traces the term back to late 19th-century Japan and Japanese interpretations of German romantic nationalism. Wang asserts that this definition of nationalism as a cultural community rooted in blood has foreclosed the development of civic nationalism in 20th-century China.

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                                  Nationalist Tracts

                                  Nationalist tracts and films are excellent primary sources for exploring Chinese nationalism, with many of them now appearing in translation. Tsou 1968 (originally published 1903) is a classic statement of late Qing anti-Manchuism, which continues to inspire present-day Han nationalist (see Han Majority Nationalism), and stands in marked contrast to Liang 1941 (originally published 1901) and Liang’s more inclusive narrative of national unfolding that incorporates the Manchus and other non-Han peoples. Chiang and Jaffe 1947 and Mao 1961 (originally published 1939) offer two contrasting narratives of nation-becoming that share much in common but also offer important points of contrast worth exploring. Both Chiang Kai-shek and Mao Zedong were heavily influenced by Sun Yat-sen, China’s so-called “national father” (guofu 国父), with his six lectures on nationalism (see Sun, et al. 1927) establishing many of the categories and narratives of official state nationalism today. Finally, Song 1996 and Song 2009 are two edited volumes that reflect the pugnacious “new nationalism” of the post-1989 period, which contrasts sharply with the Tsui 1988 CCTV documentary River Elegy (Heshang 河殇) and thus provides an excellent comparison between the pro-West “liberal nationalism” of the 1980s and the more conservative and truculent nationalism of the post-1989 period.

                                  • Chiang, Kai-shek, and Philip J. Jaffe. China’s Destiny and Chinese Economic Theory. New York: Roy, 1947.

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                                    This translation of Chiang’s 1943 political tract, Zhongguo zhi mingyun (中国之命运), includes a useful introduction by journalist Philip Jaffe. The first chapter, “The Growth and Development of the Zhonghua minzu,” puts forward a narrative of national becoming that is worth comparing with Fei 1989 (cited under Competing Terms for the Nation).

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                                    • Liang Qichao 梁启超. “Zhonggguoshi xulun” (中国史叙论). In Yinbinshi heji (饮冰室合集). Vol. 9. By Qichao Liang, 1–32. Shanghai: Zhonghua shuju, 1941.

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                                      Contends Chinese history is the story of the interaction, intermarriage, and fusion of the magnanimous, “backbone” Han race with numerous other minority races active throughout the imperial period.

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                                      • Mao, Zedong. “The Chinese Revolution and the Chinese Communist Party.” In Selected Works of Mao Tse-Tung. Vol. 2. Peking, China: Foreign Languages Press, 1961.

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                                        One of the earliest nationalist essays issued by Mao and the Chinese Communist Party; this 1939 narrative seeks to appropriate imperial Chinese history for the Communist Party of China’s own nation-building project. Available online.

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                                        • Song Qiang 宋晓军. Zhongguo Keyi Shuo Bu: Lengzhanhou Shidai de Zhengzhi Yu Qinggan Jueze (中国可以说不—冷战后时代的政治与情感抉择). Beijing: Zhongguo wenlian chuban gongsi, 1996.

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                                          This now-classic post-1989, anti-Western nationalist tract was modeled on the 1989 essay “The Japan that Can Say No” by Shintaro Ishihara. Representative of the “angry youth” (fenqin 愤青) nationalism and its call for a more assertive Chinese foreign and domestic policy. A pdf of the book is available online.

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                                          • Song Qiang 宋晓军. Zhongguo Bu Gaoxing: Da Shidai Da Mubiao Ji Women de Neiyou Waihuan (中国不高兴:大时代、大目标及我们的内忧外患). Nanjing, China: Jiangsu renmin chubanshe, 2009.

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                                            This follow-up volume to Song 1996 is filled with similar emotive rants and calls for a more assertive and confident China which taps into the anti-Western sentiment leading up to China’s 2008 Olympic movement. A pdf of the book is available online.

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                                            • Sun, Yat-sen, Frank W. Price, and L. T. Chen. San min chu i = The three principles of the people. Shanghai: China Committee, Institute of Pacific Relations, 1927.

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                                              Best English translation of Sun Yat-sen’s lectures on “nationalism” (minzuzhuyi 民族主义), which laid the foundations for the Communist Party of China and Kuomintang nation-building projects and still influences the way Chinese state leaders (and many intellectuals) think and talk about the nation.

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                                              • Tsou, Jung (Zou Rong 鄒容). The Revolutionary Army: A Chinese Nationalist Tract of 1903. Translated by John Lust. The Hague: Mouton, 1968.

                                                DOI: 10.1515/9783111540894Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                Lust provides an erudite translation of Zou Rong’s 1903 call for Han nationalism and the overthrow of the Manchu race. The translation is accompanied by the original Chinese text.

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                                                • Tsui, Mi Ling, dir. River Elegy (Heshang 河殇) [Film]. Central China Television, 1988.

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                                                  Arguable one of the most influential documentary films of post-Mao China due to the controversy it sparked and the way in helped to ignite the 1989 Tiananmen student-led demonstrations. The film offers a scathing critic of Chinese culture and tradition, in a way that stands in marked contrasts to the veneration of traditional Chinese culture in post-1989 “angry youth” nationalism.

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                                                  History of Chinese Nationalism

                                                  Much of the scholarship on nationalism in China focuses on its origins and historical development. While some push the origins well back into the Imperial Period (also see Fei 1989, cited under Competing Terms for the Nation), most of the Anglophone scholarship focuses on the modern origins and tardy development of Chinese nationalism during the late Qing, Republican and early People’s Republic of China periods. Some of this scholarship is now dated yet remains foundational to the study of China’s long 20th century.

                                                  Imperial Period

                                                  Scholars of China continue to debate the historical origins of Chinese nationalism. The influential “culturalism-to-nationalism” thesis (see Levenson 1968; Townsend 1992, both cited under Competing Terms for the Nation) places the birth of Chinese nationalism with anti-Qing racialism discussed in Gasster 1969 and Wong 1989, as Chinese sinocentrism crumbled under the challenge of Western imperialism. Depending on one’s concept of nationalism (here the classic debate between Ernest Gellner and Anthony D. Smith on the origins of nationalism in the West is highly relevant), some research, such as Tillman 1979 (see also Leibold 2007, cited under Republican Period), explores the premodern origins of Chinese nationalism, or at least some enduring sense of “Chineseness” throughout the imperial period. Ho 1998 (see also Fei 1989, cited under Competing Terms for the Nation) argues the process of “sinicization” (making one Chinese) has long been the key driver and marker of Chinese nationalism. Yet more recent scholarship on the Manchu Qing dynasty, as represented by Rawski 1996, Crossley 1999, and Elliott 2001, questions the inevitability and omnidirectional assumption of sinicization, suggesting instead a far more dynamic, multilayered understanding of the Chinese nation and the emergence of modern Chinese nationalism. Zhao 2006 offers a sophisticated critique of this “new Qing history” position, while others in China, as discussed in Jenne 2015, have tagged the new Qing historians “neo-imperialists” for questioning the durability of Chinese identity. Finally, Karl 2002 reminds us of the “transnational connections” that also shaped the emergence of modern Chinese nationalism.

                                                  • Crossley, Pamela Kyle. A Translucent Mirror History and Identity in Qing Imperial Ideology. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999.

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                                                    Crossley expertly demonstrates the central role of the Qing emperors in fashioning the origins and contestability of modern Chinese national, ethnic, and cultural identities. The Qing empire, she convincingly argues, fashioned the political and cultural imprimatur of the 20th-century, multiethnic nation-state in China.

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                                                    • Gasster, Michael. Chinese Intellectuals and the Revolution of 1911: The Birth of Modern Chinese Radicalism. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1969.

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                                                      Remains an unrivaled history of late Qing nationalism, in the guise of “anti-Manchuism,” as it emerged among exile Chinese intellectuals during the last decade of the Qing dynasty.

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                                                      • Ho, Ping-ti. “In Defense of Sinicization: A Rebuttal of Evelyn Rawski’s ‘Reenvisioning the Qing.’” Journal of Asian Studies 57.1 (1998): 123–155.

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                                                        Ho’s feisty reply to Rawski 1996. The “sinicization thesis” is crucial to those like Ho Ping-ti and Fei 1989 (cited under Competing Terms for the Nation) who insist on the premodern roots of the Chinese nation.

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                                                        • Jenne, Jeremiah. “Chinese Academy of Social Sciences Throwing Shade at the New Qing History.” Jottings from the Granite Studio, 23 April 2015.

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                                                          A thoughtful analysis of Li Zhiting’s blindside attack on the new Qing historians that underscores many elements of popular nationalist sentiment in contemporary China.

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                                                          • Karl, Rebecca E. Staging the World: Chinese Nationalism at the Turn of the Twentieth Century. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2002.

                                                            DOI: 10.1215/9780822383529Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                            Seeks to place the development of Chinese nationalism within a global/spatial perspective by exploring the responses of Chinese intellectuals to inequalities in other colonial places/spaces like Poland, the Philippines, and Turkey during the late Qing dynasty.

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                                                            • Mark C. Elliott. The Manchu Way: The Eight Banners and Ethnic Identity in Late Imperial China. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2001.

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                                                              Using Manchu and Chinese language sources, Elliott adroitly highlights the continuing importance of Manchu identity to Qing rulers and thereby calls into question the “sinicization thesis.”

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                                                              • Rawski, Evelyn S. “Presidential Address: Reenvisioning the Qing: The Significance of the Qing Period in Chinese History.” Journal of Asian Studies 55.4 (1996): 829–850.

                                                                DOI: 10.2307/2646525Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                In this highly influential essay, Rawski lays the foundations for what is now called “new Qing history” by questioning many of the assumptions undergirding the “sinicization thesis.” See also the Ho 1998 rebuttal.

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                                                                • Tillman, Hoyt Cleveland. “Proto-Nationalism in Twelfth-Century China? The Case of Ch’en Liang.” Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 39.2 (1979): 403–428.

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                                                                  Complicates the “culturalism-to-nationalism” thesis in Levenson 1968 (cited under Competing Terms for the Nation) by suggesting the “Song loyalism” of Chen Liang can be considered a form of “proto-nationalism,” or even “romantic nationalism” in the vein of Johann Gottfried Herder.

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                                                                  • Wong, Young-tsu. Search for Modern Nationalism: Zhang Binglin and Revolutionary China, 1869–1936. New York: Oxford University Press, 1989.

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                                                                    An authoritative study of one of modern China’s most influential yet poorly understood nationalist thinkers Zhang Binglin.

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                                                                    • Zhao, Gang. “Reinventing China: Imperial Qing Ideology and the Rise of Modern Chinese National Identity in the Early Twentieth Century.” Modern China 32.1 (2006): 3–30.

                                                                      DOI: 10.1177/0097700405282349Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                      This article offers a thoughtful critique of the “new Qing history approach”—as represented by Rawski 1996, Crossley 1999, and Elliott 2001—and convincingly demonstrates the Qing’s states identification (at least partially) with the idea of “China” throughout its long reign.

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                                                                      Republican Period

                                                                      The collapse of the Qing dynasty in 1911 left a weak and divided Republican state, where nationalist sentiment continued to develop in response to foreign encroachment, as the studies by Schrecker 1971 and Mitter 2013 highlight. Yet, the New Culture Movement and increased global contacts sparked an intellectual dynamism that was largely unprecedented in Chinese history and spawned a range of competing ideologies (from anarchism to liberalism). As Fitzgerald 1995 and Fitzgerald 1996 convincingly demonstrate, these ideologies came to inform and complicate nationalist discourses and practices, resulting in the elusive (and ongoing) search for a single national identity. Yet, at the same time, many of the new rituals and symbols of the Republican state, such as the solar calendar and the Western suit, slowly redefined and even reinvented the meaning and boundaries of Chineseness, as wonderfully illustrated in Harrison 2000. Language and history are at the heart of Chinese identity, with DeFrancis 1950 unpacking the tension between the desire for a single national written and spoken language and the preservation of regional patois. Schneider 1971 demonstrates how one of China’s most influential and iconoclastic thinkers, Gu Jiegang, struggled to balance the modern discipline of history with the writing of national history. Finally, the non-Han minorities and vast frontier territories of the Qing empire served as yet another foil against which the boundaries, meanings, and practices of Chinese nationalism were constructed, as highlighted in Leibold 2007.

                                                                      • DeFrancis, John. Nationalism and Language Reform in China. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1950.

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                                                                        A now-classic yet still unrivaled study of Chinese language reform and standardization work during the Republican period and the close mediation between language and national identity in China. Forthcoming books by Jing Tsu and Janet Chan will help update this important part of the nationalist puzzle.

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                                                                        • Fitzgerald, John. “The Nationless State: The Search for a Nation in Modern Chinese Nationalism.” Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs 33 (1995): 75–104.

                                                                          DOI: 10.2307/2950089Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                          This sharp deconstruction of nationalist historiography demonstrates the contradictory strains of nationalism at play in Republican China.

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                                                                          • Fitzgerald, John. Awakening China: Politics, Culture, and Class in the Nationalist Revolution. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1996.

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                                                                            A masterful and eclectic study of the prickly nexus between the individual citizen, political parties, and the party-state during the nation-building processes of post-imperial China.

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                                                                            • Harrison, Henrietta. The Making of the Republican Citizen: Political Ceremonies and Symbols in China. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

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                                                                              A wonderfully rich account of nation- and citizenship-building during the early Republican period that examines everyday rituals and symbols like the national flag, solar calendar, and different types of modern fashion.

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                                                                              • Leibold, James. Reconfiguring Chinese Nationalism: How the Qing Frontier and Its Indigenes Became Chinese. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007.

                                                                                DOI: 10.1007/978-1-137-09884-9Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                Explores how the inner Asian frontiers and its ethnic indigenes shaped the contours and meaning of modern Chinese identity while also arguing that the Communist Party of China and Kuomintang shared a common desire to incorporate the Qing frontier into the new Chinese nation-state.

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                                                                                • Mitter, Rana. China’s War with Japan, 1937–1945: The Struggle for Survival. London: Allen Lane, 2013.

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                                                                                  A comprehensive history of the bloody Japanese invasion of China and how it shaped the development of Chinese nationalist sentiment.

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                                                                                  • Schneider, Laurence A. Ku Chieh-kang and China’s New History: Nationalism and the Quest for Alternative Traditions. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1971.

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                                                                                    A clever and meticulously researched biography of China’s most influential historians Gu Jiegang.

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                                                                                    • Schrecker, John E. Imperialism and Chinese Nationalism: Germany in Shantung. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1971.

                                                                                      DOI: 10.4159/harvard.9780674865785Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                      This is a classic study of the development of nationalist thought (including the idea of territorial sovereignty) among late Qing and early Republican intellectuals as it relates to Germany’s concessions in Shandong province.

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                                                                                      Maoist Period

                                                                                      Despite appeals to international socialism, the Communist Party of China (CCP) under the leadership of Mao Zedong was nationalist first and socialist second. In a comparative study of China and Japan, Hoston 1994 convincingly demonstrates how Marxism-Leninism was adapted to accommodate nationalist sentiments in both countries. In a similar vein, Garver 1988 painstakingly documents the bitter rivalry in Sino–Soviet relations that resulted in Mao’s acrimonious split with Khrushchev. One of the seminal debates among historians of the early CCP pivots around the source of the Party’s legitimacy. Johnson 1962 identities anti-Japanese nationalism as the Party’s key draw card; yet in the wake of the Vietnam War and the “New Left” turn in the American academy, Selden 1971 questions the Johnson thesis and argues for the primacy of socioeconomic reforms during the Yan’an period, claiming the Party’s revolutionary agenda rather than its nationalist credentials best explains its appeal among ordinary peasants. The Zheng 1959 and Wang 1965 films represent two vivid examples of CCP-defined nationalism, the former a dramatic retelling of the Opium War and the latter the now-classic 1964 revolutionary opera the East is Red (东方红). Finally, Barmé 1996 traces the collapse and nostalgic reemergence of the cult of Mao in reform-era China, with Mao’s image becoming a free floating signifier for both cultural critiques and crude expressions of patriotism.

                                                                                      • Barmé, Geremie. Shades of Mao: The Posthumous Cult of the Great Leader. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1996.

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                                                                                        A probing and eclectic analysis of the cult of Mao and its legacy in reform-era China.

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                                                                                        • Garver, John W. Chinese–Soviet Relations, 1937–1945 the Diplomacy of Chinese Nationalism. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988.

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                                                                                          By exploring the history of Sino-Soviet relations during the late Republican period, Graver shatters the myth of pan-socialist solidarity and highlights the role of nationalist sentiments in the rise of the CCP.

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                                                                                          • Hoston, Germaine A. The State, Identity, and the National Question in China and Japan. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1994.

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                                                                                            A smart exploration of the tension between an internationalist socialist/Marxist ideology and national identity, which demonstrates how the “national question” in Europe was sinicized in both China and Japan.

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                                                                                            • Johnson, Chalmers. Peasant Nationalism and Communist Power: The Emergence of Revolutionary China, 1937–1945. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1962.

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                                                                                              The author argues the CCP’s anti-Japanese nationalism, rather than its agenda for socioeconomic revolution, most significantly contributed to the CCP’s victory over the Nationalist during the 1940s.

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                                                                                              • Selden, Mark. The Yenan Way in Revolutionary China. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1971.

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                                                                                                The author argues mass mobilization of formerly marginalized peasants and a progressive agenda for socio-economic reform, what he dubs “the Yan’an way,” propelled the CCP to victory over their Kuomintang rivals.

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                                                                                                • Wang Ping 王苹. Dongfang hong (东方红). Beijing: August First Film Studio, 1965.

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                                                                                                  This revolutionary opera was first performed in the Great Hall of the People in Beijing in 1964 and tells the heroic tale of China’s reemergence from the ashes of foreign imperialism under the leadership of Mao Zedong and the Chinese Communist Party.

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                                                                                                  • Zheng Junli 郑君里, dir. Lin Zexu (林则徐) [Film]. Beijing: Haiyen Film Studio, 1959.

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                                                                                                    In this film Lin Zexue and the Chinese peasantry are recast as heroic figures in their struggle to stand up to the opium-peddling British foreign imperialist and the corrupt compradors behind the decaying Qing court.

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                                                                                                    Reform Period

                                                                                                    Academic scholarship and interest in Chinese nationalism blossomed in the post-1989 period, as patriotism and the nation replaced class and social revolution as the chief source of Communist Party of China legitimacy. Barmé 1995 was one of the first works to explore anti-foreign nationalism, with Chang 2001 and Gries 2004 producing two highly cited books on the “wounded” or “victim” nationalism that emerged during the 1990s in China. Callahan 2010 brings to bear new theories from a range of different disciplines to analyze how the sentiment of “national humiliation” (guochi国耻) is mobilized across Chinese society, while Fong 2011 explores the cultural nationalism of transnational Chinese students. Finally, Guo 2004, Hughes 2006, and Leibold 2010 explore different sources of tension in contemporary expressions of Chinese nationalism: between cultural and state nationalism in Guo, globalization and nationalism in Hughes, and different ethnic formulas for “baking the national cake” in Leibold.

                                                                                                    • Barmé, Geremie. “To Screw Foreigners Is Patriotic: China’s Avant Garde Nationalists.” China Journal 34 (1995): 209–234.

                                                                                                      DOI: 10.2307/2950138Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                      A sophisticated look at the rise of popular, anti-Western nationalism during the 1990s in response to the crisis of confidence following the collapse of Maoism and the failed 1989 democracy movement. Barmé foresees the emergence of “the patriotic consensus” that increasingly functions as “a crucial element in the coherence of the otherwise increasingly fragmented Chinese world.”

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                                                                                                      • Callahan, William A. China: The Pessoptimist Nation. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010.

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                                                                                                        Situated at the intersections of international relations theory and cultural studies/sociology, Callahan offers an eclectic assessment of Chinese nationalism in the post-Mao period, arguing the “structures of feelings,” chiefly inferiority and superiority, shape the way China views its place in the modern world and its actions on the global stage.

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                                                                                                        • Chang, Maria Hsia. Return of the Dragon: China’s Wounded Nationalism. Boulder, CO: Westview, 2001.

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                                                                                                          A laconic and polemical overview of the historical development and contemporary manifestations of China’s “wounded nationalism,” which paints a sobering picture of China’s erratic, expansionist and bellicose tendencies as a modern nation-state.

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                                                                                                          • Fong, Vanessa. Paradise Redefined: Transnational Chinese Students and the Quest for Flexible Citizenship in the Developed World. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2011.

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                                                                                                            Based on a unique data set of longitudinal interviews with Chinese “singletons,” the book offers plenty of insights into the cosmopolitan yet not less nationalist mindset of Chinese post-millennials.

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                                                                                                            • Gries, Peter Hays. China’s New Nationalism: Pride, Politics, and Diplomacy. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004.

                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1525/california/9780520232976.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                              A psychological elucidation on the emotional appeals of “victim nationalism” in reform era China, with close attention paid to popular Chinese responses to the 1999 NATO bombing of the Chinese Embassy in Belgrade.

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                                                                                                              • Guo, Yingjie. Cultural Nationalism in Contemporary China: The Search for National Identity under Reform. New York: Routledge, 2004.

                                                                                                                DOI: 10.4324/9780203300480Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                Explores elite thought during the 1990s, with a particular focus on popular “cultural nationalism,” or ideas related to a shared community of values, myths and memories, which are contrasted with and viewed as in conflict with, the “state nationalism” of the Communist Party of China.

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                                                                                                                • Hughes, Christopher R. Chinese Nationalism in the Global Era. London: Routledge, 2006.

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                                                                                                                  A masterful study of the unresolved tensions between globalization and nationalism in reform-era China through an analysis of key intellectual debates, cultural trends, and policy initiatives.

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                                                                                                                  • Leibold, James. “The Beijing Olympics and China’s Conflicted National Form.” China Journal 63 (2010): 1–24.

                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1086/tcj.63.20749192Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                    Uses China’s 2008 Olympic moment to probe its fragmented national form, identifying three distinct yet overlapping narratives of the nation: Leninist-style multiculturalism, Han ethnocentrism, and Confucian ecumenism.

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                                                                                                                    Nationalism and Its Ethnic/Spatial Fragments

                                                                                                                    What is often unreflectively labeled “Chinese nationalism” is actually a dynamic and unstable basket of identities that do not always align perfectly. In fact, as the following sections highlight, there is a deep vein of scholarship on China that explores the ethnic and spatial components that both undergirds and simultaneously destabilizes Chinese nationalism. Here we encounter a range of competing nationalisms that challenge the official state narrative of inclusive, uncontested national unfolding.

                                                                                                                    Han Majority Nationalism

                                                                                                                    The “Han” and “Chinese” ethnonyms are often used interchangeably, yet the ethno-national identities of the Han majority are yet another latent challenge to state-led Chinese nationalism. As Leibold 2007 (cited under Republican Period) and others demonstrate, Han nationalism (see also Cybernationalism) was present at the birth of the modern nation in the form of anti-Manchuism. Joniak-Lüthi 2015 and Xu 1999 offer contrasting histories of the Han, with the former foregrounding the numerous ethnic fragments that beset the Han community while the latter offers a teleological story of Han becoming, not too dissimilar to Fei 1989 (cited under Competing Terms for the Nation) yet with the Han rather than the Chinese nation as its focus. Mullaney, et al. 2012 seeks to employ the insights of critical white and critical race studies to analyze the Han, highlighting the way Han identity complicates unitary notions of China, Chineseness, and Chinese nationalism. Hsieh 1998 shows how Han majority identity is mobilized differently on Taiwan, while Ebrey 1996 illustrates how surnames are an important yet elastic marker of Han identity with deep roots in imperial Chinese culture. Finally, Barmé 2009 presents the unmediated voice of one troubled Han nationalist who seeks to restore Han power and privilege through the promotion of compulsory education, while Carrico 2017 offers the first ethnographic study of the Han clothing movement (汉服运动).

                                                                                                                    • Barmé, Geremie R. “The Han Supremacist: Sang Ye Interviews Zhai Quan’an.” China Heritage Quarterly 20 (December 2009).

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                                                                                                                      A rambling, and at time incoherent, rant for the revival of Han culture and identity by a vagabond Han nationalist that provides a window into the community of Han supremacists studied by Leibold 2010 (cited under Reform Period) and Leibold 2010 (cited under Cybernationalism).

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                                                                                                                      • Carrico, Kevin. The Great Han: Race, Nationalism, and Tradition in China Today. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2017.

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                                                                                                                        A highly innovative and disturbing window into the “Han clothing movement,” a neo-traditionalist and majority racial nationalist movement that draw people together via online and offline activities that cross national borders.

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                                                                                                                        • Ebrey, Patricia. “Surnames and Han Chinese Identity.” In Negotiating Ethnicities in China and Taiwan. Edited by Melissa Brown, pp. 19–36. Berkeley: Institute of East Asian Studies, University of California-Berkeley, Center for Chinese Studies, 1996.

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                                                                                                                          Fascinating and path-breaking analysis of the role of surnames in fashioning Han identity and nationalism. In contrast to “Chinese culturalism” discussed in Levenson 1968 (cited under Competing Terms for the Nation), Ebrey demonstrates how surnames forge an elastic yet often overlooked “ethnic” boundary to Han/Chinese identity.

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                                                                                                                          • Hsieh, Shih-Chung. “On Three Definitions of Han Ren: Images of the Majority People in Taiwan.” In Making Majorities: Constituting the Nation in Japan, Korea, China, Malaysia, Fiji, Turkey, and the United States. Edited by Dru C. Gladney, pp. 95–105. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1998.

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                                                                                                                            One of the first essays to call for a more critical engagement with majority identities in the construction of narratives of “Chineseness” and “Chinese national identity,” with Hsieh exploring three different representations of the majority “Han Chinese” population on Taiwan.

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                                                                                                                            • Joniak-Lüthi, Agnieszka. The Han: China’s Diverse Majority. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2015.

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                                                                                                                              The first book-lengthen study of the Han majority, which is based on ethnographic field research among Han communities in Xinjiang, Sichuan, Shanghai, and Beijing. In contrast to the reified and teleological Han “snowball” outlined in Xu 1999, Joniak-Luthi lays bare the fluid processes and narratives of “being Han” in modern China.

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                                                                                                                              • Mullaney, Thomas S., James Leibold, Stephane Gros, and Eric Vanden Bussche, eds. Critical Han Studies: The History, Representation, and Identity of China’s Majority. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2012.

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                                                                                                                                Contains a range of innovative essays on the history and contemporary dynamics of Han identity by a multidisciplinary group of young scholars. The volume highlights both the instability and enduring appeal of Han identity and nationalism in modern China.

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                                                                                                                                • Xu Jieshun 徐杰舜. Xueqiu: Han minzu de renleixue fenxi (雪球: 汉民族的人类学分析). Shanghai: Shanghai renmin chubanshe, 1999.

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                                                                                                                                  Xu Jieshun pioneered the academic study of the Han in mainland China, and here he offers a deterministic yet erudite history of the Han minzu’s historical evolution while also highlighting the regional/cultural diversity that it encapsulates.

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                                                                                                                                  Minority Ethno-Nationalism

                                                                                                                                  China’s Han majority does not hold a monopoly on nationalism, rendering any unidimensional or undifferentiated notion of “Chinese nationalism” highly problematic. If majority nationalism (see Han Majority Nationalism) is one challenge to an inclusive state-defined nationalism, minority ethno-nationalism is another problem that has been more extensively studied. Gladney 1991 pioneered the study of the Hui ethnic minority and ethnicity in China more broadly, helping (in part) to inspire the work of others listed here. Mullaney 2011 provides a rich history of the ethnic classification campaign during the 1950s and chronicles how the Party-state actually created the categories for minority ethno-nationalism. Rudelson 1997 and Smith 1996, among many other works, are two excellent introductions to the study of Uyghur and Tibet nationalism respectively. Brown 2004 and Harrison 2007 explore Taiwanese nationalism from different perspectives, while So 2016 provides many insights on incipient Hong Kong nationalism and its unique colonial history. Finally, Barabantseva 2010 brings ethnic minorities together with overseas Chinese (see also Diasporic Nationalism) to highlight the potential inclusiveness of state-led narratives of Chinese nationalism, even if it is often resisted by groups outside the core, urban Han population in mainland China.

                                                                                                                                  • Barabantseva, Elena. Overseas Chinese, Ethnic Minorities, and Nationalism: De-Centering China. London: Routledge, 2010.

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                                                                                                                                    A weighty analysis of various discourses and strategies for incorporating China’s non-Han minorities and overseas diasporic population within the Chinese nation and how these identities are negotiated and at times resisted.

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                                                                                                                                    • Brown, Melissa. Is Taiwan Chinese? The Impact of Culture, Power, and Migration on Changing Identities. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004.

                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1525/california/9780520231818.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                      A probing analysis of the construction of the fluid and multiple identities that sit uncomfortably under the category of “Taiwan” and “Taiwanese national identity.”

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                                                                                                                                      • Gladney, Dru C. Muslim Chinese: Ethnic Nationalism in the People’s Republic. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1991.

                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.2307/j.ctt1tg5gkzSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                        A foundational study of peripheral ethnic nationalism in China, which helped to spawn the subfield of Chinese ethnic minorities studies.

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                                                                                                                                        • Harrison, Mark. Legitimacy, Meaning and Knowledge in the Making of Taiwanese Identity. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007.

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                                                                                                                                          Harrison offers a critical approach to understanding the formation of Taiwan’s identity. He applies contemporary social theory and critical historiography to a wealth of assumed details regarding Taiwanese politics, culture, and society.

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                                                                                                                                          • Mullaney, Thomas. Coming to Terms with the Nation: Ethnic Classification in Modern China. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2011.

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                                                                                                                                            An excellent history of the 1950s “ethnic classification project” (minzu shibie 民族识别) that helps to explain how the People’s Republic of China arrived at the formula of fifty-five ethnic minorities plus one Han majority equals the Chinese nation.

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                                                                                                                                            • Rudelson, Justin. Oasis Identities: Uyghur Nationalism along China’s Silk Road. New York: Columbia University Press, 1997.

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                                                                                                                                              A sophisticated and nuanced study of Uyghur nationalism, which demonstrates how internal divisions (regional, class, profession, etc.) tend to weaken collective Uyghur identity at the same time as Chinese government policies strengthen them.

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                                                                                                                                              • Smith, Warren W. Tibetan Nation: A History of Tibetan Nationalism and Sino-Tibetan Relations. Boulder, CO: Westview, 1996.

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                                                                                                                                                An erudite yet partisan history of the “Tibetan nation,” which seeks to cast China’s long and complicated history of relations with Tibet and its diverse peoples as a story of “foreign imperialist rule.”

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                                                                                                                                                • So, Alvin Y. “The Making of Hong Kong Nationalism.” In Asian Nationalisms Reconsidered. Edited by Jeff Kingston, 135–146. London: Routledge, 2016.

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                                                                                                                                                  The author traces the roots of contemporary Hong Kong nationalism in previous discourses of “localism” and argues that the post-handover influx of mainland Chinese tourists and migrants and rising social inequalities help to explain its emergence over the last decade.

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                                                                                                                                                  Diasporic Nationalism

                                                                                                                                                  People of Chinese heritage living outside “greater China” (mainland China, Hong Kong/Macao, and Taiwan) have traditionally been overlooked in studies of Chinese nationalism despite the important role they have played in both conceptualizing and operationalizing nationalism in 20th-century China, with the Tu 1994 volume one of the first works to demonstrate the importance of these links. Pan 1994 and Kuhn 2008 provide two excellent historical overviews albeit in contrasting styles. Pan’s book is deeply personal and more anecdotal than academic, yet is highly readable and until recently one of the only histories of the Chinese diaspora. Although it is marketed as a textbook, Kuhn’s massive tome is both theoretically sophisticated and comprehensive in its coverage. Like other studies of Chinese nationalism, we are confronted with a range of competing adjectives to describe the shifting affinities of overseas Chinese to their “homeland” and “people.” McKeown 1999 seeks to bring these disparate threads together in the concept of diaspora in a highly cited article in The Journal of Asian Studies. Callahan 2003 and Nyíri, et al. 2010 examine how two parts of the Chinese diaspora (Sino-Thais and overseas Chinese students) react and enact different images of the Chinese nation depending on their local contexts. Ding 2007 and Nyíri, et al. 2010 foreground the role of the Internet in forging what Ding calls a “digital diaspora,” one that contributes to nation-building and China’s evolving “national image” by drawing together spatially fragmented communities online. Finally, the essays gathered together in Ong and Nonini 2003 provide detailed empirical examples, some more accessible than others, of how deterritorialized Chinese subjectivities contribute to the framing of national narratives in modern China.

                                                                                                                                                  • Callahan, William A. “Beyond Cosmopolitanism and Nationalism: Diasporic Chinese and Neo-Nationalism in China and Thailand.” International Organization 57.3 (June 2003): 481–517.

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                                                                                                                                                    An excellent application of McKeown 1999, which calls for a new conceptualization of diasporas; demonstrates how concepts of “cosmopolitanism” and “nationalism” are co-constituted, situationally dynamic, and spatially embedded among the Sino-Thai community.

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                                                                                                                                                    • Ding, Sheng. “Digital Diaspora and National Image Building: A New Perspective on Chinese Diaspora Study in the Age of China’s Rise.” Pacific Affairs 80.4 (2007): 627–648.

                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.5509/2007804627Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                      Explores the implication of what the author terms the “Chinese digital diaspora” on Chinese politics and foreign policy and, in particular, its “national image,” contenting it acts like a “double-edged sword.”

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                                                                                                                                                      • Kuhn, Philip A. Chinese Among Others: Emigration in Modern Times. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2008.

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                                                                                                                                                        Arguably the most comprehensive history of Chinese emigration, with an excellent chapter that fleshes out competing narratives and identities of “Chineseness” and “Chinese nationalism” among China’s diasporic population.

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                                                                                                                                                        • McKeown, Adam. “Conceptualizing Chinese Diasporas, 1842 to 1949.” Journal of Asian Studies 58.2 (May 1999): 306–337.

                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.2307/2659399Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                          Argues the concept of diaspora can help reconceptualize the long history of Chinese emigration by breaking free of nation-based histories that can obscure what McKeown calls “diasporic nationalism.”

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                                                                                                                                                          • Nyíri, Pál, Juan Zhang, and Merriden Varrall. “China’s Cosmopolitan Nationalists: ‘Heroes’ and ‘Traitors’ of the 2008 Olympics.” China Journal 63 (2010): 25–55.

                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1086/tcj.63.20749193Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                            A thoughtful examination of the reaction of overseas Chinese students to China’s “Olympic moment,” which stresses the co-production and performative aspects of “hip nationalism” as these cosmopolitan youths embody and acted out the nation on the Internet.

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                                                                                                                                                            • Ong, Aihwa, and Donald Nonini. Ungrounded Empires: The Cultural Politics of Modern Chinese Transnationalism. London: Routledge, 2003.

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                                                                                                                                                              This volume maps the intersections of cultural politics and global capitalism, drawing on recent ethnographic research to critique the impact of late capitalism’s institutions and practices (flexibility, travel, subcontracting, multiculturalism, mass media, etc.) on transnational Chinese subjectivities.

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                                                                                                                                                              • Pan, Lynn. Sons of the Yellow Emperor: A History of the Chinese Diaspora. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994.

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                                                                                                                                                                In this deeply personal and highly readable history of the Chinese diaspora, Pan stresses the diversity of experiences encountered by Chinese migrants while also foregrounding their enduring sense of “Chineseness.”

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                                                                                                                                                                • Tu, Weiming. The Living Tree: The Changing Meaning of Being Chinese Today. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1994.

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                                                                                                                                                                  A pathbreaking and frequently cited book, which first appeared as a 1991 special issue of Daedalus, that demonstrates how the Chinese diaspora helps to define the shifting meanings and boundaries of “Chineseness.”

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                                                                                                                                                                  Nationalism and Chinese Foreign Policy

                                                                                                                                                                  With the Communist Party of China’s legitimacy now tied up with the safeguarding of Chinese national dignity, the interplay between popular patriotic sentiment and foreign policy actions has become far more complex. Shen 2007 views nationalism as “a safety value” that is often stoked by the Party-state to achieve its foreign policy objectives. In three excellent new books, Reilly 2011, Wang 2012, and Weiss 2014, we encounter a highly adaptive, responsive, and pragmatic Chinese state that is able to harness popular nationalism, even if it sometimes places the regime in a difficult position when managing its bilateral relationship with countries like Japan and the United States. Recent articles Hughes 2011 and Zhao 2013 offer a more sobering assessment. They view nationalism as a “double-edge sword” for the Communist Party of China, with public sentiment propelling Beijing toward a more aggressive and assertive foreign policy, especially as it relates to territorial claims in the South and East China Seas. The result, in Zhao’s opinion, is a growing “convergence” between state nationalism and popular nationalism.

                                                                                                                                                                  • Hughes, Christopher. “Reclassifying Chinese Nationalism: The Geopolitik Turn.” Journal of Contemporary China 20.71 (2011): 601–620.

                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1080/10670564.2011.587161Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                    In his analysis of four nationalist tracts, Hughes argues for the convergence of nationalist and geopolitical themes. The resulting “geopolitik nationalism” shares many similarities with German and Japanese fascism during the early part of the 20th century and helps to explain China’s more assertive, at times schizophrenic, foreign policy.

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                                                                                                                                                                    • Reilly, James. Strong Society, Smart State: The Rise of Public Opinion in China’s Japan Policy. New York: Columbia University Press, 2011.

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                                                                                                                                                                      In contrast to Hughes 2011 and Zhao 2013, Reilly depicts a more dynamic and responsive Party-state, highlighting its sophisticated repertoire of strategies for harnessing and managing popular nationalist sentiment in its foreign policy making.

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                                                                                                                                                                      • Shen, Simon. Redefining Nationalism in Modern China: Sino-American Relations and the Emergence of Chinese Public Opinion in the 21st Century. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007.

                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1057/9780230590007Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                        Argues nationalist rhetoric in contemporary China is a convenient and functional tool employed by different interest groups to pursue their own (often disparate) agendas and thus functions as a safety valve.

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                                                                                                                                                                        • Wang, Zheng. Never Forget National Humiliation: Historical Memory in Chinese Politics and Foreign Relations. New York: Columbia University Press, 2012.

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                                                                                                                                                                          Excellent study on the uses and abused of historical memory (the selective remembering and forgetting) to bolster the Chinese Communist Party’s legitimacy and grip on power following the 1989 Tiananmen Square incident, and its implications for the way China views its place in the world.

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                                                                                                                                                                          • Weiss, Jessica Chen. Powerful Patriots: Nationalist Protest in China’s Foreign Relations. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014.

                                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199387557.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                            Like Reilly 2011, Weiss stresses the adaptability of the Party-state in responding to popular nationalist protests, while also emphasizing how grassroots nationalism can often limit the power of authoritarian states like China.

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                                                                                                                                                                            • Zhao, Suisheng. “Foreign Policy Implications of Chinese Nationalism Revisited: The Strident Turn.” Journal of Contemporary China 22.82 (2013): 535–553.

                                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1080/10670564.2013.766379Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                              This article highlights the “strident turn” in Chinese diplomacy post-2008, as the Party-state responds to popular nationalist sentiment by dialing-up its rhetoric and actions in the East and South China seas.

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                                                                                                                                                                              Cybernationalism

                                                                                                                                                                              China’s Internet revolution has provided new outlets for popular nationalist sentiment, and it is now impossible to understand the dynamics of Chinese nationalism without exploring the role of the Internet, or what Ong 2003 terms the transnational “cyberpublic.” Wu 2007 offers the first book-lengthen study of cybernationalism, and Shen 2010 gathers together an excellent collection of essays, with numerous scholars of Chinese nationalism now looking at expressions of nationalism in bulletin board systems chatrooms, Weibo, and now Weixin. Cairns and Carlson 2016 highlights the complex relationship between government censorship and online nationalism, while Cheng 2011 and Leibold 2010 examine online racial nationalism, with Cheng focusing on anti-black cyber-ranting and Leibold on Han supremacism. Finally, Nie 2013 provides fascinating insight into the online gaming milieu by analyzing the nexus between the Party, gamers, and commercial enterprises in stoking nationalist sentiment in online games.

                                                                                                                                                                              • Cairns, Christopher and Allen Carlson. “Real-World Islands in a Social Media Sea: Nationalism and Censorship on Weibo during the 2012 Diaoyu/Senkaku Crisis.” China Quarterly 225 (2016): 23–49.

                                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1017/S0305741015001708Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                An innovative quantitative analysis of the relationship between online nationalism and government censorship. This study was also the subject of a Sinica podcast.

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                                                                                                                                                                                • Cheng, Yinghong. “From Campus Racism to Cyber Racism: Discourse of Race and Chinese Nationalism.” China Quarterly 207 (2011): 561–579.

                                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1017/S0305741011000658Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                  By examining anti-African racism on the Chinese Internet, Cheng probes the deep strains of racism behind popular expression of nationalism in China, one that excludes as much as it includes different racial/ethnic groups.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  • Leibold, James. “More than a Category: Han Supremacism of the Chinese Internet.” China Quarterly 203 (2010): 539–559.

                                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1017/S0305741010000585Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                    Offers a critical analysis of Han supremacism on the Chinese internet, demonstrating how the counter-narrative of “Han-centrism” challenges the Communist Party of China’s official narrative of multiculturalism.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    • Nie, Hongping Annie. “Gaming, Nationalism, and Ideological Work in Contemporary China: Online Games Based on the War of Resistance against Japan.” Journal of Contemporary China 22.81 (2013): 499–517.

                                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1080/10670564.2012.748968Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                      An insightful take on the role of computer games in propagating anti-Japanese nationalism in contemporary China, which demonstrates how both the Party and commercial enterprises are profiting (in different ways) from the nationalist sentiment of Chinese gamers.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      • Ong, Aihwa. “Cyberpublics and Diaspora Politics Among Transnational Chinese.” Interventions 5.1 (2003): 82–100.

                                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1080/13698032000049815Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                        A sophisticated and deeply theoretical examination of the promises and dangers of what Ong calls “cyber diaspora politics,” where a disembedded Huaren (Chinese) cyberpublic intervenes in the domestic politics of their co-ethnics, in this case Indonesian Chinese following the 1998 anti-Chinese riots in Indonesia.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        • Shen, Simon, ed. Online Chinese Nationalism and China’s Bilateral Relations. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2010.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          This edited volume brings together a range of voices and opinions on the impact of popular online nationalism on Chinese politics, society, and foreign policy.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          • Wu, Xu. Chinese Cyber Nationalism: Evolution, Characteristics, and Implications. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2007.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            A pathbreaking, albeit now dated, account of online nationalism, which was the first book-lengthen treatment of cybernationalism.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            Gendering the Nation

                                                                                                                                                                                            Nationalism is never gender neutral. In fact, women were central to the processes of revolution and nation/state building in 20th-century China, with Hershatter 2007 providing perhaps the most readable and comprehensive overview of the topic. Women’s liberation emerged alongside calls for national rejuvenation, as Gilmartin 1997 illustrates in a masterful history of gender issues during the 1920s’ New Culture Movement. Judge 2002 highlights how women were viewed as both mothers of the nation and repositories of national culture, values, and revolutionary ideals. It was the state that dictated gender norms in the name of the nation, yet, as Barlow 1994, a postmodern-inspired essay, demonstrates the gendered language of the nation pulls women in different directions at different times. Brownell 1998 and Finnane 2008 demonstrate this dynamic in richly illustrated studies, with the bodies of women recast as objects of consumption in the market-oriented nationalism of post-Mao China that required alterations in both fashion and clothing styles. The ethnic fragments of the Chinese nation create their own power dynamics and gendered subjectivities, with non-Han minority women fetishized as exotic and erotic object of voyeuristic consumption, as explored in Schein 1997. When combine with other subjectivities, such as urban migrants and single-mothers—women like the courageous Zanta, who is the lead protagonist in the moving documentary film by Ford 2015—reveal the incredibly complex ways in which women are part of the national story in China.

                                                                                                                                                                                            • Barlow, Tani. “Theorizing Woman: Funu, Guojia, Jiating.” In Body, Subject and Power in China. Edited by Angela Zito and Tani Barlow, 253–290. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              Originally published in 1991 as a part of the “Theorizing Nationality, Sexuality, and Race” special issue of the journal Genders and then rework again in Barlow’s 2004 book The Question of Women in Chinese Feminism (Durham, NC: Duke University Press), Barlow offers a sophisticated and influential genealogy of key gendered terms (or catachresis) in 20th-century China and explores how ideas about gendered subjectivities altered with the emergence of nationalist, statist, and revolutionary agendas.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              • Brownell, Susan. “The Body and the Beautiful in Chinese Nationalism: Sportswomen and Fashion Models in the Reform Era.” China Information 13.2–3 (1998): 36–58.

                                                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1177/0920203X9801300203Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                Brownell probes the dramatic shift in the public image of women from Maoist model workers to sportswomen and fashion models in reform era China and argues that China’s new nationalism masks reemerging patriarchies where female bodies are given over to the male-dominated nation.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                • Finnane, Antonia. Changing Clothes in China: Fashion, History, Nation. New York: Columbia University Press, 2008.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  Finnane convincingly demonstrates the centrality of clothing in the processes of writing the nation in early 20th-century China, with new styles—such as the Manchu qipao, the Zhongshan jacket, and the Jiang Qing dress—shaping and reflecting the dynamics of Chinese national identities.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Ford, Joceyln, dir. Nowhere to Call Home: A Tibetan in Beijing, 2014. DVD. Beijing: Nowhere to Call Home, 2015.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                    The moving story of Zanta, a twenty-eight-year-old Tibetan widow who struggles to find a place for herself and her son Yang Qing in Beijing. The film offers deep insights into the marginal subjectivities of women, minorities, and migrants in the modern Chinese nation. More information is available online.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Gilmartin, Christina K. Engendering the Chinese Revolution: Radical Women, Communist Politics, and Mass Movements in the 1920s. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                      Stresses the centrality of women and gender issues in the processes of revolution in modern China, while also revealing new forms of patriarchy that emerged in the name of the nation.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Hershatter, Gail. Women in China’s Long Twentieth Century. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007.

                                                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1525/california/9780520098565.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                        An indispensable, state-of-the-field survey of the place of women, gender, and sexuality in the making of the modern Chinese nation.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Judge, Joan. “Citizens or Mothers of Citizens? Gender and the Meaning of Modern Chinese Citizenship.” In Changing Meanings of Citizenship in Modern China. Edited by Merle Goldman and Elizabeth J. Perry, pp. 23–43. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2002.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                          A masterful analysis of the tension between Confucian values and modern, Western-defined notions of the nation as it relates to the place of women in state and nation-building endeavors.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Schein, Louisa. “Gender and Internal Orientalism in China.” Modern China 23.1 (1997): 69–98.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1177/009770049702300103Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Drawing on Said’s concept of “Orientalism,” Schein demonstrates the asymmetrical power behind the discourse and practices of ethnic identity in modern China. This “internal Orientalism” renders the Han majority as male, urban, modern, and “normal” while the minorities are viewed as female, rural, traditional, and exotic/erotic.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                            Health of the Nation

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Science is a frequent site of nationalist expression, especially in China where the “heath of the nation” has long elicited discussion and concern among nationalist elites, as highlighted by the history of weisheng (卫生 hygiene) in Rogaski 2004 and the campaign against opium in Zhou 1999. Works by Zheng 2009 and Yoon 2008 underline how nationalist frames have shaped China’s response to epidemics like HIV/AIDS and SARS, while the Jacka, et al. 2009 journal special issue on suzhi (素质quality) probes the internal hierarchies and fractured identities that segment and dilute collective expression of Chinese nationalism. Finally, Sautman 2001 reveals the fascinating politics of paleoanthropological nationalism in China, something one can also find in other hard sciences like genetics, physics, and archeology.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Jacka, Tamara, Gary Sigley, T. E. Woronov, Luigi Tomba, and Wanning Sun, eds. Special Issue: Quality and Citizenship in China. Positions: East Asia Cultures Critique 17.3 (2009).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                              Authors in this journal special issue, explore multiple dimensions of the suzhi (quality) concept in modern Chinese discourse and practice, foregrounding the way suzhi is employed to segment the Chinese nation and inscribe it with hierarchies of asymmetrical power: rural/urban, gay/heterosexual, women/man, minority/Han, uneducated/educated, and so on.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Rogaski, Ruth. Hygienic Modernity: Meanings of Health and Disease in Treaty-Port China. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1525/california/9780520240018.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                By tracing the changing meanings of weisheng (literally, “guarding life,” or hygiene) in late 19th- and early 20th-century China, Rogaski highlights the way the “health of the nation” became a defining aspect of Chinese modernity.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Sautman, Barry. “Peking Man and the Politics of paleoanthropological nationalism in China.” Journal of Asian Studies 60.1 (2001): 95–124.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.2307/2659506Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Eye-opening depiction of how the discovery of Peking Man and its politicization led many Chinese scientists of reject the “out of Africa” theory of human origins.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Yoon, Sung-Won. “Sovereign Dignity, Nationalism and the Health of a Nation: A Study of China’s Response in Combat of Epidemics.” Studies in Ethnicity and Nationalism 8.1 (2008): 80–100.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1111/j.1754-9469.2008.00009.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    A wonderful analysis of the Chinese government’s response to the SARS and HIV/AIDS endemics and how nationalism inhibits China’s involvement in global health governance.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Zheng, Tiantian. Ethnographies of Prostitution in Contemporary China: Gender Relations, HIV/AIDS, and Nationalism. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1057/9780230623262Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Drawing on three years of fieldwork in karaoke bars in the northern city of Dalian, Zheng convincingly demonstrates how sexual promiscuity is a vehicle for performing a more truculent and aggressive form of Chinese nationalism.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Zhou, Yongming. Anti-Drug Crusades in Twentieth-Century China: Nationalism, History, and State Building. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 1999.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                        A landmark study on the opium suppression campaign in 20th-century China, which covers late Qing, Republican, and People’s Republic of China attempts to regulate and eventually eliminate opium use.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Art of the Nation

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Art has long been a space for nationalist expression and critique, especially in the contemporary, post-1989 art scene, as illustrated by the Gao, et al. 1998 exhibition/volume. Berry 1992, Berry and Farquhar 2006, and Lu 1997 reveal how nationalist vocabularies and images run throughout contemporary Chinese cinema in ways that are both similar and different from an earlier era. Tuohy 2001 and Gao 2015 explore the nexus between songs and the nation, revealing what Tuohy calls “musical nationalism.” Throughout the 20th century, the nation (in all its dynamic complexities) is constantly performed and expressed through song, art, film, and other artistic mediums such as architecture, dance, and so on.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Berry, Chris. “‘Race’ (民族): Chinese Film and the Politics of Nationalism.” Cinema Journal 31.2 (1992): 45–58.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.2307/1225143Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Berry offers a close, critical reading of several films by “fifth generation” directors to explore how they test the boundaries of “race/nation” (minzu) and exploit its ambiguities.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Berry, Chris, and Mary Ann Farquhar. China on Screen: Cinema and Nation. New York: Columbia University Press, 2006.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Packed full of smart essays by some of the leading experts on Chinese cinema, this volume seeks to place the genre in a transnational perspective, analyzing the way cinema helps to narrate the nation(s) at different spatial and temporal scales.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Gao, Minglu, Norman Bryson, Asia Society Galleries, and San Francisco Museum of Modern Art. Inside/out: New Chinese Art. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                              A landmark exhibition of contemporary Chinese art that demonstrates how the nation is often the focus on artistic critique and praise.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Gao, Zhihong. “When Nationalism Goes to the Market: The Case of Chinese Patriotic Songs.” Journal of Macromarketing 35.4 (2015): 473–488.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1177/0276146715573079Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                A fascinating study of the collaboration between the Party-state, artists, marketers, and end-consumers in the production of patriotic songs.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Lu, Sheldon H. Transnational Chinese Cinemas: Identity, Nationhood, Gender. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1997.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  A pathbreaking edited volume that shatters the myth of a single “national cinema” and instead reveals how the themes of the nation and national identity run throughout transnational, Chinese language cinema.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Tuohy, Sue. “The Sonic Dimensions of Nationalism in Modern China: Musical Representation and Transformation.” Ethnomusicology 45.1 (2001): 107–131.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.2307/852636Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Convincingly argues that music and nationalism are mutually transformative processes.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Learning How to be Chinese

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Education is one of the frontlines of state sanctioned nationalism, providing a venue for citizens to learn about the nation and express their patriotism. Peake 1932 provides a firsthand account of how nationalism was embedded in the Republican-era school system, with Culp 2007 expanding on these original insights through a detailed local history of nationalist education. Hansen 1999 and Leibold and Chen 2014 look at the education of ethnic minorities and how this special sector of the education system strengthens ethnic consciousness at the same time as it seeks to mould a shared sense of national belonging. Zhao 1998 and Wang 2008 provide two excellent studies of the post-1989 patriotic education campaign and its relationship to the rise of new nationalism and China’s more assertive foreign policy (see also Nationalism and Chinese Foreign Policy).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Culp, Robert. Articulating Citizenship: Civic Education and Student Politics in Southeastern China, 1912–1942. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2007.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.2307/j.ctt1tm7fh0Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      This meticulously researched history analyzes how Republican-era middle schools in the lower Yangzi region fostered ideas of shared citizenship, nationhood, and destiny among Chinese students.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Hansen, Mette Halskov. Lessons in Being Chinese Minority Education and Ethnic Identity in Southwest China. Settle: Washington University Press, 1999.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Despite its homogenizing and assimilationist aims, state education in contemporary China falls short of its patriotic intentions in the minority communities of Yunnan and instead tends to strengthen ethnic identifications.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Leibold, James, and Yangbin Chen, eds. Minority Education in China: Balancing Unity and Diversity in an Era of Critical Pluralism. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 2014.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          A collection of articles that explore different aspects of ethnic minority education in the People’s Republic of China and the role of state schooling in seeking to balance ethnic diversity with national cohesion.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Peake, Cyrus Henderson. Nationalism and Education in Modern China. New York: Columbia University Press, 1932.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            A firsthand account of the education system in Republican China that should be read alongside Culp 2007. Out of print now and difficult to get.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Wang, Zheng. “National Humiliation, History Education, and the Politics of Historical Memory: Patriotic Education Campaign in China.” International Studies Quarterly 52.4 (2008): 783–806.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-2478.2008.00526.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Examines how the patriotic education campaign transmits a “victimization narrative” to mobilize nationalist sentiment.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Zhao, Suisheng. “A State-Led Nationalism: The Patriotic Education Campaign in Post-Tiananmen China.” Communist and Post-Communist Studies 31.3 (1998): 287–302.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1016/S0967-067X(98)00009-9Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                An authoritative analysis of the patriotic education campaign launched by the Communist Party of China following the 1989 Tiananmen Square incident, with state-led nationalism replacing communism as the Party-state’s chief source of legitimacy.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Sporting the Nation

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The 2008 Beijing Olympic games highlighted the way sport is yet another avenue for nationalist sentiment and contestation. Brownell 2008 and Xu 2008 offer two excellent yet contrasting views on the meaning of the Beijing games to the Chinese nation. Lu and Fan 2014 provides a sweeping and ambitious history of modern sports in China and its relationship to nationalism and nation-building, while Morris 2004 zeros in on the Republican-era and Brownell 1995 on the post-Mao period, with all three works vividly demonstrating how sports and physical education are rife with nationalist metaphors, themes, and practices.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Brownell, Susan. Training the Body for China: Sports in the Moral Order of the People’s Republic. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Alongside Morris 2004, an excellent study of the centrality of sports and physical education to the nation-building processes in modern China told from a deeply personal and engaging perspective.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Brownell, Susan. Beijing’s Games: What the Olympics Mean to China. Lanham, MA: Rowman & Littlefield, 2008.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Like Xu 2008, examines the centrality of the 2008 Beijing Olympics games to the Chinese Communist Party’s project of national rejuvenation, yet from a more personal, ethnographic angle.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Lu, Zhouxiang, and Fan Hong. Sport and Nationalism in China. New York: Routledge, 2014.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Adopting a historical perspective, the book charts the role of sports in constructing/performing Chinese nationalism from the late Qing dynasty up to the present. Arguably the most comprehensive treatment of the subject, as well as up-to-date.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Morris, Andrew. Marrow of the Nation: A History of Sport and Physical Culture in Republican China. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        A lucid and smart account of the centrality of sports and physical education to the nation-building project in Republican China.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Xu, Guoqi. Olympic Dreams China and Sports, 1895–2008. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2008.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.4159/9780674045422Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Published in the lead up to the 2008 Beijing Olympic games, this book chronicles the role of sports (especially international sporting competitions) as a venue for acting out modern Chinese national identities. It should be read alongside Brownell 2008.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Digital Resources

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Much of the reporting, analysis, and primary data on contemporary Chinese nationalism now appears in online magazines, websites, and podcasts. The Election Study Center at National Chengchi University in Taiwan and the Public Opinion Programme at the University of Hong Kong possess (and make publicly available) longitudinal survey data on the self-reported identities of Hong Kong and Taiwanese residents. China Digital Times is one of the oldest China blogs and hosts a vast, searchable archive. At present, ChinaFile and Sinosphere Blog are arguably the two best and most authoritative repositories of free online information about China. Tea Leaf Nation, The China Story, and the China Policy Institute’s Analysis also offer excellent coverage. Finally, Bill Bishop’s once daily newsletter Sinocism China Newsletter is searchable and provides unrivaled daily summaries of important news items in English and Chinese, while the Sinica Podcast has been providing near weekly analysis of the latest happenings in China since 2010.

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