Art History Art and Propaganda
by
Evonne Levy
  • LAST MODIFIED: 24 May 2017
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199920105-0110

Introduction

The rise of the propaganda production in World War I coincided with art history’s consolidation as a discipline. Immediately, the modern category “propaganda” was taken up to describe the relations between art, politics (sacred and secular), and power. After World War II, and in the Cold War, the use of the word “propaganda” shifted and many North American and European art historians resisted the categorization of “art” (associated with freedom) and propaganda (associated with fascist instrumentalization), although historians were less troubled by its use for “images.” The end of the Cold War loosened the prohibition on the term, though many art historians still prefer cognate terms, “persuasion” or “rhetorical,” when pointing to the key element of audience and effectiveness; similarly, many speak of “power,” “politics,” or “ideology” when pointing to institutions and their messages. Because there are alternatives for “propaganda,” the emphasis here is on the literature that have engaged the term itself and the problems it poses to art history, including its ongoing toxicity. Because propaganda arts are so closely associated with the modern regimes that perfected their use (communist Russia, fascist Italy, Nazi Germany), one of the major questions in the art historical literature is the appropriateness of the concept before the 20th century and for nonautocratic regimes. While some periods have attracted the term more than others, since Foucault and post–Cold War, there has been at once an understanding of all institutions, sacred and secular, as imbricated in power relations and on the other, a relaxation of rigid definitions of propaganda as “deceptive” or “manipulative.” These factors have opened scholars in art history considerably to a use of the term, although a reductive understanding of propaganda as inherently deceptive still persists. Three main criteria were used in compiling this article: periods of political upheaval or change in government that have attracted the term in particularly dense ways and generated dialogue over these issues; works that explicitly frame the study of objects as propaganda or substitute terms, rhetoric, persuasion, and ideology; and works by historians of images that explicitly engage with the category of propaganda (excluding, with a few exceptions, popular forms like posters as well as film, television, and digital media). Whenever possible, propaganda’s specificity is insisted on here in relation to art, for art poses special problems to the use of the word propaganda, and its invocation in art history often makes an explicit point.

Propaganda in Theory

There has been a spotty adoption of propaganda theory in art history. Jacques Ellul, a sociologist not particularly concerned with the visual arts, is nonetheless the key figure for having encouraged a neutral understanding of propaganda as a ubiquitous and necessary function under all political systems (see Ellul 1969). More influential for art history is the analysis in Debord 1994 of the late capitalist society of the spectacle, which draws upon Ellul’s views of the ubiquity and necessity of propaganda. Propaganda has been analyzed in key works of cultural theory that have been widely influential in art history (while not necessarily encouraging the study of propaganda and art). Fascist propaganda haunts Benjamin 2008, an essay on the aestheticization of politics in fascism and communism’s response with the politicization of art, though the term never breaks out explicitly. By contrast, Adorno and Horkheimer 2002, picking up on Benjamin’s essay, understands the culture industry as an extension of prewar propaganda techniques. The aestheticization of politics that was also key to Benjamin 2008 resurfaced in an influential essay, Sontag 1983, that recast propaganda works as “fascinating.” Debord 1994, drawing especially on Ellul 1969, sees late capitalist spectacle as a propaganda operation in which social relations are mediated through images. Groys 2008, by contrast, disentangles propaganda from the capitalist image-machine. Because our use of the word propaganda is primarily a modern one, a product of the mass production of propaganda during World War I, any use of the term for periods prior to the 20th century rethinks earlier epochs according to the modern category. Since the resuscitation of Benjamin 2008 around the rereading of it in “Fascinating Fascism” (Sontag 1983), the “aestheticization of politics” has often been substituted for or used alongside the problematic term “propaganda.” While the two are not exactly equivalent, much of the discussion of art and propaganda is absorbed into this category.

  • Adorno, Theodor W., and Max Horkheimer. “The Culture Industry: Enlightenment as Mass Deception.” In Dialectic of Enlightenment: Philosophical Fragments. Edited by Gunzelin Schmid Noerr and translated by Edmund Jephcott, 94–136. Stanford, CA: University of Stanford Press, 2002.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Essay 1944 by Frankfurt School theorists highly influential in a wide variety of disciplines, including art history. Boundaries are fluid between propaganda and the capitalist “culture industry,” both using the same persuasive techniques to mask the real conditions under capitalism.

    Find this resource:

    • Benjamin, Walter. “Work of Art in the Age of Its Technological Reproducibility: Second Version.” In Walter Benjamin: The Work of Art in the Age of Its Technological Reproducibility and other Writings on Media. Edited by Michael W. Jennings, Brigid Doherty, and Thomas Y. Levin, and translated by Edmund Jephcott, Rodney Livingstone, Howard Eiland, et al., 19–55. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2008.

      Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      One of the most influential essays in art history written by a Frankfurt School theorist (1935, in German). While Benjamin did not dwell on propaganda, his warning about the National Socialist aestheticization of politics (analogous to the capitalist technique) and the communist response to politicized art contained an unspoken reference to propaganda production.

      Find this resource:

      • Debord, Guy. The Society of the Spectacle. Translated by Donald Nicholson Smith. Cambridge, MA: MIT, 1994.

        Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

        Originally published in French 1967. Important for seeing propaganda as synonymous with spectacle, the accumulated images by means of which late capitalism, in its total control of the mass media, is sold. Images obtain their power in their mediation of social relations.

        Find this resource:

        • Ellul, Jacques. Propaganda: The Formation of Men’s Attitudes. Translated by Konrad Kellen and Jean Lerner. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1969.

          Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

          Most important postwar analysis (published 1962, French) by a sociologist. Propaganda viewed as necessary technique of modern society, produced by all governments, whose goal is effectiveness. Corrected definitions of propaganda as deceptive as it is most effective when truthful. With analysis of other theories of propaganda and his own terminology.

          Find this resource:

          • Groys, Boris. Art Power. Cambridge, MA: MIT, 2008.

            Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

            Highly regarded repositioning and revaluation of the 20th-century propaganda image (and art) against and operating outside of the dialectic structure of the art market. These philosophical essays in two parts, one part on propaganda images of the 20th century.

            Find this resource:

            • Sontag, Susan. “Fascinating Fascism.” In A Susan Sontag Reader. By Susan Sontag, 305–325. New York: Vintage, 1983.

              Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

              Essay (1974) by influential cultural critic, reversing Sontag’s earlier position on the inimicability of art and propaganda. Argues Nazi filmmaker Riefenstahl’s rehabilitation repositioned her as interested in beauty, not propaganda. Highly influential in redirecting understanding of Nazism as theater, not an instrumentalization of art, but a fascist appropriation of aesthetics.

              Find this resource:

              General Studies

              There are two literatures in which one can locate a discussion of propaganda and art. Most frequently, the fine arts come under consideration in the literature in sociology and communication theory (the disciplinary homes of propaganda studies). Because historical practices of propaganda and changing definitions of it are important, the general brief introduction Taylor 2003 is very useful. The fine arts are only indirectly discussed in “Propaganda,” but “cultural propaganda” is defined, with the implications for the term’s use in art history. Key nodal points for the study of propaganda in the arts are defined in Cull, et al. 2003, amid other aspects of propaganda more broadly. In art history, by contrast, propaganda is an important theme, but only in the introductory text Clark 1997, suited for undergraduates, is propaganda and art exclusively the subject. A much briefer essay by Taylor 2007–2017 can provide a very basic orientation but, like many works in art history, does not distinguish between propaganda and politics. Stone 1998 (cited under Propaganda and Art in Fascist Italy) and Levy 2004 (cited under Early Modern Catholicism and Propaganda) consider the history of the use of the term in art history itself, especially the art-propaganda binary, and Levy proposes a new deployment of it, based on definitions of propaganda in the social sciences (see also Wells, cited under Textiles and Tapestries for a similar effort). Pearson 1982 lays out the nature of state engagement in the arts through the example of Britain but with wider implications. Krüger Sass 2011 explores the iconography of propaganda, cleverly showing how the concept was visualized in propaganda images themselves.

              • Clark, Toby. Art and Propaganda in the Twentieth Century: The Political Image in the Age of Mass Culture. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1997.

                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                The only survey of art and propaganda, includes a history of the term, the art-propaganda binary, and the autonomous artist in the history of that binary. Distinguishes state-sponsored propagandas and political imagery from diffuse products of capitalism. Chapters on fascism, communist states, Western democracies, and arts of dissidence.

                Find this resource:

                • Cull, Nicola J., David Culbert, and David Welch, eds. Propaganda and Mass Persuasion: A Historical Encyclopedia, 1500 to the Present. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 2003.

                  Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                  A reference e-book with useful short entries on art, architecture, photography, coins, portraits, monuments, and the many other related terms important to come to terms with one speaking about art as propaganda (such as cultural propaganda, white propaganda, and propaganda itself).

                  Find this resource:

                  • Krüger Sass, Susen. “Propaganda.” In Handbuch der politischen Ikonographie. Vol. 2. Edited by Uwe Fleckner, Martin Warnke, and Hendrik Ziegler, 266–272. Munich: Beck, 2011.

                    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                    The iconography of propaganda itself, tracked alongside vicissitudes of the term. Traces the convergence (in Western imagery, 17th century to George W. Bush) of propaganda as propagation, with the image of the sower (of God’s word), and Christ’s seed harvested as weeds (sown by the devil) and as wheat.

                    Find this resource:

                    • Pearson, M. Nicholas. The State and the Visual Arts: A Discussion of State Intervention in the Visual Arts in Britain, 1760–1981. Milton Keynes, UK: Open University Press, 1982.

                      Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                      Thought-provoking study by a sociologist of the political nature of state intervention in the arts in a historical context, from the founding of a state art academy to the founding of the Arts Council of Britain. An important study beyond the British subject matter.

                      Find this resource:

                      • “Propaganda.” In Geschichtliche Grundbegriffe: Historisches Lexikon zur politisch-sozialen Sprache in Deutschland. Vol. 5. Edited by Otto Brunner, Werner Conze, and Reinhart Koselleck, 69–112. Stuttgart: Klett-Cotta, 1984.

                        Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                        Important outline of the German uses of the term propaganda and attitudes toward it from the Counter-Reformation through the Nazi period. Key sections on World War I, the commercial uses of the term, and cultural propaganda with implications for images and art.

                        Find this resource:

                        • Taylor, Kendall. “Propaganda.” In Grove Art Online. Oxford Art Online. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007–2017.

                          Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                          Using loose definition of propaganda arts, gives chronological account of propaganda art from cave paintings through the 20th century. Emphasis on figurative arts, with brief bibliography. Useful starting point for undergraduates.

                          Find this resource:

                          • Taylor, Philip M. Munitions of the Mind: A History of Propaganda from the Ancient World to the Present Day. Rev. ed. Manchester, UK: University of Manchester Press, 2003.

                            Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                            A classic balanced account of propaganda (as a message with intent) from antiquity to the present. Written by a communications specialist, it is multidisciplinary, with examples of art and architecture threaded throughout.

                            Find this resource:

                            Essay Collections

                            Although the study of art and propaganda, which skips around the history of world art, lends itself to essay collections, there have been few collections under this term, the toxicity of which still permeates the field. Collections tend to focus on specialized subfields, such as the collection about medieval propaganda in Cammarosano 1994 (cited under Propaganda and Art in the Middle Ages in the West). Nonetheless, the essays focused on early modern art in Kaufmann 1989 very much contend with propaganda issues under the title Images of Rule as do the essays, with broader coverage of time and place, in Millon and Nochlin 1977 under the title Art and Architecture in the Service of Politics. The special issue of the Oxford Art Journal entitled Propaganda is unique in its bold use of the term in a field generally averse to it. See also Comparative Studies of 20th-Century Art and Propaganda.

                            • Kaufmann, Thomas DaCosta, ed. Special Issue: Images of Rule; Issues of Interpretation. The Art Journal 48 (1989).

                              Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                              Collection of essays with awareness of audience and effectiveness, very engaged with propaganda issues though not always by name. Editor’s Statement introduces recent scholarship on imbrication of “images and rule” 1400–1800, as stimulated by cultural history, sociology, and anthropology.

                              Find this resource:

                              • Millon, Henry, and Linda Nochlin, eds. Art and Architecture in the Service of Politics. Cambridge, MA: MIT, 1977.

                                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                Essays focus on the intersection of aesthetics and politics, with thoughtful questioning of the ideological construction of the inimicability of art and propaganda. Includes range of media (emphasis on architecture and urban design), geographies, and temporalities (Constantine to comic books), but all must have been politically motivated.

                                Find this resource:

                                • Special Issue: Propaganda. Oxford Art Journal 3.2 (1980).

                                  Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                  An early issue of this left-oriented British journal understands propaganda as an extension of the contextualist project of a social art history. Includes essay on art and visual culture, from Antiquity to the present.

                                  Find this resource:

                                  Journals

                                  There are several art journals (L’Arte fascista, Kunst des Dritten Reichs) that were propaganda vehicles and can be considered primary sources of study. But the subject of art and propaganda is rather specialized for dedicated journals. The Journal of Decorative and Propaganda Arts was published by the Wolfsonian Collection, a museum dedicated to the collection of propaganda objects in name, and it featured these and others prominently in its publication.

                                  • Journal of Decorative and Propaganda Arts. 1986–2011.

                                    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                    “Propaganda” undertheorized in the early issues emphasizing broad range of mass-produced objects (stamps, posters, book jackets, murals, elite decorative arts). Themed issues on Argentina, Cuba, Brazil, Mexico, and Yugoslavia.

                                    Find this resource:

                                    Art History as Propaganda

                                    While propaganda is usually the subject of analysis in art history, art historians have also lent their pens to propaganda in implicit or explicit support of nation building, colonialism, and war. Archaeology, which involved diplomacy and institutional resources, is shown in relation to German Empire building in an exemplary study of the political stakes of excavation and display in Marchand 1997. It was only with World War I that an understanding of the propagandistic potential of art and the war on words first converged self-consciously in a propagandistic art history. As Levy 2011 shows, many German art historians served their countries during the world wars, applying their expertise to cultural propaganda, whether through traditional academic publications, dedicated propaganda pamphlets, journalism, lectures, or, most problematically, monuments protection. The last is the focus in Kott 2006 on the troubling German “protection” of monuments in France in World War I. Cultural propaganda in the Great War set the stage for the wide-ranging control of the discipline in Nazi Germany. A notable early work calling attention to German art history’s propaganda role is Francastel 1945, which however is distinct in its own propagandistic intent, written as it was in the midst of World War II. Art historians’ explicit or passive engagement in propaganda production, whether a “pure science” outside of the ideological requirements of a totalitarian regime was possible (as explored in Fuhrmeister 2012), has only recently been investigated in its nuts and bolts, especially in Germany. Since 2000, enormous resources have been poured into researching the activities of art historians under the Nazi regime. While primary sources of this topic are too numerous to mention, secondary sources about the ideological imbrication of art historians will point scholars to key works. Held and Papenbrock 2003 is the first study, focusing on institutions and individuals, a format followed in Doll, et al. 2005 and Heftrig, et al. 2008. Arthurs 2012 (cited under Propaganda and Art in Fascist Italy) studies the multifaceted contribution (not imposed but supported) of a new “virile” Italian scholarship to the fascist state, an important element of which was asserting Italian scholarship on Rome over that of foreigners.

                                    • Doll, Nikola, Christian Fuhrmeister, and Martin H. Sprenger, eds. Kunstgeschichte im Nationalsozialismus: Beitrage zur Geschichte einer Wissenschaft zwischen 1930 und 1950. Weimar, Germany: Verlag und Datenbank für Geisteswissenschaften, 2005.

                                      Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                      A volume of essays accompanying the exhibition “Kunstgeschichte im Nationalsozialismus” that circulated to German universities. Focused studies, based on archival research, on art history institutes (Berlin, Munich, Bonn, Hamburg, Marburg, Karlsruhe), specific individuals (with transcripts of interviews), and research themes of the time.

                                      Find this resource:

                                      • Francastel, Pierre. L’histoire de l’art: Instrument de la propagande germanique. Paris: Librairie de Médicis, 1945.

                                        Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                        Based on lectures given 1939–1940. A continuation of sparring between French and German art historians in World War II. Considering art history an arm of German propaganda, Francastel warns against the systematic distortions of German art history, and its goal to prove the autonomy and racial superiority of German art.

                                        Find this resource:

                                        • Fuhrmeister, Christian. “‘Reine Wissenschaft’: German Art History and the Notions of Objective Scholarship and Pure Science, 1920–1950.” In German Art History and Scientific Thought: Beyond Formalism. Edited by Mitchell B. Frank and Daniel Adler, 161–177. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 2012.

                                          Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                          Probes efforts to define and operate within the antithesis to art history as propaganda, “pure science.” Investigates the vicissitudes of the notion in the Weimar Republic, under National Socialism, and in the aftermath of the war, when many art historians who stayed in Germany claimed their scholarship was outside politics.

                                          Find this resource:

                                          • Heftrig, Ruth, Olaf Peters, und Barbara Schellewald, eds. Kunstgeschichte im “Dritten Reich”: Theorien, Methoden, Praktiken. Berlin: Akademie Verlag, 2008.

                                            Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                            Twenty-three essays from a conference completing the research project “Geschichte der Kunstgeschichte im Nationalsozialismus” on a wide range of topics: implicated art historians and museum directors, art history institutes, methods, key art historical terms that carried National Sociality ideology (i.e., “Prussian style,” “Nordic art”) publishers, etc.

                                            Find this resource:

                                            • Held, Jutta, and Martin Papenbrock, eds. “Kunst und Politik: Kunstgeschichte an den Universitäten im Nationalsozialismus.” Jahrbuch der Guernica Gesellschaft 5 (2003).

                                              Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                              The first results of a research project conducting the first intensive archival research in the archives of German art history institutes in National Socialism. With essays on some of the most implicated art historians and institutes, including the swaying of research and teaching agendas for propagandistic purposes.

                                              Find this resource:

                                              • Kott, Christina. Préserver l’art de l’ennemi? Le patrimoine artistique en Belgique et en France occupées, 1914–1918. Brussels: Lang, 2006.

                                                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                Investigation of the German agencies set up to protect and document monuments in occupied France and Belgium in World War I. The sincerity of these efforts have always been questioned on the grounds that they were a German propaganda campaign to counter the successful allied propaganda campaign against German “barbarians.”

                                                Find this resource:

                                                • Levy, Evonne. “The German Art Historians of World War I: Grautoff, Wichert, Weisbach and Brinckmann and the Activities of the Zentralstelle für Auslandsdienst.” Zeitschrift für Kunstgeschichte 3 (2011): 373–400.

                                                  Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                  Tracks German art historians posted in propaganda offices in Berlin and neutral Holland, and state-sponsored response to anti-German propaganda campaign led by Emile Male, setting stage for expanded role for art historians in World War II.

                                                  Find this resource:

                                                  • Marchand, Suzanne. Down from Olympus: Archaeology and Philhellenism in Germany, 1750–1970. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1997.

                                                    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                    A prize-winning work of cultural history tracing roots and institutional and political uses of German Graecophilia, Shows the marriage of archaeological scholarship, collecting (most notably the excavation and display of the Pergamon altar) and German Imperial goals, with its orientalist ideology, into the modern era.

                                                    Find this resource:

                                                    Exhibitions as Propaganda

                                                    That art exhibitions are active and passive carriers of social and political thought has become generally accepted. While there is much resistance to the term propaganda for art in general, studies of the propaganda use of exhibitions are proliferating, for this heuristic puts the state or institutional frame in the foreground. Premodern examples, such as the arrangement of paintings for the eyes of the embassy of the Holy See to the Court of Philip IV documented in Anselmi 1998, are few compared to the explosion of examples in our modern exhibition culture. The 20th-century exhibitions discussed in the works in this section have been organized with the open or covert support of various regimes with specific messages in mind. Mansbach 1993 shows how Russian officials seized upon an exhibition in Berlin in 1922 to raise support for the revolution in the Russian exile community. Basilio 2013, a study of exhibitions in the Spanish Revolution, documents awareness of audience reach and reaction. Research on the National Socialist organization of exhibitions for propaganda purposes has been most intense since the activity was notable. The infamous exhibition against “degenerate art” is reconstructed in an exemplary fashion in Barron and Guenther 1991, and Wistrich and Holland 1995 presents unique film documentation of the positive promotion of German art in annual exhibitions in Munich, studied in detail in Schlenker 2007. Wilcox 1995 documents a failed propaganda exhibition of British art for Berlin in the lead up to World War II because the artists refused to participate. By contrast, Haskell 1999 shows that Mussolini’s Italy won admiration from a successful exhibition in Britain. Several propaganda exhibitions in fascist Italy have been studied now by numerous scholars, especially the Mostra Augustea (Stone 1998, Arthurs 2012, and Lazzaro and Crum 2005, all cited under Propaganda and Art in Fascist Italy). The United States organized exhibitions of abstract expressionism abroad during the Cold War and has been the subject of many studies, such as Cockcroft 1974 (cited under Propaganda and Art in the United States in the 20th Century).

                                                    • Anselmi, Alessandra. “Il conflitto della Valtellina nel diario di Cassiano dal Pozzo 1626: I dipinti di Tiziano ai fini della propaganda politica nella Spagna di Filippo IV.” In La Valtellina crocevia dell’Europa. Edited by Agostino Borromeo, 219–231. Milan: Mondadori, 1998.

                                                      Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                      Interprets descriptions by witnesses of an arrangement of portraits, and allegorical and mythological paintings (at the Alcázar, Madrid) as conveying a “propagandistic manifesto.” The political agenda was advanced by the Spanish Kings directed at papal representatives at a diplomatic meeting in 1626 over the French and Spanish skirmish in the Valtellina.

                                                      Find this resource:

                                                      • Barron, Stephanie, and Peter W. Guenther, eds. “Degenerate Art”: The Fate of the Avant-Garde in Nazi Germany. Los Angeles: Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 1991.

                                                        Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                        An exemplary reconstruction of the notorious Nazi exhibition that mocked modern “degenerate” art. Details the exhibition’s mechanics, reception, and ideological aims, with essays about precursors; related actions and policies; a facsimile of the 1937 catalogue (with English translation); and biographies of exhibited artists, many Jewish.

                                                        Find this resource:

                                                        • Basilio, Miriam. Visual Propaganda, Exhibitions, and the Spanish Civil War. Farnham, UK: Ashgate, 2013.

                                                          Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                          Detailed archival study of the shaping of historical memory and identity through images, and especially art exhibitions organized by Republicans and Francoists in the Spanish Civil War. Unusual in documenting discussion of audience reception by propaganda producers.

                                                          Find this resource:

                                                          • Haskell, Francis. “Botticelli, Fascism and Burlington House: The ‘Italian Exhibition’ of 1930.” Burlington Magazine 141 (1999): 462–472.

                                                            Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                            Four hundred Italian masterpieces, organized by pro-fascist British aristocrats with Mussolini’s full support, an example of exhibition planning as realpolitik. With 540,000 attendees, the modern equivalent of early modern “official entries,” the exhibition had a mass audience exposed to Mussolini’s message of Italianità.

                                                            Find this resource:

                                                            • Mansbach, Steven A. “The ‘First Russian Art Exhibition’ or the Politics and Presentation of Propaganda.” In Künstlerischer Austausch: Aktens des XXVIII; Kongresses für Kunstgeschichte; Berlin 15–20. Juli 1992. Vol. 1. Edited by Thomas Gaehtghens, 307–320. Berlin: Akademie, 1993.

                                                              Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                              Exhibition in Berlin 1922 of one thousand artworks directed at Germans and the massive Russian colony to encourage support for the Bolshevist regime. Approved by Germans under the condition that it not be a propaganda vehicle, the state sponsorship was masked; prerevolutionary objects diverse in style conveyed tolerance by new regime.

                                                              Find this resource:

                                                              • Schlenker, Ines. Hitler’s Salon: The “Grosse Deutsche Kunstausstellung” at the Haus der Deutschen Kunst in Munich 1937–1944. Bern: Peter Lang, 2007.

                                                                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                Study of key set of exhibitions promoting art that conformed to Hitler’s conservative views. Based on archival research, Schlenker reconciles the well-studied propaganda use of these exhibitions with their market function.

                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                • Wilcox, Denys. “British Art, Nazi Germany and the London Group: A ‘Friendship’ Exhibition as Propaganda.” Apollo 142 (1995): 14–16.

                                                                  Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                  Shows different perceptions (as propaganda, as outside politics) of a planned exhibition (failed) of the work of the avant-garde London group, solicited on behalf of the Nazi government in 1936 under condition no Jewish artists be included.

                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                  • Wistrich, Robert S., and Luke Holland. Weekend in Munich: Art, Propaganda, and Terror in the Third Reich. London: Pavilion, 1995.

                                                                    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                    Print publication, based on the 1993 British television documentary Good Morning Mr. Hitler that first showed rare amateur film footage from the 1939 celebration in Munich of the “Day of German Art.” Unique color photos from the film and observations of eyewitnesses of this signal art-propaganda event.

                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                    Propaganda and Ancient Roman Art

                                                                    Although the applicability of the modern term propaganda to the world of classical Antiquity is often discussed in the interdisciplinary arena of classical studies, art historians and archaeologists have been pressed to take up the issue specifically for the visual arts. Much writing about propaganda imagery in Antiquity focuses on Rome, for which the dissemination of imagery was an act of empire. The multidisciplinary collection of essays in Weber and Zimmermann 2003 is a good reflection of the cross-disciplinary nature of the discussion as well as an original contribution, with an important summary of debates around propaganda in the introduction. Among the most debated questions is where the line should be drawn between state imagery and tributes to the emperor by the elite. Hannestad 1986 fully embraces the term in a general survey of propaganda use in Rome and beyond by means of coins. Hölscher 2009 is a more nuanced view in a case study of Actium imagery. The use by the fascist government of the 20th century of Imperial monuments (specifically Augustan) for its own propagandistic purposes both pushed the term into the discussion and was a factor in problematizing the terminology for many. For instance Zanker 1988, on Augustan imagery, rejects the term, providing a stimulus for much subsequent literature that continued to debate its usefulness, such as Weber and Zimmermann 2003 and Ewald and Noreña 2010, where much previous literature is discussed in the context of the propaganda and media theorists that are almost uniquely invoked in the debates in this subdiscipline.

                                                                    • Ewald, Björn C., and Carlos F. Noreña, eds. The Emperor and Rome: Space, Representation, and Ritual. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2010.

                                                                      Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                      Collection of essays, the introduction to which has thoughtful assessment of the use and usefulness in the recent literature in Roman archaeology of the term propaganda. Mayer’s essay (“Propaganda, Staged Applause, or Local Politics”) picks up and nuances Zanker’s argument that Roman art was not organized top down.

                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                      • Hannestad, Niels. Roman Art and Imperial Policy. Arhus, Denmark: Aarhus University Press, 1986.

                                                                        Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                        A synthetic history of the state art of Republican and Imperial Rome, positing propaganda neutrally, as strengthening power and reputation. Tracks production of monuments, coins, reliefs, and portraits alongside political developments with attention to subjects, motives, and audiences.

                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                        • Hölscher, Tonio. “Monuments of the Battle of Actium: Propaganda and Response.” In Augustus. Edited by Jonathan C. Edmondson, 310–334. Edinburgh: University of Edinburgh Press, 2009.

                                                                          Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                          Using a pivotal battle in the transition from republic to empire as example, asks who initiated messages, how they were articulated, to which audience, and how were they received.

                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                          • Weber, Gregor, and Martin Zimmermann, eds. Propaganda—Selbstdarstellung—Repräsentation im römischen Kaiserreich des 1. Jhs. n. Chr. Stuttgart: Steiner, 2003.

                                                                            Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                            Thoughtful collection of essays in German on a wide variety of media (coins, architecture, panegyric, gladiator games, biography, and autobiography), with general theoretical discussion in the introduction (with previous literature) of historical use and usefulness of term “propaganda” versus “representation” (which is preferred).

                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                            • Zanker, Paul. The Power of Images in the Age of Augustus. Translated by Alan Shapiro. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1988.

                                                                              Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                              Challenging the trend since the 1960s to see Augustan art as propaganda, Zanker argues against the top-down organization propaganda implies and instead for a gift or structure of praise to the emperor by the imperial elite.

                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                              Propaganda and Art in the Middle Ages in the West

                                                                              For many historians of medieval art, “propaganda” has not been seen as a particularly fitting or productive term, whether because of the fracturing of the ancient empires, the peculiar structure of social and political relations of feudalism, the idealization of the late medieval Italian comune as proto-democratic, or the lack of print media. Thus, what studies that have insisted on the term have tended, until recently, to focus on architecture, instances of institutional patronage, moments of political upheaval, or assertions of imperial pretensions. An example of the last of these is the study of the Bohemian King Charles IV’s considerable corpus of portraits in Rosario 2000. Cammarosano 1994, a multidisciplinary collection of essays, sees propaganda in all forms of medieval governance, while Cassidy 2007 reserves the term for princely works, contrasting them to civic ones. In studies of religious art, Huskinson 1982 tied Christianity to propaganda from its origins. Borsook 1990 interprets signal ecclesiastical works of Norman Sicily as politically motivated works, leading to a new and positive reinterpretation of their style. Though available to an elite audience, illuminated manuscripts can be considered propaganda, as argued in Guerrini 1997, while Martin 2006, a study of a Spanish queen’s architectural patronage, serves to overturn a gender bias in the literature. In Brown 1985, propaganda furnished a new optic on one of the most important works of medieval art, the Bayeux tapestry, long considered a chronicle.

                                                                              • Borsook, Eve. Messages in Mosaic: The Royal Programes of Norman Sicily, 1130–1187. Oxford: Clarendon, 1990.

                                                                                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                In this revisionist contextual study, Borsook prefers “message” to “propaganda.” This revisionist contextual study of major mosaic projects of Norman Sicily is noteworthy in reinterpreting the eclecticism in the mosaics’ sources (East, West, and French) as motivated by a political program.

                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                • Brown, Shirley A. “The Bayeux Tapestry: History or Propaganda?” In The Anglo-Saxons, Synthesis and Achievement. Edited by J. Douglas Woods and David A. E. Pelteret, 11–25. Waterloo, Canada: Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 1985.

                                                                                  Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                  An example of a signal work of medieval art that has long been considered a chronicle, practically an archival source. When compared to acknowledged literary forms of Norman propaganda, the tapestry’s construction of events lends itself to recharacterization as propaganda.

                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                  • Cammarosano, Paolo, ed. Le Forme della propaganda politica nel Due e nel Trecento: Relazioni tenute al convegno internazionale organizzato dal Comitato di studi storici di Trieste, dall’Ecole francaise de Rome e dal Dipartimento di storia dell’Universita degli studi di Trieste (Trieste, 2–5 marzo 1993). Rome: École Française de Rome, 1994.

                                                                                    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                    This multidisciplinary collection of essays was unusual in viewing propaganda as satisfying the needs of the increasingly complex European powers (papacy, emperors, kings, princes, urban patriciate, popular governments) to disseminate political messages. Includes general essays on propaganda, architecture of communal palaces, and governance imagery in Tuscany.

                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                    • Cassidy, Brendan. Politics and Civic Ideals and Sculpture in Italy c. 1240–1400. London: Harvey Miller, 2007.

                                                                                      Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                      A study of Italian ‘300 sculpture (more permanent, publically accessible than painting) in context of contemporary political events, factions, shifts between religious and secular power, and structures of governance (signorial, republican, monarchical). Distinguishes between a civic or political art, expressions of civic ideals (comune) mediated by artists, and propaganda (princely).

                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                      • Guerrini, Paola. Propaganda politica e profezie figurate nel tardo Medievo. Naples, Italy: Liguori, 1997.

                                                                                        Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                        Study of illuminated prophetic manuscripts (13th–15th centuries), with some “semi-ecclesiastical imagery” at the intersection of eschatology and political propaganda. Though accessible to erudite audiences (the political viewpoint and audience for each is discussed), these manuscripts are the only remains of a broader range of political imagery in late medieval Italy.

                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                        • Huskinson, J. M. “Concordia Apostolorum”: Christian Propaganda at Rome in the Fourth and Fifth Centuries; A Study in Early Christian Iconography and Iconology. Oxford: British Archaeological Reports, 1982.

                                                                                          Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                          A study of the political forces behind, motivations of, and diverse audiences for the iconographies of apostolic primacy, authority, and succession that arose in Early Christian Rome. Considers range of artifacts in ecclesiastical settings and private dwellings, distinguishing between official propaganda and popular cult images.

                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                          • Martin, Therese. Queen as King: Politics and Architectural Propaganda in Twelfth-Century Spain. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2006.

                                                                                            Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                            A revisionist study of the patronage of Queen Urraca of León-Castilla of the Romanesque church, San Isidro (León) as a royal monastic complex. Understands Urraca’s patronage as means to consolidate power, dismantling gender biases in the scholarship that had dismissed her role and kept her propaganda operations unnoted.

                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                            • Rosario, Iva. Art and Propaganda: Charles IV of Bohemia 1346–1378. Woodbridge, UK: Boydell, 2000.

                                                                                              Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                              A well-respected study of the ideology of royal power in over sixty extant portraits of Charles IV, part of a concerted effort to legitimize Charles IV’s rule, and assert his political aspirations in Bohemia and the Holy Roman Empire.

                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                              Propaganda and Art in Early Modern Europe

                                                                                              For many art historians, to speak of propaganda in the Early Modern period is not anachronistic because of the convergence of state formation, confessionalization (that saw Protestants and the Roman Church competing for subjects), and the new mechanically reproducible print media. Whether religious or political, images were used to an unprecedented degree to legitimize authority. The emergence in this period of strong centralized states in France, England, and Spain and the imagery that supported those states is the subject of Ellenius 1998. Silver 2008 considers the Habsburg emperor’s more difficult process of legitimating his rule in the mosaic of principalities. Vocelka 1981, by a historian, folds visual arts into a comprehensive picture of Rudolfine propaganda emanating from Prague. Rosand 2001 steps outside the court environment to assess the myth of the Venetian state, not embodied in a single ruler, as propaganda. Historians and art historians alike have also written about Reformation print propaganda although the stakes have often been different. Historians like Scribner (cited under Protestant Reformation) are not concerned with the high or low status of an image, whereas art historians (who include singular works, not just multiples, as propaganda) can find the boundary more problematic. Chipps Smith 1989 (cited under Textiles and Tapestries) shows that the highest art (tapestry) could most certainly function as propaganda because of its mobility. What drives the use of the term for early modern art is the clear use of images in churches and at court, to proclaim the virtues of rulers and to convey specific messages. Rabb 1995 questions the term if the message is coded in the language of the learned. Nonetheless, the term “propaganda” is used widely by art historians, though not always self-consciously. Levy 2004 (cited under Early Modern Catholicism and Propaganda) is unusual in reconciling the use of the term (drawing on propaganda theory) for the Early Modern period to meet the criteria by which propaganda has been defined in modernity.

                                                                                              • Ellenius, Allan, ed. Iconography, propaganda, and legitimation. Oxford: Clarendon, 1998.

                                                                                                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                Comprehensive group of excellent essays by historians and art historians on diverse forms of visual propaganda (painting alongside ceremonial) as key to emerging modern state. With examples for the major regimes (Spain, France, Papal States). Part of a larger interdisciplinary research project on the origins of the modern state.

                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                • Rabb, Theodore. “Play, Not Politics: Who Really Understood the Symbolism of Renaissance Art.” Times Literary Supplement (10 November 1995): 18–20.

                                                                                                  Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                  Questions the recent use of the term propaganda to describe works of art and architecture as efficient means of propaganda by the rising early modern state on grounds that the efficacy of propaganda images (often erudite and accessible only to the few) is key and rarely evaluated.

                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                  • Rosand, David. Myths of Venice: The Figuration of a State. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2001.

                                                                                                    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                    The representation of the Venetian state as an ideal form of governance, both official imagery and the effect of that imagery on governance ideals over time. The figures include the city itself; Saint Mark and his lion; and Venetia, Queen of the Adriatica, as portrayed in prints, paintings, sculpture, and mosaics.

                                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                                    • Silver, Larry. Marketing Maximilian: The Visual Ideology of a Holy Roman Emperor. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2008.

                                                                                                      Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                      Prefers “marketing” and “public relations” to describe the text and image-based efforts, fully exploiting the print medium, of the Habsburg emperor. Sees the emperor as akin to early-21st-century politicians, less as political actors than as image makers.

                                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                                      • Vocelka, Karl. Die politische Propaganda Kaiser Rudolfs II. (1576–1612). Vienna: Verlag der sterreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1981.

                                                                                                        Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                        Unusually comprehensive and well-documented study of full range of propaganda means, including the visual arts, festivals, coins and medals and in various cities to address distinct s constituencies, from the imperial princes to the general population.

                                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                                        Florence in the 15th and 16th Centuries

                                                                                                        Sixteenth-century Florence has attracted a certain density of studies of art and propaganda because of the combination of the high status of the city’s arts in the discipline and the radical changes in political structure, reflected in myriad ways in the city and painting and sculptures commissioned by the Medici rulers. Wilk 1986 shows a typical reluctance to consider republican works as propaganda. There is by contrast much literature on the period of Cosimo I’s rule that has embraced the concept: Forster 1971 opened the discussion of Grand Duke Cosimo’s propaganda, followed by the iconographic study Cox-Rearick 1984, and van Veen 1992 on the question of whether the person of the ruler or the state is the subject of Cosimo’s propaganda. In an earlier study, van Veen 1984 isolates a subject put to use over time by the Medici rulers and distinguishes different roles in propaganda production in their commissions.

                                                                                                        • Cox-Rearick, Janet. Dynasty and Destiny in Medici Art: Pontormo, Leo X and the Two Cosimos. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1984.

                                                                                                          Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                          A learned study of cosmological metaphors and dynastic imagery that merge in the iconography of the propaganda for the Florentine Grand Duke Cosimo I de’ Medici. Shows the continuities of Medicean imagery as supporting the theme of the propaganda—time returns.

                                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                                          • Forster, Kurt W. “Metaphors of Rule. Political Ideology and History in the Portraits of Cosimo I de’ Medici.” Mitteilungen des Kunsthistorischen Institutes in Florenz 15 (1971): 65–104.

                                                                                                            Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                            While not using the word propaganda in its title, this article fully embraces the term for the new state portraiture and other imagery necessary to support Medici rule as Florence transitioned to a duchy and grand duchy.

                                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                                            • van Veen, Henk Th. “Art and Propaganda in Late Renaissance and Baroque Florence: The Defeat of Radagasius, King of the Goths.” Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 47 (1984): 106–118.

                                                                                                              DOI: 10.2307/751441Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                              Tracks the changing Medici use (texts and images) of a moment in Florentine history: Vincenzo Borghini, the courtly propagandist, interprets event for a scene for the Salone del Cinquecento; Vasari, the artist, is mere executant. Distinguishes works produced for and at the behest of Medici, only the latter as propaganda.

                                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                                              • van Veen, Henk Th. “Republicanism in the Visual Propaganda of Cosimo I de’ Medici.” Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 55 (1992): 200–209.

                                                                                                                DOI: 10.2307/751424Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                In dialogue with Forster 1971 and Cox-Rearick 1984 on the “visual propaganda” of the first Medici Grand Duke. The point of dispute is the extent to which Cosimo I emphasized his person versus the ducal government as founder of the grand duchy.

                                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                                • Wilk, Sarah. “Donatello’s Dovizia as an Image of Florentine Political Propaganda.” Artibus et historiae 7 (1986): 9–28.

                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.2307/1483222Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                  An unusual use of “propaganda” for works produced during the Republican period of Florentine history. A reflection that the exact commissioning body for this marketplace sculpture remains vague, and propaganda was more comfortably used to describe Roman Imperial precedents.

                                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                                  The Protestant Reformation

                                                                                                                  Because of the decisive role played by print media in breaking up the Western church in the early 16th century, the Reformation is preeminent in early modern propaganda studies. Scribner 1994, a study of popular propaganda, first elaborated the specific mechanisms, apart from any questions of artistic value. Tanis and Horst 1993 looks at prints in their political context in the Netherandish wars of religion. Studies of painting have been quite concentrated on the work of Lucas Cranach the Elder who worked in Luther’s milieu. His work plays a significant part in studies organized by their subject. Van Gülpen 2002, for example, isolates the portrait of Luther, while Christensen 1992 looks at the electors whose portraits demonstrated that they sided with the reformers.

                                                                                                                  • Christensen, Carl C. Princes and Propaganda: Electoral Saxon Art of the Reformation. Kirksville, MO: Sixteenth Century Journal, 1992.

                                                                                                                    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                    Focused study of images of the powerful Saxon electors that explicitly linked them to the Protestant Reformation. While Luther’s image remains preeminent, the Saxon Electors in images showing the new Protestant teachings legitimated their rule through association with Protestantism.

                                                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                                                    • Scribner, Robert W. For the Sake of Simple Folk: Popular Propaganda for the German Reformation. 2d ed. Oxford: Clarendon, 1994.

                                                                                                                      Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                      Groundbreaking study by a historian of illustrated broadsheets as hybrid media (referencing McLuhan) and visual propaganda, both adversarial and stereotyping. Holds the iconographies up to popular beliefs and culture. Second paperback edition (1st ed. 1981) with valuable new introduction and postscript with excellent discussion of interdisciplinary method and recent literature.

                                                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                                                      • Tanis, James, and Daniel Horst. Images of Discord: A Graphic Interpretation of the Opening Decades of the Eight Years’ War. Bryn Mawr, PA: Bryn Mawr College Library, 1993.

                                                                                                                        Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                        The twenty-nine prints presented are unequivocally works of propaganda, produced on both sides (pro-Spanish and anti-Spanish). With essays and a catalogue entry for each image, translating the many inscriptions, connecting the prints to specific events, and mapping iconographies.

                                                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                                                        • van Gülpen, Ilonka. Der deutsche Humanismus und die frühe Reformations-Propaganda 1520–1526: Das Lutherporträt im Dienst der Bildpublizistik. Hildesheim, Germany: Olms, 2002.

                                                                                                                          Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                          A thorough study of Martin Luther’s portrait as a propaganda image, and its various iconographies. Set in context of early modern use of images as propaganda, Reformation propaganda, and counterpropaganda.

                                                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                                                          Early Modern Catholicism and Propaganda

                                                                                                                          The term propaganda is often acknowledged as an invention of the Counter-Reformation Church whose Propaganda Fide organization, for the propagation of the faith, has often justified a neutral use of the term. But the post-Tridentine moment has especially attracted the term “propaganda” in the (negative) modern sense because the early modern Catholic Church actively deployed the arts in its effort to win back Protestant territories and proselytize the Americas, Africa, and Asia. Weisbach 1923 first applied the lessons of World War I propaganda to Counter-Reformation art and put the term into discussion. But overall, the term has been avoided, especially after World War II, when much effort was put into proving that post-Tridentine art was a sincere expression of religious devotion, not a form of deception. Large-scale urban projects, such as those analyzed in Bering 1984, are an exception in falling under the term. Argan 1967 put the issue back in play, insisting on the persuasive dimension of post-Tridentine art while rescuing it from the toxic term “propaganda” with the historical form of “rhetoric.” Argan’s work was influential in Maravall 1985, a study of the “techniques” of baroque culture (a term used in Ellul 1969, cited under Propaganda in Theory) broadly construed, and has been widely read, especially in the Spanish-speaking world. The early modern Jesuit order, a key arm of the Catholic Church in its Counter-Reformatory offensive, has often attracted the term propaganda in a negative way. Levy 2004, using the example of the global mission of the Jesuit order, unpacks the use of the term propaganda in art history and justifies an expanded deployment of the term for religious art in its subject-forming project. More recently, de Jong 2013 interprets fresco cycles in the heart of papal Rome as a propaganda offense against the Reformation while analyzing their effects on the intended audience. Bernini’s massive output for the baroque popes is rarely considered propaganda, though in Fagiolo dell’Arco 1999, his print production and ephemeral decorations are put in this category. Focusing on Alexander VII, Rietbergen 1987 shows that learning and knowledge can be the subject of a propaganda campaign. And Alexander VII is on the receiving end of propaganda, in Debby 2016, which contends that propaganda for the Crusades could be directed to a single person, the pope, to urge him to commit funding.

                                                                                                                          • Argan, Giulio Carlo. “Rettorica e architettura.” In Stil und Überlieferung in der Kunst des Abendlandes-Akten des 21. Internationalen Kongresses für Kunstgeschichte (Bonn 1964). Vol. 3. Edited by Congrès international d’histoire de l’art, 218–221. Berlin: Mann, 1967.

                                                                                                                            Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                            Highly influential article that provided a new acceptable language (rhetoric rather than propaganda) to the persuasive project of the Catholic Church, manifested in its architectural projects in baroque Rome. Shows how architecture functions spatially to invite association.

                                                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                                                            • Bering, Kunibert. Baupropaganda und Bildprogrammatik der Frührenaissance in Florenz, Rom, Pienza. Frankfurt: Lang, 1984.

                                                                                                                              Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                              Study of the ideological program of 15th-century papal urban planning projects: Pius II’s in Pienza, Cosimo I’s in Florence, and plans for Rome of Nicholas V and Sixtus IV.

                                                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                                                              • Debby, Nirit Ben-Aryeh. Crusade Propaganda in Word and Image in Early Modern Italy: Niccolò Guidalottos’ Panorama of Constantinople (1662). Toronto: Centre for Reformation and Renaissance Studies, 2016.

                                                                                                                                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                Political, visual, iconographic analysis of a large topographical drawing of Constantinople. A work of propaganda-for-one, made by a Franciscan friar and directed at Pope Alexander VII, to urge him to take back Constantinople for the Western Church.

                                                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                • de Jong, Jan. The Power and the Glorification: Papal Pretensions and the Art of Propaganda in the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2013.

                                                                                                                                  Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                  Studies papacy’s (ineffectual) defense in Reformation of its supreme authority. Focuses on contemporary responses to five fresco cycles (Castel Sant’Angelo, the Conservators’ Palace, Hall of Constantine and Sala Regia [Vatican], and the Farnese Palace [Caprarola]) by ambassadors, delegates, and diplomats.

                                                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                  • Fagiolo dell’Arco, Maurizio. “Immagini della propaganda: Libri, illustrazioni, feste.” In Gian Lorenzo Bernini: Regista del Barocco. Edited by Maria Grazia Bernardini and Maurizio Fagiolo dell’Arco, 233–262. Milan: Skira, 1999.

                                                                                                                                    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                    Amid reticence to cast Bernini, who served eight consecutive popes, in the role of propagandist, Fagiolo dell’Arco, a scholar of Bernini’s ephemeral works, considers these and his paper projects as propaganda.

                                                                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                    • Levy, Evonne. Propaganda and the Jesuit Baroque. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004.

                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1525/california/9780520233577.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                      An analysis of the use of “propaganda” in art history (including history of the term as replacement for rhetoric) and of constituent parts of propaganda at intersection with art historical concerns (authorship, message, and diffusion). Exemplified through study of 17th-century Jesuit monuments in Rome and beyond.

                                                                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                      • Maravall, José Antonio. The Culture of the Baroque: Analysis of a Historical Structure. Translated by Terry Cochran. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1985.

                                                                                                                                        Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                        Maravall used complex terms (“medios,” “recursos,” “resortes”) to describe the means and the agency, the active guiding of an increasingly early modern urban mass. Maravall’s assumption of a homogeneous and uncontested top-down elite control of culture has been criticized by some, though his theory is highly adopted.

                                                                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                        • Rietbergen, Peter J. A. N. “Papal Patronage and Propaganda: Pope Alexander VII (1655–1667), the Biblioteca Alessandrina and the Sapienza Complex.” Mededelingen van het Nederlands Instituut te Rome 47.12 (1987): 157–177.

                                                                                                                                          Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                          Lively article about the nuts and bolts of forming a library collection and shaping its message. Bolstered by evidence from print media, shows Alexander VII disseminating image of popes as patrons of Divine Wisdom and learning, and public library of Rome’s university (La Sapienza) as architectural center of this program.

                                                                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                          • Weisbach, Werner. Barock als Kunst der Gegenreformation. Berlin: Cassirer, 1923.

                                                                                                                                            Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                            Influential early work of Geistesgeschichte, shaped by Weisbach’s activity as propaganda analyst during World War I. Identifies key subjects and means by which baroque paintings and sculpture shaped Catholic subjects, as necessitated by the Reformation.

                                                                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                            Early Modern England

                                                                                                                                            In the late 1960s, scholars around the cultural historian Francis Yates began investigating imagery of English kingship. McKenna 1965 analyzes a range of media in the reign of Henry VI using terms of advertising and public opinion alongside propaganda, while a single Holbein portrait of Henry VIII, studied closely in Strong 1967, showed the possibilities of such royal image analysis. The reign of Henry VIII, in whose reign new powers were concentrated and the Church of England separated from the Roman Church, has attracted studies of its propaganda imagery above all. Strong was contested by Sydney Anglo’s pragmatic view of Henry VIII’s image making (see Anglo 1992) which injected doubts into the efficaciousness of early modern propaganda in general, a view supported in Rabb 1995 (cited under Propaganda and Art in Early Modern Europe). String 2008 finds a middle path in the polemic between Strong (focusing on painting) and Anglo 1992 (which focuses on pageantry), with an expanded range of media. Sharpe 2009 critically evaluates both approaches in a study of Henry VIII that surpasses all previous studies in complexity and comprehensiveness.

                                                                                                                                            • Anglo, Sydney. Images of Tudor Kingship. London: Seaby, 1992.

                                                                                                                                              Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                              Takes a position for pragmatism against the propaganda function of Tudor imagery (contra Strong 1967), especially pageantry, on basis of its haphazard (not planned) and overly recondite themes and small audience. Does not assume the success of imagery but limits, failures.

                                                                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                              • McKenna, J. W. “Henry VI of England and the Dual Monarchy: Aspects of Royal Political Propaganda, 1422–1432.” Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 28 (1965): 145–162.

                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.2307/750667Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                Coins, manuscript illuminations, pageantry (among other nonvisual means) used by the English government as “publicity techniques” during Henry VI’s childhood to “advertise” and “propagate” dual kingship, influence public opinion and hold on to French territories gained by the late Henry V.

                                                                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                • Sharpe, Kevin. Selling the Tudor Monarchy: Authority and Image in Sixteenth-Century England. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2009.

                                                                                                                                                  Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                  A truly magisterial interdisciplinary study by a historian, of all media of political representation, especially the neglected visual culture of politics. Methodologically sophisticated and concerned with all aspects of propaganda production: message makers, the message, and effects.

                                                                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                  • String, Tatiana C. Art and Communication in The Reign of Henry VIII. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 2008.

                                                                                                                                                    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                    Weighs the usefulness of “communication” and “propaganda” for the visual arts of Henrician England, asserts intentionality and audience. Argues works close to the “royal center” (prints, paintings, pageants, Henry’s portraits especially) were motivated by need to convey Henry IV’s new position around the Royal Supremacy.

                                                                                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                    • Strong, Roy. Holbein and Henry VIII. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1967.

                                                                                                                                                      Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                      Reconstructs Holbein’s lost portrait of Henry VIII for Whitehall and the political circumstances and meanings attached to it. Exemplary and readable close study of a single painting, marking the invention of the English royal portrait as propaganda.

                                                                                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                      France in the Ancién Regime

                                                                                                                                                      The imagery produced around Louis XIV’s reign has been the focus of intense study because the production of spectacle, most notably at Versailles, in which some of the imagery has been long understood as a decoy and compensation for the king’s diminishment of the power of the French nobility. Marin 1988, by a semiotician, approaches text and image together in a discourse analysis of the reciprocal power of images and images of power. The very readable and original account of Louis’s various public images by the cultural historian Peter Burke (see Burke 1992) is more comprehensive in looking at the themes of the imagery, while Ziegler 2010 casts the imagery in the historical context of Louis XIV’s expanded foreign policy and is attentive to the responsiveness of the imagery to reactions to it as part of realpolitik.

                                                                                                                                                      • Burke, Peter. The Fabrication of Louis XIV. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1992.

                                                                                                                                                        Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                        Wide-ranging study of the creation of the public image of Louis XIV, including ballet costumes, paintings, sculpture, prints, medals and festivals, and written texts. Introduction assesses appropriateness of the modern and historical terms: propaganda, persuasion, rhetoric, gloire, majesty, etc.

                                                                                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                        • Marin, Louis. Portrait of the King. Translated by Martha Houle. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1988.

                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1007/978-1-349-19061-4Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                          With a foreword by Tom Conley. While the term propaganda is not in evidence, the analysis of the effects of Louis XIV’s imagery (text and image), of impersonal design, is widely recognized as exemplary in understanding the effects of early modern mass media.

                                                                                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                          • Ziegler, Hendrik. Der Sonnenkönig und seine Feinde: Die Bildpropaganda Ludwigs XIV. in der Kritik. Petersberg, Germany: Imhof, 2010.

                                                                                                                                                            Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                            With a foreword by Martin Warnke and French translation of the afterword. Fully embraces Louis XIV’s use of images for internal and external propaganda, showing how that imagery (including the Sun King) was responsive to criticism. A well-documented study considering works in all visual arts. Distinguished from Burke 1992 by understanding of imagery as strategic rather than willed.

                                                                                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                            Propaganda and Art in France: Revolution, Napoleon, Louis-Philippe

                                                                                                                                                            This is one of the most intensely investigated epochs in the history of art and propaganda precisely because of radical changes in governance, stretching from the French Revolution through the Napoleonic and Orleanist periods. Because the bibliography is so large, well-regarded recent studies on specific regimes and moments and review essays, where further references can be found, are recommended here. An early and still-cited study, Leith 1965, shows the instrumentalization of the arts by the revolution as rooted in the philosophy of art of the philosophes. Rubin 1989, in a special issue commemorating the two hundredth anniversary of the French Revolution, offers a good entry point into the issues and works of painting most implicated in the political upheaval, while Popkin 1990–1991, a review essay of works on print in the revolution, addresses the distinct market-driven origin of its print imagery. O’Brien 2006, a study of the Napoleonic era, is unusual for the premodern period in closely documenting the interaction between a painter of Napoleon’s deeds and the increasingly autocratic institutions that governed his activity as an artist. Porterfield and Siegfried 2006 conducts an exemplary close analysis of a painting of Napoleon’s marriage as an imperial manifesto, while Guffey 2000 is skeptical of the success of the propaganda intent of the decorations for Napoleon’s second marriage. Marrinan 1988, by contrast, addresses in detail the adequacy of the style of academic art to Orleanist propaganda for Louis Philippe.

                                                                                                                                                            • Guffey, Elizabeth E. “Reconstructing the Limits of Propaganda: Pierre-Paul Prud’hon and the Art of Napoleon’s Remarriage.” Visual Resources 16 (2000): 259–274.

                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1080/01973762.2000.9658557Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                              Reconstructs complicated ephemeral decorations for Napoleon’s second political marriage and the support the decorations were meant to engender for the political alliance. Embraces the propaganda intent but is skeptical of the effect, though with a narrow view of the audience on which the many records may have acted.

                                                                                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                              • Leith, James A. The Idea of Art as Propaganda in France: 1750–1799: A Study in the History of Ideas. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1965.

                                                                                                                                                                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                Pioneering study by a historian charting the reemergence of art into the public realm after the decadent reign of Louis XV, in its philosophical context. The reform of the rococo, according to Enlightenment ideals, asserted art’s utility in educating the masses.

                                                                                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                • Marrinan, Michael. Painting Politics for Louis-Philippe: Art and Ideology in Orléanist France, 1830–1848. New Haven, CT, and London: Yale University Press, 1988.

                                                                                                                                                                  Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                  Study of the official history painting of July Monarchy, casting events of the French Revolution in the present. In trying to overcome the greater importance accorded the content of “official art” over form, asks if the academic style was adequate to the monarchy’s propagandistic aim.

                                                                                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                  • O’Brien, David. After the Revolution: Antoine-Jean Gros, Painting and Propaganda under Napoleon. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2006.

                                                                                                                                                                    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                    Subtle, detailed study of arts policies of post-Revolutionary France, at a time when the “Republic of Arts” marked rise of public opinion and autonomy of arts. Gros, Napoleon’s official painter, is situated as straddling autonomy and instrumentality, a situation Napoleon exploited, creating a semblance of autonomy for official art.

                                                                                                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                    • Popkin, Jeremy D. “Pictures in a Revolution: Recent Publications on Graphic Art in France, 1789–1799.” Eighteenth-Century Studies 24 (1990–1991): 251–259.

                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.2307/2738957Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                      Review of six publications in English, French, and German produced for the two hundredth anniversary of the revolution. Problematizes assumptions that print was de facto a propaganda medium at this time, when painters worked for institutions but printmakers worked on the open market.

                                                                                                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                      • Porterfield, Todd, and Susan Siegfried. Staging Empire: Napoleon, Ingres, and David. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2006.

                                                                                                                                                                        Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                        Focusing on two paintings of Napoleon’s coronation (by Ingres and David), not as documents of a public event but as highly sophisticated stagings of Napoleon’s Imperial ambitions.

                                                                                                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                        • Rubin, James H. “Disorder/Order: Revolutionary Art as Performative Representation.” In Special Issue: The French Revolution 1789—1989: Two Hundred Years of Rethinking. Edited by Sandy Petrey. The Eighteenth Century 30.2 (1989): 83–111.

                                                                                                                                                                          Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                          A clear and rich essay, an excellent entry point into the subject of art and the French Revolution. Using prominent examples (David’s Death of Marat), distinguishes between revolutionary art (which is performative) and imagery of the revolution.

                                                                                                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                          Propaganda and Art in World War I

                                                                                                                                                                          In propaganda studies, World War I is the crucial conflict in which propaganda in word and image (print and painting, above all) surged, bringing the word into common parlance. The first analysis of war propaganda never saw the light; an investigation by Aby Warburg into the cultural shifts (or returns to superstition) evident in Great War propaganda based on a largely lost collection of clippings was brought to light recently in Korf 2007. Graphic design, especially illustrations and posters, has been the best-known artistic productions until more recently, when a broader range of artifacts and institutional uses of the arts has begun to be investigated. The various ways in which German artists engaged for and against the war is explored in Küster 2008, while a similar approach is taken in Marchioni 2005 for Italy. An exemplary account of how the expanded role of the arts in wartime was transformative for the British art world is Fox 2015. The centenary of the conflict occasioned the intriguing multicountry collection of art and objects in Schultze, et al. 2014. A collection comprised by many different arts and objects from all the countries involved in the conflict can be searched on the National World War I Museum and Memorial website. Fraser 1980 comprehensively reviews the use of postcards in Europe from 1900 through the war and the characteristic lack of clarity of the sponsorship of propaganda imagery because of the commercial nature of the cards and the broad public consent for the war.

                                                                                                                                                                          • Fox, James. British Art and the First World War, 1914–1924. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2015.

                                                                                                                                                                            Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                            Charts the engagement of government (the pictorial propaganda section of Wellington House), museums and galleries, and artists in the war effort. Unusual in measuring the transformative impact of the war in expanding the role of art in public life after the war.

                                                                                                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                            • Fraser, John. “Propaganda on the Picture Postcard.” Oxford Art Journal 3 (1980): 39–47.

                                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1093/oxartj/3.2.39Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                              Overview of propaganda postcards in Europe and United States 1900–1918, after 1918 in Russia, Germany, and Italy as allied countries turned to other mass media. Describes the meteoric rise of postcards and quick appearance on them of propaganda imagery. Points to the unclear boundaries between commercial and state- or party-sponsored cards.

                                                                                                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                              • Korf, Gottfried, ed. Kasten 117: Aby Warburg und der Aberglaube im Ersten Weltkrieg. Tübingen, Germany: Tübingen Vereinung für Volkskunde, 2007.

                                                                                                                                                                                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                Essay collection on the largely lost massive wartime collection of press clippings (word and image) by Aby Warburg, the first extensive attempt to analyze the themes of wartime through propaganda imagery. Related (especially Wedepolhl) to Warburg’s work in 1920 on the Reformation.

                                                                                                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                • Küster, Bernd, ed. Der Erste Weltkrieg und die Kunst: Von der Propaganda zum Widerstand. Gifkendorf, Germany: Merlin-Verlag, 2008.

                                                                                                                                                                                  Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                  Well-illustrated catalogue of exhibition of paintings and graphic works by German artists in World War I. Because propaganda was not officially organized by the state until late in the war, many works, including by artists who worked at the front, were a kind of consensual propaganda.

                                                                                                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                  • Marchioni, Nadia, ed. La grande guerra degli artisti: Propaganda e iconografia bellica in Italia negli anni della primera guerra mondiale. Florence: Pagliai Polistampa, 2005.

                                                                                                                                                                                    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                    Large color catalogue of the official and unofficial art, abstract and figurative, of World War I Italy. Includes 166 works of painting, sculpture, and graphic arts (plus 215 illustrations for L’Idea della Nazione by Cipriano Efisio Oppo).

                                                                                                                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                    • National World War I Museum and Memorial.

                                                                                                                                                                                      Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                      With a collection of over seventy-five thousand objects, from all participants in World War I, this US museum (Kansas City, Missouri) is one of the richest resources for World War I propaganda materials. With online exhibitions and searchable collection.

                                                                                                                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                      • Schultze, Sabine, Leonie Beuersdorf, and Dennis Conrad, eds. Krieg und Propaganda 14/18. Hamburg, Germany: Museum für Kunst und Gewerbe, 2014.

                                                                                                                                                                                        Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                        Essays on the emergence of cultural propaganda in World War I and all propaganda media employed, mostly in Germany but also by the Allied countries. Includes wide range of art and visual culture (Christmas ornaments, toys, postcards, posters, jewelry, and more), beautifully illustrated.

                                                                                                                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                        Propaganda and the Arts in National Socialist Germany

                                                                                                                                                                                        The propaganda use of the arts under the Third Reich is particularly important and has its own set of definitions. Because the state sought to bring the arts under its direct control (policy of Gleichschaltung, or conformity), one can speak of propaganda in a technical sense here more than in many cases where lines are much more blurred. Because there was so much produced and so much at stake in the Nazi propaganda use, art historians have studied the phenomenon extensively, and the material can be broken down into general categories: institutional apparatus for propaganda, art (painting, sculpture, photography, decorative arts), and architecture.

                                                                                                                                                                                        Apparatus of Nazi Arts Propaganda

                                                                                                                                                                                        Because the Nazi dictatorship so thoroughly controlled all institutions of education and the arts, the investigation of the institutional mechanisms of control has been well documented since soon after 1945. Lehmann-Haupt’s account (see Lehmann-Haupt 1954) is poignant because he was a close observer. Thomae 1978 utilizes archives of the propaganda ministry and newspapers. Synthetic accounts of the Nazi bureaucracy include Petropolos 1996, which highlights the “private” collections of prominent Nazis, and Sarkowicz 2004, which is particularly interested in the relations of artists to the Nazi program. Barron and Guenther 1991 and Schlenker 2007 document the regime organization of notable art exhibitions (cited under Exhibitions as Propaganda).

                                                                                                                                                                                        • Lehmann-Haupt, Hellmut. Art under a Dictatorship. New York: Oxford University Press, 1954.

                                                                                                                                                                                          Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                          Well-documented early outline of the total control of the visual arts and immersive psychology of Hitler’s totalitarianism under Hitler, with a chapter on Soviet Union. Ends with plea for the full support of the freedom of the arts, threatened by conservative views of modernism in Democratic America.

                                                                                                                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                          • Petropolos, Jonathan. Art as Politics in the Third Reich. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1996.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                            Detailed two-part study of the extensive Nazi administrative apparatus for the arts (ministries and ministers, museums, artists, magazines, cultural exchanges, confiscation, plundering) and the private collecting by Nazi officials. “Cultural arts policies,” “visual arts management,” and “instrumentalization” of the arts conveyed messages about Aryan superiority, status, and military strength.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                            • Sarkowicz, Hans, ed. Hitlers Künstler: Die Kultur im Dienst des Nationalsozialismus. Frankurt: Insel, 2004.

                                                                                                                                                                                              Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                              Collection of essays on all the arts, fine and popular, and the cultural bureaucracy of the Third Reich. Good synthesis of previous research written for general audience. With strong perspective of participating artists, though inconsistent on their agency.

                                                                                                                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                              • Thomae, Otto. Die Propaganda-Maschinerie: Bildende Kunst und Öffentlichkeitsarbeit im Dritten Reich. Berlin: Gebr. Mann, 1978.

                                                                                                                                                                                                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                A digest of a treasure trove of documentation (archival, newspapers articles) of the propaganda machinery and press promoting the visual arts in Third Reich, 1937–1945. Focus on Ministry of Propaganda, press about its exhibitions (in Germany and abroad), prizes, art publications, films about art, and key issues.

                                                                                                                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                Nazi Art and Propaganda

                                                                                                                                                                                                The propaganda use of the figurative arts supported keys aspects of the Nazi program, as has been explored by numerous authors and in proliferating exhibitions, such as Czech and Doll 2007 and Ades, et al. 1995 (both cited under Comparative Studies of 20th-Century Art and Propaganda). Classic is Reichel 2006, an assessment of the visual basis for Nazi rule in general. The range of positions supported by the arts in a variety of media is well represented in the collection of essays Taylor and van der Will 1990. Specific media are tackled in James-Chakraborty 2002, a discussion of light as a part of spectacle, and the discussion in Prölß-Kammerer 2000 (cited under Textiles and Tapestries) of tapestry as a venerable medium, antique and new examples of which served the Nazis. The highly visible work of Hitler’s personal photographer, Hoffmann, and his photography and publishing concern are analyzed in Bruns 1983, which emphasizes the Nazi privileging of image over word. Curtis, et al. 2001 provocatively reconsidered the figurative sculpture produced in the Third Reich, asking viewers to see them outside of their propaganda frame.

                                                                                                                                                                                                • Bruns, Brigitte. “Neuzeitliche Fotografie im Dienste der national-sozialistischen Ideologie: Der Fotograf Heinrich Hoffmann und sein Unternehmen; ‘Sie: Das Herz Europas’—ein Beispiel der Foto-Verwertung für faschistische Propaganda.” In Die Gleichschaltung der Bilder. Edited by Diethart Kerbs, Walter Uka, and Brigitte Walz-Richter, 172–182. Berlin: Fröhlich and Kaufmann, 1983.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Drawing on advertising practices in the interwar period, the Nazis privileged image over word, especially in the ramifying distribution of photographs (in press, postcards, etc.). Hitler’s personal photographer Heinrich Hoffmann and his photography and publishing concern were at the center of the photographic propaganda for the Nazi movement.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Curtis, Penelope, Ursel Berger, Josephine Gabler, Arie Hartog, and Angela Lammert. Taking Positions: Figurative Sculpture and the Third Reich. Leeds, UK: Henry Moore Institute, 2001.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                    This exhibition provocatively posed the question whether it was possible to look anew at figurative sculptures, by regime-friendly artists that served a propagandistic purpose for the Nazi regime, as works of art.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                    • James-Chakraborty, Kathleen. “The Drama of Illumination: Visions of Community from Wilhelmine to Nazi Germany.” In Art, Culture and Media under the Third Reich. Edited by Richard A. Etlin, 181–204. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                      On the appropriation of avant-garde lighting aesthetics by the Nazi architect Speer for party rallies to fuse the Volksgemeinschaft through a unique effect of identification. Appears in a volume that considers propaganda production alongside essays about the Nazi Weltanschauung as expressed in a variety of visual, musical, and print media.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Reichel, Peter. Der schöne Schein des Dritten Reiches: Faszination und Gewalt des Faschismus. Hamburg, Germany: Ellert & Richter, 2006.

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                        A new edition of a classic study (1st ed. 1991) by a political scientist, inspired by Sontag 1983 (“Fascinating Fascism”) and Benjamin 2008 (both cited under Propaganda in Theory): of the visual basis for Nazi ideology, claims to power, scenographies of the Führer and the body politic, and its mobilization for war.

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Taylor, Brandon, and Wilfied van der Will, eds. The Nazification of Art: Art, Design, Music, Architecture, and Film in the Third Reich. Winchester, UK: Winchester University Press, 1990.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Important collection of essays on the aestheticization of politics in the Nazi regime, with essays on a variety of media, particular ideological configurations like gender, the institutional control of the arts and artists, and ongoing problems of the works produced in the era.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Nazi Architecture and Propaganda

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Architecture was so programmatically central to Hitler’s ambitions and self-image (as architect of the Third Reich) that one could justifiably consider the entire literature about architecture in this era under the rubric of propaganda. Düwel and Gutschow 2015, a study of an exhibition about German architecture circulated by the propaganda ministry, is the best illustration of the regime’s understanding of architecture’s utility as a means of propaganda. The specific question of propaganda has until relatively recently been absolutely central and played a role in debates around three key issues. First, the question of a National Socialist style (whether the Nazi consistently rejected modernist architecture for a stripped down Neoclassicism) in essence was a question about ways in which architecture was legible as regime specific and therefore as propaganda, a central theme of Taylor 1974. The second act of the style question arrived with renewed conflict over style with the arrival of postmodernism, a conflict described in Rosenfeld 1997. Harlander and Pyta 2010 takes as a given stylistic pluralism. The second issue concerns just how direct a role Hitler played in architectural design (underplayed in Taylor 1974, subsequently highlighted in Spotts 2004) versus the role of his architects, especially Albert Speer, whose memoir is a primary document of this question (see Speer 1970). This is effectively a debate about the prospects of autonomous art under the regime. Third, since the reunification of Germany in 1989, when reuse of Nazi buildings in former East Berlin was at issue, debates described in Wise 1998 now swirled around whether Nazi buildings could be seen independently of their propaganda function, that is, whether they could be considered just architecture.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Düwel, Jüorn, and Niels Gutschow, eds. Baukunst und Nationalsozialismus: Demonstration von Macht in Europa 1940–1943; Die Ausstellung ‘Neue Duetshce Baukunst’ von Rolf Wolters. Berlin: DOM, 2015.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Documents the exhibition (content, venues, reactions) of architecture and city planning circulated by the propaganda ministry to major European cities (ten translations of the catalogue). Highlights organizational role of Wolters as propagandist for architecture.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Harlander, Tilman, and Wolfram Pyta, eds. NS-Architektur: Macht und Symbolpolitik. Berlin: LIT Verlag, 2010.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                              More recent collection of essays that situates itself after the debates about the place of modernity in National Socialist architecture. Essays treat a variety of building types, architects (drawing on newly opened archives), and locations, with an emphasis on Stuttgart.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Rosenfeld, Gavriel. “The Architects’ Debate: Architectural Discourse and the Memory of Nazism in the Federal Republic of Germany, 1977–1997.” In Special Issue: Passing into History: Nazism and the Holocaust beyond Memory. Edited by Geulie Ne’eman Arad. History & Memory 9.1–2 (1997): 189–225.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.2979/HIS.1997.9.1-2.189Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Thorough discussion of the debates among architects from late 1970s about the possibility of historicizing the Nazi past in architecture in order to break the modernist stronghold on German architecture since the end of the war. Shows the debates parallel the better-known Historiker-Streit about the National Socialist past in general.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Speer, Albert. Inside the Third Reich. Translated by Richard Winston and Clara Winston. New York and Toronto: Macmillan, 1970.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Aside from Hitler’s Mein Kampf, the memoir of Hitler’s architect is a signal primary source on this topic. Readers can hear his view of the relative role of dictator versus architect, questions of style and the ideas behind the redesign of Berlin, the party rallies, and the notion of “ruin value.”

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Spotts, Frederic. Hitler and the Power of Aesthetics. Woodstock, NY: Overlook, 2004.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Spotts dared to place Hitler at the center of this study of the arts and architecture in particular as central to Hitler’s person, rule, and goals that art was not the means but Hitler’s end. Speer and other architects were mere executants of Hitler’s program.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Taylor, Robert. The Word in Stone: The Role of Architecture in the National Socialist Ideology. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1974.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      A book by a political historian, more appreciated for its historical research (including interviews with Speer) and convincing arguments for the deployment of architecture as propaganda than for its conclusions of its failure.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Wise, Michael. Capital Dilemma: Germany’s Search for a New Architecture of Democracy. New York: Princeton Architectural, 1998.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Describes the debates about the ideological versus aesthetic value of architecture during the rebuilding of reunified Berlin. State buildings of the Nazi period, Cold War Bonn, and reused Nazi buildings in communist East Berlin are discussed. Based partly on interviews with architects, urban planners, and politicians.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Propaganda and Art in Fascist Italy

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Until the 1990s, the considerable production of art and architecture under Mussolini’s fascist regime suffered a similar dismissal as propaganda (in the negative sense) as had Nazi art. Stone 1998 addresses the history of the issue in a study of the policy of aesthetic pluralism under Mussolini, embracing the futurist avant-garde and a modern classicism, what Stone considers a distinguishing characteristic of the Italian situation. Many important examples of these works, in the full diversity of styles, are presented in Ades, et al. 1995 (cited under Comparative Studies of 20th-Century Art and Propaganda). Roman imperial art became important in aligning Mussolini’s political ambitions with the imperial past. Arthurs 2012 shows how the idea of romanità was developed by intellectuals to reassert the centrality of Rome as a modern city, not a papal city, as a principle of empire throughout its history, turning the tide back on the Futurists’s dismissal of Rome. But the entire country, rich with artistic treasures and a wide spectrum of Italy’s history, was mobilized for fascist propaganda, as is evident in the collection of essays in Lazzaro and Crum 2005. Latinsky 2005 focuses in on how Tuscan towns and cities were made to fit into Mussolini’s propaganda, especially through the framing of tourist destinations of post-Antique periods. Italy’s propaganda abroad in its exhibition program is discussed in Haskell 1999 (cited under Exhibitions as Propaganda). Many works of the propaganda arts of Italian fascism have been the focus of the Wolfsonian Collection, and Barisione, et al. 2002 is its best publication. Further works can be found in issues of the Wolfson’s Journal of Decorative and Propaganda Arts (cited under Journals).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Arthurs, Joshua. Excavating Modernity: The Roman Past in Fascist Italy. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2012.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.7591/cornell/9780801449987.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Fascist idea of romanità was a modern liberation of Italy from Catholic Church, not an antimodern call to Antiquity. Shows how the regime’s propaganda goals were achieved through efforts of scholarly studies, institutions, exhibitions (especially the Mostra Augustea della Romanità), journals (Roma), and conferences.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Barisione, Silvia, Matteo Fochessati, and Gianni Franzone. Under Mussolini: Decorative and Propaganda Arts of the Twenties and Thirties from the Wolfson Collection, Genoa. Milan: Edizioni Gabrielle Mazzotta, 2002.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Exhibition catalogue. Estorick Collection, London, 2 October–22 December 2002. Exhibition of 119 works the Wolfsonian collection, the most distinguished gathering of propaganda arts from Mussolini’s regime. Essays connect signal events in Mussolini’s dictatorship to works in all media: design, photography, furniture, murals, and especially decorative arts. With an essay on the propaganda around Italy’s Libyan colonies.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Latinsky, D. Medina. The Renaissance Perfected: Architecture, Spectacle, and Tourism in Fascist Italy. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2005.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Decenters Mussolini’s propaganda away from Rome and Antiquity, toward late medieval and Renaissance Tuscany. With expanded cast of characters (scholars, artists, journalists, local leaders, government ministers) and media (pamphlets, newspapers, films, scholarship, urban renewal), urban design and intra-Italian tourism casts Tuscan sites to fall in line with regime imagery.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Lazzaro, Claudia, and Roger J. Crum, eds. Donatello among the Blackshirts: History and Modernity in the Visual Culture of Fascist Italy. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2005.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Multidisciplinary collection of wide-ranging essays on moments in Italy’s history (ancient, medieval, and Renaissance) that Mussolini’s fascist movement availed itself to and the exhibitions, spectacles, restorations, tourism, murals, and re-presented works of (past) art that linked past to the fascist present.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Stone, Marla Susan. The Patron State: Culture and Politics in Fascist Italy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1998.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Well-regarded study guided by Benjamin’s “aestheticization of politics” that broke through dismissal of fascist art as propaganda in study of state patronage (including propaganda exhibitions) that encouraged artists’ cooperation. Argues that policy of “aesthetic pluralism” was pursued that fended off antimodernist movement after alignment with Nazi Germany.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Propaganda and Art in Russia

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The programmatic use of all media of art and visual culture in Russia to further the goals of the Bolshevik Revolution meant that virtually all the arts were swept into “Agitprop” (Agitational Propaganda). However, compared to the large literature on the propaganda arts of 20th-century Western Europe, in several languages, publications on Russia’s vast propaganda production are slight, and much of it is in Russian. A short general introduction can be found in Clark 1997 (cited under General Studies), and a more extensive treatment (including a full range of media from graphic arts to architecture and urban planning) is in Ades, et al. 1995 (cited under Comparative Studies of 20th-Century Art and Propaganda). One of the most extensive surveys in English, illustrating a wide range of objects and arts from the 1920s to the 1990s, is Groys and Hollein 2003. Much scholarship has focused on the shift from an initial avant-garde modernist phase, followed by a phase of socialist realism, stultified further by the increasing centralization and total control of the arts (from 1933). In the leading study of Russian art and propaganda as a problem, Groys 2011 challenges the distinction between progressive and reactionary, showing the common goals of the two. While painting and architecture are often at the center of Russian propaganda arts, Bowlt 1977 showed how sculpture was propelled by Lenin’s need for monumental arts. And conversely, in Wardropper, et al. 2005, the vast stores of blank porcelain (the elite material) put to use for revolutionary propaganda show how different strata of society can be drawn in through the material ground of propaganda. Mansbach 1993 (cited under Exhibitions as Propaganda) shows that a 1922 exhibition in Berlin hoped to draw exiled Russian elite back to revolutionary Russia. Challenges to formal experimentation in photography and the modern medium, as well as the propaganda themes, is the subject of Bendavid-Val 1999 (cited under Comparative Studies of 20th-Century Art and Propaganda). The meaning and fate of propaganda statues after the dissolution of the Soviet Union is the subject of an interventionist exhibition by artists discussed in Ashton 1994.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Ashton, Dore, ed. Monumental Propaganda: A Travelling Exhibition. New York: Independent Curators, 1994.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Catalogue accompanying an exhibition initiated by Russian artists Komar and Melamid of projects to preserve Soviet propaganda monuments as many were being hastily disposed of in former Eastern Bloc countries. Essays (including the artists and James E. Young) consider histories of propaganda monuments and artists’ proposals for their transformation.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Bowlt, John E. “Russian Sculpture and Lenin’s Plan of Monumental Propaganda.” In Art and Architecture in the Service of Politics. Edited by Linda Nochlin and Henry Millon, 182–193. Cambridge, MA: MIT, 1977.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Argues that sculpture, previously not a leading medium in Russian art, was propelled to the foreground because of the propaganda needs of Lenin and the revolution.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Groys, Boris. The Total Art of Stalinism: Avant-Garde, Aesthetic Dictatorship, and Beyond. Translated by Charles Rougle. London and New York: Verso, 2011.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Originally published in German 1988. A view of Soviet political project as artistic (not Soviet art as political, as per Benjamin 2008, cited under Propaganda in Theory). In seeing art’s sole aim as producing a new Soviet mass, Groys collapses formalist antithesis between the Russian avant-garde and Stalinist Social Realism.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Groys, Boris, and Max Hollein, eds. Traumfabrik Kommunismus: Dream Factory Communism; The Visual Culture of the Stalin Era. Ostfildern, Germany: Hatje Cantz, 2003.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          A massive exhibition catalogue, the illustrated companion to Groys’ Groys 2011, which inspired it. Includes fine and mass-produced propaganda art, primarily Socialist Realism (1922–1953), and the parodying Sots Art (1962–1991). Includes essays, interviews, artists’ biographies, and many color illustrations.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Wardropper, Ian, Karen Kettering, John E. Bowlt, and Alison Hilton. News from a Radiant Future: Soviet Porcelain from the Collection of Craig H. and Kay A. Tuber. Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago, 2005.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The post-1917 decoration of pre-1917 blank pottery of the State Porcelain manufacture created a new propaganda vehicle (when there were paper shortages), and married past (medium) to future with a new socialist imagery. With catalogue of works and biographies of designers.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Comparative Studies of 20th-Century Art and Propaganda

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Only recently has it been imaginable to discuss art and architecture of democratic countries, especially the United States, as propaganda alongside that of the fascist and communist regimes of the 20th century. This signaled a softening of the Cold War insistence on propaganda as inimical to democracy and opened the door to a more liberal use of the term for the arts. The earlier comparisons were among the dictatorships (Ades, et al. 1995), while bolder comparisons between democracies and dictatorships are undertaken in Czech and Doll 2007 and Bendavid-Val 1999, focusing on the medium of photography, and between successive forms of governance in the German context in Bilder und Macht.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Aavv. Bilder und Macht im 20. Jahrhundert. Exhibition held at the Haus der Geschichte Bundesrepublik Deutschland, Bonn, 2005–2006.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Rich exhibition of modern media (print and moving image) contrasting images of leaders and the growing cult of personality in German democracies (Weimar, West Germany) versus dictatorships (Nazi, DDR). “Propaganda” is preferred for the latter and “scenographies of power,” “political communication,” and “publicity” for the former.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Ades, Dawn, Tim Benton, David Elliott, and Iain Boyd White, eds. Art and Power: Europe under the Dictators 1930–1945. London: Thames and Hudson, 1995.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Exhibition catalogue. Hayward Gallery, London, Centro de Cultura Contemporània de Barcelona, Deutsches Historisches Museum, Berlin. A complex view of the battle for art, with works of art supported by and in opposition to the European dictatorships. Organized around the capital cities Rome, Berlin, and Moscow, with 450 illustrations of painting, sculpture, architecture, photography, and film.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Bendavid-Val, Leah. Propaganda and Dreams: Photographing the 1930s in the USSR and the U.S. Zürich, Switzerland: Stemmle, 1999.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  A well-illustrated exhibition catalogue comparing the state involvement, funding, stylistic directives, and political messages (progress versus poverty) in 1930s Russian and US photography. Similar images of agrarian workers emerge amid diverse circumstances and themes: Soviet progress (Stalin’s industrialization, collectivization) versus US (Depression-era) poverty.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Czech, Hans-Jörg, and Nikola Doll, eds. Kunst und Propaganda: Im Streit der Nationen 1933—1945. Dresden, Germany: Sandstrein Verlag, 2007.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Exhibition catalogue. Deutschen Historischen Museums Berlin, in collaboration with the Wolfsonian-Florida International University, Mitchell Wolfson Jr. Collection. Important, comprehensive volume of twenty-six essays (six in English, twenty in German) and illustrated catalogue of propaganda in all arts (1930s–1940s). Includes essays on interwar origins (Martin Warnke, Otto Karl Werckmeister) and aftermaths. Compares and contrasts strategies of self-representations in democratic, communist, and fascist countries (Soviet Union, United States, Italy, Germany).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Propaganda and Art in East Asia

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Until very recently, difficulty of accessing archives and the most basic materials has hampered study of some areas of Asian propaganda production (exclusively for the 20th century), especially that of North Korea and China, so this is an emerging area of study. Chang-tai 2010 broke through the barriers in a study of the early People’s Republic that stresses the role of images in building a new political order. The strange early-21st-century nostalgia for that period is outlined in Mittler 2008. More recently, Meuser 2012 provides primary documents of North Korean architectural propaganda with a commentary. Propaganda arts in the Japanese Empire are surveyed in the comprehensive and well-conceived volume Ikeda, et al. 2013; and Culver 2013 focuses in on Japanese artists’ propaganda arts in support of the Japanese occupation of Manchukuo. A splendid array of propaganda kimonos and textiles from World War II Japan are studied in Atkins 2005 (cited under Textiles and Tapestries).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Chang-tai, Hung. Mao’s New World: A Political Culture in the Early People’s Republic. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2010.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Shows the early transformation of People’s Republic under Mao Zedong into a propaganda state through images, parades, histories, reconstruction of Tiananmen Square. Based on archival sources, memoirs, and interviews, with sixty-six illustrations.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Culver, Anika A. Glorify the Empire: Japanese Avant-Garde Propaganda in Manchukuo. Vancouver, Canada: University of British Columbia Press, 2013.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Works by formerly left-leaning Japanese artists and intellectuals who travelled to Manchukuo following the Japanese invasion of Northeast China, functioned as propaganda for the Japanese Empire as merging of left and right.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Ikeda, Asato, Aya Louisa McDonald, and Ming Tiampo, eds. Art and War in Japan and Its Empire, 1931–1960. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2013.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Well-illustrated anthology, opened up suppressed censorship and absolute control of the arts in Japan during “15 Years War” (1931–1945) and as an American client state. Considers wide range of subjects of representation (war, the body, colonial subjects), state sponsorship, public displays, and reactions of artists in colonized China and Korea.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Meuser, Phillip, ed. Pyongyang Architectural and Cultural Guide. 2 vols. Berlin: DOM, 2012.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Unique guide to a contemporary propaganda city. Volume 1 is a translation of the official North Korean guide to Pyongyang, and Volume 2 is a commentary. Includes lengthy excerpt from Kim Jong-il’s 1991 manifesto “On Architecture.”

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Mittler, Barbara. “Popular Propaganda? Art and Culture in Revolutionary China.” Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 152.4 (2008): 466–489.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The overwhelming nostalgia in China in the early 21st century for Maoist propaganda from the period of the difficult Cultural Revolution distinguished from the complete condemnation and eclipse of Nazi propaganda in Germany. Visual arts, and state-sponsored posters in particular, are an aspect of the propaganda paradox considered here: completely manipulative and highly popular.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Propaganda and Art in the United States in the 20th Century

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The US government’s effort to distinguish the “truthful” communications of its democracy from the “deception” that aided authoritarian or communist states was the basis for the United States’ objection to propaganda production and its reserve of the use of the term “propaganda” for other regimes. The official attitude also pervaded art history. Thus, it has been more common until recently that state-sponsored art in the United States be considered propaganda by non-US scholars, as in the comparative exhibition Ades, et al. 1995 (cited under Comparative Studies of 20th-Century Art and Propaganda). More recently, Bendavid-Val 1999 (cited under Comparative Studies of 20th-Century Art and Propaganda) compared photography projects of the Works Progress Administration to Russian works. It was well into the Cold War that veiled propaganda practices that went by another name came to light. The historical investigation of the original discovery in 1967 of the CIA’s covert operations in the cultural arena became the most conspicuous episode in propaganda studies in US art history. An explosive article, Cockcroft 1974 showed how implicated the Museum of Modern Art was in state propaganda, stimulating Frances Stonor Saunders to conduct a full investigation of the CIA’s covert cultural activities in the Cold War (see Stonor Saunders 2000). Since then, the pre–Cold War policies and activities (and ambivalence toward propaganda) have been studied in Graham 2015. Goldstein 2009, a study of US efforts at denazification through cultural propaganda in the immediate aftermath of World War II in Germany, also reveals attitudes that would shape Cold War practices. The front organizations’ support for abstract expressionism, propelling the international success of Jackson Pollock, has been a focus of discussions about the state’s activities in the art world, especially in Guilbaut 1985, a now-classic study of the instrumentalization of the freedom of the American artist.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Cockcroft, Eva. “Abstract Expressionism, Weapon of the Cold War.” Artforum 15 (June 1974): 39–41.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Fluid boundaries between Rockefellers, Museum of Modern Art (MOMA) founders, MOMA directors and trustees, and US State Department in 1940s Cold War allowed the museum to act as quasi-official propaganda arm through internationally circulating exhibitions. MOMA promoted democratic values in abstract expressionism’s originality, freedom, and apoliticism, an ideal antidote to social realism.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Goldstein, Cora Sol. Capturing the German Eye: American Visual Propaganda in Occupied Germany Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2009.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.7208/chicago/9780226301716.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Views belated American efforts at denazification and democratization of postwar Germany through cultural propaganda, which the United States justified by past Nazi practices (to be corrected) and current Soviet uses to win Germany to socialism. Views this moment as fundamental to development of (covert) CIA Cold War cultural propaganda.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Graham, Sarah Ellen. Culture and Propaganda: The Progressive Origins of American Public Diplomacy, 1936–1953. Farnham, UK: Ashgate, 2015.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Charts history of debates and methods of US public diplomacy as cultural propaganda from public policy perspective 1936–1953. While art (exhibitions program) is but one aspect, it is important for the governmental frame, especially the US antipathy for “propaganda” and alternative vocabulary used for it.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Guilbaut, Serge. How New York Stole the Idea of Modern Art. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Important cultural history of the Cold War use of apoliticism as political propaganda. With special focus on the promotion of the work of the American abstract expressionist Jackson Pollock.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Stonor Saunders, Frances. The Cultural Cold War: The CIA and the World of Arts and Letters. New York: New Press, 2000.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Inspired by Eva Cockcroft’s seminal essay, by a British documentary filmmaker, historian, and journalist, a brave and detailed study based on extensive archival research that definitively uncovered the CIA’s covert cultural propaganda behind Congress for Cultural Freedom and other organizations. In the visual arts, support of abstract expressionism is the focus.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Textiles and Tapestries

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Some of the most interesting work on propaganda arts recently has concerned textile arts. From the most prestigious and expensive textiles—the tapestry, much favored by the elite—to ordinary clothing, textiles have unique properties and uses that enhance their propaganda function. Propaganda is understood as a form of institutionally generated meaning (religious, political) in a general fashion for medieval textiles in Dimitrova and Goehring 2014; Brown 1985 reconsiders the signal Bayeux tapestry as propaganda (cited under Propaganda and Art in the Middle Ages in the West). Wearable textiles bear explicit and directed wartime messages in Atkins 2005. The prestige medium of tapestry, favored by the medieval and early modern courts have attracted attention as propaganda. Chipps Smith 1989 emphasizes their portability and ability to reach diverse audiences. Senkevitch 2009–2010 shows the founding of a royal tapestry manufacture and imagery on the French model in 18th-century Russia that provided a propaganda medium for Peter the Great. Prölß-Kammerer 2000 shows how the accumulated prestige of premodern tapestry created its propaganda value in modern times, under National Socialism, while Wells 2015 shows such meanings were also drawn upon in Nelson Rockefeller’s collection of tapestry copies of modern works.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Atkins, Jacqueline M., ed. Wearing Propaganda: Textiles on the Home Front in Japan, Britain, and the United States. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2005.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Astonishing examples of kimonos, scarves, and printed fabrics with propaganda imagery are the focus of this sumptuously illustrated and compelling catalogue of an exhibition organized by the Bard Graduate Center. Wearable propaganda is set into the context of the propaganda themes (and especially posters) of three warring countries.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Chipps Smith, Jeffrey. “Portable Propaganda: Tapestries as Princely Metaphors at the Courts of Philip the Good and Charles the Bold.” Art Journal 48 (1989): 123–129.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Of nearly one hundred sets of tapestries promoting the projects and virtues of the Burgundian dukes, one set (History of Gideon, destroyed) is analyzed with a focus on its promotion of the dukes as the modern Gideon, for the set’s various places of display, intended audiences, and, so rarely discussed, its effectiveness.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Dimitrova, Kate, and Margaret Goehring, eds. Dressing the Part: Textiles as Propaganda in the Middle Ages. Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols, 2014.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Essays treating wide range of textiles, in terms of their materiality and imagery, as sign systems deployed in secular and ecclesiastical contexts across the Latin West, Byzantium, and Islam, to assert lineage, political hegemony, priestly authority, and so on. Propaganda here understood simply as message.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Prölß-Kammerer, Anja. Die Tapisserie im Nationalsozialismus: Propaganda, Repräsentation und Produktion; Facetten eines Kunsthandwerks im “Dritten Reich.” Hildesheim, Germany: Georg Olms Verlag, 2000.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Thorough study of the National Socialist preference for tapestry (restored and newly commissioned), its propagandistic service as sign of luxury and imperial power in representational buildings and private collections of Nazi elite, the ideological status of Kunsthandwerk, and the promotion of German manufacture over cosmopolitan modernist decorative arts.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Senkevitch, Tatiana. “The Grand Battle Woven in the ‘Grande Manière’: Commemorating the Battle of Poltava in Tapestry.” Harvard Ukrainian Studies 31 (2009–2010): 355–387.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The choice of tapestry to commemorate the anniversary of Peter the Great’s victories was a purposeful choice to emphasize the nature of his reforms. The associations of the medium and capacities of the imagery drew him close to Colbert’s state tapestry manufacture, the Gobelins.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Wells, K. L. H. “Rockefeller’s Guernica and the Collection of Modern Copies.” Journal of the History of Collecting 27 (2015): 257–277.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1093/jhc/fhu029Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Considers the collector and politician Nelson Rockefeller’s collection of tapestries after modern paintings in the aristocratic tradition and the culture of copying. Sheds light especially on the multiple meanings of the tapestry copy of Picasso’s Guernica, including the 2003 covering of it for political purposes at the United Nations.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The Impact of Propaganda on Artists

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    While the institutional framework for the production of art as propaganda generally dominates discussion of propaganda arts, some work has highlighted the impact of propaganda on work produced outside of this frame. The intense propaganda production around World War II led to direct responses by Klee and Bacon (Kauffmann 1966, Hammer 2012), and the Nazi intervention in the Spanish Civil War elicited the most famous work of antiwar propaganda, Picasso’s Guernica, much discussed and analyzed using propaganda theory in Tuttle Ross 2013, and as the subject of a brilliant recent work revolving around propaganda themes in Macuga and Borchardt-Hume 2010. Lippard 1980, a feminist manifesto, urged artists to seize upon propaganda for their movement. Staal 2014 more recently urged the introduction of the term in contemporary art as an institutional critique of the art world.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Hammer, Martin. Francis Bacon and Nazi Propaganda. London: Tate, 2012.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      An unusual study acknowledging the role played by the ephemeral propaganda (Nazi figures and buildings that appeared in the journal Picture Post) on Bacon’s Three Studies for Figures at the Base of a Crucifixion (Tate Gallery), among other works.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Kauffmann, Claus M. “An Allegory of Propaganda by Paul Klee.” Bulletin of the Victoria and Albert Museum 2 (1966): 71–74.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Interpretation of 1939 tempera painting Voice from the Ether by Paul Klee (dismissed from his teaching position in Nazi Germany in 1933) as a representation of a listener receptive to Nazi propaganda.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Lippard, Lucy. “Some Propaganda for Propaganda.” Heresies 3 (1980): 35–39.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Call to feminist artists to rehabilitate propaganda (synonymous with communication and education), to wrestle it away from ruling/corporate class supporting patriarchal messageless art for art’s sake (formalism). Feminist artists should make “good” propaganda to form a new feminist community.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Macuga, Goshka, and Achim Borchardt-Hume. “The Nature of the Beast.” Art Journal 69 (2010): 62–73.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1080/00043249.2010.10791376Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Interview with artist Macuga about installation at the Whitechapel Gallery about the propagandistic display of Guernica in London 1939, and Macuga’s tapestry that collapses the 2003 cover-up of the tapestry for Colin Powell’s announcement of the Iraq invasion, and the 1939 and 2009 London exhibitions.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Staal, Jonas. “Art, Democratism, Propaganda.” E-flux 52 (2014).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              By contemporary artist and essayist dedicated to bringing propaganda into discussion in contemporary art. This essay developed in conjunction with his project for the Venice Biennale, an audio app (Ideological Guide) informing visitors of the political, economic, and other interests behind the Biennale.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Tuttle Ross, Sheryl. “Art Propaganda: The Many Lives of Picasso’s ‘Guernica.’” Biblios 13 (2013): 455–474.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Brings propaganda theory to bear on three moments of Guernica’s propaganda function (Republican commission, return to Democratic Spain, tapestry copy covered up at the United Nations). Uses criteria of intention, socially significant audience, and the epistemic merit (truth or falsehood) of the message.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                back to top

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Article

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Up

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Down